Closed-form expressions explicitly relating modulation bandwidth and active length in electro-optic traveling wave modulators are presented which fully account for skin-effect electrode loss and optical-electrical wave velocities mismatch. Four operative margins have been identified where the bandwidth–length trade-off figure of merit takes
Ibarra, J.; Santos, M. Bandwidth-length trade-off figures of merit for electro-optic traveling wave modulators. "Optics letters", Maig 2013, vol. 38, núm. 9, p. 1548-1550.