García, N.; Rosell, J.; Suarez, R. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Systems Vol. PP, num. 99, p. 1-10 DOI: 10.1109/TSMC.2017.2756856 Data de publicació: 2017-10-30 Article en revista
The paper presents a planning procedure that allows an anthropomorphic dual-arm robotic system to perform a manipulation task in a natural human-like way by using demonstrated human movements. The key idea of the proposal is to convert the demonstrated trajectories into attractive potential fields defined over the configuration space and then use an RRT*-based planning algorithm that minimizes a path-cost function designed to bias the tree growth towards the human-demonstrated configurations. The paper presents a description of the proposed approach as well as results from a conceptual and a real application example, the latter using a real anthropomorphic dual-arm robotic system. A path-quality measure, based on first-order synergies (correlations between joint velocities) obtained from real human movements, is also proposed and used for evaluation and comparison purposes.
The obtained results show that the paths obtained with the
proposed procedure are more human-like.
Physics-based motion planning is a challenging task, since it requires the computation of the robot motions while allowing possible interactions with (some of) the obstacles in the environment. Kinodynamic motion planners equipped with a dynamic engine acting as state propagator are usually used for that purpose. The difficulties arise in the setting of the adequate forces for the interactions and because these interactions may change the pose of the manipulatable obstacles, thus either facilitating or preventing the finding of a solution path. The use of knowledge can alleviate the stated difficulties. This paper proposes the use of an enhanced state propagator composed of a dynamic engine and a low-level geometric reasoning process that is used to determine how to interact with the objects, i.e. from where and with which forces. The proposal, called ¿-PMP can be used with any kinodynamic planner, thus giving rise to e.g. ¿-RRT. The approach also includes a preprocessing step that infers from a semantic abstract knowledge described in terms of an ontology the manipulation knowledge required by the reasoning process. The proposed approach has been validated with several examples involving an holonomic mobile robot, a robot with differential constraints and a serial manipulator, and benchmarked using several state-of-the art kinodynamic planners. The results showed a significant difference in the power consumption with respect to simple physics-based planning, an improvement in the success rate and in the quality of the solution paths.
Different types of neurological deficits and sequels in the upper extremities that affect the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients who have undergone stroke have been analyzed from a subjective clinical point of view.
The aim of this work is to show a novel environment to simulate the initial improvement of the upper limb functions a few days after stroke and simulate the functional recovery of patients under a rehabilitation
Eighteen patients in the first seven days of stroke were selected. Five men and thirteen women participated in the experiments. After six months, six of them recovered all the functionality of the hand tested with the ARAT test and wearing a Ciberglobe system, five recovered part of the hand functionality, and seven did not show
apparent recovery of the functionality of the hand.
One of the main foci of robotics is nowadays centered in providing a great degree of autonomy to robots. A fundamental step in this direction is to give them the ability to plan in discrete and continuous spaces to find the required motions to complete a complex task. In this line, some recent approaches describe tasks with Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) and reason on discrete actions to guide sampling-based motion planning, with the aim of finding dynamically-feasible motions that satisfy the temporal-logic task specifications. The present paper proposes an LTL planning approach enhanced with the use of ontologies to describe and reason about the task, on the one hand, and that includes physics-based motion planning to allow the purposeful manipulation of objects, on the other hand. The proposal has been implemented and is illustrated with didactic examples with a mobile robot in simple scenarios where some of the goals are occupied with objects that must be removed in order to fulfill the task.
The paper deals with the problem of motion planning for anthropomorphic dual-arm robots. It introduces a measure of the similarity of the movements needed to solve two given tasks. Planning using this measure to select proper arm synergies for a given task improves the planning performance and the resulting plan.
Current approaches do not allow robots to execute a task and simultaneously convey emotions to users using their body motions. This paper explores the capabilities of the Jacobian null space of a humanoid robot to convey emotions. A task priority formulation has been implemented in a Pepper robot which allows the specification of a primary task (waving gesture, transportation of an object, etc.) and exploits the kinematic redundancy of the robot to convey emotions to humans as a lower priority task. The emotions, defined by Mehrabian as points in the pleasure–arousal–dominance space, generate intermediate motion features (jerkiness, activity and gaze) that carry the emotional information. A map from this features to the joints of the robot is presented. A user study has been conducted in which emotional motions have been shown to 30 participants. The results show that happiness and sadness are very well conveyed to the user, calm is moderately well conveyed, and fear is not well conveyed. An analysis on the dependencies between the motion features and the emotions perceived by the participants shows that activity correlates positively with arousal, jerkiness is not perceived by the user, and gaze conveys dominance when activity is low. The results indicate a strong influence of the most energetic motions of the emotional task and point out new directions for further research. Overall, the results show that the null space approach can be regarded as a promising mean to convey emotions as a lower priority task.
Claret, J.; Zaplana, I.; Basañez, L. IEEE International Symposium on Safety, Security and Rescue Robotics p. 291-296 DOI: 10.1109/SSRR.2016.7784318 Data de presentació: 2016-10-05 Presentació treball a congrés
The paper presents a novel teleoperation system that allows the simultaneous and continuous command of a ground mobile manipulator and a free flying camera, implemented using an UAV, from which the operator can monitor the task execution in real-time. The proposed decoupled position and orientation workspace mapping allows the teleoperation from a single haptic device with bounded workspace of a complex robot with unbounded workspace. When the operator is reaching the position and orientation boundaries of the haptic workspace, linear and angular velocity components are respectively added to the inputs of the mobile manipulator and the flying camera. A user study on a virtual environment has been conducted to evaluate the performance and the workload on the user before and after proper training. Analysis on the data shows that the system complexity is not an obstacle for an efficient performance. This is a first step towards the implementation of a teleoperation system with a real mobile manipulator and a low-cost quadrotor as the free-flying camera.
This paper proposes a solution to the problem of grasp analysis and synthesis of 2D articulated objects with n links considering frictionless contacts. The boundary of each link of the object is represented by a finite set of boundary points allowing links of any shape to be considered. Grasp analysis is carried out to verify whether a set of contact points on the object boundary allows a force-closure grasp, while the goal of grasp synthesis is to determine a set of contact points that allows a force-closure grasp. The paper describes the process of finding the elements of the generalized wrench vector generated by a force applied to any link of the articulated object and a procedure to search for a force-closure grasp based on these generalized wrenches. The approach has been implemented and some examples are included in the paper. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The correct grasp of objects is a key aspect for the right fulfillment of a given task. Obtaining a good grasp requires algorithms to automatically determine proper contact points on the object as well as proper hand configurations, especially when dexterous manipulation is desired, and the quantification of a good grasp requires the definition of suitable grasp quality measures. This article reviews the quality measures proposed in the literature to evaluate grasp quality. The quality measures are classified into two groups according to the main aspect they evaluate: location of contact points on the object and hand configuration. The approaches that combine different measures from the two previous groups to obtain a global quality measure are also reviewed, as well as some measures related to human hand studies and grasp performance. Several examples are presented to illustrate and compare the performance of the reviewed measures.
The paper deals with the problem of planning movements of two hand-arm robotic systems, considering the possibility of using the robot hands to remove potential obstacles in order to obtain a free access to grasp a desired object. The approach is based on a variation of a Probabilistic Road Map that does not rule out the samples implying collisions with removable objects but instead classifies them according to the collided obstacle(s), and allows the search of free paths with the indication of which objects must be removed from the work-space to make the path actually valid; we call it Probabilistic Road Map with Obstacles (PRMwO). The proposed system includes a task assignment system that distributes the task among the robots, using for that purpose a precedence graph built from the results of the PRMwO. The approach has been implemented for a real dual-arm robotic system, and some simulated and real running examples are presented in the paper. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.