Nowadays the rapid growth in the number of seniors in global scale has issued a variety of social challenges and phenomena like Ageing Europe and international retirement migration. Referring to this demographic change, as the people living ever longer, a special attention on the housing market for the elderly based on their requirements seems necessary. In this paper, through documentary data collection and example study evaluation, the current senior housing forms and residential care facilities for the elderly in the U.S are studied and compared. Moreover, by considering retirement migration which is involved in second home tourism, the residential requirements of seniors are discussed in order to define responding residential forms in the field of second home tourism. Finally, by the review on two innovated residence forms in Europe, some suggestions as conclusive remarks are presented in order to promote responsive residence forms for seniors’ requirements in the field of residential tourism.
Tourism and demographic changes are linked as important regional determinants in relation to urban and regional planning systems. Second home tourism in Spanish Mediterranean coastal areas has created a great real estate market demands in which local communities and authorities are both involved. Based on tourist area life cycle theory (TALC) current conditions of some tourists Mediterranean coastal areas in Spain falling to a degree of degradation or even stagnation among their practical life cycle, which demonstrated as last phases of TALC theory. Many second home projects were built within Spanish costal zones during a rapid growth and the boob construction period in Spain, started from 1970s. This circumstance means facing with a variety of economic challenges in local and national scale, such as seasonal labor markets in coastal areas. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to evaluate European demographic changes in general, and in particular its potential effect on urban and housing planning in Spanish coastal zones. Throughout investigations on European mobility statics and demographic changes, this study tries to provide a prospect on the real estate challenges caused by second home tourism. Considering two phenomena provides this issue: ‘second home tourism’ and ‘international retirement migration’. Correspondingly, the initial focus of this study is on the challenges generating by rapid growth of second home development in Spanish Mediterranean towns. Then, the both mentioned phenomena and their positive and negative impacts on real estate market are demonstrated. Considering demographic and social characteristics would be a strong factor in order to make specific strategies towards improvement of related regional plans. This study evaluates the growing number of senior tourists and retired migrants, who are creating new market demand among the residential tourism market. This elderly population in each given touristic area needs specific services and accommodation, which may create a variety of local jobs as complementary activities. It has been universally agreed that by this initiative approach in urban and housing projects, the local economic condition, especially in the field of real estate and labor market may significantly be improved; however the effect is not limited to the local economy. Documentary data collection and example study evaluation are taken as the main methodological approach to this study. As conclusive remarks of this study, some suggestions are presented in order to initiate a concentrated field of studies in area of regional planning systems responsive to such areas. This study advocates considering the influence of international retirement migration in the residential tourism market and its effective role, in which concludes with new strategies and housing policies that leading to the restoration and regeneration of Mediterranean coastal areas.
Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitan so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan.
Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning.
Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.
Over the last decades, the role of tourism and ecotourism in development process is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process.
Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. However this role should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Tourism potentially has a role in promoting sustainable development. Between different aspects of tourism, ecotourism as a nature based tourism by regarding sustainable development issues, could be a promoter for socio-economic growth of intermediate cities and have benefits in local development.
Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. The territory has a high potential in natural and historic attractions but it’s without a current considerable plan in this field. It’s studied as an example of how could be joint Tourism development issues in urban planning process in intermediate cities. The present study explores a local tourism development approach upon urban planning process, notably by a focus on Ecotourism in an intermediate city of Iran. The strategic planning approach and methodology of Base plan is used for preparing an urban plan by this issue.
In summary, this paper is focused on natural attraction and potential of ecotourism development as an approach for development of intermediate cities and considered this issue in providing process of base plan as an urban planning method for intermediate cities. It finally concluded in some points in relationship between tourism, base plan methodology and also in the field of Ecotourism, its value and potential effect on sustainable development in intermediate cities.