The properties of the Koch island fractal boundary
microstrip patch antenna are presented. The behavior at the
fundamental mode and the existence of high-order modes that
exhibit localized current density distributions is discussed. The
main features are the size reduction of the patch resonating at
the fundamental frequency when compared to Euclidean-shaped
patches, and the application of localized modes in designing
microstrip patch antennas with directive patterns.
Borja, M. C.; Romeu, J. On the behavior of the Koch island fractal boundary microstrip patch antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2003, vol. 51, núm. 6, p.1281-1291.