Cyclic oligo(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) and e-caprolactone were copolymerized in bulk at 130-150 °C by enzymatic ring opening polymerization using CALB as catalyst. Copolyesters within a wide range of compositions were thus synthesized with weight-average molecular weights between 20,000 and 50,000, the highest values being obtained for equimolar or nearly equimolar contents in the two components. The copolyesters consisted of a blocky distribution of the e-oxycaproate (CL) and butylene furanoate (BF) units that could be further randomized by heating treatment. The thermal stability of these copolyesters was comparable to those of the parent homopolyesters (PBF and PCL), and they all showed crystallinity in more or less degree depending on composition. Their melting and glass-transition temperatures were ranging between those of PBF and PCL with values increasing almost linearly with the content in BF units. The ability of these copolyesters for crystallizing from the melt was evaluated by comparative isothermal crystallization and found to be favored by the presence of flexible e-oxycaproate blocks. These copolyesters are essentially insensitive to hydrolysis in neutral aqueous medium but they became noticeably degraded by lipases in an extend that increased with the content in CL units.
Ridaura, G.; Llorens, S.; Carrillo, C.; Buj, I.; Riba Romeva, C. Resources, conservation and recycling Vol. 131, p. 75-85 DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.10.030 Data de publicació: 2018-04-01 Article en revista
Planning motions to grasp an object in cluttered and uncertain environments is a challenging task, particularly when a collision-free trajectory does not exist and objects obstructing the way are required to be carefully grasped and moved out. This letter takes a different approach and proposes to address this problem by using a randomized physics-based motion planner that permits robot–object and object–object interactions. The main idea is to avoid an explicit high-level reasoning of the task by providing the
motion planner with a physics engine to evaluate possible complex multibody dynamical interactions. The approach is able to solve the problem in complex scenarios, also considering uncertainty in the objects’ pose and in the contact dynamics. The work enhances the state validity checker, the control sampler, and the tree exploration strategy of a kinodynamic motion planner called KPIECE. The enhanced algorithm, called p-KPIECE, has been validated in simulation and with real experiments. The results have been compared with an ontological physics-based motion planner and with task and motion planning approaches, resulting in a significant improvement in terms of planning time, success rate, and quality of the solution path.
Changing conditions and variations in the demand are frequent in real industrial environments. Decision makers have to take into account this uncertainty and manage it properly. One clear example is the automotive industry where manufacturers have to assume an uncertain and heterogeneous demand. For instance, automotive manufacturers must adapt their decisions when balancing the assembly line by considering different flexible solutions. Our proposal is using robust multiobjective optimization and simulation techniques to provide managers with a set of robust and equally-preferred solutions for assembly line balancing. We study a Nissan case where the demand of each product family is uncertain. The problem is addressed by considering a robust multiobjective model for assembly line balancing based on a high number of production plans. After the selection of six different assembly line configurations, we study the implications of robustness metrics based on workstations’ overload. We show that the adverse managerial effects of not having flexible line configuration when demand changes are alleviated. For the real Nissan automotive case, our analysis and conclusions show the managerial and industrial benefits of using robust assembly lines. We also encourage decision makers to use robust multiobjective optimization methods for selecting the most flexible decisions.
Bogarra, S.; Rubion, X.; Rolan, A.; Corcoles, F.; Pedra, J.; Iglesias, J. Electric power systems research Vol. 156, p. 1-11 DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2017.11.002 Data de publicació: 2018-03-01 Article en revista
This paper analyses the impact of symmetrical and unsymmetrical voltage sags caused by distribution and transmission faults on the dynamic behaviour of small salient-pole synchronous machines connected to the MV grid, and proposes the modification of the protection settings to increase machine availability. As faults are considered, the voltage recovery is assumed to occur in a discrete way, in the fault current zeroes. The voltage sag effects include current and torque peaks, speed and load angle increase, and possible machine instability. Results from many cases are discussed, especially the positive-sequence voltage influence on machine stability. The study concludes that machine availability during unsymmetrical sags can be increased by modifying the undervoltage and overcurrent protection settings (the former should be based on the positive-sequence voltage instead of line-to-line voltages used in current settings).
We study a necessary condition for the integrability of the polynomials vector fields in the plane by means of the differential Galois Theory. More concretely, by means of the variational equations around a particular solution it is obtained a necessary condition for the existence of a rational first integral. The method is systematic starting with the first order variational equation. We illustrate this result with several families of examples. A key point is to check whether a suitable primitive is elementary or not. Using a theorem by Liouville, the problem is equivalent to the existence of a rational solution of a certain first order linear equation, the Risch equation. This is a classical problem studied by Risch in 1969, and the solution is given by the “Risch algorithm”. In this way we point out the connection of the non integrability with some higher transcendent functions, like the error function
En estos últimos años, como consecuencia del cambio climático, ha aumentado extraordinariamente el interés por materiales sostenibles. El reemplazo de los compuestos de origen petroquímico por naturales se ha extendido a todos los ámbitos de la química. Se están desarrollando polímeros sostenibles basados en ácido 2.5-furandicarboxílico (FDCA) ya que pueden competir en prestaciones con los basados en el ácido tereftálico (PTA). Por otro lado, la polimerización entrópica por apertura de anillo (ED-ROP) es una vía de síntesis atractiva cuyo interés ha crecido en esta última década debido a que la reacción es atérmica, no se generan subproductos y se puede obtener polímeros de alto peso molecular en cortos tiempos de reacción.En esta Tesis se reporta la síntesis y caracterización de oligómeros cíclicos de FDCA con diferentes dioles, tales como 1,4- butanodiol (c(BF)n), etilenglicol (c(EF)n), resorcinol (c(RF)n) e isomannide (c(ImF)n) usando diferentes rutas sintéticas incluyendo la condensación con alta dilución (HDC), la ciclodepolimerización (CD). También se han sintetizado mediante HDC los oligómeros cíclicos de butilén isoftalato (c(BI)n) y butilén tereftalato (c(BT)n). Finalmente, se han obtenido los oligómeros cíclicos de butilén succinato (c(BS)n) y etilén succinato (c(ES)n) por reacción de ciclación enzimática (EC).Los oligómeros cíclicos furánicos se homopolimerizaron y copolimerizaron con los oligoesteres cíclicos mencionados anteriormente así como con la epsilon-caprolactona (e-CL). Las reacciones de polimerización fueron catalizadas con el octanoato de estaño (SnOct2), excepto en el caso de los homopoliésteres y copoliésteres con unidades alifáticas en los que se utilizó la enzima lipasa B de Cándida antárctica (CALB). Los pesos moleculares de los polímeros obtenidos oscilaron entre 25,000 y 80,000 g/mol. Los copolímeros presentaban una microestructura al azar con la excepción de los derivados de caprolactona, los cuales presentaron una microestructura en bloques.Los estudios de calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC) revelaron que el PEF, PBF, PBT, PBI, PBS, PES, y sus copolímeros con menos del 30% de comonómero alifático, resultaron ser cristalinos, por el contrario, los copolímeros con composiciones cercanas al 50:50 resultaron ser por lo general amorfos. Por otro lado, el PRF y el PImF eran amorfos y la incorporación de sus unidades en otros copoliésteres restringió la cristalinidad de los mismos. Además la temperatura de fusión (Tm) y la temperatura de transición vítrea (Tg) eran intermedias a las de los homopoliésteres, con una tendencia prácticamente lineal en el segundo caso. También se estudió la cristalizabilidad de la mayoría de los copoliésteres, lo cual permitió la obtención de diferentes parámetros cinéticos mediante la aplicación de la ecuación de Avrami.El análisis termogravimétrico (TGA) reveló que la mayoría de los poliésteres y copoliésteres eran térmicamente estables hasta 400 oC.Los estudios de degradabilidad hidrolítica y enzimática mostraron la alta resistencia a la degradación del PBF, PEF y PRF, la cual decrecía notablemente con la incorporación de unidades alifáticas tales como el BS, ES, CL o ImF.La presente Tesis resume los principales aspectos en la síntesis de oligómeros cíclicos de FDCA y su homopolimerización y copolimerización con diferentes oligómeros cíclicos vía ED-ROP. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, los poliésteres basados en derivados furánicos podrían considerarse como una alternativa viable a los poliésteres de origen químico.
Bullich, E.; Díaz-González, F.; Aragüés, M.; Girbau-Llistuella, F.; Olivella, P.; Sumper, A. Applied energy Vol. 212, p. 340-361 DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.12.048 Data de publicació: 2018-02-15 Article en revista
Microgrids are considered one of the most promising solutions to integrate renewable distributed generation into the electric power system. During the last decade, the microgrid concept has been studied and developed and nowadays it is becoming a reality. Hence, in the coming years a transformation of the current electric power system to a multi-microgrid power system can be expected. In this direction, the study of multi-microgrids is currently being explored. Accordingly, this paper examines the possible multi-microgrid architectures to form a grid of microgrids. For this purpose, the microgrid as a single entity and its possible interactions with external grids is first defined. Then, the possible multi-microgrid architectures are defined in terms of layout, line technology and interface technology. Finally, a comparison between the different architectures is performed in terms of cost, scalability, protection, reliability, stability, communications and business models. This analysis is expected to be of great utility for grid planners and policy makers, who can select the most adequate architecture in function of their necessities.
Los parques eólicos marinos suelen conectarse a redes eléctricas terrestres a través de corriente continua de alta tensión (siglas en inglés: HVdc) utilizando convertidores de fuente de tensión (siglas en inglés: VSC) cuando la corriente alterna de alta tensión (siglas en inglés: HVac) resulta tecnológicamente e económicamente desfavorable. Los parques eólicos conectados al convertidor HVdc marino crean redes eléctricos marinas de corriente alterna que operan asíncronamente a las redes terrestres. Dichas redes se caracterizan por tener cables submarinos, y, en el caso de aerogeneradores con convertidores de plena potencia, resultan en redes constituidas únicamente por convertidores de potencia.Esta tesis investiga dos de los aspectos principales de la operación de parques eólicos marinos conectados en corriente continua de alta tensión: i) la regulación de potencia reactiva y tensión y ii) la operación durante faltas eléctricas en las redes marinas. Se han propuesto estrategias de optimización del control de reactiva para su aplicación a una red ac con varios convertidores conectados. Se ha introducido un método de regulación de potencia reactiva y tensión cuyo objetivo es incrementar la generación eléctrica del parque eólico. En la implementación práctica, varios parques eólicos podrían pertenecer a la misma red lo cual conduce a reguladores multicapas y a la consideración las interfaces entre los operadores. Teniendo esto en cuenta, se propone una estrategia de regulación de potencia reactiva asumiendo unos tiempos de comunicación razonables, y se compara a conceptos convencionales.La segunda parte de la tesis sugiere un método de control para el convertidor marino en secuencia directa e inversa. Está diseñado para la operación normal y la operación durante faltas asimétricas y permite la inyección de corrientes reguladas para la detección de la falta. Además, se analizan las variables internas del convertidor modular multinivel (siglas en inglés: MMC) en estas situaciones. Asimismo, se han evaluado cuatro estrategias de respuesta a faltas asimétricas por parte de los convertidores de los aerogeneradores. Estas estrategias también incluyen el control en secuencia directa e inversa.Finalmente, se investiga la reducción de sobremodulación en los convertidores y sobretensiones en la red marina.
Respiratory system modeling has been extensively studied in steady-state conditions to simulate sleep disorders, to predict its behavior under ventilatory diseases or stimuli and to simulate its interaction with mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, the studies focused on the instantaneous response are limited, which restricts its application in clinical practice. The aim of this study is double: firstly, to analyze both dynamic and static responses of two known respiratory models under exercise stimuli by using an incremental exercise stimulus sequence (to analyze the model responses when step inputs are applied) and experimental data (to assess prediction capability of each model). Secondly, to propose changes in the models' structures to improve their transient and stationary responses. The versatility of the resulting model vs. the other two is shown according to the ability to simulate ventilatory stimuli, like exercise, with a proper regulation of the arterial blood gases, suitable constant times and a better adjustment to experimental data. The proposed model adjusts the breathing pattern every respiratory cycle using an optimization criterion based on minimization of work of breathing through regulation of respiratory frequency.
En este trabajo presentamos un modelo de Programación Lineal Entera Mixta (MILP por sus siglas en inglés) para optimizar la asignación de voluntarios a los puestos de trabajo que requiere una Organización destinada a dirigir, coordinar y controlar las actividades de un evento deportivo de gran dimensión. El modelo tiene en cuenta el conjunto de voluntarios y sus características, así como el conjunto de tareas y sedes propias de un Evento, y tiene el objetivo de maximizar la Aptitud global del voluntariado a las tareas y a los encuentros o sedes. La explotación del modelo la realizamos con el solucionador CPLEX y empleamos un caso de estudio vinculado a la XVII Copa Mundial de Baloncesto FIBA que tuvo lugar en España en el año 2014. El método de resolución que proponemos es capaz de resolver instancias con 15000 voluntarios, 27 tipos de tareas y 6 sedes deportivas, en un tiempo de CPU inferior a 3 segundos.
Focussed on application-oriented research and development, ECHORD++ (E++) is being funded by the European Comission in the 7PM for five years to improve and increase the innovation in robotic technology. Activities include small-scale projects and a “structured dialogue” incorporating public entities and citizens. Three instruments and processes are being developed under the ECHORD++ project: experiments (EXP), Research Innovation Facilities (RIF) and Public end-user Driven Technological Innovation (PDTI), all of them aimed at improving and increasing the innovation in robotic technology within SMEs companies and addressing answers to societal and industrial needs in different scenarios. This paper describes the outcomes and results of the project, the tasks of communication and dissemination and the structured dialogue between all the involved stakeholders.
Standard statistical tests for equality of allele frequencies in males and females and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are tightly linked by their assumptions. Tests for equality of allele frequencies assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the usual chi-square or exact test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assume equality of allele frequencies in the sexes. In this paper, we propose ways to break this interdependence in assumptions of the two tests by proposing an omnibus exact test that can test both hypotheses jointly, as well as a likelihood ratio approach that permits these phenomena to be tested both jointly and separately. The tests are illustrated with data from the 1000 Genomes project.
Morales, J.; Martinez de Ilarduya, A.; Muñoz, S. Journal of polymer science. Part A, polymer chemistry Vol. 56, num. 3, p. 290-299 DOI: 10.1002/pola.28895 Data de publicació: 2018-02-01 Article en revista
Cyclic oligo(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate) and e-caprolactone were copolymerized in bulk at 130-150 ºC by enzymatic ring opening polymerization using CALB as catalyst. Copolyesters within a wide range of compositions were thus synthesized with weight-average molecular weights between 20,000 and 50,000, the highest values being obtained for equimolar or nearly equimolar contents in the two components. The copolyesters consisted of a blocky distribution of the e-oxycaproate (CL) and butylene furanoate (BF) units that could be further randomized by heating treatment. The thermal stability of these copolyesters was comparable to those of the parent homopolyesters (PBF and PCL), and they all showed crystallinity in more or less degree depending on composition. Their melting and glass-transition temperatures were ranging between those of PBF and PCL with values increasing almost linearly with the content in BF units. The ability of these copolyesters for crystallizing from the melt was evaluated by comparative isothermal crystallization and found to be favored by the presence of flexible e-oxycaproate blocks. These copolyesters are essentially insensitive to hydrolysis in neutral aqueous medium but they became noticeably
In this paper we analyse the ejection-collision (EC) orbits of the planar restricted three body problem. Being µ¿¿¿(0, 0.5] the mass parameter, and taking the big (small) primary with mass (µ), an EC orbit will be an orbit that ejects from the big primary, does an excursion and collides with it. As it is well known, for any value of the mass parameter µ¿¿¿(0, 0.5] and sufficiently restricted Hill regions (that is, for big enough values of the Jacobi constant C), there are exactly four EC orbits. We check their existence and extend numerically these four orbits for µ¿¿¿(0, 0.5] and for smaller values of the Jacobi constant. We introduce the concept of n-ejection-collision orbits (n-EC orbits) and we explore them numerically for µ¿¿¿(0, 0.5] and values of the Jacobi constant such that the Hill bounded possible region of motion contains the big primary and does not contain the small one. We study the cases 1¿=¿n¿=¿10 and we analyse the continuation of families of such n-EC orbits, varying the energy, as well as the bifurcations that appear.
Mokberdoran, A.; Gomis-Bellmunt, O.; Silva, N.; Carvalho, A. IEEE transactions on power electronics Vol. 33, num. 2, p. 1323-1334 DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2017.2688412 Data de publicació: 2018-02 Article en revista
This paper proposes a new device by combining features of an interline dual H-bridge current flow controller with the core idea of a hybrid HVdc circuit breaker for meshed HVdc grid application. The proposed device can substitute two dc circuit breakers at a dc bus with at least two adjacent transmission lines. In addition to the current interruption action, the current in one of the adjacent lines can be controlled by the embedded current flow controller. The system-level behavior of the proposed current flow controlling hybrid dc circuit breaker is similar to that of the typical hybrid dc circuit breaker and the interline dual H-bridge current flow controller. The operation principles of the proposed device are introduced and analyzed in this work. The component ratings are compared to the existing solution, and the functionality of the proposed device is verified by simulation.
To predict the future wind speed and wind direction is of relevance to the wind industry to maximize the power generation. In this regards, this article describes a methodology for the construction of predictive models based on linear Markov chains under linear algebra point of view. The model analyzes the direction and speed of the wind obtained from a meteorological station. This Model allows making a precise study of wind direction and speeding data; figure out the stability, the most common direction or speed, its behaviour depending on the hours or seasons.
Label propagation and diffusion over biological networks are a common mathematical formalism in computational biology for giving context to molecular entities and prioritising novel candidates in the area of study.
There are several choices in conceiving the diffusion process -involving the graph kernel, the score definitions and the presence of a posterior statistical normalisation- which have an impact on the results.
This manuscript describes diffuStats, an R package that provides a collection of graph kernels and diffusion scores, as well as a parallel permutation analysis for the normalised scores, that eases the computation of the scores and their benchmarking for an optimal choice.
This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Bioinformatics following peer review. The version of record Sergio Picart-Armada, Wesley K Thompson, Alfonso Buil, Alexandre Perera-Lluna; diffuStats: an R package to compute diffusion-based scores on biological networks, Bioinformatics, Volume 34, Issue 3, 1 February 2018, Pages 533–534 is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btx632.
IEEE Aeronautical ground lighting (AGL) systems provide a visual reference for aircraft during airport operations. Fast detection and location of failed luminaires is an important safety concern in AGL systems. In the event of luminaire failure, AGL transformers introduce harmonic currents. Resonances can increase harmonics, worsening the problem. This paper presents analytical expressions for determining resonance frequencies in AGL systems, as well as a simple procedure based on these expressions for locating failed luminaires from measurements.
Modular multilevel converters (MMC) inherent features are gaining more attention for dc voltage transmission systems. One of the main research paths regarding the converter performance deals with its voltage modulation. Specifically, for medium voltage applications with relatively small number of submodules, the voltage modulation techniques impact on the MMC performance needs to be studied. This work provides an extensive review of the carrier-based pulse with modulation (CB-PWM) techniques proposed to be applied on previous multilevel inverter versions. The CB-PWM methods were adapted to be compatible with an additional cell ranking and selection algorithm to ensure equal energy distribution on the arm cells. The state-of-the-art of zero sequence signals (ZSS) applied on three-phase inverters is also reviewed. The alliance between the ZSS with the CB-PWM, as well as the nearest level modulation (NLM), has an important impact on the MMC harmonic content, efficiency and voltage ripple of its cells capacitors. A 15 MW 28-cell-based MMC is used to investigate each particular combination between the modulation method and the common mode ZSS.
Objective: This works investigates the time-frequency content of impedance cardiography signals during a propofol-remifentanil anesthesia.
Materials and Methods: In the last years, impedance cardiography (ICG) is a technique which has gained much attention. However, ICG signals need further investigation. Time-Frequency Distributions (TFDs) with 5 different kernels are used in order to analyze impedance cardiography signals (ICG) before the start of the anesthesia and after the loss of consciousness. In total, ICG signals from one hundred and thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing major surgery under general anesthesia were analyzed. Several features were extracted from the calculated TFDs in order to characterize the time-frequency content of the ICG signals. Differences between those features before and after the loss of consciousness were studied.
Results: The Extended Modified Beta Distribution (EMBD) was the kernel for which most features shows statistically significant changes between before and after the loss of consciousness. Among all analyzed features, those based on entropy showed a sensibility, specificity and area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic above 60%.
Conclusion: The anesthetic state of the patient is reflected on linear and non-linear features extracted from the TFDs of the ICG signals. Especially, the EMBD is a suitable kernel for the analysis of ICG signals and offers a great range of features which change according to the patient’s anesthesia state in a statistically significant way.
The established action potential propagation mechanisms do not satisfactorily explain propagation on myelinated axons given the current knowledge of biological channels and membranes. The flow across ion channels presents two possible effects: the electric potential variations across the lipid bilayers (action potential) and the propagation of an electric field through the membrane inner part. The proposed mechanism is based on intra-membrane electric field propagation, this propagation can explain the action potential saltatory propagation and its constant delay independent of distance between Ranvier nodes in myelinated axons.
An ever-increasing number of data analysis problems include more than one view of the data, i.e. differ-
ent measurement approaches to the population under study. In consequence, pattern analysis methods
that deal appropriately with multiview data are becoming increasingly useful. In this paper, a novel mul-
tiview spectral clustering algorithm is presented (multiview spectral clustering by common eigenvectors,
or MVSC-CEV), based on computing the common eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrices derived from
the similarity matrices of the input data. This algorithm maintains the features of spectral clustering,
while allowing the use of an arbitrary number of input views, possibly of a different nature (feature or
graph space) and with different dimensions. The method has been tested on four standard multiview
data sets (UCI’s Handwritten, BBC segmented news, Max Planck Institute’s Animal With Attributes and
Reuters multilingual), and compared with seven methods in the state of the art. Seven standard clus-
tering evaluation metrics have been used in the experiments. The quality of the clustering produced by
MVSC-CEV is above those obtained by other state-of-the-art methods in the majority of evaluation met-
rics and dataset combinations. The computation times of this method are approximately twice those of
the baseline spectral clustering of the concatenated data views.
In the present paper, acoustic emission was studied in honing experiments obtained with different abrasive densities, 15, 30, 45 and 60. In addition, 2D and 3D roughness, material removal rate and tool wear were determined. In order to treat the sound signal emitted during the machining process, two methods of analysis were compared: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT). When density 15 is used, the number of cutting grains is insufficient to provide correct cutting, while clogging appears with densities 45 and 60. The results were confirmed by means of treatment of the sound signal. In addition, a new parameter S was defined as the relationship between energy in low and high frequencies contained within the emitted sound. The selected density of 30 corresponds to S values between 0.1 and 1. Correct cutting operations in honing processes are dependent on the density of the abrasive employed. The density value to be used can be selected by means of measurement and analysis of acoustic emissions during the honing operation. Thus, honing processes can be monitored without needing to stop the process.
Olivella, P.; Bullich, E.; Aragüés, M.; Sumper, A.; Ottesen, S.; Vidal, J.; R. Villafafila-Robles Applied energy Vol. 210, p. 881-895 DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.08.136 Data de publicació: 2018-01-15 Article en revista
The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources in the distribution grid is producing an ever-heightening interest in the use of the flexibility on offer by said distributed resources as an enhancement for the distribution grid operator. This paper proposes an optimization problem which enables satisfaction of distribution system operator requests on flexibility. This is a decision-making problem for a new aggregator type called Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) to schedule flexible energy resources. This aggregator operates a local electricity market with high penetration of distributed energy resources. The optimization operation problem of SESP is formulated as an MILP problem and its performance has been tested by means of the simulation of test cases in a local market. The novel problem has also been validated in a microgrid laboratory with emulated loads and generation units. The performed tests produced positive results and proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.
Nowadays, hydropower plays an essential role in the energy market. Due to their fast response and regulation capacity, hydraulic turbines operate at off-design conditions with a high number of starts and stops. In this situation, dynamic loads and stresses over the structure are high, registering some failures over time, especially in the runner. Therefore, it is important to know the dynamic response of the runner while in operation, i.e., the natural frequencies, damping and mode shapes, in order to avoid resonance and fatigue problems. Detecting the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbine runners while in operation is challenging, because they are inaccessible structures strongly affected by their confinement in water. Strain gauges are used to measure the stresses of hydraulic turbine runners in operation during commissioning. However, in this paper, the feasibility of using them to detect the natural frequencies of hydraulic turbines runners while in operation is studied. For this purpose, a large Francis turbine runner (444 MW) was instrumented with several strain gauges at different positions. First, a complete experimental strain modal testing (SMT) of the runner in air was performed using the strain gauges and accelerometers. Then, the natural frequencies of the runner were estimated during operation by means of analyzing accurately transient events or rough operating conditions.
Arias, F.; Del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Penide, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Boutinguiza, M.; Gil, F.J.; Pou, J.M. Metals and materials international Vol. 24, p. 231 DOI: 10.1007/s12540-017-7094-x Data de publicació: 2018-01-06 Article en revista
Mask image projection is an additive manufacturing (AM) technique used in photocurable materials which allows the simultaneous energy delivery in a whole area instead of a single spot. A common problem for this AM process is the uncontrolled penetration of light energy, which could cause a solidification of non - desired layers. In this paper , an optimization procedure is developed and presented in order to increase Z accuracy and resolution of printed parts through the control of the total accumulated dose and the photocuring conversion ratio of each spatial location of the manufacturing volu me. Consequently, the uncontrolled monomer - to - polymer conversion of down - facing surfaces could be reduced. A finite element strategy is used in the optimisation procedure to obtain a full discretization of the whole manufacturing domain. Furthermore, exper imental tests have been done to compare experimental results and numerical estimations. The results show that the use of the optimisation procedure increases the accuracy and resolution of printed parts along the manufacturing direction.
Soldevila, A.; Blesa, J.; Tornil-Sin, S.; Rosa M. Fernandez-Canti; Puig, V. Computers & chemical engineering Vol. 108, num. 4 January 2018, p. 152-162 DOI: 10.1016/j.compchemeng.2017.09.002 Data de publicació: 2018-01-04 Article en revista
This paper presents a sensor placement approach for classifier-based leak localization in water distribution networks. The proposed method is based on a hybrid feature selection algorithm that combines the use of a filter based on relevancy and redundancy with a wrapper based on genetic algorithms. This algorithm is applied to data generated by hydraulic simulation of the considered water distribution network and it determines the optimal location of a prespecified number of pressure sensors to be used by a leak localization method based on pressure models and classifiers proposed in previous works by the authors. The method is applied to a small-size simplified network (Hanoi) to better analyze its computational performance and to a medium-size network (Limassol) to demonstrate its applicability to larger real-size networks.