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  • Non-Functional Requirements as drivers of Software Architecture Design

     Ameller, David
    Defense's date: 2014-01-23
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En las últimas décadas, la ingeniería de software se ha convertido en un área importante de investigación. Como investigadores, debemos identificar un problema, una necesidad o un hueco en algún tema de investigación, una vez identificado hacemos un esfuerzo para producir nuevas técnicas, métodos y herramientas que esperamos contribuyan a mejorar el problema detectado. En la esta tesis el problema identificado fue la necesidad de dar soporte a los requerimientos no funcionales en el diseño de la arquitectura de software donde estos requisitos actúan como los impulsores en la toma de decisiones arquitectonicas .Esta tesis se inició con la idea de usar una disciplina relativamente nueva en la ingeniería de software, el desarrollo dirigido por modelos, ya que era un buen lugar para proponer una solución para el problema detectado. Planteamos nuestra visión de cómo los requisitos no funcionales se pueden integrar en el desarrollo dirigido por modelos y cómo esta integración tendría un impacto en las actividades de diseño arquitectónico.Cuando empezamos a producir nuestras técnicas, métodos y herramientas para el desarrollo dirigido por modelos nos dimos cuenta de que había un hueco importante en relación con el conocimiento arquitectónico y que debía resolverse previamente al problema inicial. Gran parte del conocimiento de cómo los requisitos no funcionales afectan al diseño de la arquitectura de software está oculta. Esta situación provocó un giro en esta tesis: ¿que necesitábamos para entender arquitectos?, ¿cómo piensan y cómo se toman las decisiones arquitectónicas?, ¿cuál es el papel de los requisitos no funcionales en el proceso de toma de decisiones de arquitectura?, y ¿en qué medida son los requisitos no funcionales importantes en este proceso? Todas estas preguntas necesitaban una respuesta, una respuesta que sólo los arquitectos podían proporcionar. En consecuencia, decidimos conducir varios estudios empíricos para responder a estas preguntas.Al mismo tiempo, nos pusimos a trabajar en una forma de representar este conocimiento, una ontología de arquitectura de software que integra los requisitos no funcionales. Usando como base esta ontología, se diseñó un método para ayudar a los arquitectos en el proceso de toma de decisiones de arquitectura y una herramienta que actúa como una prueba de concepto de ambos, la ontología y el método.En resumen, esta tesis explora cómo los requisitos no funcionales están integrados en las prácticas de diseño de arquitectura de software y propone formas para mejorar su integración y facilitar el trabajo de los arquitectos proporcionando los medios para ayudarles en el proceso de toma de decisiones de arquitectura.

  • Developing software with open source components

     Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Conradi, Reidar; Li, Jingyue; Cruzes, D.S
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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  • Constructing and using software requirement patterns

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Quer, Carme; Renault, Samuel; Guerlain, Cindy; Palomares Bonache, Cristina
    Date of publication: 2013-05-31
    Book chapter

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    Software requirement reuse strategies are necessary to capitalize and reuse knowledge in the requirement engineering phase. The PABRE framework is designed to support requirement reuse through the use of software requirement patterns. It consists of a meta-model that describes the main concepts around the notion of pattern, a method to conduct the elicitation and documentation processes, a catalogue of patterns, and a tool that supports the catalogue¿s management and use. In this chapter all these elements are presented in detail making emphasis on the construction, use and evolution of software requirement patterns. Furthermore, the chapter includes the construction of a catalogue of nontechnical software requirement patterns for illustration purposes.

  • Quark: a method to assist software architects in architectural decision-making

     Ameller, David; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    Ibero-American Conference on Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Quality attributes (QAs) and constraints are among the principal drivers of architectural decision-making. QAs are improved or damaged by architectural decisions (ADs), while constraints directly include or exclude parts of the architecture (e.g., logical components or technologies). We may determine the impact of a AD, or which parts of the architecture are aected by a constraint, but at the end it is hard to know if we are respecting the quality requirements (requirements over the QAs) and the imposed constraints with all the ADs made. In the usual approach, architects use their own experience to produce software architectures that comply with the expected quality requirements and imposed constraints, but at the end, especially for crucial decisions, the architect has to deal with complex trade-os between QAs and juggle with possible incompatibilities raised by the imposed constraints.

    Quality attributes (QAs) and constraints are among the principal drivers of architectural decision-making. QAs are improved or dam- aged by architectural decisions (ADs), while constraints directly include or exclude parts of the architecture (e.g., logical components or technologies). We may determine the impact of a AD, or which parts of the architecture are a ected by a constraint, but at the end it is hard to know if we are respecting the quality requirements (requirements over the QAs) and the imposed constraints with all the ADs made. In the usual approach, architects use their own experience to produce software architectures that comply with the expected quality requirements and imposed constraints, but at the end, especially for crucial decisions, the architect has to deal with complex trade-o s between QAs and juggle with possible incompatibilities raised by the imposed constraints. In this paper we present Quark, a method to assist software architects in architectural decision-making, and the conceptualization of the relationship between QRs and ADs de ned in Arteon, an ontology to represent and manage architectural knowledge. Finally, we also give an insight into the Quark and Arteon implementation, the ArchiTech tool.

  • Introducing use cases in a small organization: an experience and lessons learned

     Costal Costa, Maria Dolors; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Rodríguez Cámara, Núria; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Jiménez Abad, Carme
    Ibero-American Conference on Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we report the adoption of use cases by a small organization in a university setting. Use cases were first introduced in the middle of a huge project and adopted thereafter for later projects. The paper mostly focuses in the first experience, whose most interesting characteristics were the large size of the resulting specification, the fact that it took place once the project had started (for documentation purposes instead of driving the development) and the limitation that resources allocated were not as much as required. We present the lessons learned from this experience.

    In this paper we report the adoption of use cases by a small organization in a university setting. Use cases were first introduced in the middle of a huge project and adopted thereafter for later projects. The paper mostly focuses in the first experience, whose most interesting characteristics were the large size of the resulting specification, the fact that it took place once the project had started (for documentation purposes instead of driving the development) and the limitation that resources allocated were not as much as required. We present the lessons learned from this experience.

  • Managing risk in open source software adoption

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Susi, Angelo; Annosi, Maria Carmela; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Glott, Ruediger; Gross, Daniel; Kenett, Ron; Mancinelli, Fabio; Ramsany, Pop; Thomas, Cedric; Ameller, David; Bannier, Stijn; Bergida, Nili; Blumenfeld, Yehuda; Bouzereau, Olivier; Costal Costa, Maria Dolors; Dominguez, Manuel; Haaland, Kirsten; Lopez Cuesta, Lidia; Mourandini, Mirko; Sienna, Alberto
    International Joint Conference on Software Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    By 2016 an estimated 95% of all commercial software packages will include Open Source Software (OSS). This extended adoption is yet not avoiding failure rates in OSS projects to be as high as 50%. Inadequate risk management has been identified among the top mistakes to avoid when implementing OSS-based solutions. Understanding, managing and mitigating OSS adoption risks is therefore crucial to avoid potentially significant adverse impact on the business. In this position paper we portray a short report of work in progress on risk management in OSS adoption processes. We present a risk-aware technical decision-making management platform integrated in a business-oriented decision-making framework, which together support placing technical OSS adoption decisions into organizational, business strategy as well as the broader OSS community context. The platform will be validated against a collection of use cases coming from different types of organizations: big companies, SMEs, public administration, consolidated OSS communities and emergent small OSS products.

  • REARM: a reuse-based economic model for software reference architectures

     Martinez Fernandez, Silverio Juan; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Martins Marques, Helena
    International Conference on Software Reuse
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    To remain competitive, organizations are challenged to make informed and feasible value-driven design decisions in order to ensure the quality of their software systems. However, there is a lack of support for evaluating the economic impact of these decisions with regard to software reference architectures. This damages the communication among architects and management, which can result in poor decisions. This paper aims at ameliorating this problem by presenting a pragmatic preliminary economic model to perform cost-benefit analysis on the adoption of software reference architectures as a key asset for optimizing architectural decision-making. The model is based on existing value-based metrics and economics-driven models used in other areas. A preliminary validation based on a retrospective study showed the ability of the model to support a cost-benefit analysis presented to the management of an IT consulting company. This validation involved a cost-benefit analysis related to reuse and maintenance; other qualities will be integrated as our research progresses.

    To remain competitive, organizations are challenged to make informed and feasible value-driven design decisions in order to ensure the quality of their software systems. However, there is a lack of support for evaluating the economic impact of these decisions with regard to software reference architectures. This damages the communication among architects and management, which can result in poor decisions. This paper aims at ameliorating this problem by presenting a pragmatic preliminary economic model to perform cost-benefit analysis on the adoption of software reference architectures as a key asset for optimizing architectural decision-making. The model is based on existing value-based metrics and economics-driven models used in other areas. A preliminary validation based on a retrospective study showed the ability of the model to support a cost-benefit analysis presented to the management of an IT consulting company. This validation involved a cost-benefit analysis related to reuse and maintenance; other qualities will be integrated as our research progresses.

  • Verifying predictive services'quality with Mercury

     Martinez Fernandez, Silverio Juan; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Bisbal, Jesus
    International Workshop on Academic Software Development Tools and Techniques
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Due to the success of service technology, there are lots of services nowadays that make predictions about the future in domains such as weather forecast, stock market and bookmakers. The value delivered by these predictive services relies on the quality of their predictions. This paper presents Mercury, a tool that measures predictive service quality in the domain of weather forecast, and automates the context-dependent selection of the most accurate predictive service to satisfy a customer query. To do so, candidate predictive services are monitored so that their predictions can be eventually compared with real observations obtained from some trusted source. Mercury is a proof-of-concept to show that the selection of predictive services can be driven by the quality of their predictions. Its service-oriented architecture (SOA) aims to support the easy adaptation to other prediction domains and makes feasible its integration in self-adaptive SOA systems, as well as its direct use by end-users as a classical web application. Thoughout the paper, we show how Mercury was built.

  • Benefits and drawbacks of reference architectures

     Martinez Fernandez, Silverio Juan; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Martins Marques, Helena
    European Congress on Software Architecture
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Reference architectures (RA) have been studied to create a consistent notion of what constitutes them as well as their benefits and drawbacks. How-ever, few empirical studies have been conducted to provide evidence that sup-port the claims made. To increase this evidence, this paper investigates the ac-tual industrial practice of using RAs. The study consists of a survey with 28 stakeholders from everis, a multinational consulting company based in Spain. We report the findings and contextualize them with previous research.

  • Using i* to represent OSS ecosystems for risk assessment

     Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Lopez Cuesta, Lidia; Morandini, Mirko; Susi, Angelo
    International i* Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Open Source Software (OSS) is a strategic asset for organisations thanks to its short time-to-market, the opportunity for a reduced development effort and total cost of ownership, and its customization capabilities. OSS-based solutions include projects that are developed and co-evolve within the same organisation, OSS communities, companies, and regulatory bodies, forming an articulated strategic business ecosystem. The adoption of OSS in commercial projects leads to numerous challenges in the wide spectrum of available OSS solutions and risks emerging from the intrinsic structure of an OSS project. In this position paper we devise the use of i* models for understanding the strategic perspective of OSS ecosystems, representing actors, intentional dependencies and responsibilities. We argue that these models can play a crucial role in the analysis of organisational risks inherent to OSS component adoption and in the definition of risk mitigation activities.

  • The role of quality attributes in service-based systems architecting : a survey

     Ameller, David; Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    European Congress on Software Architecture
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Quality attributes (QA) play a fundamental role when architecting software systems. However, in contrast to QA in traditional software systems, the role of QA when architecting service-based systems (SBS) has not yet been studied in depth. Thus, we conducted a descriptive survey to explore how QA are treated during the architecting of SBS. Data were collected using an online questionnaire targeted at participants with architecting experience. Our survey shows that QA and functional requirements of SBS are mostly considered equally important. Also, QA are usually treated explicitly rather than implicitly. Furthermore, dependability and performance appear to be the most important QA in the context of SBS. Our results partially show that general findings on QA also apply to the domain of SBS. On the other hand, we did not find a confirmation that QA are primary drivers for the architecting of SBS, or that certain application domains would focus on particular QA.

  • A catalogue of functional software requirement patterns for the domain of content management systems

     Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer, Carme; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Renault, Samuel; Guerlain, Cindy
    ACM Symposium on Applied Computing
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as an artifact for fostering requirements reuse. When we define these patterns forthe functional part of a software system, we realize that most of patterns are specific of a software domain. This paper presents and analyzes a catalogue of functional software requirement patterns for the domain of content management, and gives an overview of how this catalogue has been constructed from the systematic analysis of 6 existing software specification documents with the support of expert assessment.

  • A framework for software reference architecture analysis and review

     Martinez Fernandez, Silverio Juan; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Martins Marques, Helena; Ameller, David
    Experimental Software Engineering Latin American Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tight time-to-market needs pushes software companies and IT consulting firms to continuously look for techniques to improve their IT services in general, and the design of software architectures in particular. The use of soft-ware reference architectures allows IT consulting firms reusing architectural knowledge and components in a systematic way. In return, IT consulting firms face the need to analyze the return on investment in software reference architectures for organizations, and to review these reference architectures in order to ensure their quality and incremental improvement. Little support exists to help IT consulting firms to face these challenges. In this paper we present an empirical framework aimed to support the analysis and review of software reference architectures and their use in IT projects by harvesting relevant evidence from the wide spectrum of involved stakeholders.

  • Online questionnaire: using a pattern catalogue in requirements engineering activities

     Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer, Carme; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a proposal of online questionnaire whose main goals are: to know current requirements engineering practices related with essential aspects for the definition of requirement patterns and to analyze the current and potential use of patterns in industry. The target audience of the questionnaire is any practitioner or academic with different levels of experience on requirement engineering.

  • Practical applications of i* in industry: the state of the art

     Yu, Eric; Amiot, Daniel; Mussbacher, Gunter; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Castro, Jaelson
    IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    i* is a goal-oriented and agent-oriented modeling framework that focuses on the analysis of intentional and strategic relationships among actors. In this mini-tutorial, we highlight a number of recent applications in practical industrial and business settings.

  • Using a foundational ontology to investigate the semantics behind the concepts of the i* language

     Guizzardi, Renata; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Wieringa, Roel
    International i* Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In the past few years, the community that develops i* has become aware of the problem of having so many variants, since it makes it difficult for newcomers to learn how to use the language and even to experts to efficiently exchange knowledge and disseminate their proposals. Moreover, this problem also delays the transfer of the i* framework to industrial settings. Our work is one of the current attempts to promote interoperability among the existing variants, and it does that by investigating the semantics behind the i* core concepts. For that, we apply a foundational ontology named UFO, which is used as a semantically coherent reference model to which the language should be isomorphic. In this paper, we report on the steps we have pursued, what we have accomplished so far, also setting the context for the work ahead.

  • Mobile technologies to enable users' informed decisions

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Perini, Anna; Hernández Pibernat, Hugo; Seyff, Norbert
    International Joint Conference on Software Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The significant wide impact of mobile technologies (e.g., smartphones, tablets) and the difficulty of mastering their complexity (due to factors like constant emergence and evolution) pose new challenges to many (if not all) software engineering disciplines. We particularly see these challenges when thinking of average citizens that carry out their daily activities in smart environments where mobile technologies and sensors installed provide many potential advantages to support them. Applications that could enable informed decision-making are currently beyond what software developers can provide. This position paper discusses challenges, and highlights current approaches available in order to support decision-making for thoughtful living. We present an initial version of a comprehensive framework to overcome the challenges identified and analyse which software engineering research lines may help to implement it. A motivating scenario is used to conduct the discussion.

  • 2nd international workshop on the twin peaks of requirements and architecture (TwinPeaks 2013)

     Avgeriou, Paris; Burge, Janet E.; Cleland-Huang, Jane; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Galster, Matthias; Mirakhorli, Mehdi; Roshandel, Roshanak
    International Conference on Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The disciplines of requirements engineering (RE) and software architecture (SA) are fundamental to the success of software projects. Even though RE and SA are often considered separately, it has been argued that drawing a line between RE and SA is neither feasible nor reasonable as requirements and architectural design processes impact each other. Requirements are constrained by what is feasible technically and also by time and budget restrictions. On the other hand, feedback from the architecture leads to renegotiating architecturally significant requirements with stakeholders. The topic of bridging RE and SA has been discussed in both the RE and SA communi ties, but mostly independently. Therefore, the motivation for this ICSE workshop is to bring both communities together in order to identify key issues, explore the state of the art in research and practice, identify emerging trends, and define challenges related to the transition and the relationship between RE and SA.

  • Software requirement patterns

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Software requirements reuse becomes a fundamental activity for those IT organizations that conduct requirements engineering processes in similar settings. One strategy to implement this reuse is by exploiting a catalogue of software requirement patterns (SRPs). In this tutorial, we provide an introduction to the concept of SRP, summarise several existing approaches, and reflect on the consequences on several requirements engineering processes and activities. We take one of these approaches, the PABRE framework, as exemplar for the tutorial and analyse in more depth the catalogue of SRP that is proposed. We apply the concepts given on a practical exercise.

  • Integrando aspectos de sustentabilidade à engenharia de sistemas

     Bonfim, Camilla; Nunes, Wesley; Duboc, Leticia; Alves, Carina F.; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Guizzardi, Renata
    IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Sustentabilidade é uma das principais forças motoras de nossa sociedade. Entre as muitas iniciativas para alcançar esta meta estão as de TI, que se preocupam principalmente com o consumo responsável de recursos durante o desenvolvimento e a operação de sistemas de software. Software, no entanto, é parte de um contexto mais amplo, sistemas sócio-técnicos, cujo projeto tem uma grande influência no consumo de recursos. Uma maior compreensão do papel da sustentabilidade e a incorporação deste aspecto à engenharia de sistemas sócio-técnicos pode representar uma importante contribuição para vencer este desafio. Este artigo descreve a proposta de uma pesquisa para compreender o estado-da-prática e desenvolver métodos e técnicas que deem suporte aos diferentes aspectos de sustentabilidade durante a engenharia de sistemas.

  • Non-functional requirements in architectural decision-making

     Ameller, David; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Cabot, Jordi; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    IEEE software
    Date of publication: 2013-04-01
    Journal article

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    A survey of software architects addressed how they face non-functional requirements from an engineering perspective and how these requirements influence decision making

    A survey of software architects addressed how they face non-functional requirements from an engineering perspective and how these requirements influence decision making.

  • The three-layer architectural pattern applied to plug-in-based architectures : the Eclipse case

     Ameller, David; Collell, Oriol; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    Software. Practice and experience
    Date of publication: 2013-04-01
    Journal article

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    The process of designing a software architecture using different kinds of components is often challenging. Different designs support some quality attributes while damaging others; therefore, trade-off analysis is needed to make informed decisions. Moreover, analysis made in theory needs to be complemented with observations in practice, especially when using a particular set of technologies to implement the system. In this paper, we present a particular instance of this problem. We study how the Three-Layer architectural pattern may be developed using plug-ins. We compare two extreme alternatives according to several representative scenarios and their impact in some quality attributes. Then, we apply this theoretical knowledge to a case study, the implementation of a plug-in-based tool for managing architectural knowledge using Eclipse. We report some unexpected difficulties found that forced us to adapt the theoretical solution into an operative architecture.

    The process of designing a software architecture using different kinds of components is often challenging. Different designs support some quality attributes while damaging others; therefore, trade-off analysis is needed to make informed decisions. Moreover, analysis made in theory needs to be complemented with observations in practice, especially when using a particular set of technologies to implement the system. In this paper, we present a particular instance of this problem. We study how the Three-Layer architectural pattern may be developed using plug-ins. We compare two extreme alternatives according to several representative scenarios and their impact in some quality attributes. Then, we apply this theoretical knowledge to a case study, the implementation of a plug-in-based tool for managing architectural knowledge using Eclipse. We report some unexpected difficulties found that forced us to adapt the theoretical solution into an operative architecture.

  • The notion of Specialization in the i* Framework  Open access

     Lopez Cuesta, Lidia
    Defense's date: 2013-05-16
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    This thesis provides a formal proposal for the specialization relationship in the i* framework that allows its use in a well-defined manner. I root my proposal over existing works in different areas that are interested in representing knowledge: knowledge representation from Artificial Intelligence and conceptual modeling and object-oriented programming languages from Software Development. Also, I use the results of a survey conducted in the i* community that provides some insights about what i* modelers expect from specialization. As a consequence of this twofold analysis, I identify three specialization operations: extension, refinement and redefinition. For each of them, I: - motivate its need and provide some rationale; - distinguish the several cases that can occur in each operation; - define the elements involved in each of these cases and the correctness conditions that must be fulfilled; - demonstrate by induction the fulfilment of the conditions identified for preserving satisfaction; - provide some illustrative examples in the context of an exemplar about travel agencies and travelers. The specialization relationship is offered by the i* framework through the is-a construct defined over actors (a subactor is-a superactor) since it was first released. Although the overall meaning of this construct is highly intuitive, its effects at the level of intentional elements and dependencies are not always clear, hampering seriously its appropriate use. In order to be able to reason about correctness and satisfaction, I define previously the conditions that must be preserved when a specialization takes place. In addition, I provide a methodology with well-defined steps that contextualize the formal aspects of this thesis in a development process. As a conclusion, this thesis is making possible the use of the specialization relationship in i* in a precise, non-ambiguous manner.

  • PABRE-Proj: applying patterns in requirements elicitation

     Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer, Carme; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as a type of artifact for fostering requirements reuse. In this paper, we present PABRE-Proj, a tool aimed at supporting requirements elicitation and specification.

    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as a type of artifact for fostering requirements reuse. In this paper, we present PABRE-Proj, a tool aimed at supporting requirements elicitation and specification.

  • Ontological distinctions between means-end and contribution links in the i* framework

     Guizzardi, Renata; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Guizzardi, Giancarlo; Wieringa, Roel
    International Conference on Conceptual Modeling
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The i* framework is a renowned Requirements Engineering approach. This work is part of an ongoing effort to provide ontological interpretations for the i* core concepts. With this, we aim at proposing a more uniform use of the language, in a way that it can be more easily learned by newcomers and more efficiently transferred to industry. Our approach is based on the application of a foundational ontology named UFO, which is used as a semantically coherent reference model to which the language should be isomorphic. In this paper, we focus on the Means-end and the Contribution links. We aim at presenting the community with some possible ontological interpretations of these links, aiming at promoting constructive debate and receiving feedback about the validity of our assumptions.

  • 1st international workshop on conducting empirical studies in industry (CESI 2013)

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Madhavji, Nazim; Curtis, Bill; Votta, Larry
    International Conference on Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The quality of empirical studies is critical for the success of the Software Engineering (SE) discipline. More and more SE researchers are conducting empirical studies involving the software industry. While there are established empirical procedures, relatively little is known about the dynamics of conducting empirical studies in the complex industrial environments. What are the impediments and how to best handle them? This was the primary driver for organising CESI 2013. The goals of this workshop include having a dialogue amongst the participating practitioners and academics on the theme of this workshop with the aim to produce tangible output that will be summarised in a post-workshop report.

  • Architecture Quality Revisited

     Buschmann, Frank; Ameller, David; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Cabot, Jordi; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    IEEE software
    Date of publication: 2012-08
    Journal article

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  • Bridging the gap among academics and practitioners in non-functional requirements management: some reflections and proposals for the future

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Ameller, David; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Cabot, Jordi
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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    The software engineering community has paid a lot of attention to the study of non-functional requirements (NFRs). Along time, framing NFRs into an articulated framework has become an elusive target. As a consequence, prac-titioners usually integrate NFRs in the different system life-cycle activities in an ad-hoc manner. In this work, we summarise the results of a recent empirical study involving 13 software architects from the Spanish. These results serve as the basis for discussion about possible ways to bridge the gap between academics and practitioners in the management of NFRs

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    Specialization in i* strategic rationale diagrams  Open access

     Lopez Cuesta, Lidia; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Marco Gomez, Jordi
    International Conference on Conceptual Modeling
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The specialization relationship is offered by the i* modeling language through the is-a construct defined over actors (a subactor is-a superactor). Although the overall meaning of this construct is highly intuitive, its semantics when it comes to the fine-grained level of strategic rationale (SR) diagrams is not defined, hampering seriously its appropriate use. In this paper we provide a formal definition of the specialization relationship at the level of i* SR diagrams. We root our proposal over existing work in conceptual modeling in general, and object-orientation in particular. Also, we use the results of a survey conducted in the i* community that provides some hints about what i* modelers expect from specialization. As a consequence of this twofold analysis, we identify, define and specify two specialization operations, extension and refinement, that can be applied over SR diagrams. Correctness conditions for them are also clearly stated. The result of our work is a formal proposal of specialization for i* that allows its use in a well-defined manner

    ER 2012 Best Student Paper Award

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • A unifying framework for the definition of syntactic measures over conceptual schema diagrams

     Costal Costa, Maria Dolors; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sustainability in software engineering: a systematic literature review

     Penzenstadler, Birgit; Bauer, Veronika; Calero, Coral; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Collaborative resolution of requirements mismatches when adopting open source components

     Anh, Nguyen Duc; Cruzes, Daniela S.; Conradi, Reidar; Höst, Martin; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia
    International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    ArchiTech: tool support for NFR-guided architectural decision-making  Open access

     Ameller, David; Collell, Oriol; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Researchers from requirements engineering and software architecture had emphasized the importance of NonFunctional Requirements and their influence in the architectural design process. To improve this process we have designed a tool, ArchiTech, which aims to support architects during the design process by suggesting alternative architectural decisions that can improve some types of non-functional requirements in a particular project, and facilitate the reuse of architectural knowledge shared between projects of the same architectural domain (e.g., web-based applications).

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • A quality model for analysing web service monitoring tools

     Cabrera Bejar, Oscar; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    QuPreSS: A service-oriented framework for predictive services quality assessment  Open access

     Martinez Fernandez, Silverio Juan; Bisbal Riera, Jesús; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Knowledge Management in Organizations
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nowadays there are lots of predictive services for several domains such as stock market and bookmakers. The value delivered by these services relies on the quality of their predictions. This paper presents QuPreSS, a general framework which measures predictive service quality and guides the selection of the most accurate predictive service. To do so, services are monitored and their predictions are compared over time by means of forecast verification with observations. A systematic literature review was performed to design a service-oriented framework architecture that fits into the current body of knowledge. The service-oriented nature of the framework makes it extensible and interoperable, being able to integrate existing services regardless their heterogeneity of platforms and languages. Finally, we also present an instantiation of the generic framework architecture for the weather forecast domain, freely available at http://gessi.lsi.upc. edu/qupress/

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • OSS integration issues and community support: an integrator perspective

     Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Cruzes, Daniela S.; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Conradi, Reidar; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Höst, Martin; Babar, Muhammad Ali
    International Conference on Open Source Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The reuse and integration of Open Source Software (OSS) components provided by OSS communities is becoming an economical and strategic need for today’s organizations. The integration of OSS components provides many benefits, but also risks and challenges. One of the most important risks is the lack of effective and timely OSS community support for dealing with possible integration problems. For gaining an understanding of the common problems that organizations face when integrating OSS com ponents, and the role played by OSS communities, we performed an exploratory study on 25 OSS integration projects from different European organizations. The results show that the main way of reducing integration problems was the use of OSS components from well-established communities; therefore very few integration problems were identified. In most of the cases these problems were successfully solved with the support from the OSS community and/or colleagues. In addition, contrary to the common belief that understanding code from someone else is a hard and undesirable task, some integrators consider OSS code even more understandable than their own code.

  • How do software architects consider non-functional requirements: an exploratory study

     Ameller, David; Ayala Martinez, Claudia Patricia; Cabot, Jordi; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Dealing with non-functional requirements (NFRs) has posed a challenge onto software engineers for many years. Over the years, many methods and techniques have been proposed to improve their elicitation, documentation, and validation. Knowing more about the state of the practice on these topics may benefit both practitioners' and researchers' daily work. A few empirical studies have been conducted in the past, but none under the perspective of software architects, in spite of the great influence that NFRs have on daily architects' practices. This paper presents some of the findings of an empirical study based on 13 interviews with software architects. It addresses questions such as: who decides the NFRs, what types of NFRs matter to architects, how are NFRs documented, and how are NFRs validated. The results are contextualized with existing previous work.

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    Building strategic enterprise context models with i*: a pattern-based approach  Open access

     Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    Workshop on Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Modern enterprise engineering (EE) requires deep understanding of organizations and their interaction with their context. Because of this, in early phases of the EE process, enterprise context models are often built and used to reason about organizational needs with respects to actors in their context and vice versa. However, far from simple, this task is usually cumbersome because of knowledge and communication gaps among technical personnel performing EE activities and their administrative counterparts. In this paper, we propose the use of strategic patterns expressed with the i* language aimed to help bridging this gap. Patterns emerged from several industrial applications of our DHARMA method, and synthesize knowledge about common enterprise strategies, e.g. CRM. Patterns have been constructed based on the well-known Porter’s model of the 5 market forces and built upon i* strategic dependency models. In this way technical and administrative knowledge and skills are synthesized in a commonly agreeable framework. The use of patterns is illustrated with an industrial example in the telecom field.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Massively distributed authorship of academic papers

     Tomlison, Bill; Ross, Joel; Andre, Paul; Baumer, Eric; Paterson, Donald; Corneli, Joseph; Mahaux, Martin; Nobarany, Syavash; Lazzari, Marco; Penzenstadler, Birgit; Torrance, Andrew; Callele, David; Olson, Gary; Silberman, M. Six; Stünder, Marcus; Romancini, Fabio; Salah, Albert A.; Morrill, Eric; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Mueller, Florian F.; Kaye, Joseph; Black, Rebecca W.; Cohn, Marisa L.; Shih, Patrick C.; Brewer, Johanna; Goyal, Nitesh; Näkki, Pirjo; Huang, Jeff; Baghaei, Nilufar; Saper, Craig
    Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    SALMonADA: A platform for monitoring and explaining violations of WS-agreement-compliant documents  Open access

     Müller, Carlos; Oriol Hilari, Marc; Rodriguez Navarro, Marc; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Marco Gomez, Jordi; Resinas, Manuel; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio
    Jornadas de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Several research frameworks in both academy and industry aim at monitoring conditions stated in Service Level Agreements (SLAs). However, up to our knowledge, none of them present reasoning capabilities over the SLA with a clear explanation of the concrete statements that violate the agreement. In this paper we present SALMonADA, a platform to monitor SLAs specified with WS–Agreement, that provides agreement violations explanations by pointing both: violated terms of the WS–Agreement document, and violating measures of a monitoring management document.

  • SALMonADA: A platform for monitoring and explaining violations of WS-agreement-compliant documents

     Müller, Carmen; Oriol Hilari, Marc; Rodriguez Navarro, Marc; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Marco Gomez, Jordi; Resinas, M.; Ruiz Cortés, A.
    International Workshop on Principles of Engineering Service-Oriented Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Quality assurance techniques have been developed to supervise the service quality (QoS) agreed between service-based systems (SBSs) consumers and providers. Such QoS is usually included in service level agreements (SLAs) and thus, SLA monitoring platforms have been developed supporting violation detection. However, just a few of them provide explanation of the violations caused by observed QoS at monitoring time, but not in an user-friendly format. Therefore, we propose a general monitoring and analysis conceptual reference model and we instantiated it with SALMonADA, a SBS that notifies the clients with violations and their causes in their own easy-to-understand specification terms. In addition, our platform performs an early analysis notification that avoids delays in the client notification time when a violation takes place. Moreover, we have implemented a web application as a SALMonADA client, to prove how it monitors, analyses and reports to their clients the service level fulfillment of real services subject to a SLA specified with WS-Agreement.

  • A holistic service provisioning solution for federated cloud infrastructures

     Kertesz, A.; Kecskemeti, G.; Nemeth, Zsolt; Oriol Hilari, Marc; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    Software Services and Systems Research - Results and Challenges (S-Cube)
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Cloud Computing builds on the latest achievements of diverse research areas, such as Grid Computing, Service-oriented computing, business process modeling and virtualization. As this new computing paradigm was mostly lead by companies, several proprietary systems arisen. Recently, alongside these commercial systems, several smaller-scale privately owned systems are maintained and developed. In this paper we present our research results performed within the S-Cube European FP7 NoE project to enable automated service provisioning for users on a highly dynamic infrastructure consisting of multiple Cloud providers. We developed a Federated Cloud Management architecture that provides unified access to a federated Cloud that aggregates multiple heterogeneous IaaS Cloud providers in a transparent manner. We have also incorporated an integrated monitoring approach that enables more reliable provider selection in these heterogeneous environments.

  • Applying a foundational ontology to analyze means-end links in the i* framework

     Guizzardi, Renata; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Guizzardi, Giancarlo
    International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Integrated monitoring approach for seamless service provisioning in federated clouds

     Kertesz, A.; Kecskemeti, G.; Marosi, A.; Oriol Hilari, Marc; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Marco Gomez, Jordi
    Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Requirements monitoring for adaptive service-based applications

     Oriol Hilari, Marc; Qureshi, N.A.; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Perini, Anna; Marco Gomez, Jordi
    International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality
    Presentation's date: 2012-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Context and motivation: Adaptive Service Based Applications (SBAs) need to cope with continuously changing environments. Monitoring becomes a key requirement for engineering Adaptive SBAs. Question/problem: Ongoing research on Requirements Engineering (RE) for Adaptive SBAs strives to answer challenging questions such as how to monitor changes affecting user’s requirements? and how the monitored information helps in adapting to the candidate solutions? Principal ideas/results: Existing approaches and techniques to specify requirements monitoring for Adaptive SBAs are either formal or specialized to a particular domain. A convenient and easy approach to specify requirements monitoring for Adaptive SBAs is still missing. In this paper, we focus on this issue. Contribution: We describe a systematic approach for deriving requirements monitoring specifications for the running Adaptive SBA. We use a running example from a travel domain case study to elaborate our approach.

  • A catalogue of non-technical requirement patterns

     Palomares Bonache, Cristina; Quer, Carme; Franch Gutierrez, Javier; Guerlain, Cindy; Renault, Samuel
    International Workshop on Requirements Patterns
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Software Requirement Patterns (SRP) have been proposed as an artifact for fostering requirements reuse. PABRE is a framework that promotes the use of SRP as a means for requirements elicitation, validation and documentation in the context of IT procurement projects. In this paper, we present a catalogue of non-technical SRP included in the framework and present in detail some of them. We also introduce the motivation to arrive to these patterns.

  • The i* framework: the way ahead

     Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Anticipating requirements changes-using futurology in requirements elicitation

     Pimentel, João Henrique; Santos, Emanuel; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    International journal of information system modeling and design
    Date of publication: 2012-07-01
    Journal article

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    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a process for using a foresight method, namely Futures Wheel, for requirements elicitation. To illustrate the use of this approach, the authors perform a case study using a route planning system.

    It is well known that requirements changes in a later phase of software developments is a major source of software defects and costs. Thus, the need of techniques to control or reduce the amount of changes during software development projects. The authors advocate the use of foresight methods as a valuable input to requirements elicitation, with the potential to decrease the number of changes that would be required after deployment, by anticipating them. In this paper, the authors define a process for using a foresight method, namely Futures Wheel, for requirements elicitation. To illustrate the use of this approach, the authors perform a case study using a route planning system.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Introduction to the REFSQ 2011 special issue

     Berry, Daniel; Franch Gutierrez, Javier
    Requirements engineering
    Date of publication: 2012-03-01
    Journal article

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