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  • Solar disinfection of secondary effluent and the subsequent bacterial regrowth: considerations, limitations and environmental perspectives  Open access

     Giannakis, Stefanos
    Institute of Textile Research and Indust. Coop. of Terrassa, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Aquesta tesi tracta de la desinfecció d¿un efluent secundari sintètic mitjançant llum solar en condicions controlades de laboratori, centrant-se en el recreixement dels bacteris després de la irradiació. La influencia de diversos factors interns i externs i el seu efecte en la desinfecció solar, així com la cinètica del recreixement bacterià són els temes estudiats. Amb l¿ajuda d¿un microorganisme indicador comú de contaminació fecal, es van investigar els efectes de la intensitat de la llum, de la temperatura, de la concentració inicial de bacteris, de l¿energia lluminosa (longitud d¿ona) i de la seva forma d¿aplicació(contínua o intermitent). També es van estudiar els esdeveniments del posttractament, com son la reparació en foscor, la fotoreactivació i la supervivència en matrius naturals, així com l¿ús de recursos tècnics (fotoreactors amb recirculació) i processos avançats d¿oxidació (photo-Fenton i sonicació) per minimitzar el risc de recreixement. Els resultats obtinguts han permès formular conclusions valuoses sobre la idoneïtat d¿utilitzar la radiació solar com a tècnica secundaria de desinfecció d¿aigües residuals, indicant les limitacions de la seva aplicació, les consideracions sobre les especificacions del tractament i les seves perspectives ambientals.

    Cotutela Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

    The present Thesis deals with the solar disinfection of synthetic secondary effluent under laboratory controlled conditions, focusing on the post-irradiation bacterial regrowth. The influence of various internal and external factors and their effect on solar disinfection, as well as bacterial regrowth kinetics are the subject under question. With the aid of a common fecal indicator microorganism, the effects of light intensity, temperature, initial bacterial concentration, light energy (wavelength), manner of delivery (continuous-intermittent) were investigated. Also, the post-treatment events, such as dark repair, photoreactivation and the survival in natural water matrices were assessed, along with the use of technical means (flow photoreactors with recirculation) and advanced oxidation processes (photo-Fenton and sonication) for regrowth risk minimization. The findings provided valuable output, conclusions on the suitability of solar irradiation as a secondary wastewater disinfection technique, indicating the limitations of its applicability, the considerations on the treatment specifications and its environmental perspectives.

    Η παρούσα Διδακτορική Διατριβή πραγματεύεται την απολύμανση δευτεροβάθμια επεξεργασμένων τεχνητών λυμάτων υπό ελεγχόμενες συνθήκες, μελετώντας το φαινόμενο της επανανάπτυξης / επανεμφάνισης των μικροοργανισμών μετά την ακτινοβολία των λυμάτων. Αντικείμενό της είναι η μελέτη της επίδρασης μιας ευρείας γκάμας ενδογενών και εξωγενών παραγόντων τόσο κατά την διαδικασία της απολύμανσης, όσο και στην κινητική του βακτηριακού πληθυσμού. Με τη χρήση κοινών οργανισμών δεικτών κοπρανώδους μόλυνσης, μελετήθηκε η επίδραση του αρχικού βακτηριακού πληθυσμού, η ένταση και το μήκος κύματος της ακτινοβολίας, η θερμοκρασία απολύμανσης και ο τρόπος παροχής του φωτός (συνεχής-ασυνεχής) κατά την διαδικασία. Μελετήθηκαν ακόμα τα φαινόμενα που λαμβάνουν χώρα μετά την ακτινοβολία, όπως το φαινόμενο της επανανάπτυξης του βακτηριακού πληθυσμού στο σκοτάδι, η φωτο-επιδιόρθωση και η επιβίωση των μικροοργανισμών σε φυσικά νερά μετά την ακτινοβολία. Διερευνήθηκε τέλος η δυνατότητα χρήσης αντιδραστήρων συνεχούς ροής με επανακυκλοφορία και ο συνδυασμός εφαρμογής προχωρημένων μεθόδων οξείδωσης (αντιδραστήριο photo-Fenton) με υπερήχους, στοχεύοντας στην ελαχιστοποίηση της πιθανότητας επανανάπτυξης των μικροοργανισμών. Τα αποτελέσματα κατέδειξαν ενδεδειγμένες πρακτικές εφαρμογής, συμπεράσματα για την καταλληλότητα της ηλιακής ακτινοβολίας ως μεθόδου απολύμανσης δευτεροβάθμια επεξεργασμένων λυμάτων, προβληματισμούς όσον αφορά τις τεχνικές λεπτομέρειες και περιβαλλοντικές ανησυχίες.

    Aquesta tesi tracta de la desinfecció d’un efluent secundari sintètic mitjançant llum solar en condicions controlades de laboratori, centrant-se en el recreixement dels bacteris després de la irradiació. La influencia de diversos factors interns i externs i el seu efecte en la desinfecció solar, així com la cinètica del recreixement bacterià són els temes estudiats. Amb l’ajuda d’un microorganisme indicador comú de contaminació fecal, es van investigar els efectes de la intensitat de la llum, de la temperatura, de la concentració inicial de bacteris, de l’energia lluminosa (longitud d’ona) i de la seva forma d’aplicació (contínua o intermitent). També es van estudiar els esdeveniments del posttractament, com son la reparació en foscor, la fotoreactivació i la supervivència en matrius naturals, així com l’ús de recursos tècnics (fotoreactors amb recirculació) i processos avançats d’oxidació (photo-Fenton i sonicació) per minimitzar el risc de recreixement. Els resultats obtinguts han permès formular conclusions valuoses sobre la idoneïtat d’utilitzar la radiació solar com a tècnica secundaria de desinfecció d’aigües residuals, indicant les limitacions de la seva aplicació, les consideracions sobre les especificacions del tractament i les seves perspectives ambientals.

    En la presente Tesis doctoral se estudia la desinfección solar de un efluente secundario sintético en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, centrándose en el recrecimiento bacteriano después del tratamiento de irradiación. La influencia de diversos factores tanto internos como externos y sus efectos sobre la desinfección solar, así como el recrecimiento bacteriano son el tema principal de esta investigación. Empleando un microorganismo indicador fecal común, se investigaron los efectos de la intensidad de la luz, la temperatura, la concentración bacteriana inicial, la energía de la luz (longitud de onda) y la forma de suministro (continua-intermitente). Asimismo, se evaluaron los eventos posteriores al tratamiento, tales como la reparación oscura, la fotorreactivación y la supervivencia en matrices acuosas naturales, así como el uso de medios técnicos (fotorreactores de flujo con recirculación) y procesos de oxidación avanzada (foto-Fenton y sonicación) para mitigar el riesgo de recrecimiento. Los hallazgos proporcionaron valiosos resultados, conclusiones referentes a las aplicaciones prácticas, conclusiones sobre la adecuación de la irradiación solar como técnica de desinfección de aguas residuales secundarias, con indicaciones a las limitaciones de su aplicabilidad, consideraciones sobre las especificaciones del tratamiento y sus perspectivas ambientales

  • Tractament d'efluents insdustrials mitjançant tècniques de membranes

     Lopez Grimau, Victor; Crespi Rosell, Martin; Vilaseca Vallve, M. Mercedes; Buscio Olivera, Valentina; Pepio Viñals, Montserrat; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen
    Competitive project

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  • CTM2012-31461 - TRATAMIENTO ELECTROQUIMICO DE COLORANTES Y REUTILIZACION DE EFLUENTES INDUSTRIALES

     Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen; Lopez Grimau, Victor; Pepio Viñals, Montserrat; Crespi Rosell, Martin; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Buscio, Valentina
    Competitive project

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  • TRATAMIENTO ELECTROQUIMICO DE COLORANTES Y REUTILIZACION DE EFLUENTES INDUSTRIALES

     Buscio Olivera, Valentina; Pepio Viñals, Montserrat; Crespi Rosell, Martin; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Lopez Grimau, Victor; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen
    Competitive project

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    Gestió de residus industrials  Open access

     Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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    El segle XX va ser el segle de moltes coses, però, en particular, va ser el segle de la globalització. Es van globalitzar l’economia, les guerres, la cultura...; en general, es va globalitzar tot allò relatiu a l’activitat humana i fou, en part, a causa del naixement de la societat de la informació. ‘Societat de la informació’ és un concepte que fa referència a una transformació que està experimentant la societat des de la meitat del segle XX, una societat en què s’observa una transició d’una economia basada en els béns materials a una economia basada en el coneixement. En aquest nou context econòmic i social, les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC) ocupen un espai central. La societat de la informació és vista com a successora de la societat industrial, per això s’empren també els termes ‘societat postindustrial’, ‘postindustrialisme’ o ‘era de la informació’.

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    Gestió de residus municipals  Open access

     Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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    El segle XX va ser el segle de moltes coses, però, en particular, va ser el segle de la globalització. Es van globalitzar l’economia, les guerres, la cultura...; en general, es va globalitzar tot allò relatiu a l’activitat humana i fou, en part, a causa del naixement de la societat de la informació. ‘Societat de la informació’ és un concepte que fa referència a una transformació que està experimentant la societat des de la meitat del segle XX, una societat en què s’observa una transició d’una economia basada en els béns materials a una economia basada en el coneixement. En aquest nou context econòmic i social, les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC) ocupen un espai central. La societat de la informació és vista com a successora de la societat industrial, per això s’empren també els termes ‘societat postindustrial’, ‘postindustrialisme’ o ‘era de la informació’.

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    Residus: generalitats  Open access

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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    El segle XX va ser el segle de moltes coses, però, en particular, va ser el segle de la globalització. Es van globalitzar l’economia, les guerres, la cultura...; en general, es va globalitzar tot allò relatiu a l’activitat humana i fou, en part, a causa del naixement de la societat de la informació. ‘Societat de la informació’ és un concepte que fa referència a una transformació que està experimentant la societat des de la meitat del segle XX, una societat en què s’observa una transició d’una economia basada en els béns materials a una economia basada en el coneixement. En aquest nou context econòmic i social, les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC) ocupen un espai central. La societat de la informació és vista com a successora de la societat industrial, per això s’empren també els termes ‘societat postindustrial’, ‘postindustrialisme’ o ‘era de la informació’.

  • Tratamiento biológico: fundamentos, aplicaciones y modelación

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Barajas López, María Guadalupe
    Date of publication: 2009
    Book chapter

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  • Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero en las plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales: estimación para plantas de diferentes tecnologías en el estado de San Luís Potosí, México

     Sánchez Carrasco, Iván Napoleón; Barajas López, María Guadalupe; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Gestión sostenible del agua: reutilización, tratamiento y evaluación de la calidad
    p. 259-273
    Presentation's date: 2008-07-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The Alfa network TECSPAR: a cooperation effort between Europe and Latin America to expand the sustainable technologies for wastewater treatment

     Morato Farreras, Jordi; Peñuela, Gustavo; García, J; Vidal, G; O'Hogain, S; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Barajas, M G; Borin, M
    International Conference on Multi Functions of Wetland Systems
    p. 70-71
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Evaluación, comparación y aplicación de los métodos de fraccionamiento de la DQO

     Barajas López, María Guadalupe; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Díaz Rosales, Patricia; Ortiz Balderas, María de los Ángeles
    Competitive project

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  • Estimación en línea de parámetros físico-químicos de aguas residuales: puesta a punto de métodos e incorporación a un sistema de control

     Barajas López, María Guadalupe; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Díaz Rosales, Patricia; Ábrego Góngora, Carlos Joel
    Competitive project

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  • Modeling ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    6th IWA International Conference on Waste Stabilisation Ponds. Avignon, Francia, 28-SEP a 1-OCT 2004 Vegeu el programa del congrés: http://iwa-wsp.lyon.cemagref.fr/contenu/images/General%20final%20programme4.pdf Pàgina 48
    Presentation's date: 2004-09-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Caracterización, evaluación y propuesta de mejora de un proceso discontinuo de lodos activados a escala laboratorio

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Barajas López, María Guadalupe; Estrada Rodríguez, Ma. Guadalupe
    Competitive project

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  • MAiT "Medi Ambient i Tecnologia". Una eina d'autoaprenentatge multimèdia per a la formació ambiental a la UPC.

     Carrera Gallissa, Enric; Barcelo Garcia, Miguel; Casanovas Boixereu, Francesc X.; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Escribano Rodriguez de Robles, Beatriz; Martinez Magaña, Juan; Morato Farreras, Jordi; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Sans Fonfria, Ramon; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Verdu Gonzalez, Antonio Maria; Xercavins Valls, Josep
    Date of publication: 2003-04
    Book

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  • Application d'un bilan thermique à la modelisation des étangs aérés de deux stations d'épuration des eaux usées

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    18e Congrès de l'Est du Canada de recherche sur la qualité de l'eau - 18th Eastern Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research Vegeu web: Programa http://www.cawq.ca/Programme%20ACQE-CAWQ.pdf Proceeedings (abstracts): http://www.cawq.ca/ACQE-CAWQ-R
    Presentation's date: 2002-10-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Tecnologia i Sostenibilitat

     Carrera Gallissa, Enric; Barcelo Garcia, Miguel; Casanovas Boixereu, Francesc X.; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Escribano Rodriguez de Robles, Beatriz; Martinez Magaña, Juan; Morato Farreras, Jordi; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent; Sans Rovira, Ramon; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Verdu Gonzalez, Antonio Maria; Xercavins Valls, Josep
    Date of publication: 2002-09
    Book

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  • 5è Premi a la Qualitat en la Docència Universitària del Consell Social de la UPC

     Carrera Gallissa, Enric; Monguet Fierro, José Maria; Xercavins Valls, Josep; Sans Fonfria, Ramon; Morato Farreras, Jordi; Escribano Rodriguez de Robles, Beatriz; Casanovas Boixereu, Francesc X.; Barcelo Garcia, Miguel; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Angel; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Fernandez Sanchez, Joaquin; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Verdu Gonzalez, Antonio Maria
    Award or recognition

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  • ESTUDI DE COMPOSTOS ORGÀNICS VOLÀTILS EN UNA ESTACIÓ DEPURADORA D'AIGÜES RESIDUALS

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Application d'un bilan thermique à la modelisation des étangs aérés de deux stations d'épuration des eaux usées

     Houweling, Dwight; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Kharoune, Lynda Et Yves Comeau
    18e Congrès de l'Est du Canada de recherche sur la qualité de l'eau - 18th Eastern Canadian Symposium on Water Quality Research Vegeu web: Programa http://www.cawq.ca/Programme%20ACQE-CAWQ.pdf Proceeedings (abstracts): http://www.cawq.ca/ACQE-CAWQ-R
    p. 48-49
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Medi Ambient i Tecnologia: educació ambiental a l'enginyeria

     Carrera Gallissa, Enric; Barcelo Garcia, Miguel; Casanovas Boixereu, Francesc X.; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Escribano Rodriguez de Robles, Beatriz; Martinez Magaña, Juan; Morato Farreras, Jordi; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Sans Fonfria, Ramon; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Verdu Gonzalez, Antonio Maria; Xercavins Valls, Josep
    Date of publication: 2001-03
    Book

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  • 17.- Tecnologies i Sostenibilitat: Gestió dels residus

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Date of publication: 2001-03-31
    Book chapter

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  • Aplicación de métodos biotecnológicos en el reciclado del papel. Evaluación de las propiedades de las pastas, papeles y su permanencia. Acrónimo general: "BIORECIPAP"

     Vidal Llucia, Teresa; Torres Lopez, Antonio Luis; Astals Coma, Francesc; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Competitive project

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  • Medi Ambient i Tecnologia: educació ambiental a l'enginyeria

     Carrera Gallissa, Enric; Barcelo Garcia, Miguel; Casanovas Boixereu, Francesc X.; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Escribano Rodriguez de Robles, Beatriz; Martinez Magaña, Juan; Morato Farreras, Jordi; Nadeu Camprubí, Climent; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Sans Fonfria, Ramon; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Verdu Gonzalez, Antonio Maria; Xercavins Valls, Josep
    Date of publication: 2000-09
    Book

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  • 17.- Tecnologies i Sostenibilitat: Gestió dels residus

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Date of publication: 2000-09-30
    Book chapter

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  • Hydrolysis and Fermentation in a Modified VFA-Potential Test

     Barajas, M G; Knobelsdorf, J; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Mujeriego Sahuquillo, Rafael
    2nd International Symposium on Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology
    p. 19-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Enhanced biological phosphorus removal in a SBR with static fill

     Barajas, M G; Aguirre, P; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Mujeriego Sahuquillo, Rafael
    1st. WORLD WATER CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION
    p. 1-4
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Extraction, separation and identification of volatile organic compounds in food oleoresins.

     Guadayol Cunill, Jose Maria; Baquero Navarro, Maria Teresa; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Caixach, J and J Rivera
    Date of publication: 1998-01
    Book chapter

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  • OPTIMITZACIÓ DE LA FILTRACIÓ DE REGALS (INFORME FINAL)

     Guadayol Cunill, Jose Maria; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    Date: 1997-02
    Report

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  • A multicomponent kinetic model for wet oxidation

     González Benítez, María Margarita; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Gassó Domingo, Santiago
    Date of publication: 1997-01-01
    Book chapter

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  • Projecte Reactor EZE-SEAL 93200947-1/93-189-1

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; González Benítez, María Margarita
    Date: 1996-02
    Report

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  • Projecte Cilindre Whyte 316L-50DF4-150

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; González Benítez, María Margarita
    Date: 1996-02
    Report

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  • A multicomponent kinetic model for wet oxidation on industrial wastes

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; González Benítez, María Margarita; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Gassó Domingo, Santiago
    FITH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM. CHEMICAL OXIDATION, TECHNOLOGY FOR THE NINETIES
    p. 58-69
    Presentation's date: 1995-02-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A MULTICOMPONENT KINETIC MODEL FOR WET OXIDATION

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    FITH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM. CHEMICAL OXIDATION, TECHNOLOGY FOR THE NINETIES
    Presentation's date: 1995-02-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A MULTICOMPONENT KINETIC MODEL FOR WET OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni
    WATER QUALITY INTERNATIONAL 94
    Presentation's date: 1994-07-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The Oxyjet Wet Demonstration Unit Applied to the Treatment of Refractory Organic Compounds in Aqueous Wastes

     Gassó Domingo, Santiago; González Benítez, María Margarita; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
    Presentation's date: 1993-11-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Cinetica de biodegradacion de aguas residuales de la industria textil

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Crespi Rosell, Martin
    Tecnología del agua
    Vol. 0, num. 60, p. 35-38
    Date of publication: 1989-12
    Journal article

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  • Degradation of polyethoxylated nonylphenols in a sewage treatment plant. Quantitative analysis by isotopic dilution- HRGC/MS

     Planas Pastor, Carles; Guadayol Cunill, Jose Maria; Droguet Rifà, Marta; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Rivera Aranda, Josep; Caixach Gamisans, Josep
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 36, num. 4, p. 982-988
    DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00306-2
    Date of publication: 2002-02
    Journal article

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  • Estimating DOC regime in a wastewater treatment plant by UV deconvolution

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Droguet Rifà, Marta; Guadayol Cunill, Jose Maria; Caixach, J
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 37, num. 11, p. 2627-2635
    Date of publication: 2003-06
    Journal article

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  • Time and space patterns of volatile organic compounds in a sewage treatment plant

     Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Guadayol Cunill, Jose Maria; Cortina, M; Rivera Austrui, Joan; Caixach, J
    Water research (Oxford)
    Vol. 37, num. 16, p. 3913-3920
    Date of publication: 2003-09
    Journal article

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  • Solubilization and Fermentation in a Modified VFA-Potential Method

     Barajas, M G; Knobelsdorf, J; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Mujeriego Sahuquillo, Rafael
    Environmental engineering science
    Vol. 20, num. 4, p. 329-336
    Date of publication: 2003-04
    Journal article

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  • Fermentation of a low VFA wastewater in an activated primary tank

     Barajas, M G; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Mujeriego Sahuquillo, Rafael
    Water SA
    Vol. 28, num. 1, p. 89-98
    Date of publication: 2002-01
    Journal article

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  • Impact of different light intermittence regimes on bacteria during simulated solar treatment of secondary effluent: Implications of the inserted dark periods

     Giannakis, Stefanos; Merino Gamo, Ana Isabel; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Pulgarin, César
    Solar energy
    Vol. 98, num. Part C, p. 572-581
    DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.022
    Date of publication: 2013-12
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    In this study, the effect of light intermittence on solar disinfection of secondary treated wastewater was investigated. Synthetic secondary effluent was spiked with Escherichia coli and submitted to 3 different light intermittence regimes by circulating the effluent between a dark storage tank and three in-series illuminated reactors. The relative influence of the recirculation rate on bacterial inactivation was studied, in short (3¿7 min) light regimes and a dark-to-light ratio of 2.04. Lower recirculation rates resulted in poorer disinfection results, showing the detrimental effect of longer dark storage periods on the removal efficiency. Also, longer time intervals were employed in batch tests, to investigate the effect of 1, 2 and 3-h dark intervals, during recreated solar disinfection conditions; fourteen different scenarios were tested. Three hours of continuous or cumulative illumination were proven enough to provide the necessary dose to damage bacteria irreparably, while interruption during these hours favored bacterial resistance. Finally, absence of regrowth was observed in all cases that derived from samples with null bacterial counts. However, when a fraction of viable bacteria was present at the end of the solar treatment, survival was favored.

  • The antagonistic and synergistic effects of temperature during solar disinfection of synthetic secondary effluent

     Giannakis, Stefanos; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Pulgarin, César
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A. Chemistry
    Vol. 280, p. 14-26
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2014.02.003
    Date of publication: 2014-04-15
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    A 4-factor, multilevel, full factorial design of 240 experiments was performed in order to investigate the effect of temperature on the inactivation efficiency of spiked Escherichia coli in simulated solar disinfection of a synthetic secondary effluent. The initial population of the microorganisms was 103, 104, 105 and 106 CFU/mL, the exposure time 1, 2,3 and 4h, the treatment temperature 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 degrees C and the sunlight intensity 0, 800 and 1200 W/m(2). Radical changes in bacterial behavior, process efficiency and remaining populations were observed, while treating effluents in discreet temperatures. Elevating treatment temperature from 20 to 40 degrees C drastically impaired disinfection. Thermal inactivation with no regrowth predominated at 50 degrees C and total inactivation of microorganisms was observed at 60 degrees C in nonirradiated samples. Irradiation at 800 and 1200 W/m2 much increased inactivation efficiency, especially at 50 and 60 degrees C, proving sensitive light-temperature synergy at those temperatures. Total inactivation was achieved within 4h under a range of treatment conditions, including all samples at 1200 W/m(2), or 60 degrees C samples at 800 W/m(2). Also, 99.9-100% efficiencies and final population below 1000 CFU/100 mL were obtained at 800 W/m(2) and temperatures of 50 degrees C and above. Treatment time, temperature and intensity are the critical parameters for the disinfection process, while initial population is insignificant for removal efficiency. An explanation of the mechanism of the process as well as a general linear model predicting the outcome of the experiments is also suggested. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Elucidating bacterial regrowth: effect of disinfection conditions in dark storage of solar treated secondary effluent

     Giannakis, Stefanos; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Pulgarin, César
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A. Chemistry
    Vol. 290, p. 43-53
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2014.05.016
    Date of publication: 2014-09-15
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    In this study, we systematically investigate solar disinfection of synthetic secondary wastewater, with the effort to decrypt the effects disinfection conditions have on post-irradiation bacterial regrowth in the dark. A full factorial design of 240 experiments was employed to investigate the effects of (i) exposure time (1, 2,3 and 4h), (ii) treatment temperature (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 degrees C), (iii) initial bacterial concentration (10(3), 10(4), 10(5) and 10(6) CFU/mL) and (iv) sunlight intensity (0, 800 and 1200 W/m(2)) on Escherichia coli survival for a subsequent 48-h dark control period. The decisive implications treatment temperature inflicted in regrowth were monitored and interpreted within two temperature ranges, from 20 to 40 degrees C and 40 to 60 degrees C. In dark tests, bacterial populations presented initial moderate growths at 20-40 degrees C range, followed by intense regrowth. At 40-60 degrees C range, acute thermal inactivation without long-term regrowth predominated at 50 degrees C and was total at 60 degrees C, within the 4-h treatment period. Introduction of light resulted in higher removal rates or permanent inactivation for 800 and/or 1200 W/m(2), respectively. No post-treatment regrowth in the dark was observed after 24 and 48 h, in completely inactivated samples, and its demonstration, when observed, was well correlated to the bacterial numbers at the end of the disinfection period. Statistical observations on the transferred bacterial populations from day to day are also discussed in this paper. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Monitoring the post-irradiation E-coli survival patterns in environmental water matrices: implications in handling solar disinfected wastewater

     Giannakis, Stefanos; Merino Gamo, Ana Isabel; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Pulgarin, César
    Chemical engineering journal
    Vol. 253, p. 366-376
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2014.05.092
    Date of publication: 2014-10-01
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    In this study, simulated solar disinfection of secondary effluent was followed by dark storage at different temperatures or different receiving water matrices. Escherichia coil illumination was followed by 3-day monitoring of the bacterial population and its adaptation in different temperature conditions in the dark. The subsequent survival was linked to the dose received during exposure to light, and results were obtained on the environmentally induced prolongation of survival, maintenance of population or excessive growth, at 4 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. An additional set of experiments at 20 degrees C was subjected to dilution in E. coli-free synthetic wastewater, water from Lake Leman, (synthetic) seawater and Mili-Q water. Post-irradiation monitoring was also conducted, studying 50%, 10% and 1% dilution rates, and the results were attributed to the two parameters of dilution medium and dilution ratio. However, different responses were found based on the acquired dose during pre-treatment. This indicates the importance of the illumination prior to storage, and the preference of bacteria in some matrices over the others. Survival was linked to initial population, dose, dilution and medium; shorter illumination times are to be considered according to the receiving water matrix. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    Ultrasound enhancement of near-neutral photo-Fenton for effective E. coli inactivation in wastewater  Open access

     Giannakis, Stefanos; Papoutsakis, Stefanous; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas Cañellas, Antoni; Petrier, Christian; Pulgarin, César
    Ultrasonics sonochemistry
    Vol. 22, p. 515-526
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.04.015
    Date of publication: 2015-01-01
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    In this study, we attempt for the first time to couple sonication and photo-Fenton for bacterial inactivation of secondary treated effluent. Synthetic wastewater was subjected to sequential high-frequency/low power sonication, followed by mild photo-Fenton treatment, under a solar simulator. It was followed by the assessment of the contribution of each component of the process (Fenton, US, hv) towards the removal rate and the long-term survival; sunlight greatly improved the treatment efficiency, with the coupled process being the only one to yield total inactivation within the 4-h period of treatment. The short-term beneficial disinfecting action of US and its detrimental effect on bacterial survival in long term, as well as the impact of light addition were also revealed. Finally, an investigation on the operational parameters of the process was performed, to investigate possible improvement and/or limitations of the coupled treatment; 3 levels of each parameter involved (hydraulic, environmental, US and Fenton) were tested. Only H2O2 increased improved the process significantly, but the action mode of the joint process indicated potential cost-effective solutions towards the implementation of this method. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.