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  • Analysis of unreinforced and TRM-strengthened brick masonry walls subjected to eccentric axial load

     Bernat Maso, Ernest
    Defense's date: 2014-02-07
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Un nombre significant d'edificis estan suportats per murs de càrrega d'obra de fàbrica. La preservació d¿aquestes estructures que s¿utilitzen arreu del món is una alternativa sostenible. No obstant això, hi ha molt poca recerca en relació a la resposta estructural d¿aquests elements particulars si es compara amb altres com les estructures porticades d¿acer o formigó. Per tant, és necessari un major estudi dels murs de càrrega d¿obra de fàbrica com a punt de partida de les actuacions de preservació.Normalment, els murs de càrrega estan subjectes a patrons de càrrega vertical excèntrica, cosa que està relacionada amb la seva resposta estructural complexa. Aquesta resposta es caracteritza pels efectes de flexió de segon ordre degut a l¿excentricitat de la càrrega, per la resposta no linear a compressió de l¿obra de fàbrica i per la seva, pràcticament negligible, resistència a tracció. Per tant, el reforç d¿aquests murs, per tal d¿augmentar-ne la seva capacitat resistent is una alternativa de millora interessant per allargar la seva vida útil.En aquesta tesi s¿ha dut a terme una campanya experimental. Aquesta ha consistit en centenars d¿assaigs de caracterització de les propietats mecàniques dels materials components utilitzats per construir vint-i-nou murs. Nou d¿aquests es van reforçar amb Textile Reinforced Mortar, TRM, i els altres vint van ser assajats sense reforç. Tots van ser sotmesos a compressió excèntrica. L¿estudi dels murs reforçats ha permès analitzar la influència del tipus de morter de reforç, l¿efecte de disposar ancoratges o la dependència de la capacitat resistent en el tipus de malla de fibra utilitzada. S¿ha implementat un micromodel simplificat bidimensional (2D) per analitzar els casos estructurals proposats. Aquesta eina numèrica ha estat validada utilitzant les dades de la campanya experimental. Finalment, s¿han proposat mètodes analítics per calcular la capacitat portant dels murs sense reforç i dels reforçats amb TRM. De forma semblant, s¿han aplicat dos normes actuals, l¿Eurocodi-6 i l¿ACI-530, als casos d¿estudi per tal de comparar-ne els resultats amb els experimentals.Els resultats mostren que el TRM aporta un augment de la capacitat resistent de més del 100% i homogeneïtza la resposta estructural que esdevé més rígida. En relació a les simulacions, el model numèric proposat obté resultats acurats, els quals són millors pels casos de major esveltesa o més excentricitat de la càrrega. Per acabar, els mètodes analítics que es proposen aporten resultats acceptables, els quals s¿ajusten millor als experimentals que els obtinguts aplicant les formulacions de les normatives.

  • Experimental and numerical analysis of bending-buckling mixed failure of brickwork walls

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Sandoval, Cristian
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-06
    Journal article

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    The eccentric in-plane loading of masonry walls involves complex bending performance that includes second-order effects. In this work, a bidimensional (2D) simplified micro-model for the analysis of this type of failure is developed. An experimental investigation based on 20 tests of full-scale unreinforced masonry walls is performed. The tests are characterised by slenderness and load eccentricity. The analytical methods of Eurocode-6 and ACI-530 are compared with experimental data from the present investigation, other experimental results available in the literature and simulation results from the numerical model.

  • Empirical equations for the assessment of the load-bearing capacity of brick masonry walls

     Sandoval, Cristian; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-07
    Journal article

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    Three alternative equations to predict the carrying capacity of brick masonry walls subjected to concentric and eccentric vertical loading are presented. The proposals introduced, which are based on the reduction factors for slenderness and eccentricity commonly used in structural design of masonry walls, are derived from a large amount of numerical data generated on-purpose by the systematic use of a simplified micro-model. Wall slenderness, masonry stiffness and load eccentricity are all taken into consideration as the input parameters for the methods proposed. The research also includes an expression for the evaluation of the contribution of the tensile strength of the unit-mortar interface on the carrying capacity of the masonry walls. The paper describes the methodology utilized to derive the equations and a discussion of the equations¿ limits and applicability. Finally, the performance of the methods proposed is analyzed by comparison with a selection of experimental results and the method provided by Eurocode-6.

  • Micro-modeling of stack bond masonry in compression using a plasticity law

     Drougkas, Anastasios; Molins Borrell, Climent; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Conference on Computational Plasticity Fundamentals and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A set of experimental tests to determine the compressive strength of masonry stack prisms has been numerically simulated using a combined plasticity-smeared crack constitutive law employed in three-dimensional analysis. Supported by an experimental campaign for the mechanical characterization of lime mortar masonry, a series of finite element analyses was performed in an attempt to assess the capacity of the model to reproduce the results obtained in terms of capacity, failure mode and global stiffness. The constitutive law used for the non-linear analysis of the masonry is a combination of a smeared cracking model in tension and a pressure dependent plasticity model in compression, which is capable of accounting for all failure mechanisms that may arise in concentric compression of masonry, both in the units and in the mortar. The purpose of this investigation is to establish whether a numerical approach based on the micro-modeling method is suitable for the simulation of the salient features encountered in masonry under compression as well as highlighting the main material properties necessary to be determined in order to properly model such experiments. The results are expanded upon through a parametric investigation.

  • An orthotropic damage model for the analysis of masonry structures

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a numerical model for nonlinear analysis of masonry structural elements based on Continuum Damage Mechanics. The material is described at the macro-level, i.e. it is modeled as a homogeneous orthotropic continuum. The orthotropic behavior is simulated by means of an original methodology, resulting from the concept of mapped tensors from the anisotropic field to an auxiliary workspace. The application of this idea to strain-based Continuum Damage Models is innovative and leads to several computational benefits. The suitability of the model for representing the behavior of different types of brickwork masonry is shown via the simulation of experimental tests.

  • Experimental and analytical study of TRM strengthened brickwork walls under eccentric compressive loading

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Escrig Perez, Christian
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-07
    Journal article

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    The strengthening of load-bearing masonry walls against out-of-plane failure is needed to enhance the life cycle of existing buildings in a sustainable way. In this work, the efficiency of Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) for the strengthening of masonry walls is shown by means of an experimental campaign on full scale brick masonry walls. In addition, this campaign has allowed the study of the influence of different mortar and fibre types and the possible benefit of using anchors to improve the connection between the walls and the external reinforcement. The application of TRM has provided an increase of over 100% of the initial load bearing capacity under eccentric axial load. Moreover, a stiffer and more homogeneous behaviour is noticed when TRM is applied. An analytical method to calculate the ultimate axial¿bending combination for TRM strengthened brick masonry walls, in agreement with the experiments, is presented.

    The strengthening of load-bearing masonry walls against out-of-plane failure is needed to enhance the life cycle of existing buildings in a sustainable way. In this work, the efficiency of Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) for the strengthening of masonry walls is shown by means of an experimental campaign on full scale brick masonry walls. In addition, this campaign has allowed the study of the influence of different mortar and fibre types and the possible benefit of using anchors to improve the connection between the walls and the external reinforcement. The application of TRM has provided an increase of over 100% of the initial load bearing capacity under eccentric axial load. Moreover, a stiffer and more homogeneous behaviour is noticed when TRM is applied. An analytical method to calculate the ultimate axial–bending combination for TRM strengthened brick masonry walls, in agreement with the experiments, is presented.

  • Continuum FE models for the analysis of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    From the theoretical point of view, systems composed by masonry arches or vaults would require, during construction, the simultaneous activation of all structural elements in order to reach the optimum balance of thrusts. This is not obviously the case of complex ancient masonry constructions, whose long and gradual building process may have contributed to their deformed condition and even to damage. In this paper, the possible influence of the construction process as well as that of later long-term deformation on the final condition of the building is investigated in the case of a complex and large historical structure, namely Mallorca Cathedral. A FE code has been specifically developed for the present study. The code is able to account for construction processes through sequential-evolutionary analyses, with the description of masonry mechanical damage and long-term deformation. The representative bay of the cathedral is analyzed taking into account different construction phases, as emerged from historical research. The response of such substructure to transverse earthquake equivalent forces is then investigated. In this case, the damage model is improved with a local crack-tracking algorithm. This numerical strategy models the tensile damage as distinct cracks, leading to a better prediction of realistic collapsing mechanisms.

  • Structural characterisation of textile ceramic technology used as a curtain wall

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Sarrablo Moreno, Vicenç; Escrig Perez, Christian
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    Textile Ceramic Technology (TCT) is a system composed of ceramic units installed in a grid of steel wires. TCT application as a curtain wall which allows ventilation is expected to be an inexpensive, aesthetic and sustainable solution. In order to use TCT as a curtain wall, experimental research about the mechanical response of hanged TCT panels is required. The main aim of this paper is to present the results of this experimental work. Different loading conditions corresponding to gravity and wind forces have been applied on typical TCT panels and the results point out that TCT is sufficiently mechanically competent to be used as a curtain wall. The application range and limitations are summarised. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • IDENTIFICACION DE PARAMETROS MECANICO-RESISTENTES EN OBRA DE FABRICA ESTRUTURAL

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Análisis estructural

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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  • Structural assessment of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Approach to seismic behavior of Mallorca Cathedral

     Caselles Magallon, Jose Oriol; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Elyamani Ali Mohamed ., Ahmed
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of design for floors, roofs and vaults

     Valluzzi, Maria Rosa; Girardello, Paolo; Francescato, Dario; Pospí¿il, Stanislav; Král, R; D'Ayala, Dina; Paganoni, Sara; Pelà, Luca; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Branco, J; El Harrouni, Khalid; Kucukdogan, Bilge; Parisi, M A
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Knowledge-based seismic assessment of architectural heritage

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    One of the main activities encompassed by the collaborative project NIKER (New Integrated Knowledge Based Approaches to the Protection of Cultural Heritage from Earthquake Induced Risk), now in development, consists of the formulation of strategies for knowledge based seismic assessment and their application to a selected group of heritage buildings located in the South of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. For this purpose, a number of up-to-date techniques for inspection, monitoring and structural analysis has been selected and applied, in an integrated way, to the study of the chosen group of buildings. Monitoring, in particular, has been intensively explored as a powerful tool applicable to the identification of the dynamic properties of the building, but also as a tool for model updating, as early-warning system and the verification of the effectiveness of the intervention. Up to 18 buildings have been selected including a wide variety of cases regarding structural typology, risks involved and seismicity level. The application of such strategies and techniques to the selected group of buildings aims to a detailed calibration and validation of the strategies and techniques proposed.

  • Assessment of dynamic behaviour of Mallorca Cathedral

     Elyamani, Ahmed; Caselles Magallon, Jose Oriol; Clapes Boixader, Jaime; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Construction
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Experimental and numerical study of the buckling failure of masonry walls

     Sandoval Mandujano, Cristian Eliseo; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Construction process numerical simulation and seismic assessment of Mallorca Cathedral

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Clemente, Roberto
    International Brick and Block Masonry Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a numerical study of Mallorca Cathedral carried out by means of a FE approach devised for the study of this complex historical construction. Previous studies, including inspection and historical research, have shown that part of the existing damage and deformation might have been experienced during the construction process itself, while later historical processes causing long-term deformation, may also have contributed significantly to the final deformation. In order to analyse the possible influence of the construction process and long term deformation on the deformation of the structure, a numerical tool has been developed to carry out sequential-evolutionary analyses, involving the superposition of consecutive construction stages. A constitutive model has been implemented accounting for both viscoelasticity and mechanical damage by means of an enhanced continuum damage model. This tool has been used to carry out the sequential FE analysis of a typical bay structure of the main nave of the building. The proposed numerical tool has been also used to assess the seismic performance of the typical bay, in the transverse direction, through a nonlinear static analysis. The proposed numerical strategy seems effective to describe deformation and damage and could be applied to other similar historical masonry constructions.

  • La doble fachada acristalada ventilada en el clima Mediterráneo: optimización a través de simulaciones energéticas computacionales

     Carvalho Ayres torres, Mauricio
    Defense's date: 2012-07-26
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Study of the influence of different parameters on the buckling behaviour of masonry walls

     Sandoval Mandujano, Cristian Eliseo; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2012-10
    Journal article

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  • Viscoelasticity and damage model for creep behaviour of historical masonry structures

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Pelà, Luca; Clemente, Roberto; Chiumenti, Michele
    The open civil engineering journal
    Date of publication: 2012-11-23
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a continuum model for the simulation of the viscous effects and the long-term damage ac-cumulation in masonry structures. The rheological model is based on a generalized Maxwell chain representation with a constitutive law utilizing a limited number of internal variables. Thanks to its computational efficiency, this approach is suitable for the analysis of large and complex structures. In the paper, the viscous and damage models are presented and their coupling is discussed. The FE simulation of the construction process of the representative bay of Mallorca Cathedral is presented, together with the analysis of the long-term effects. The parameters of the model are tentatively calibrated on the basis of the time-dependent viscous deformations detected during the cathedral monitoring.

  • Estructuras y patrimonio cultural: análisis, conservación y restauración

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Ingeniería y territorio: revista del Colegio de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Continuum model for inelastic behaviour of masonry  Open access

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Meccanica Teorica e Applicata
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A continuum model capable of modelling the inelastic behaviour of masonry is presented. The model includes the description of viscoelasticity, orthotropic damage and tensile crack localization. The theoretical framework is summarized. The model has been implemented in a FE package and validated through the analysis of a complex masonry construction and the simulation of experimental tests on shear walls.

  • Testing and numerical modelling of buckling failure of masonry walls

     Sandoval Mandujano, Cristian Eliseo; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Bernat Maso, Ernest; Gil Espert, Lluis
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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  • Restoration of historic buildings: conservation principles and structural assessment

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International journal of materials and structural integrity
    Date of publication: 2011-08
    Journal article

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  • Estudio experimental y numérico del fallo por inestabilidad de muros de obra de fábrica  Open access

     Sandoval Mandujano, Cristian Eliseo
    Defense's date: 2011-05-27
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    A large part of the building stock of the Spanish and European cities consists of load-bearing wall buildings made of brick masonry. The structural safety of such constructions, in the occasion of a rehabilitation or a mere maintenance, is a topic of growing concern. Sometimes, the simple adaptation of this type of constructions to current standards ¿which often implies an increase of the imposed load considered- requires an accurate structural evaluation permitting the technicians to take adequate decisions. However, despite the research effort undertaken in recent decades, criteria and methods for the practical evaluation of instability problems in masonry walls are still insufficient and not fully accurate. In this context, this thesis analyzes the resistance response of masonry walls under concentric and eccentric vertical load. For that purpose, the present study includes a first part aimed at obtaining representative and reliable results about the mechanical response of the masonry wall failure by lateral instability. In a second part, systematic numerical simulations are carried out. The numerical tools have been validated using the experimental results obtained previously and others founded in the literature. The experimental campaign includes a set of walls built on 1:4 scale masonry tested until collapse. A total of 36 walls with different combinations of slenderness ratio and load eccentricity are tested. The results obtained are compared with experimental results reported by other authors. This comparison is only done for results with similar support conditions and load eccentricities. Additionally, a series of measurements and material characterization tests are carried out. The results derived from the tests performed are used to calibrate and to validate a numerical model based on the micro-modelling approach. This numerical application reproduces satisfactorily the ultimate response observed in the experiments, both in terms of resistance capacity and lateral deformability. In addition, the results of this application show a good agreement with the experimental failure modes. Based on the micro-model previously calibrated, a parametric study is performed. The aim of the parametric study is to develop more detailed and systematic analyses in order to extend the experimental results to a wider range of geometries, loading conditions and material properties. The numerical results obtained allow the detailed evaluation about the influence of the main parameters regarding the lateral instability problem (slenderness ratio, load eccentricity, deformability and tensile strength) as well as to propose simple methods for verification and design of brick masonry walls. The proposed methods involve equations obtained by regression analysis. The functions found present a good agreement with the numerical results from the parametric study, showing a high correlation in all cases. These equations represent the reduction factor for slenderness and eccentricity commonly found in structural design of masonry walls. Finally, the validation of the proposed methods -3 in total- is performed with available experimental evidence and results calculated using the approach proposed in the current standard (EN 1996-1-1:2005).

    Gran parte del parque edificado en las ciudades españolas y europeas se estructura en base a muros de obra de fábrica. La seguridad real de tales construcciones, ante la ocasión de una rehabilitación o de una simple conservación, constituye un motivo de creciente preocupación. En ocasiones, la sola adaptación de este tipo de construcciones a la normativa vigente –que a menudo implica un aumento de las sobrecargas de usorequiere una evaluación estructural suficientemente precisa que permita tomar decisiones de actuación a los técnicos. Sin embargo, y a pesar del esfuerzo investigador emprendido en las últimas décadas, los técnicos apenas disponen de criterios para la evaluación práctica de los muros. Dentro de este contexto, la presente tesis doctoral analiza la respuesta resistente de estos elementos estructurales bajo carga vertical centrada y excéntrica. Para ello, una primera parte de la investigación se destina a producir resultados experimentales, y una segunda, se destina a simulaciones numéricas sistemáticas. La explotación combinada de experimentación y simulaciones numéricas ofrece interesantes posibilidades para formular y validar un método simple para predecir cargas de colapso teniendo en cuenta el fallo por pandeo. La campaña experimental que se lleva a cabo incluye una serie de ensayos sobre paredes y pequeños ensamblajes de obra de fábrica construidos a escala 1:4 ensayados hasta rotura. El principal objetivo del trabajo experimental es proporcionar un conjunto de resultados representativos y fiables sobre la respuesta mecánica de muros de obra de fábrica ante el fallo por pandeo. Para este efecto se ensayan 36 paredes bajo distintas combinaciones de razón de esbeltez y excentricidad de la carga vertical. Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con resultados experimentales previos. Adicionalmente, como parte fundamental del programa experimental, se lleva a cabo una serie de mediciones y ensayos de caracterización de materiales con el fin de ser utilizadas en la calibración y validación de modelos numéricos. Una aplicación numérica –basada en la estrategia de la micro-modelización- es adoptada para realizar simulaciones de una selección de resultados experimentales, incluidos aquellos obtenidos en la presente investigación. La aplicación numérica utilizada demuestra buena capacidad para predecir la respuesta última observada en los experimentos, tanto en términos de capacidad resistente como en términos de deformabilidad lateral. Asimismo, el modelo numérico muestra coherencia con los modos de rotura experimentales. Un estudio paramétrico es llevado a cabo a partir del micro-modelo calibrado en base a la evidencia experimental aportada en esta investigación. El objetivo de esta etapa es desarrollar estudios más detallados y sistemáticos que extiendan los resultados experimentales a una variedad más amplia de geometrías, condiciones de carga y de propiedades materiales. Los resultados obtenidos –aproximadamente 3700- permiten analizar más en profundidad la influencia de aquellos parámetros más relevantes en el problema; la razón de esbeltez, la excentricidad de la carga vertical, la deformabilidad y la resistencia a tracción El conjunto de resultados numéricos presenta un claro comportamiento que puede ser descrito a través de curvas de ajuste. Las funciones de aproximación encontradas se ajustan satisfactoriamente a la forma o tendencia general de los datos, logrando correlaciones elevadas en todos los casos. Estas funciones representan el factor de reducción por esbeltez y excentricidad comúnmente utilizado en fórmulas de diseño y comprobación estructural. La validación de las fórmulas propuestas -3 en total- se realiza frente a evidencia experimental disponible y resultados calculados con el método propuesto en la normativa vigente (EN 1996- 1-1:2005).

  • Characterization of masonry structural members in compression by modal analysis-based methods

     Llorens Sulivera, Miquel
    Defense's date: 2011-11-22
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Nonlinear static and dynamic model for the analysis of reinforced concrete frames under high shear forces.

     Mohr, Steffen
    Defense's date: 2011-06-16
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Nonlinear response of masonry wall structures subjected to cyclic and dynamic loading

     Sima Brum, Jose Fernando; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Molins Borrell, Climent
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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    The assessment of the dynamic or seismic performance of complex structures often requires the integration in the time domain of the structural equation of motion in the frame of a nonlinear analysis. Although sophisticated methods have been developed for the nonlinear analysis of masonry wall structures, including the macro- and micro-modeling approaches, these require large computational effort still limiting the extent and complexity of the structures analyzed. This paper presents an alternative method based on the Generalized Matrix Formulation for masonry skeletal structures and load bearing wall systems, which has been proved as an efficient formulation for the analysis of the strength capacity of these kinds of structures (Roca et al. (2005) [17]). The basic formulation has been complemented with a uniaxial cyclic constitutive model for masonry and a time integration scheme. The ability of the resulting approach to predict the nonlinear dynamic response of masonry structures is shown through its application to the time domain analysis of an experimental scale masonry building with available experimental results on its dynamic response.

  • Capacity of shear walls by simple equilibrium models

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Viviescas Jaimes, Alvaro; Lobato Paz, Miguel Ernesto; Diaz Gomez, Cesar; Serrà Martín, Isabel
    International journal of architectural heritage
    Date of publication: 2011-06-09
    Journal article

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  • Continuum damage model for orthotropic materials: application to masonry

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Computer methods in applied mechanics and engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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  • Structural analysis of masonry historical constructions: classical and advanced approaches

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Gariup, Giuseppe; Pelà, Luca
    Archives of computational methods in engineering
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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  • Non linear response of masonry wall structures subjected to cyclic and dynamic loading

     Sima Brum, Jose Fernando; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Molins Borrell, Climent
    International Conference on Structural analysis of Historic Constructions
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A method for non-linear dynamic analysis of wall masonry structures is presented. The method takes advantage of a Generalized Matrix Formulation (GMF) for the serviceability and ultimate analysis of structures composed of arches and/or masonry walls, in which open and solid walls are described as equivalent frame systems. This formulation has been complemented with a cyclic constitutive model and an algorithm for the integration of the equation of motion, resulting in a numerically efficient method for non-linear analysis in time domain of complex masonry systems.

  • Response of Gothic churches in moderate seismic Mediterranean regions

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Vacas Albalà, Antonio; Cuzzilla, R.; Murcia-Delso, J.; Das, A. K.
    International Symposium on Assessment and Strengthening of Historical Stone Masonry Structures Subjected to Seismic Action
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-12
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  • Access to the full text
    Fiabilidad de las estructuras patrimoniales  Open access

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Seminario sul tema Evoluzione nella Sperimentazione per le Construzioni
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Las estructuras de las construcciones históricas plantean retos específicos al analista debido a la necesidad de conjugar las exigencias de naturaleza resistente con la preservación de sus caracteres históricos y culturales. Modernamente, se reconoce que el fin último de la conservación de todo tipo de patrimonio cultural estriba en la preservación de su autenticidad en términos tanto materiales como intangibles. La estructura que sustenta una construcción histórica constituye asimismo una parte importante del patrimonio y debe ser tratada desde esta misma óptica. Ello conlleva que toda intervención de mantenimiento, reparación o refuerzo deba respetar y hasta potenciar los distintos valores culturales ligados a la propia estructura. En la práctica, estos conceptos llevan a preferir intervenciones muy respetuosas y de carácter mínimo. No obstante, y con el fin de reducir a límites aceptables los riegos para las personas y para el posible contenido cultural inamovible del edificio, es necesario conciliar el carácter mínimo de la intervención con la satisfacción de un nivel adecuado de fiabilidad estructural. Estas ideas se desarrollan a continuación a partir de la consideración algunos documentos internacionales, entre los que cabe destacar el Documento de Nara sobre Autenticidad (1994), y las recomendaciones del comité ISCARSAH. Se presentan asimismo algunas ideas consideradas en la elaboración del Anejo sobre Estructuras Patrimoniales de la nueva versión de la norma ISO 13822 sobre Verificación de Estructuras Existentes, en cuya elaboración ha colaborado el autor.

  • Limit analysis of shear walls by simple equilibrium models

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Lobato Paz, Miguel Ernesto; Viviescas Jaimes, Alvaro; Villalba Herrero, Vicente
    International Masonry Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07
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  • FEM analysis of orthotropic masonry walls via localized damage models

     Pelà, Luca; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    International Masonry Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In finite element analysis of masonry structures, continuum damage models are generally combined with a smeared description of damage. This common approach however, fails to provide a realistic simulation of damage and only affords general information on expected damage levels. Moreover, spurious mesh-size and mesh-bias dependence emerges from the discrete problem. In order to overcome these drawbacks, this work proposes a smeared model modified in such a way that it can reproduce localized individual (discrete) cracks. This is achieved by means of a crack tracking algorithm, which enforces the crack to develop along a single row of finite elements. In addition, the material orthotropic behaviour is simulated making use of the concept of mapped stress and strain tensors from the anisotropic real space to a scaled isotropic one. This original methodology establishes a one-to-one mapping relationship between the behaviour of the anisotropic material and that of a corresponding scaled isotropic one. In this way, the problem is solved in scaled space and the results are mapped back onto the anisotropic field, with consequent advantages from the computational point of view. The validity of the model is demonstrated through the comparison between the numerical results and the experimental evidence observed on an in-plane loaded masonry wall.

  • Limit in-plane analysis of masonry shear walls by simple equilibrium models

     Viviescas Jaimes, Alvaro; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    World Congress on Housing Science
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Numerical modeling for the prediction of the buckling failure of masonry walls

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Sandoval Mandujano, Cristian Eliseo; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    World Congress on Housing Science
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Reinforced brick masonry light vaults: Semi-prefabrication, construction, testing and numerical modeling

     Lopez Almansa, Francisco; Sarrablo Moreno, Vicente; Lourenco, P. B.; Barros, J. A. O; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; da Porto, F.; Modena, C.
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2010-10
    Journal article

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  • Non linear response of masonry wall structures subjected to cyclic and dynamic loading

     Sima Brum, Jose Fernando; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Molins Borrell, Climent
    Advanced materials research
    Date of publication: 2010-10
    Journal article

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    A method for non-linear dynamic analysis of wall masonry structures is presented. The method takes advantage of a Generalized Matrix Formulation (GMF) for the serviceability and ultimate analysis of structures composed of arches and/or masonry walls, in which open and solid walls are described as equivalent frame systems. This formulation has been complemented with a cyclic constitutive model and an algorithm for the integration of the equation of motion, resulting in a numerically efficient method for non-linear analysis in time domain of complex masonry systems.

  • Analysis of masonry structures by funicular networks

     Andreu Torras, Antoni; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Proceedings of the ICE-Engineering and Computational Mechanics
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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    A numerical approach for the ultimate analysis of large masonry structures composed of multiple linear members is presented. The approach is based on the use of computer-simulated cable nets representing the equilibrium lines (or load paths) that describe the equilibrium condition of structures. Based on this description, limit analysis is applied according to the static approach. Cable net solutions complying with the limit theorems of plasticity – in particular the safe (or lower-bound) and the uniqueness theorems – are generated by means of convenient optimisation techniques. An efficient cable element is adopted with explicit analytical expressions available for the description of the deformed shape in equilibrium and the tangent stiffness matrix. This type of cable element enables the computation of very large cable nets, including a large number of individual cables, with high computational efficiency. The calculation procedure is applied to complex spatial structures and the ability of the technique to deal with such systems is illustrated by an example involving a practical assessment of a real three-dimensional masonry structure.

  • Shear response of brick masonry small assemblages strengthened with bonded FRP laminates for in-plane reinforcement

     Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Araiza, G.
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2010-08
    Journal article

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  • Experiments on Reinforced Brick Masonry Vaulted Light Roofs

     Lopez Almansa, Francisco; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Sarrablo Moreno, Vicente; Cahis, X.; Miquel Canet, Juan
    ACI Structural Journal
    Date of publication: 2010-05
    Journal article

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  • Estudio experimental del comportamiento de paredes de obra de fábrica de ladrillo ante la acción de cargas laterales  Open access

     Charry Ablanque, Javier Alberto
    Defense's date: 2010-02-19
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Las construcciones de estructura portante a base de paredes de carga de obra de fábrica de ladrillo o piedra reciben una atención investigadora creciente debido a su importancia como parte del parque edificado existente. Gran parte del parque edificado de nuestras ciudades, incluyendo gran cantidad del patrimonio histórico, está formado por construcciones basadas en este tipo estructural. La seguridad real de tales construcciones, especialmente ante acciones horizontales, constituye un motivo creciente de preocupación en aquellas zonas susceptibles de experimentar tales efectos. Actualmente se posee un mayor conocimiento del hormigón y el acero y por el contrario, un conocimiento muy escaso de la obra de fábrica, a pesar de que su uso como elemento fundamental de la construcción se remonte a épocas antiguas, y se haya mantenido hasta hace pocas décadas como principal material estructural utilizado en la construcción de edificios. Por este motivo el objetivo principal de esta tesis es el de caracterizar experimentalmente los aspectos fundamentales de la respuesta resistente de sistemas estructurales formados por paredes de carga de obra de fabrica de ladrillo bajo acciones horizontales. Es también parte de esta investigación el estudio de la viabilidad del análisis experimental de paredes de obra de fábrica de ladrillo a escala reducida. Para alcanzar los objetivos planteados un extenso número de campañas experimentales sobre paredes a escala real y reducida, como también sobre modelos de edificios con estructura a base de paredes de carga permitieron estudiar la respuesta bajo la acción de cargas horizontales.Se desarrollaron cinco campañas experimentales sobre paredes de obra de fábrica de ladrillo a escala real y reducida (1:4) bajo estados no uniforme de tensión correspondientes a una primera fase experimental. Cada una de las campañas se dividió en tres etapas principales. En primer lugar se realizaron ensayos sobre los elementos, donde se caracterizan los materiales (ladrillo y mortero), resistencia a compresión (fb, fm), la resistencia a tracción del ladrillo (ttb) obtenida de forma indirecta mediante ensayo a flexión (fxb) y la resistencia a flexión del mortero (fxm). En segundo lugar se realizaron ensayos sobre pequeños ensamblajes mediante probetas constituidas por ensamblajes simples donde se estudia el comportamiento en conjunto de los elementos que conforman la obra de fábrica de ladrillo, ensayos uniaxial de corte, ensayo biaxial de corte y ensayos a compresión. Por ultimo ensayos sobre grandes ensamblajes, donde cinco campañas sobre muros simples a escala real y reducida (1:4) se sometieron a diferentes combinaciones de carga biaxial hasta la rotura.Como segunda fase experimental, tres campañas sobre un mismo número de edificios a escala reducida (1:4) fueron desarrolladas. La estructura portante de los modelos son una simplificación de un edificio de referencia de dos y tres niveles de altura, propia de la ampliación de muchas ciudades europeas entre finales del siglo XIX y mediados del XX. Dichos modelos siguen la típica distribución de muro central y planta limitada por muros de fachada, típico de los ensanches de ciudades europeas.Con el estudio en conjunto de las campañas experimentales ha sido posible contribuir a la caracterización experimental de la respuesta resistente de sistemas estructurales formados por paredes de carga de obra de fábrica de ladrillo bajo la acción de cargas horizontales. Como resultado de dicho estudio se propone un método de cálculo simple para predecir el mecanismo de rotura y la carga ultima cuando las paredes forman parte de la estructura portante de un edificio sometido a carga horizontal. Además se propone una metodología para el desarrollo de ensayos de paredes de obra de fábrica a escala reducida.Como aspecto complementario, se propone un criterio para determinar la resistencia a compresión de la fábrica, teniendo en cuenta la esbeltez de la probeta.

    Structural supports' constructions bearing walls, brick - built or stone masonry, are receiving an increasing attention from the researchers, due to its importance as a part of the whole building. This applies to most buildings in our towns, as well as to a large part of our historical patrimony which was built by using the same structural constructions' building model. The effective valuation of those buildings subjected to horizontal loads is a fundamental task in safety. This situation represents an increasing matter of concern, mostly in all sensitive areas in which such effects can be seen and tested. Nowadays we have a better knowledge on concrete and steel but, on the other hand, we do not know much about masonry, even if it has been the main element of construction since ancient ages. This was the main structural material used to construct buildings until few decades ago.The main purpose of this thesis is focused on characterizing in an experimental way the most important aspects of the structural systems' response, brick - built masonry bearing walls, subjected to horizontal loads. This investigation also includes a study on brick-built masonry's viable experimental analysis in a scale model.In order to reach the goals, experimental research programs were leaded in full and scale models, as well as building models with bearing walls structures allowed us to understand the response subjected to horizontal loads.Five experimental research programs dealing with masonry walls brick - built, by using both full scale and scale models (1:4), took place under non uniform stress states corresponding to the first experimental phase. Each program has been divided into three main parts. In the first one shear tests were made on all elements characterizing the materials (brick and mortar), compressive strength (fb, fm), brick tensile strength, (ttb) acquired through flexural strength test, and flexural strength of mortar (fxm). Then, shear test were developed through specimen on small assemblies in which it was studied the ensemble of elements constituting the masonry, uniaxial shear tests, biaxial shear tests and compressive tests. In the last part were developed five research programs on big assemblies whose topics were simple walls in full and scale model

  • A model for the non linear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete and masonry framed structures  Open access

     Sima Brum, Jose Fernando
    Defense's date: 2010-02-05
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La evaluación de la respuesta dinámica o sísmica de estructuras complejas a menudo requiere de la integración en el dominio del tiempo de la ecuación de equilibro dinámico de la estructura, en el marco de un análisis no lineal. En el caso de estructuras de fábrica y hormigón armado, el uso de este tipo de métodos cobra especial importancia, debido al complejo comportamiento no lineal que presentan, incluso para niveles bajos de carga. Muchas de estas estructuras pueden idealizarse como entramados espaciales de barras. En las últimas dos décadas, se ha desarrollado en la UPC una generalización de los métodos matriciales convencionales para el análisis de entramados espaciales de barras, la llamada Formulación Matricial Generalizada (FMG). La formulación básica para elementos de directriz curva y sección variable fue presentada inicialmente por Carrascón et al. (1987). Posteriormente, Carol y Murcia (1989) aplicaron esta formulación al análisis non lineal de procesos variables en el tiempo. Esta formulación fue extendida luego al análisis no lineal geométrico y del material de estructuras de obra de fábrica (Molins, 1996; Molins y Roca, 1998). Una extensión de la formulación estática básica al análisis dinámico lineal fue presentada por Molins et al. (1998) a través de la propuesta de una matriz de masa consistente. Esta formulación ha probado ser una herramienta eficiente para el análisis no lineal de estructuras de pórticos espaciales, durante más de quince años de aplicación en el Departamento de Ingeniería de la Construcción de la UPC.El objetivo fundamental de este trabajo es extender la FMG al análisis dinámico no lineal de estructuras espaciales de barras de hormigón armado y obra de fábrica. Para ello, la formulación básica ha sido complementada con varias nuevas características: · Se ha desarrollado un modelo constitutivo cíclico uniaxial para el hormigón y la obra de fábrica sometida tanto a cargas cíclicas de compresión como de tracción. Se ha puesto especial énfasis en la descripción de la degradación de la rigidez producida durante los ciclos de carga en tracción y compresión, la forma de las curvas de carga y descarga, y la transición entre abertura y cierre de fisuras. Se consideran dos parámetros independientes de daño, una para tracción y otro para compresión. En el caso de cargas cíclicas de compresión, el modelo se derivó de resultados experimentales obtenidos por otros autores, considerando la dependencia de las diferentes variables con el nivel de daño alcanzado, mientras que en el caso de cargas cíclicas de tracción, se propone un modelo simple basado en observaciones experimentales.· Se adoptó un modelo constitutivo para el acero de refuerzo sometido a cargas cíclicas, el conocido modelo de Menegotto-Pinto.· Finalmente, se adoptó un procedimiento para la integración de la ecuación de equilibrio dinámico de la estructura.Una vez implementado en ordenador, el modelo propuesto a sido aplicado a varios casos de estructuras aporticadas de hormigón armado y obra de fábrica sometidas a cargas de tipo cíclico y dinámico. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el modelo propuesto permite predecir adecuadamente la respuesta cíclica/dinámica de este tipo estructuras.

    The assessment of the dynamic or seismic performance of complex structures often requires the integration in the time domain of the structural equation of motion in the frame of a non-linear analysis. In the case of masonry and reinforced concrete structures, the use of these methods for the assessment of the structure become of great importance, due to its complex non linear behavior, even for low levels of loading. A great number of these structures may be idealized as spatial frames. A generalization of the conventional matrix methods for the analysis of spatial framed structures has been developed in the UPC during the last two decades, the so-called Generalized Matrix Formulation (GMF). The basic formulation for curved elements with variable cross section was presented by Carrascón et al. (1987). Carol and Murcia (1989) extended this flexibility based formulation to the non linear time dependant analysis. This formulation was later extended to the geometrical and material non linear analysis of masonry framed structures (Molins, 1996; Molins and Roca, 1998). An extension of the basic formulation to the linear dynamic analysis was later proposed by Molins et al. (1998) through the introduction of a consistent mass matrix. The formulation has proved for more than fifteen years of extensive use, to be an efficient tool for the analysis of 3D framed structures.The aim of this research is to extend the GMF to the non linear dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete and masonry framed structures. Following this main goal, the basic formulation has been complemented with a series of new features:· A uniaxial constitutive model for concrete and masonry subjected to cyclic loadings in both compression and tension has been proposed. Particular emphasis has been paid to the description of the strength and stiffness degradation produced by the load cycling in both, tension and compression, the shape of unloading and reloading curves and the transition between opening and closing of cracks. Two independent damage parameters in compression and in tension have been introduced to model the concrete degradation due to increasing loads. In the case of cyclic compressive loading, the model has been derived from experimental results obtained by other authors by considering the dependency of the cyclic variables with the damage level attained by the concrete. In the case of cyclic tension a simple model is adopted based on experimental observations.· A constitutive model for the cyclic behavior of reinforcing steel, the well known Menegotto-Pinto model, has been adopted. · Finally, a time step procedure for the integration of the dynamic equilibrium equation of the structure has been adopted.In order to show the capabilities of the proposed formulation, once implemented in a computer program, it has been applied in three examples of structures subjected to cyclic and dynamic loadings. The obtained results show that the model may adequately predict the cyclic/dynamic response of this type of structures.

  • Puentes de la época medieval en las cuencas de los ríos Ter, Fluviá y Muga.  Open access

     LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ, ÁNGEL
    Defense's date: 2010-11-16
    Department of Transport and Highway Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The work’s development is made by scientific method stages: aims statement, hypothesis establishment and work method to check hypothesis. Conclusions are given at the end. It is supported by: a) Bibliographical review, summary about knowledge evolution in work bridges building and associated historical facts. b) To know about used materials. c) Referred geographical and historical frameworks definition. d) The morphological knowledge about medieval work bridges. The work presents 111 unpublished plans. Research is divided up in nine stages. The first stage starts with the previous researching on the census of work bridges in the basins of the three most important northeaster slope Peninsula Iberian rivers that were built according to tradition in medieval period. Being censed 153 bridges we have chosen a representative sample of 20 bridges: 10 for Ter River, 7 for Fluvià River and 3 for Muga River. In second stage are highlighted: a) Field works to find, photograph and measure bridges. b) Works in Record Offices and Public Libraries to find technical and historical information. In this stage are included works made in Record Offices of General Administration, History of Councils, Culture and Environmental Departments of Generalitat of Catalunya, private organizations as soon as interviews to people related to significant historical facts about the research topic. c) Works made in Universities Libraries and CICCP nets. Taking in account the whole information coming from the field works, it has been made, in the third stage, three format A3 plans for every one of 20 bridges. They are referred to measurements, parameters composition and focusing angles joining 6 bridge pictures. In fourth stage we analyse structural elements, we classify every vault according Sejourné viewpoints stated in his work “Grandes voûtes” (1913) and other aspects helped by engineering parameters. Twelve ancient empiric rules to size bridge measures are taken in account and is tried to identify their influence in bridges design. In fifth stage software ARCs is used to settle bridge stability in base the pressure lines for every arch. The result allows knowing axial thrusts and eccentricities to hold up the pressure lines in the right values. Simulations are made with the own structure weight under punctual loads of 360KN at ½ and ¼ gap. Structure safety coefficients are settled according punctual load to road wideness and loads carried by available transport means in this past period. Analytical study is made to calculate vertical and axial thrusts to determine specific load on pillar’s foundation. Results got by both ways are compared. Results are shown on two plans for every bridge. Hypothesis about possible layouts or sittings of four bridges that could have originally been built are shown in sixth stage. Photographs and plans are joined. In seventh stage every bridge description is connected with the territory and river zone characteristics. Driving slope for seven hundred length upriver and downriver for every bridge are worked out. Bridge filling percentage for several depth of water is assessed. With this information and those that are collected from river agents and the sings of levels reached in historical floods, the possible flooded ground zone is assessed. Relationship between the basin surface, average upriver rain gauged and bridge drainage surface is established. This information is related to the flooded zones before mentioned. The consequential hydraulic effects are shown in a plan. Eighth stage. Three family groups are made among the studied bridges and those which have been built in Spain and France. The main constructive characteristics and their evolution through years are analysed. Ninth stage. Relevant historical facts referred to the bridge are synthesized.

    El trabajo se desarrolla basándose en las etapas del método científico: enunciado de los objetivos, planeamiento de hipótesis, método de trabajo llevado a termino para el contrates de las hipótesis y conclusiones a las que se llegan. Se apoya en: a) En la revisión bibliográfica sobre la evolución del estado del conocimiento de la construcción de los puentes de obra de fábrica y en los hechos históricos asociados a los puentes estudiados. b) En el conocimiento de los materiales empleados. c) En la definición de los marcos geográficos e históricos de referencia con el trabajo. d) En la morfológica de los puente de obra de fabrica de le época Medieval. El trabajo aporta 111 planos inéditos. La investigación la dividimos en nueve fases. Primera fase: Preinvestigación sobre censo de puentes de obra de fábrica en las cuencas de los tres ríos más importantes de la vertiente nororiental de la península ibérica que según la tradición popular datan de la época medieval. De153 censados, elegimos una muestra representativa de 20 puentes: 10 en la cuenca del río Ter, siete en la del río Fluviá y tres en la del río Muga. Segunda fase: a) Trabajos de campo: localizar los puentes, fotografiarlos y medirlos. b) Trabajos en archivos y bibliotecas. El alcance de esta fase engloba los realizados en los archivos: General de la Administración, históricos de Ayuntamientos, Diputaciones, Departamentos de Cultura y Medio Ambiente de la Generalitat de Cataluña, Red de Bibliotecas de Universidades, en la del CICCP, entidades privadas, c) Entrevistas. Tercera fase: Partiendo de la información recopilada en los trabajos de campo, realizamos tres planos en formato A3 para cada de los 20 puentes a estudiar: el de medidas, el de composición de los paramentos y el de ángulos de enfoque con 6 fotografías del puente. Cuarta fase: Análisis de los elementos estructurales de los puentes. Clasificación de bóvedas según Séjourné en su obra “grandes voûtes”(1913) y otras de carácter ingenieril. Se desarrollan 12 reglas empíricas empleadas para dimensionar puentes con las que se intenta identificar su influencia en el diseño de los puentes estudiados. Quinta fase: Se utiliza el programa ARCs, se estudia estabilidad del puente partiendo de la localización de la línea de empuje Los resultados permiten conocer los empujes axiales y las excentricidades que mantienen la línea de empujes dentro de los márgenes adecuados. Se simulan resultados para el peso propio de la estructura y también para cargas puntuales de 360KN a ½ y ¼ del vano. Se determinan los coeficientes de seguridad adaptando la carga puntual a valores adecuados a la amplitud de la calzada y a las cargas a transportar. Se complementa el cálculo de los empujes verticales y axiales para conocer el valor de la carga específica sobre los cimientos de cada pila. Se comparan los resultados por ambos métodos. Los resultados se exponen de dos planos por puente. Sexta fase: Planteamiento sobre planos y/o fotografías de hipótesis sobre los trazados y/o localizaciones que podrían haber tenido originalmente cuatro de los puentes. Séptima fase: Relaciones entre río y puente. Calculo de la pendiente motriz para los diferentes tramos de ríos y de porcentaje de obturación que presenta el puente para diferentes niveles de calado. Estimación de la zona inundable. Relaciones entre las superficies de las cuencas y las de desagüe del puente. En un plano se engloban los resultados de estos efectos hidráulicos. Octava fase: formamos tres familias de puentes según la zona geográfica donde se localiza: Francia, España y los estudiados. Analizamos las variaciones entre las principales relaciones constructivas, las tendencias de su evolucionado a lo largo de los años. Novena fase: Se citan los hechos históricos asociados a la existencia del puente.

  • Ensayo de resistencia a flexotracción y compresión del mortero de juntas

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Puigvert Cobos, Francesc; Escrig Perez, Christian; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Date: 2010-04
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  • Ensayo de resistencia a flexión bidireccional del sistema de cerámica tejida sobre base elástica: ensayo dinámico

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Puigvert Cobos, Francesc; Escrig Perez, Christian; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Date: 2010-07
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  • Ensayo de resistencia a tracción de los alambres utilizados en el sistema de cerámica tejida

     Ortiga Mur, Victor; Bernat Maso, Ernest; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Date: 2010-06
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  • Ensayo de resistencia a flexión unidireccional del sistema de cerámica tejida

     Bernat Maso, Ernest; Puigvert Cobos, Francesc; Escrig Perez, Christian; Gil Espert, Lluis; Roca Fabregat, Pedro
    Date: 2010-04
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