En los últimos años se han dedicado considerables esfuerzos en el diseño y desarrollo de tecnologías para el transporte de electricidad a largas distancias, especialmente en el caso de sistemas de generación renovables ¿off-shore¿, los cuales han de contribuir a satisfacer la siempre creciente demanda de energía eléctrica y limitar a su vez el uso de combustibles fósiles.En este sentido, los parques off-shore se han convertido en una de las apuestas más destacadas, sobre todo en el Mar del Norte, debido al enorme potencial de la energía eólica en esa región. La instalación de grandes parques eólicos marinos en el Mar del Norte plantea desafíos en la integración a red de los mismos, tales como la necesidad de la transmisión de energía a larga distancia y el control y la gestión de la energía eólica producida. Estos desafíos pueden abordarse adecuadamente mediante haciendo uso de redes de continua multiterminales en alta tensión (MTDC).El trabajo realizado en el marco de esta tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo el realizar aportaciones que contribuyan a facilitar el control y la operación de las futuras redes MTDC. Los enfoques propuestos se basan en utilización de una arquitectura de control jerárquico,inspirada en la estrategia de control de generación automática (AGC),la cual se viene aplicando en redes de corriente alterna desde hace varios años. En la propuesta realizada el control primario de la red MTDC está descentralizado mediante la propuesta de estrategia de control generalizado de tensión Droop (GVD). La utilización del GVD propone una solución de control más genérico y flexible que tiene en cuenta los modos de funcionamiento de las estaciones de conversión y los estados de la futura red híbrido ac-dc. Tal y como se describe en la tesis, la estrategia de control GVD puede trabajar en tres modos de control diferentes, incluyendo el control de caída de tensión convencional, control de potencia activa fija,y de control de tensión continua fijo, mediante el ajuste de las características GVD de los convertidores encargados dela regulación. Este ajuste se lleva a cabo por la capa secundaria de la estructura jerárquica de control propuesta. La estrategia propuesta mejora las capacidades de control y distribución de la energía en comparación con otras anteriores,y mejora su capacidad de maniobra.Esta tesis también se ocupa de la sintonización de los controladores en las diferentes estaciones de la red MTDC, proporcionando una metodología que permite alcanzar el ajuste óptimo de los parámetros que influyen en su comportamiento. Como los convertidores electrónicos son plantas no lineales, se ha propuesto una metodología específica para su ajuste,dado que los enfoques clásicos para el ajuste del sistema de control, que se basan por lo general en el modelo lineal aproximada de las plantas, no conducen a resultados óptimos.En este caso algoritmos basados en Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) se han utilizado para la sintonización de los sistemas conectados en los lados ac y dc.En la última parte de la estructura de control jerárquica propuesta, la capa de control secundario se ha diseñado siguiendo una estructura centralizada, la cual se encarga de regular el punto de funcionamiento de la red de manera que se consigue el flujo de potencia óptimo (OPF). En el enfoque propuesto, un algoritmo OPF se ejecuta en el nivel de control secundario de la red MTDC para encontrar los valores de referencia óptimos para las tensiones en continua y la potencia activa de los convertidores. De este modo, en el nivel de control primario, las características GVD de los convertidores están sintonizados en base a los resultados OPF. A través de esta estructura de control, los controladores GVD óptimamente sintonizados conducen a la operación óptima de la red MTDC. En caso de variación en la carga o en nivel de generación en la red, un nuevo punto de operación estable se logra a través de las características GVD de las estaciones de conversión
Due to increasing level of power converter based component in the grid and consequently the lack of inertia, AGC in multi area interconnected power systems are experiencing different challenges. To cope with this challenging issue, a derivative control based virtual inertia for simulating the dynamic effects of inertia emulations by HVDC interconnected systems is introduced and reflected in the multi-area AGC system. Derivative control technique is used for higher level applications of inertia emulation. By using this proposed combination in AGC model, the dynamic performance of the system shows a significant improvement. The virtual inertia will add additional degree of freedom to the system dynamics which makes a considerable improvement on first overshoot responses in addition to damping characteristics of HVDC links.
Rouzbehi, K.; Zhang, W.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 1568-1574 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2015.7418670 Presentation's date: 2015-11-24 Presentation of work at congresses
Vector current control based on Phase-locked loop, regardless of its popularity in control of grid-connected converters, performs under the limitation of the short-circuit capacity of the connected ac system.
Vector current control based on Phase-locked loop,
regardless of its popularity in control of grid-connected
converters, performs under the limitation of the short-circuit
capacity of the connected ac system.
A previously proposed method, power-synchronization control
(PSC), by L. Zhang et al. has been demonstrated good
performance in HVDC links especially in case of weak ac grid
interconnection. This method utilizes the internal synchronization
mechanism, analogous to the operation of a synchronous
machine in ac grids. By using this technique, the voltage source
converter (VSC) avoids the instability caused by a standard
PLL in a weak ac-system connection. Moreover, a VSC
terminal can give the weak ac system strong voltage support,
just like a common synchronous machine does.
In this paper, generalized voltage droop (GVD) strategy is
developed based on PSC to provide more flexibility in control
paradigm of MTDC grids and smoother transition among
different operation modes of converter stations. GVD is
implemented at the primary layer of a two-layer hierarchical
control structure of MTDC grid, and brings about some new
features such as fixed power control and fixed dc voltage
control, additional to the conventional voltage droop
characteristics. The mode transition can be achieved according
to the set point given by the secondary layer of the control
framework. Analytical justifications are given to demonstrate
the effectiveness in each control mode and the capability in soft
Rouzbehi, K.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, W.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 1556-1561 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2015.7418668 Presentation's date: 2015-11-22 Presentation of work at congresses
The level of inertia in modern power systems is reducing drastically due to the increasing penetration of renewables to the power grid. In the near future the grid will face high penetration of renewable resources because of countries policies. However, renewables provides no inertia. On the other hand, voltage source converter (VSC) based multi terminal HVDC system is a promising solution for connection of offshore wind farms to transmit huge amount of harvested energy to ac grids. This paper proposes a complete VSC-HVDC control structure which enables candidate converter station to mimic the inertia of a synchronous machine considering generalized voltage droop strategy. The emulated inertia comes from the capacitor of the dc link. The proposed strategy enables a VSC station with a fixed dc link capacitor to mimic inertia constant in a considerable range, by configuring a range of dc-link dc voltage variation. Sudden load changes in weak ac grid will be compensated by the emulated inertia that is provided by the candidate grid side VSC station.
Roslan, N.; Suul, J.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society p. 1934-1941 DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2015.7392383 Presentation's date: 2015-11-12 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper discusses the implementation of proportional resonant (PR) current controllers for a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) with LCL filter which is synchronized to the grid by virtual flux (VF) estimation with inherent sequence separation. Even though there is an extensive amount of literature and studies on the PR current controller for tracking the current reference of a VSC in the stationary reference frame, there is no discussion taking into account voltage sensor-less operation based on virtual flux estimation with an LCL-filter. Separate estimation of the positive and negative sequence virtual flux components at the grid-side of the LCL-filter, as well as current sequence separation, using the Second Order Generalized Integrator-Frequency Locked Loop (SOGI-FLL) is presented as part of a proposed method. The LCL filter is characterized in order to reduce the parameter deviation that might affect the virtual flux estimation. The stability of the proposed method is analyzed in the frequency domain while the operation and performance of the proposed system is verified by simulation studies.
The integration of distributed generation (DG) units into distribution networks has challenged the operating principles of traditional AC distribution systems, and also motivated the development of emerging DC systems. Of particular concern are the challenges associated with the Operation of conventional protection schemes and/or devices. This paper first analyses the fault current characteristics in AC and DC distribution systems; it then presents a comprehensive review of the latest protection methods proposed for distribution systems embedding DGs. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are outlined and compared. The differences between the protection algorithms employed in/proposed for AC and DC systems are also discussed. Finally, this study identifies the future trends and provides recommendation for researches in the field of protections of DC distribution networks. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The electric networks of the future will make an extensive use of DC grids. Therefore, the control of Multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids is a key issue, which is gathering the attention of the industry and the research community. In this regard, this paper proposes a grid control strategy for voltage-source converter (VSC)-based MTDC networks, based on the use of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. In the proposed approach, the controllers of the power converters belonging to the MTDC grid are acting based on the concept of vector control, in which the AC currents and voltages are transformed into a rotating direct-quadrature (dq) reference frame for controlling of the active and reactive powers as well as the DC and AC voltages. Since the VSCs are nonlinear plants in nature, the classical approaches for tuning of the control system, which are usually based on the approximate linear model of the plants, do not lead to optimal results. As an alternative, in this paper an efficient PSO algorithm is used for tuning optimally the parameters of the controllers in the MTDC grid. In addition, the voltage droop control scheme is utilized to ensure the active power balance within the MTDC grid. The simulation results, obtained through a detailed model of a four-terminal DC grid, demonstrate the effi-ciency of the proposed approach. Finally a comparison with PI controllers which have been conventionally tuned also confirmed the favorable performance of the proposed PSO-tuned controllers.
Monadi, M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 3380-3385 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310137 Presentation's date: 2015-09-24 Presentation of work at congresses
Development of Medium Voltage DC (MVDC) distribution systems require using proper protection schemes whereas due to the behavior of dc fault current, the conventional fault detection methods for ac distribution systems cannot provide a selective protection for these networks. In this paper, a differential based protection method using Ethernet communication has been implemented for a radial MVDC distribution system with integrated PV and WT. This method must be fast enough to detect the faults before involving the main converters and separate only the faulty feeder in order to increase the reliability of the power system. The experimental validation is performed by using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) approach and communication based on the IEC61850 protocol. A real time simulator (OPAL-RT) and a development board (DK60) are used to evaluate the method and to calculate the time delay of this fault detection algorithm.
Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.; Stroe, D.-I; Swierczynski, .; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 78-84 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309672 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
Connecting renewable power plants to the grid must comply with certain codes and requirements. One requirement is the ramp rate constraint, which must be fulfilled in order to avoid penalties. As this service becomes compulsory with an increased grid penetration of renewable, all possible solutions must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method for determining firstly, the optimal rating of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish electricity market for a whole year are used for validating the results.
Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Atef Abbas Elsaharty, M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 47-53 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309668 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
The continuous integration of renewable energy sources into power systems has led to the construction of large power plants based on power electronics, with power ratings up to hundreds of megawatts, in order to accomodate technologies like solar PV and wind energy. Due to the size of these plants, they must provide support services for the grid and it is necessary to analyze the impact they have on power systems. Opposing to conventional power plants formed by a reduced number of synchronous generators in the range of several hundreds of megawatts, large power plants based on PV and wind energy are usually composed of a high number of individual generating units with power ratings of a few megawatts. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop aggregated models of power plants formed by multiple power converters to be used in the dynamic analysis of large power systems. This paper presents the control system of a 20 MW PV plant, derives an equivalent aggregated model and studies the performance of this model through simulation.
Cantarellas, A.M.; Remón, D.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 6655-6659 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310591 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper proposes a novel wave energy converter (WEC) control technique based on an adaptive vector controller for maximum power absorption of the wave energy resource. The proposed controller arises as a suitable solution for a realistic wave energy converter deployment, as it serves from its own wave energy converter velocity to instantaneously determine the required power-take-off force needed for maximizing the power extraction from the waves. The adaptive characteristic of the wave energy controller is achieved thanks to the implementation of advanced signal monitoring and synchronization processes along with vector control algorithms. As a result, maximum power absorption can be instantaneously achieved regardless of the dominant characteristics of the irregular waves
Rodriguez, P.; Citro, C.; Candela, J.; Rocabert, J.; Luna, A. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 450-459 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309723 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
Photovoltaic power plants (PV) are equipped with anti-islanding algorithms, embedded in the converters controller, to avoid the island operation. However, the current trends in the development of the future electrical networks evidence that it is technically feasible and economically advantageous to keep feeding islanded systems under these situations, without cutting the power supply to the loads connected to the network. Nevertheless, commercial PV power converters are programmed as grid-feeding converters, and they are unable to work in island mode if there is not an agent forming the grid. In order to overcome this problem the Synchronous Power Controller (SPC) is presented in this paper as a suitable alternative for controlling PV inverters. As it will be further discussed this controller permits PV plants to operate seamless in grid connected and island mode, with no need of changing the control structure in any case. Moreover, the participation of SPC based power converters integrating energy storage enables other grid-feeding systems to contribute to the grid operation in island conditions. The results achieved with the SPC will be shown in simulations and also with experiments considering a real PV power plant combining SPC and comercial converters.
Zhang, W.; Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Luna, A.; Rocabert, J.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 3780-3787 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310194 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
The impact caused by the large scale penetration of renewable energy sources into electrical grid has been given an increasing concern in the past decade. Multiple challenges will occur in the future when the share of the traditional synchronous generators is reduced. One of the main issues is the lack of rotational inertia in the grid, which may cause stability issues. Therefore, the renewable energy generation plants have been asked for new control objectives and services.
In this paper, three types of active power synchronizing controllers are analyzed and compared with each other. All the three types of controllers are able to provide inertia, damping and droop characteristics, which are the favored features for the future renewable energy generation plants. The comparisons are hence conducted in these three aspects. Theoretical and experimental comparisons are both given, with the comments and conclusions.
Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Atef Abbas Elsaharty, M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 1982-1987 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309940 Presentation's date: 2015-09-20 Presentation of work at congresses
The increase of renewable energy sources and distributed generation may have a negative impact on power systems, specially on weak ones. Therefore, their control systems are acquiring growing importance, with new proposals that aim to contribute to the control and stability of the power system as conventional generating units. This paper studies the effect that a PV system using a synchronous power controller may have on a small power system constituted by a diesel generator, two loads and the PV generating unit. The response of this power system to realistic disturbances is compared with the case where the PV unit is controlled to provide its maximum power production regardless of the state of the system.
Ghorbani, H.; Monadi, M.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications p. 1-8 DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2015.7309365 Presentation's date: 2015-09-10 Presentation of work at congresses
Transient stability enhancement through using a Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Rotor Speed Deviation Signal (RSDS) of synchronous machine are thoroughly investigated in this paper. Speed deviation signal of generator as a remote signal is sent to SVC in order to achieve more transient stability. Studies are carried out on Kundur's four machine two-area test system which SVC is implemented on midway of transmission system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method to improve rotor angle stability versus different kinds of disturbances scenarios. The standard benchmark model is used for the analysis in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Monadi, M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications p. 1-9 DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2015.7309213 Presentation's date: 2015-09-10 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper presents a communication-assisted protection technique for dc microgrids. The technique, consist of a centralized fault detection, by use of the differential method; and a fault isolation strategy by coordinated operation of dc breakers and isolator switches. Hardware in the loop simulation is used to evaluate the proposed protection.
Ghorbani, H.; Moghadam, D.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2015.7309389 Presentation's date: 2015-09-10 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper proposes a new auxiliary Subsynchronous Damping Controller (SSDC) for the Static Var Compensator (SVC) to damp out subsynchronous oscillations in power system containing series compensated transmission lines. The arrival of Wide Area Measurement (WAM) technology has made it possible to measure the states of a large power system interconnected with synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). This paper presents the idea of using remote signals obtained from PMU to damp SSR. An auxiliary subsynchronous damping controller (SSDC) has been proposed for a SVC, using the generator rotor speed deviation signal as the stabilizing signal to damp subsynchronous oscillations. Sturdiness of the controller has been examined by applying the disturbances in the system that causes significant changes in generator's operating point. The IEEE Second Benchmark (SBM) model is used for the analysis and the SVC is simulated using the Power System Block set (PSB) in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
In this paper, a communication-assisted protection scheme is proposed for medium voltage dc (MVDC) distribution networks. MVDC grids are applicable for connection between microgrids, upgrading the transmission capacity of ac lines by the conversion to dc, and integration of renewable energy systems to the distribution grids. However, protection issues are one of the main challenges in the development of the VSC-based dc networks. Due to the special behavior of the dc fault currents, it is almost impossible to coordinate the overcurrent relays based on the time inverse grading. Hence, in the proposed scheme, to provide a fast and selective protection, each proposed relay communicates with two other relays to operate as the main protection for a dc feeder and the backup protection of the adjacent feeder. Hardware in the loop simulation approach by use of the OPAL-RT real time simulator is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.
The actual grid code requirements for the grid connection of distributed generation systems, mainly wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems, are becoming very demanding. The transmission system operators (TSOs) are especially concerned about the low-voltage-ride-through requirements. Solutions based on the installation of STATCOMs and dynamic voltage regulators (DVRs), as well as on advanced control functionalities for the existing power converters of distributed generation plants, have contributed to enhance their response under faulty and distorted scenarios and, hence, to fulfill these requirements. In order to achieve satisfactory results with such systems, it is necessary to count on accurate and fast grid voltage synchronization algorithms, which are able to work under unbalanced and distorted conditions. This paper analyzes the synchronization capability of three advanced synchronization systems: the decoupled double synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (PLL), the dual second order generalized integrator PLL, and the three-phase enhanced PLL, designed to work under such conditions. Although other systems based on frequency-locked loops have also been developed, PLLs have been chosen due to their link with dq0 controllers. In the following, the different algorithms will be presented and discretized, and their performance will be tested in an experimental setup controlled in order to evaluate their accuracy and implementation features.
Zhang, W.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rocabert, J.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems DOI: 10.1109/PEDG.2015.7223055 Presentation's date: 2015-06-22 Presentation of work at congresses
Improving the dynamics of the widely applied gridconnected power converters has been drawing a lot of interests in recent years. Since the currently installed grid-connected converters doesn’t shown inertia effect in power processing, the lack of inertia in the electrical networks will become increasingly significant and less admissible when more and more renewable energy sources penetrate into the grid through grid-connected converters.
An active power synchronizing controller for grid-connected power converters with configurable natural droop characteristics is proposed in this paper. The proposed controller is able to incorporate inertia, damping and configurable natural droop effect in the dynamics of the controlled converter. And in addition to the inertia characteristics, the droop and damping behaviors are discussed in detail. By a modified form of the swing equation of the synchronous generators, the droop behavior can be properly configured without undermining the damping characteristics. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposed controller
Nieto, J.; Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics p. 922-927 DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2015.7281594 Presentation's date: 2015-06-03 Presentation of work at congresses
New trends in electricity production, that involve generating power locally at the distribution voltage level by using renewable energy sources, are changing the paradigm of the distribution network, giving it an active role with the integration of Distributed Generators (DG), which leads to the concept of active distribution networks. A key element that connects the distribution system to the rest of the power system is the medium to low voltage transformer substation, which requires further research and development in order to develop active distribution networks. This document presents an overview about the components and functions that an intelligent substation automation system may have
Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Nieto, J.; Zhang, W.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics p. 654-659 DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2015.7281546 Presentation's date: 2015-06-03 Presentation of work at congresses
Power plants employing renewable energy sources connected to large power systems continue increasing their number and size. PV and wind farms are a clear example of this trend. They employ power electronics in order to inject power in the grid and in most cases the interaction does not take into account the power system needs. However, as their size increases, these plants should support the grid with ancillary services and it is necessary to analyze their impact on the grid. Despite large conventional power plants usually comprise a small amount of synchronous generators in the range of 100 MW, large power plants using power electronics are formed by a relevant number of individual generating units in the 1 MW range, which introduces additional complexity in the analysis of power systems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop aggregated models of distributed power plants. This paper presents the control of a 20 MW PV power plant and an equivalent model, which is validated through simulation.
This paper proposes a hierarchical control architecture designed for an arbitrary high voltage multiterminal dc (MTDC) network. In the proposed architecture, the primary control of the MTDC system is decentralized and implemented using a generalized droop strategy. Design criteria for dimensioning the primary control parameters, including voltage limits, are offered by analyzing the transients appearing in the system. The proposed secondary control is centralized and regulates the operating point (OP) of the network so that optimal power flow (OPF) is achieved. Compared to previous works, this paper further elaborates, both analytically and through simulations, on the coordination between the primary and secondary control layers. This includes how local primary controllers have to be driven by the centralized controller in order to ensure a smooth transition to the optimal OP.
Multi-terminal dc networks based on voltage source converters (VSC) are the latest trend in dc-systems; the interest in the area is being fueled by the increased feasibility of these systems for the large scale integration of remote offshore wind resources. Despite the active research effort in the field, at the moment, issues related to the operation and control of these networks, as well as sizing, are still uncertain. This paper intends to make a contribution in this field by analyzing the sizing of droop control for VSC together with the output capacitors. Analytical formulas are developed for estimating the voltage peaks during transients, and then it is shown how these values can be used to dimension the dc-bus capacitor of each VSC. Further on, an improved droop control strategy that attenuates the voltage oscillations during transients is proposed. The proposed methods are validated on the dc-grid benchmark proposed by the CIGRE B4 working group. Starting from the structure of the network and the power rating of the converters at each terminal, the output capacitors and the primary control layer are designed together in order to ensure acceptable voltage transients.(C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Durante el siglo pasado, las redes de corriente alterna se han consolidado como la tecnología estándar para los sistemas de transmisión de energía eléctrica. Sin embargo, los sistemas de transmisión en continua se han seguido utilizando en algunas aplicaciones. La capacidad de estos para transmitir mayores potencias a distancias más largas, la posibilidad de interconectar redes asincrónicas, y su alta eficiencia han propiciado que se mantuviera el interés académico, de investigación e industrial en esta tecnología . Aunque históricamente se utilizaron sistemas basados en generadores de continua y válvulas de mercurio para las redes de transmisión, en la década de los 90 todas las instalaciones ya contaban con convertidores conmutados basados en tiristores (LCC). En 1999, se instaló el primer sistema basado en convertidores en fuente de tensión (VSC) en Gotland, Suecia, marcando el comienzo de una nueva era para la transmisión en corriente continua. En los últimos 15 años, la potencia de los sistemas de transmisión en continua basados en VSC ha aumentado desde los 50 hasta los 700 MN, la tensión de servicio de 120 a 500 kV y las distancias recorridas han llegado a ser, en algunos casos, de hasta 950 kilómetros (HVDC-light de ABB en Namibia en 201 O). El trabajo presentado en esta tesis se centra en el control y operación de redes de corriente continua VSC multi-terminal (MTDC). El enfoque propuesto se basa en una arquitectura de control jerárquico, inspirada en la estrategia de control de generación automática aplicada a redes de corriente alterna.En la arquitectura propuesta, el control primario del sistema MTDC está descentralizado e implementado mediante una estrategia de 'droop' generalizada. Más allá del análisis del comportamiento del control primario, esta tesis presenta una metodología para el diseño de los diferentes parámetros que influyen en el mismo. Se destaca la importancia de dimensionar correctamente condensador de salida del VSC, ya que este elemento, cuando se encuentra en el contexto de una red MTDC, se convierte en el elemento inercial de la red y tiene un impacto directo en el comportamiento transitorio de las tensiones. Asimismo, se propone unaestrategia de control de 'droop' mejorada que atenúa las oscilaciones de tensión durante los transitorios. En el marco del control jerárquico propuesto, el control secundario está centralizado y regula el punto de funcionamiento de la red de manera que se consigue un flujo de potencia óptimo (OPF). En comparación con otros trabajos, esta tesis lleva a cabo, tanto de forma analítica como a través de simulaciones, un estudio detallado sobre la coordinación entre las capas de control primario y secundario en redes MTDC.
For the past century, ac networks have been established as the standard technology for electrical power transmission system s. However, the de technology has not disappeared completely from this picture. The capability of de systems to transmit higher power over longer distances, the possibility of interconnecting asynchronous networks, and their high efficiency has maintained the interest of both industry and academia. Historically, systems based on dc-generators and mercury valves were used for de power transmission applications, but, by the 90's, all installations were thyrsi tor-based line commutated converters (LCC). In 1999, the first system based on voltage source converters (VSC) was installed in Gotland, Sweden, marking the beginning of a new era for de transmission. Over the past 15 years, the power rating of VSC-based de transmission systems has increased from 50 to 700 MVV, the operating voltage from 120 to 500 kV, meanwhile , the covered distances have become as long as 950 km (ABB's HVDC-light installation in Namibia in 2010). The work presented in this thesis is oriented towards the control and operation of multi-terminal VSC de (MTDC) networks. The proposed approach is a hierarchical control architecture, inspired by the well-established automatic generation control strategy applied to ac networks. In the proposed architecture, the primary control of the MTDC system is decentralized and implemented using a generalized droop strategy More than analyzing the behavior of the primary control, this thesis provides a methodology for designing the various parameters that influence this behavior. The importance of correctly dimensioning the VSC's output capacitor is underlined as this element, when set in the context of a MTDC network, becomes the inertial element of the grid and it has a direct impact on the voltage overs hoots that appear during transients. Further on, an improved droop control strategy that attenuates the voltage oscillations during transients is proposed. Also part of the proposed hierarchical control, the secondary control is centralized and it regulates the operating point of the network so that optimal power flow (OPF) is achieved . Compared to other works, this thesis elaborates, both analytically and through simulations, on the coordination between the primary and secondary control layers.
Durante el siglo pasado, las redes de corriente alterna se han consolidado como la tecnología estándar para los sistemas de transmisión de energía eléctrica. Sin embargo, los sistemas de transmisión en continua se han seguido utilizando en algunas aplicaciones. La capacidad de estos para transmitir mayores potencias a distancias más largas, la posibilidad de interconectar redes asincrónicas, y su alta eficiencia han propiciado que se mantuviera el interés académico, de investigación e industrial en esta tecnología . Aunque históricamente se utilizaron sistemas basados en generadores de continua y válvulas de mercurio para las redes de transmisión, en la década de los 90 todas las instalaciones ya contaban con convertidores conmutados basados en tiristores (LCC). En 1999, se instaló el primer sistema basado en convertidores en fuente de tensión (VSC) en Gotland, Suecia, marcando el comienzo de una nueva era para la transmisión en corriente continua. En los últimos 15 años, la potencia de los sistemas de transmisión en continua basados en VSC ha aumentado desde los 50 hasta los 700 MN, la tensión de servicio de 120 a 500 kV y las distancias recorridas han llegado a ser, en algunos casos, de hasta 950 kilómetros (HVDC-light de ABB en Namibia en 201 O). El trabajo presentado en esta tesis se centra en el control y operación de redes de corriente continua VSC multi-terminal (MTDC). El enfoque propuesto se basa en una arquitectura de control jerárquico, inspirada en la estrategia de control de generación automática aplicada a redes de corriente alterna. En la arquitectura propuesta, el control primario del sistema MTDC está descentralizado e implementado mediante una estrategia de 'droop' generalizada. Más allá del análisis del comportamiento del control primario, esta tesis presenta una metodología para el diseño de los diferentes parámetros que influyen en el mismo. Se destaca la importancia de dimensionar correctamente condensador de salida del VSC, ya que este elemento, cuando se encuentra en el contexto de una red MTDC, se convierte en el elemento inercial de la red y tiene un impacto directo en el comportamiento transitorio de las tensiones. Asimismo, se propone una estrategia de control de 'droop' mejorada que atenúa las oscilaciones de tensión durante los transitorios. En el marco del control jerárquico propuesto, el control secundario está centralizado y regula el punto de funcionamiento de la red de manera que se consigue un flujo de potencia óptimo (OPF). En comparación con otros trabajos, esta tesis lleva a cabo, tanto de forma analítica como a través de simulaciones, un estudio detallado sobre la coordinación entre las capas de control primario y secundario en redes MTDC.
Suul, J.; D'Arco, S.; Rodriguez, P.; Molinas, M. International Conference on AC and DC Power Transmission p. 1-10 DOI: 10.1049/cp.2015.0103 Presentation's date: 2015-02-10 Presentation of work at congresses
The stability range of power transfer in high impedance, weak, grids with Voltage Source Converters (VSC) can be extended a simple modification of the conventional Synchronous Reference Frame Phase Locked Loop (PLL) used for grid synchronization. By introducing an impedance-conditioning term in the voltage used by the PLL, the VSC control system is virtually synchronized to the voltage at a stronger point in the grid. By synchronization to the voltage behind the corresponding virtual impedance, the proposed approach can be utilized to influence the reactive power flow of the VSC in a way that will inherently enhance the power transfer capability of the high-impedance grid. To verify the impact of the proposed approach, an analytical model of a VSC HVDC terminal is used to calculate the achievable steady-state power transfer capability, as well as the range where small-signal stability is ensured, in a grid with low SCR when applying different levels of virtual impedance in the grid synchronization. The validity of the stability assessment based on the analytical model, and the increased stability range achieved with the proposed impedance-conditioned PLL, are also verified by time-domain simulations in the Matlab/Simulink environment.
Multiterminal dc (MTDC) systems are drawing a lot of interest lately in applications related to distributed generation, especially in those that integrate wind or photovoltaic (PV) generation with energy storage (ES). Several approaches for controlling the operation of such systems have been proposed in the literature; however, the existing structures are mainly application specific and, thus, can be still improved in order to provide a more generic approach. This paper proposes an improved primary control layer for an MTDC system. The concept is based on the combination of a droop control method and dc bus signaling in order to provide a more generic and flexible solution. In this paper, different droop characteristics are proposed for the various elements connected to the dc bus. All of them are specifically tailored around five operation bands, which depend on the dc bus voltage level. Special attention is paid to the integration of ES: the state of charge (SoC) is considered at the primary control level, yielding a surface characteristic that depends on the SoC and the dc bus voltage. The scaling of the system has been analyzed together with the proposed control strategy and the overall operation has been validated through simulations by considering a 100 kW PV system with energy storage. Experimental results were obtained on a scaled laboratory prototype rated at 10 kW.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE transactions on industry applications Vol. 51, num. 1, p. 607-618 DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2014.2332814 Date of publication: 2015-02 Journal article
This paper proposes a generalized voltage droop (GVD) control strategy for dc voltage control and power sharing in voltage source converter (VSC)-based multiterminal dc (MTDC) grids. The proposed GVD control is implemented at the primary level of a two-layer hierarchical control structure of the MTDC grid, and constitutes an alternative to the conventional voltage droop characteristics of voltage-regulating VSC stations, providing higher flexibility and, thus, controllability to these networks. As a difference with other methods, the proposed GVD control strategy can be operated in three different control modes, including conventional voltage droop control, fixed active power control, and fixed dc voltage control, by adjusting the GVD characteristics of the voltage-regulating converters. Such adjustment is carried out in the secondary layer of the hierarchical control structure. The proposed strategy improves the control and power-sharing capabilities of the conventional voltage droop, and enhances its maneuverability. The simulation results, obtained by employing a CIGRE B4 dc grid test system, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach and its flexibility in active power sharing and power control as well as voltage control. In these analysis, it will be also shown how the transitions between the operating modes of the GVD control does not give rise to active power oscillations in the MTDC grids.
Photovoltaic systems technological development is driven by the request for higher efficiency and safety. These concerns influence also the choice of the power converter stage. Several topologies have been proposed and many of them are available commercially. Among them, the neutral point clamped (NPC) and derived topologies offers high efficiency, low leakage current, and low EMI. However, one main disadvantage of the NPC inverter is given by an unequal distribution of the losses in the semiconductor devices, which leads to an unequal distribution of temperature that can affect lifetime. By using the active NPC (ANPC) topology, where the clamping diodes are replaced by bidirectional switches, the power losses distribution problem is alleviated. The modulation strategy is a key issue for losses distribution in this topology. In this paper, two known strategies are discussed and a new PWM strategy, namely the adjustable losses distribution is proposed for better losses distribution in the ANPC topology. Simulations and experimental results help in evaluating the modulation strategies
Multiterminal dc networks are drawing a lot of interest lately in applications related to distributed generation, particularly in those that also integrate energy storage (ES). A few approaches for controlling the operation of such systems have been proposed in the literature; however, the existing structures can be significantly enhanced. This paper proposes an improved primary control layer, based on custom droop characteristics obtained by combining concepts of droop and dc-bus signaling control. This approach is designed to be generic and takes into account the various operating states of the network. Five operating bands, similar to the operating states of the ac grids, as well as various droop characteristics for different elements connected to the dc network, are defined. For the ES, the state of charge is taken into account at the primary control level and included in the droop characteristic, creating a two-variable droop surface. The proposed control strategy is validated through simulation and experimental results obtained from a case study that involves amicro dc network composed of a photovoltaic generator, a lead-acid battery, and a connection point to the ac grid.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 550-555 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016445 Presentation's date: 2014-10-22 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper develops a hybrid power flow controller (HPFC) to take one step forward for building future flexible DC transmission system (FDCTS). The idea for proposing HPFC is inspired by the successful operation of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices, the FDCTS includes static power electronics-based elements to provide voltage regulation, power control and load flow control in the multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids. The HPFC, as one of the devices of the FDCTS, has a hybrid connection scheme (i.e. series-parallel) to the grid and allows power flow control through DC transmission lines by imposing a series voltage to the controlled DC line. In this work, in order to demonstrate the eligibilities of the HPFC, the performance of this device is included in the DC power flow formulation for the power flow control purposes. Finally, it will be shown through dynamic simulations that the proposed HPFC is able to control the power flow through a particular DC transmission line.
Monadi, M.; Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 496-501 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016434 Presentation's date: 2014-10-22 Presentation of work at congresses
A fault location method and a fault clearance strategy are presented in this paper for medium voltage dc (MVDC) distribution system. MVDC systems are applicable for connection between microgrids (MGs) and integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) to distribution systems. Due to the specifications of fault current in dc systems, it is difficult to coordinate the over current (O/C) relays based on the time inverse grading. Hence, in this paper, a communication link between O/C relays is used to diagnose the fault location. On the other hand, the fault clearance is done by the operation of dc circuit breakers (DCCB) and isolator switches. In this protection strategy, O/C relays detect the faulty part using communication links and after the fault extinguishing by DCCBs, the dc switches isolate the faulty part. Finally, the sound parts of the system re-energize when DCCB are re-closed. Moreover, data transmission by communication links is based on the standard messages of IEC61850 protocol.
Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Rakhshani, E.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 424-429 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016421 Presentation's date: 2014-10-22 Presentation of work at congresses
Renewable energy sources are increasing their penetration in power systems, making necessary new control systems that offer services usually provided only by conventional generators. In this paper, an active power controller able to achieve synchronization with the grid and to control the DC link voltage is proposed. This controller allows identifying the converter with a virtual synchronous generator whose inertia can be modified online, considering that its virtual kinetic energy is stored in the DC link. Additionally, the resulting active power loop is a second order system whose damping factor can be defined freely.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 180-184 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016553 Presentation's date: 2014-10-22 Presentation of work at congresses
The current route of achieving the ultimate plan for flawless operation and control of the multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids can be significantly accelerated by learning from the vast and valuable experiences gained from the operation of the AC power grids for more than a century. This paper introduces concept of flexible DC transmission system (FDCTS), inspired by the successful operation of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), to provide voltage regulation, power control and load flow control within MTDC grids. Considering the current advancements in the field of power electronics, this paper recognizes DC-DC converters as the first element of the FDTCS for providing voltage and power control in MTDC grids. By use of DC-DC converters, this paper developes two elements of the FDCTS, namely the cascaded power flow controller (CPFC) and hybrid power flow controller (HPFC). In this paper, to demonstrate the eligibility of the CPFC and HPFC to play the role of an FDCTS, they are included in the DC power flow formulation for DC voltage regulation and power flow control purposes.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 268-271 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016568 Presentation's date: 2014-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
In this paper, DC-link voltage control in DC microgrids with photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery, is addressed based on an intelligent approach. The proposed strategy is based on the modeling of the power interface, i.e. power electronic converter, located between the PV array, battery and DC bus, by use of measurement data. For this purpose, a local model network (LMN) is developed to model the converter and then a local linear control (LLC) strategy is designed based on the LMN. Simulation results on a DC microgrid demonstrates efficacy of the proposed approach.
Banna, H.; Luna, A.; Ying, S.; Ghorbani, H.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 615-622 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016459 Presentation's date: 2014-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
Integration of large amount of wind energy in an interconnected power system creates concerns about secure, reliable and economical operation of the entire power system. So it becomes very necessary to investigate the impacts of wind power infeed on the dynamic behavior of the power system. This paper presents the impacts of large amount of wind power in feed on the rotor oscillatory stability. Wind turbine generator types currently employed in wind farms, optimal location of the wind farms in the interconnected power system, reliable optimal dispatch of the wind power and the degree of tie line congestion have been thoroughly investigated. Kundur's two area network model has been utilized to study the mentioned impacts on the overall system using MATLAB/Simulink. Some of the key results show that the damping characteristics of the wind farms critically depend on the location of interconnection in the network and the optimal wind energy dispatch. Increasing the penetration of the wind energy generally improves the damping of the inter area oscillations. Moreover, reducing stress on the weak tie lines also improves the inter area mode of oscillation. So with the investigation of these impacts this study is helpful for the planning of new wind power projects.
Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Monadi, M.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 418-423 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016420 Presentation's date: 2014-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration (FLISR) to be implemented as part of the intelligent software for controlling the operation of each circuit breaker. The paper proposes an event driven finite-state machine design that assures the self-reconfiguration of the distribution power grid when a fault occurs on a certain section of a feeder. The benefits of such an approach are first of all the modularity, as each breaker is controlled by the same algorithm and requires data exchange only with the neighboring protection devices. Secondly, by using the event driven technique, the FLISR algorithm is perfectly suited for taking advantage of the features and benefits defined by the IEC 61850 protocol. Using GOOSE messages for transferring status information between the neighboring circuit breakers, the proposed distributed algorithms act in a collective manner for reconfiguring the distribution grid.
Banna, H.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P.; Cabrera, A.; Ghorbani, H.; Ying, S. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 229-234 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016561 Presentation's date: 2014-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
Electro-mechanical oscillations are produced, in the machines of an interconnected power network, followed by a disturbance or due to high power transfer through weak tie lines. These oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible to ensure the reliable and stable operation of the network. To damp these oscillations different controllers, based on local or wide area signals, have been the subject of many papers. This paper presents the analysis of the performance of Conventional Power System Stabilizer (CPSS) and Fuzzy Logic Controller. Two area 14 bus symmetrical system is considered to demonstrate the performance of these controllers using Simulink/MATLAB. Simulation results depict fuzzy logic based controller having dual inputs of rotor speed deviation and generator's accelerating power is the better cost effective solution for damping the inter area oscillations specifically, in comparison with conventional power system stabilizer.
Zhang, W.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Remón, D.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications p. 445-450 DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016425 Presentation's date: 2014-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
Three-phase power converters are largely employed in power generation facilities based on renewable energy sources, and these converters commonly working in grid connection mode are frequently connected to the grid through passive filters. Nowadays the need for larger power converter-based generation plants increases continuously, and LCL+trap filter arises as a solution when switching frequency is reduced due to the power increase. However, the tuning of current controllers becomes more complex as the LCL+trap filter lead to a considerably high order system. In this work a method for tuning the gains of proportional resonant current controllers for three-phase high power converters linked to the grid through a LCL+trap filter is proposed and analyzed. Simulation and experimental results taken in different cases are shown to validate the proposed method.
Gavriluta, C.; Candela, J.; Rocabert, J.; Etxeberria, I.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 5323-5330 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2014.6954131 Presentation's date: 2014-09-18 Presentation of work at congresses
Large penetration of renewable energy is currently attenuated by concerns regarding their impact on the controllability and reliability of the electrical system. As the inclusion of energy storage is to a great extent the solution to these issues, this paper proposes a methodology for approaching the calculation of the size of the energy storage to be connected to a PV power plant for providing inertia emulation, primary control, and the reduction of power fluctuation. A complete control strategy, developed for the inclusion of these services in the operation of a dc-ac grid connected converter has been implemented and validated through simulation results. The obtained results are validated by experimental tests performed on a scaled 10 kW prototype.
Chi, L.; Burgos, R.; Cvetkovic, I.; Boroyevich, D.; Mili, L.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 5652-5658 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2014.6954176 Presentation's date: 2014-09-14 Presentation of work at congresses
Because renewable energy sources are environment-friendly and inexhaustible, more and more said renewable energy power plants have been integrated into power grids worldwide. To compensate for their inherent variability, STATCOMs are typically installed at the point of common coupling (PCC) to help their operation by regulating the PCC voltage. However under different contingencies, PCC voltage fluctuations in magnitude and frequency may impede the STATCOM from tracking the grid frequency correctly, hence worsening its overall compensation performance, and putting at risk the operation of the power plant. Further, the virtual synchronous machine (VSM) concept has recently been introduced to control grid-connected inverters emulating the behavior of rotating synchronous machines, in an effort to eliminate the shortcomings of conventional d-q frame phase-locked loops (PLL). In this paper, the VSM concept is extended by developing a STATCOM controller with it, which then behaves like a fully-adjustable synchronous condenser, including the adjustment of its “virtual” inertia and impedance. The proposed controller is compared against existent d-q frame STATCOM control strategies, evincing how the VSM-based approach guarantees not just better synchronization, but an improved voltage regulation performance at the PCC, attained through its virtual impedance, as well as a lower sensitivity to system disturbances, attained through its virtual inertia. The paper will include the complete design procedure for the VSM-STATCOM, and the verification of key results through detailed simulation studies.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition p. 5312-5316 DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2014.6954129 Presentation's date: 2014-09-14 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper develops a flexible DC transmission system (FDCTS) to power control and load flow control within the multi-terminal (MTDC) grids. The FDCTS include static power electronics-based elements for electric energy transmission inside a DC grid. Considering the current advancements in the field of power electronics, this paper proposes a cascaded power flow controller (CPFC) as the first element of the FDTCS for providing power control in MTDC grids. It is shown through dynamic simulations that the CPFC is able to control power flowing through a particular DC transmission line, and thus enhancing controllability in the MTDC grids.
Nieves, M.; Maza, J.M.; Mauricio, J.M.; Teodorescu, R.; Bongiorno, M.; Rodriguez, P. European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2014.6911014 Presentation's date: 2014-08-26 Presentation of work at congresses
Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) technology is today one of the preferred technology in HVDC and large STATCOM applications due to modularity, fault tolerance and high efficiency, but the voltage balancing becomes very challenging, especially during negative sequence current injection as required for load unbalance compensation. This paper proposes an improved balancing strategy for the delta configuration to overcome this situation based on the injection of a third harmonic zero sequence current. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposal even where different switching losses and capacitor tolerance are taken in consideration.
In this paper, application of Posicast control method to generator excitation system is presented. The method is one of the simplest possible control design methods that can be applied to damp the oscillations caused by changing the excitation reference signal. Stability and robustness of the designed controller are shown using extensive time domain simulations. All the detailed simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Rakhshani, E.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939250 Presentation's date: 2014-07-31 Presentation of work at congresses
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems requires new control systems that provide services similar to those of conventional generators. This paper proposes an active power controller that is able to automatically achieve synchronization with the grid and to control the DC link voltage. Through this controller, the converter can be identified with a virtual synchronous generator whose kinetic energy is stored in the DC link. Moreover, the active power loop becomes a second order system whose damping can be programmed freely.
Rakhshani, E.; Remón, D.; Cantarellas, A.M.; Rouzbehi, K.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE General Meeting | Conference & Exposition p. 1-5 DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6938795 Presentation's date: 2014-07-27 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper proposes a modified model for active power/ frequency support of multi-area power system analysis that takes into account the effects of AC/DC systems under deregulated environment of the power market. The AC part of studied system is comprised of conventional generators and HVAC lines, while DC systems are related to the parts with converter station models and HVDC interconnection. Simulations performed by Matlab software demonstrate how renewable power plants can serve as conventional generators in AGC control loops under constraints determined by the market rules. This scenery is considered one of the most promising evolutions of the future electrical power systems.
Rouzbehi, K.; Miranian, A.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Journal of emerging and selected topics in power electronics Vol. 2, num. 4, p. 1171-1180 DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2014.2338738 Date of publication: 2014-07-11 Journal article
This paper proposes an effective dc voltage and power-sharing control structure for multiterminal dc (MTDC) grids based on an optimal power flow (OPF) procedure and voltage-droop control implemented in the different hierarchical layers. In the proposed approach, an OPF algorithm is executed at the secondary control level of the MTDC grid to find the optimal reference values for the dc voltages and active power of the voltage-regulating converters. Then, at the primary control level, the voltage-droop characteristics of the voltage-regulating converters are tuned based upon the OPF results. In this control structure, the optimally-tuned voltage-droop controllers lead to the optimal operation of the MTDC grid. In case of variation in load or generation of the grid, a new stable operating point is achieved based on the voltage-droop characteristics. Then by executing a new OPF, the voltage-droop characteristics are returned for optimal operation of the MTDC grid after the load or generation variations. This paper also considers the integration of frequency support loop in the proposed control framework in case of connection of weak ac grids. The simulations performed on a study case inspired by the CIGRE B4 dc grid test system demonstrate the efficient grid performance under the proposed control strategy.
Chi, L.; Burgos, R.; Cvetkovic, I.; Boroyevich, D.; Mili, L.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics DOI: 10.1109/COMPEL.2014.6877134 Presentation's date: 2014-06-22 Presentation of work at congresses
this paper extends the virtual synchronous machine (VSM) concept, recently proposed as alternative means to synchronize grid-connected inverters, by developing a VSM-based STATCOM controller operating as synchronous condenser. To this end, a mathematical model is derived and used to analyze the inherent dynamics of the VSM-based STATCOM controller, which are then used to formulate design guidelines that further detach the proposed method from the perceived physical constraints introduced by the VSM concept.
Ghorbani, H.; Candela, J.; Luna, A.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics p. 58-63 DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2014.6864586 Presentation's date: 2014-06-01 Presentation of work at congresses
Application of Posicast control method to generator excitation system is presented in this paper. Presented control method is one of the simplest control design methods which can be installed in generators excitation to damp the oscillations caused by changing the excitation reference signal. Stability of the designed controller is shown using extensive time domain simulations. Performance of Posicast controller in IEEE power system standard models with presence of PV power plant is evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Hasan, K.N.Md; Kalle, R.; Luna, A.; Candela, J.; Rodriguez, P. IEEE transactions on industry applications Vol. 50, num. 3, p. 2050-2060 DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2013.2286216 Date of publication: 2014-05-16 Journal article
The harmful effects of harmonics are an important issue in wind power plants (WPPs), especially in offshore applications. In offshore WPPs, the wind turbines are linked to the network through high-power converters that produce harmonics at relative low frequencies. Moreover, in the network of a WPP, the propagation of noncharacteristic harmonics and the effect of resonance contribute as well in boosting the harmonic distortion. In this paper, a solution for compensating the harmonics in a WPP by means of using hybrid filters is proposed. In this paper, not only the filtering solution is tested, but also a method for finding the best place where to connect the filter, based on a modal analysis or a harmonic modal resonance analysis, is implemented. The proposed solution has been tested by considering the model of a real 400-MW offshore WPP as the study case. As it will be shown, the hybrid filter is capable of damping the resonances in the plant, while the analysis conducted permits us to optimize its location in the plant