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  • Numerical assessment of the dispersion of overspilled sediment from a dredge barge and its sensitivity to various parameters

     Mestres Ridge, Marc; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Hernaez, Mario; Morales, Jorge
    Marine pollution bulletin
    Vol. 79, num. 1-2, p. 225-235
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.009
    Date of publication: 2014-02-15
    Journal article

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    Marine dredging operations are not uncommon in coastal waters since they are necessary for several beneficial uses, such as harbour maintenance, beach nourishment or removal/capping of pollutants, amongst others. They also constitute a significant risk for the environment, changing its physical, chemical and biological characteristics, as evidenced by many authors. In this study, two numerical models are used to simulate the dispersion pattern of fine suspended sediment spilled from a dredge barge, considering different hydrodynamic scenarios, particle sizes and dredging tracks in a mesotidal environment. The results show that, in this particular case, the currents (largely induced by the tide) are the main responsible for the final disposition of the settled particles, being the other variables of secondary importance. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Analysis of potential impacts on coastal areas due to changes in wave conditions

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Casas Prat, Merce
    Climatic change
    Vol. 124, num. 4, p. 861-876
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-014-1120-5
    Date of publication: 2014-06
    Journal article

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    This study examines the main physical processes related to coastal and port engineering that could be altered by future changes in wave parameters as a consequence of climate change. To estimate the order of magnitude of the potential changes in these processes, several assumptions and simplifications are made and, in most cases, they are assessed by using simple, empirical state-of-the-art expressions. The studied processes are grouped in three categories according to whether they affect beaches, harbors or coastal structures in general. The changes in these processes are estimated as a function of the deepwater variations of the main wave parameters: wave height (H (0)), wave period (T) and wave direction (theta (0)). A moderate range of variation is assumed for these parameters at deep water (+/- 10 or +/- 20 % in H (0) and its square root in T, and +/- 10A(0) in theta (0)), taking into account recent studies of future wave projections. The results indicate that potential changes in wave height will strongly affect overtopping discharge, stability and scouring of rubble-mound structures and, to a lesser extent, siltation, wave transmission and longshore sediment transport. Changes in wave direction will affect longshore sediment transport in particular and, at a lower magnitude, processes related to port operability (agitation and siltation). Siltation is the only process affected significantly by changes in T alone.

  • Wave energy resource assessment in Menorca (Spain)

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; González Marco, Daniel
    Renewable energy
    Vol. 71, p. 51-60
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.05.017
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Menorca (Balearic Islands) only covers 2% of its electricity needs with renewable energy sources, which is far below the European Union's objective of obtaining 20% of its energy from these sources. This study analyses the island's wave energy resources using a 17-year series of data obtained from numerical modeling (forecast). The spatial distribution of wave power is analyzed using data from 12 points around the island. The obtained resources (average wave power, around 8.9 kW/m; average annual wave energy, about 78 MW h/m) are relatively modest but among the largest found in the Mediterranean Sea. The northeast and east of the island are the most productive areas. Considerable seasonal variability is found, with winters being rather energetic and summers quite mild. The power matrices of three wave energy converters (WECs) are considered to assess the average power output at all of the points. Four places are identified as the best candidates for WEC deployment, with non-negligible productivity that can be exploited to supply energy to small villages. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Effects of climate change on wave climate and consequent coastal impacts. Application to the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

     Casas Prat, Merce
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El canvi climàtic és una àrea de recerca d'extrema actualitat degut als impactes que pot tenir sobre el nostre medi en un futur no gaire llunyà. L'últim informe del Panell Internacional sobre el Canvi Climàtic¿l'organisme internacional que lidera la investigació del canvi climàtic¿posa en evidència que hi ha una llacuna d'informació pel que fa als canvis potencials del clima d'onatge i, conseqüentment, en els seus impactes costaners. El problema es complica perquè els agents dinamitzants de l'onatge es veuen afectats per un seguit de factors d'incertesa, essent la tria del model climàtic un dels més rellevants.El principal propòsit d'aquesta tesi és comprendre millor com serà el clima d'onatge futur a l'àrea d'interès: la costa catalana, que es troba a la part nord-oest del Mediterrani, un mar que està particularment exposat al canvi climàtic. Partint d'estudis previs, s'utilitzen tres metodologies per tal d'abordar aquesta problemàtica: l'anàlisi de tendències, la modelització dinàmica i la modelització estadística. El treball d'aquesta tesi resulta en la generació i l'anàlisi, per primer cop per a aquesta àrea d'estudi, d'una base de dades d'alta resolució temporal i espacial de projeccions futures d'onatge. A més, l'ús de projeccions atmosfèriques obtingudes a partir de cinc combinacions de models climàtics regionals i globals permet caracteritzar la variabilitat deguda als models en termes de paràmetres de l'onatge. Els resultats il¿lustren, per a l'estació d'hivern, una gran variabilitat associada al model de circulació global (sobretot pel que fa a la direcció de l'onatge, una variable que sembla veure's especialment afectada pel canvi climàtic a aquesta àrea). A la majoria del domini, l'alçada i el període d'ona tendeixen a disminuir tant per a condicions de clima mig com de tempesta però els extrems estan associats a una incertesa considerable. Tal i com era d'esperar, aquests canvis estan íntimament lligats als que es produeixen pel clima de vent superficial (principal agent dinamitzador) però el fetch també té un rol important. Quan les condicions de fetch són favorables (onatge provinent de l'est) els canvis en l'onatge són més accentuats i es tendeix a incrementar l'ocurrència d'estats de mar mixtos.La segona contribució a destacar d'aquesta tesi està relacionada amb la metodologia emprada. Es presenta una nova metodologia d'anàlisi de tendències que té en compte la naturalesa de les dades. També es fa especial èmfasi en l'anàlisi de l'incertesa per tal de detectar canvis estadísticament significants. En aquest sentit, s'observa com el bootstrapping, sempre i quan es modifiqui adequadament, és una tècnica simple però efectiva. No obstant, l'aportació metodològica més rellevant d'aquesta tesi és potser el desenvolupament d'un nou mètode de modelització estadística (per tant, de baix cost computatcional) de l'alçada d'ona, que millora notablement la modelització en àrees properes a la línia de costa, en comparació amb estudis previs. En destaca la incorporació explícita d'ones tipus swell basada en la teoria de la dispersió de freqüències i direccions de la propagació de les ones, que addicionalment fa servir l'anàlisi de components principals per a simplificar l'agent dinamitzant en un conjunt de patrons atmosfèrics representatius.Finalment, amb una perspectiva enginyeril, aquesta tesi revisa i quantifica els principals impactes físics que els patrons d'onatge poden causar sobre les àrees costaneres. S'observa com una variació moderada de les condicions d'onatge pot afectar en gran mesura als processos costaners, degut a la relació no-lineal entre aquests. Per exemple, el transport longitudinal de sediments pot veure's afectat en més d'un 100% degut a una rotació de només 10º de la direcció mitjana de l'onatge. Entrant en més detall, s'analitzen un parell de casos d'estudi a la costa catalana que avaluen l'impacte sobre l'agitació portuària i el transport longitudinal de sediments a les platges.

  • Wave extremes off the Catalan coast: time and space-time domains analyses

     Barbariol, Francesco; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Benetazzo, Alvise
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Use of seagrass meadows as an adaptation measure to climate change for reducing port agitation

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Lin Ye, Jue; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Casas Prat, Merce; Virgili, Marc
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Meteo-oceanographic simulations and observations to assess the potential of offshore wind farm in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    Journal of coastal research
    num. Special Issue 65, p. 1651-1656
    Date of publication: 2013-04-10
    Journal article

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  • Projected future wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

     Casas Prat, Merce; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Journal of geophysical research
    DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20233
    Date of publication: 2013-05-13
    Journal article

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  • A physical-based statistical method for modeling ocean wave heights

     Casas Prat, Merce; Wang, Xiaolan L; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Ocean modeling
    Vol. 73, p. 59-75
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.10.008
    Date of publication: 2013-10-30
    Journal article

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    This study proposes a computationally inexpensive statistical method for modeling ocean wave heights, focusing particularly on modeling wave heights in near-shore areas. A multiple linear regression is used to predict significant wave heights (Hs) using predictors derived from the sea level pressure (SLP) field, including the use of squared SLP gradients to represent geostrophic winds. One time step lagged Hs is also included as a predictor, which could be interpreted as the first order derivative in the spectral energy balance governing equation. Further, based on the frequency/directional dispersion theory of waves, the swell component is accounted for by using a set of selected principal components derived from the squared SLP gradient vectors (including magnitudes and directions). The effect of non-Gaussian (non-negative) variables is also assessed by applying two types of transformation to the data. The proposed method is evaluated and shown to have good skills for the study area (Catalan coast). This method can be used to project possible future wave climate change for use in coastal impact assessment studies. It is used in this study to project the wave climate for the study area that corresponds to 5 sets of regional climate model (RCM) atmospheric projections, which were made by different RCMs forced by the same global circulation model (GCM), or by the same RCM forced by two GCMs. For the season analyzed (winter), the results show that the uncertainty due to using different GCMs to drive the same RCM is greater than that due to using different RCMs driven by the same GCM.

  • Numerical simulations and observations for offshore wind farms in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    Journal of coastal research
    num. Special Issue 65, p. 1651-1656
    DOI: 10.2112/SI65-279.1
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    Renewable marine energy is important in squeezed Mediterranean coastal zones. Wind turbines deployed over the narrow Catalan continental shelf require accurate wind/wave/current fields for a reliable design, operation and maintenance. This paper presents the large (comparative to other open sea areas) errors in meteo-oceanographic predictions for semi enclosed domains such as the coastal sea off the Ebro Delta coast. The emphasis is on the sequence of high resolution coupled and nested models and the role of in situ collocated measurements for calibration and validation.

  • Chapter 5: Integration of the climate impact assessments with future projections

     Goodess, Clare M.; Agnew, Maureen D.; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Hemming, Debbie; Salem, Skander Ben; Bindi, Marco; Nejmeddine Bradai, Mohamed; Congedi, Letizia; Dibari, Camilla; El-Askary, Hesham; El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Raey, Mohamed; Ferrise, Roberto; Founda, Dimitra; Grünzweig, José M.; Harzallah, Ali; Hatzaki, Maria; Kay, Gillian; Lionello, Piero; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Oweis, Theib; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Psiloglou, Basil; Reale, Marco; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Senouci, Mohamed; Tanzarella, Annalisa; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5769-1
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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    En aquest volum el grup del Laboratori d¿Enginyeria Marítima (LIM) de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) s¿ha centrat en l¿estudi dels impactes del canvi climàtic a la zona costera del Mediterrani espanyol que inclou a Catalunya i Valencia. Son els resultats del projecte Europeu CIRCE - Climate Change and Impact Research: The Mediterranean Environment (6th Framework Programme FP6 - Contract nº360961).

  • Chapter 4: Climate impact assessments

     Hemming, Debbie; Agnew, Maureen D.; Goodess, Clare M.; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Salem, Skander Ben; Bindi, Marco; Nejmeddine Bradai, Mohamed; Congedi, Letizia; Dibari, Camilla; El-Askary, Hesham; El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Raey, Mohamed; Ferrise, Roberto; Grünzweig, José M.; Harzallah, Ali; Hattour, Abdallah; Hatzaki, Maria; Kanas, Dina; Lionello, Piero; McCarthy, Mark; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Oweis, Theib; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Psiloglou, Basil; Reale, Marco; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Senouci, Mohamed; Tanzarella, Annalisa
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5769-1
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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    En aquest volum el grup del Laboratori d¿Enginyeria Marítima (LIM) de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) s¿ha centrat en l¿estudi dels impactes del canvi climàtic a la zona costera del Mediterrani espanyol que inclou a Catalunya i Valencia. Son els resultats del projecte Europeu CIRCE - Climate Change and Impact Research: The Mediterranean Environment (6th Framework Programme FP6 - Contract nº360961).

  • Chapter 6: Synthesis and the assessment of adaptation measures

     Goodess, Clare M.; Agnew, Maureen D.; Hemming, Debbie; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Bindi, Marco; Dibari, Camilla; El-Askary, Hesham; El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hattab, Mamdouh; El-Raey, Mohamed; Ferrise, Roberto; Grünzweig, José M.; Harzallah, Ali; Kanas, Dina; Lionello, Piero; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Oweis, Theib; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Reale, Marco; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Senouci, Mohamed; Sommer, Rolf; Tanzarella, Annalisa
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5769-1
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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    En aquest volum el grup del Laboratori d¿Enginyeria Marítima (LIM) de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) s¿ha centrat en l¿estudi dels impactes del canvi climàtic a la zona costera del Mediterrani espanyol que inclou a Catalunya i Valencia. Son els resultats del projecte Europeu CIRCE - Climate Change and Impact Research: The Mediterranean Environment (6th Framework Programme FP6 - Contract nº360961).

  • PREMI A LA MILLOR RECERCA

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; González Marco, Daniel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Alomar Dominguez, Marta; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente
    Award or recognition

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  • Responses to coastal climate change: Innovative Strategies for high End Scenarios -Adaptation and Mitigation-

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Jimenez Quintana, Jose Antonio; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Garcia Leon, Manuel; Casas Prat, Merce; González Marco, Daniel; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    Competitive project

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  • Estudio numérico-experimental de la dispersión de efluentes de emisarios submarinos en la costa valenciana  Open access

     Pascual Barrera, Alina Eugenia
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Actualmente, la problemática que enfrentan las zonas costeras del Mediterráneo en general y la Comunidad Valenciana en particular, es la generación de grandes cantidades de agua residual urbana, principalmente durante la época estival, que son vertidas a través de los emisarios submarinos al medio ambiente marino/costero. Esta carga de contaminantes es tan grande que, en ocasiones, el medio receptor es incapaz de asimilarla a corto plazo, provocando episodios de polución que afectan de forma negativa la calidad de las aguas de baño. En este trabajo, se analizaron los procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos involucrados en la dinámica de los ambientes costeros y la calidad del agua en tres zonas afectadas por el vertido de los emisarios submarinos de Pinedo, Cullera y Gandía, en la Costa Valenciana. De forma concreta, los datos registrados en diversas campañas de campo permitieron evidenciar que la introducción de agua residual en estas zonas someras, con hidrodinámica suave y diferentes condiciones de vertido, genera una serie de afecciones significativas a corto-medio plazo sobre éste ecosistema costero. Las altas concentraciones de bacterias y nutrientes en la superficie, encontradas en las estaciones cercanas al punto de vertido, demuestran que la presencia de los diferentes contaminantes, en el medio receptor, se debe a que fueron liberados a través del efluente vertido por el emisario submarino. Además, se constató que, en algunos casos, no se cumple con la normativa europea sobre calidad de las aguas de baño. En la parte numérica, se realizó la calibración y validación de los modelos ROMS, LIMMIX y VISUAL PLUMES, que fueron utilizados para simular los diferentes efluentes vertidos a través de los emisarios submarinos. A pesar de que los modelos ROMS y LIMMIX no pudieron reproducir satisfactoriamente la zona del campo cercano, debido a la complejidad de los procesos que se conjugan en la superficie y de sus interacciones, con el modelo VISUAL PLUMES fue posible establecer una alternativa de mejora para el diseño de los vertidos de los emisarios submarinos de Gandía y Cullera. De este modo, se pudo comprobar que es posible realizar un diseño del emisario que garantice una mayor dilución y, sobre todo, que cumpla con la Normativa Europea para la calidad de las aguas de baño, incluso en el caso de que la calidad de los efluentes sea muy pobre, como sucede en el caso de agua poco o nada tratada.

    Actualmente, la problemática que enfrentan las zonas costeras del Mediterráneo en general y la Comunidad Valenciana en particular, es la generación de grandes cantidades de agua residual urbana, principalmente durante la época estival, que son vertidas a través de los emisarios submarinos al medio ambiente marino/costero. Esta carga de contaminantes es tan grande que, en ocasiones, el medio receptor es incapaz de asimilarla a corto plazo, provocando episodios de polución que afectan de forma negativa la calidad de las aguas de baño. En este trabajo, se analizaron los procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos involucrados en la dinámica de los ambientes costeros y la calidad del agua en tres zonas afectadas por el vertido de los emisarios submarinos de Pinedo, Cullera y Gandía, en la Costa Valenciana. De forma concreta, los datos registrados en diversas campañas de campo permitieron evidenciar que la introducción de agua residual en estas zonas someras, con hidrodinámica suave y diferentes condiciones de vertido, genera una serie de afecciones significativas a corto-medio plazo sobre éste ecosistema costero. Las altas concentraciones de bacterias y nutrientes en la superficie, encontradas en las estaciones cercanas al punto de vertido, demuestran que la presencia de los diferentes contaminantes, en el medio receptor, se debe a que fueron liberados a través del efluente vertido por el emisario submarino. Además, se constató que, en algunos casos, no se cumple con la normativa europea sobre calidad de las aguas de baño. En la parte numérica, se realizó la calibración y validación de los modelos ROMS, LIMMIX y VISUAL PLUMES, que fueron utilizados para simular los diferentes efluentes vertidos a través de los emisarios submarinos. A pesar de que los modelos ROMS y LIMMIX no pudieron reproducir satisfactoriamente la zona del campo cercano, debido a la complejidad de los procesos que se conjugan en la superficie y de sus interacciones, con el modelo VISUAL PLUMES fue posible establecer una alternativa de mejora para el diseño de los vertidos de los emisarios submarinos de Gandía y Cullera. De este modo, se pudo comprobar que es posible realizar un diseño del emisario que garantice una mayor dilución y, sobre todo, que cumpla con la Normativa Europea para la calidad de las aguas de baño, incluso en el caso de que la calidad de los efluentes sea muy pobre, como sucede en el caso de agua poco o nada tratada

    Actualment, la problemàtica que afronten les zones costaneres del Mediterrani en general i el País Valencià en particular, consisteix en la generació de grans quantitats d’aigua residual urbana, principalment durant l’època estival, que són abocades al medi ambient marí/costaner mitjançant els emissaris submarins. Aquesta càrrega de contaminants és tan gran que, a vegades, el medi receptor és incapaç d’assimilar-la a curt termini, provocant episodis de pol·lució que afecten de forma negativa la qualitat de las aigües de bany. En aquest treball, s´han analitzat els processos físics, químics i biològics involucrats en la dinàmica dels ambients costaners i la qualitat de l’aigua en tres zones afectades per l’abocament dels emissaris submarins de Pinedo, Cullera i Gandia, a la Costa Valenciana. De forma concreta, les dades enregistrades en diverses campanyes de camp van permetre evidenciar que la introducció d’aigua residual en aquestes zones somes, amb hidrodinàmica suau i diferents condicions d’abocament, genera una sèrie d’afeccions significatives a curt-mig termini sobre aquest ecosistema costaner. Les altes concentracions de bacteris i nutrients en la superfície, trobades en les estacions properes al punt d’abocament, demostren que la presència dels diferents contaminants, en el medi receptor, és deguda a que van ser alliberats a través de l’efluent abocat per l’emissari submarí. A més a més, es va constatar que, en alguns casos, no es compleix la normativa europea sobre qualitat de les aigües de bany. En la part numèrica, s’ha realitzat el calibrat i la validació dels models ROMS, LIMMIX i VISUAL PLUMES, que han estat utilitzats per simular els diferents efluents abocats a través dels emissaris submarins. Malgrat que els models ROMS i LIMMIX no han pogut reproduir satisfactòriament la zona del camp proper, degut a la complexitat dels processos que tenen lloc a la superfície i de les seves interaccions, amb el model VISUAL PLUMES ha estat possible establir una alternativa de millora per al disseny dels abocaments dels emissaris submarins de Gandia i Cullera. D’aquesta manera, s’ha pogut comprovar que és possible realitzar un disseny de l’emissari que garanteixi una major dilució i, sobre tot, que compleixi amb la Normativa Europea per a la qualitat de les aigües de bany, fins i tot en el cas que la qualitat dels efluents sigui molt pobre, como succeeix en el cas d’aigua poc o gens tractada.

    One of the most important problems that occur in the Mediterranean coastal areas and particularly in the Valencian Community is the generation of large quantity of urban wastewater especially during the summer season, that is discharged into the sea through marine outfalls. These effluents may carry important loads of contaminants that often the environment is unable to assimilate, causing episodes of pollution that negatively affect the quality of bathing water. This work analyzed the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the dynamics of coastal environments and water quality on three areas affected by the marine outfalls of Pinedo, Cullera and Gandia in the Valencia coast. The data were acquired in several field campaigns showed that the introduction of wastewater into these shallow areas with weak hydrodynamic and different discharge conditions generates a number of significant conditions, short to medium term, in this coastal environment. High concentrations of bacteria and nutrients in the surface at stations close to the discharging point, demonstrate the presence of different pollutants in the receiving waters due to the effluent discharged by the outfall. In addition, it was found that in some cases, it does not fulfill with the European Water Framework Directive for bathing water. In the numerical work, the calibration and validation of models ROMS, LIMMIX y VISUAL PLUMES was carried out. These numerical models were used to simulate the different effluents discharged through the marine outfalls. While ROMS and LIMMIX models could not satisfactorily reproduce the near field zone due to the complexity of the physical processes and their interactions that take place in the surface, it was with VISUAL PLUME model which made it possible to establish an improved design for Gandia and Cullera marine outfalls. Thus, it was found that it is possible to make a design to ensure higher dilution and, especially that satisfies the bathing water regulations, even in the case that the effluent quality is poor, as in the case of poor or untreated water.

  • Wave energy resource assessment in Lanzarote (Spain)

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    Renewable energy
    Vol. 55, p. 480-489
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.01.004
    Date of publication: 2013-07
    Journal article

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  • A synergetic combination of measurements and models to assess renewable wind energy in semi enclosed domains  Open access

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    p. 74
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The paper presents the need to combine high resolution simulations and observations for calculating in a robust manner the highly variable wind, wave and circulation conditions off the Catalan coast. It discusses the limitations of both instrumental equipment and numerical codes and how they must be validated and combined for semi enclosed domains, illustrated here by the Catalan shelf sea.

  • Meteo-oceanographic simulations and observations to assess the potential of offshore wind farm in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    International Coastal Symposium
    p. 1651-1656
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Renewable marine energy is important in squeezed Mediterranean coastal zones. Wind turbines deployed over the narrow Catalan continental shelf require accurate wind/wave/current fields for a reliable design, operation and maintenance. This paper presents the large (comparative to other open sea areas) errors in meteo-oceanographic predictions for semi enclosed domains such as the coastal sea off the Ebro Delta coast. The emphasis is on the sequence of high resolution coupled and nested models and the role of in situ collocated measurements for calibration and validation.

  • Indices and indicators for Integratged Coastal Zone Management with a Landscape Approach. Application to the Adriatic Sea

     Marotta, Leonardo
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Caracterización de la dispersión de contaminantes en la zona costera  Open access

     Diez Rilova, Margarita
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En nuestra sociedad los derivados del petróleo son la fuente principal de energía. Los accidentes con hidrocarburos han protagonizado episodios de contaminación trágicos para la biosfera del océano. Se analizan algunos de ellos, sus efectos y sistemas de limpieza. La complejidad de los procesos físicos, químicos o biológicos que actúan sobre el crudo en el mar, hacen difícil su estudio en laboratorio. Para ello se hacen numerosas campañas de campo con distintas escalas y procesos físicos predominantes diferentes: zonas costeras (Delta del Ebro y playa de Vilanova); en aguas confinadas (puerto de Barcelona y puerto de Recife); y en aguas abiertas (Mediterráneo Occidental), con diferentes tecnologías (foto, vídeo, satélite), para seguir trazadores eularianos (manchas de leche y fluoresceína, flotantes o hidrocarburos) y lagrangianos (boyas lastradas), se miden los agentes forzadores: viento, oleaje, marea, etc. y se correlacionan para caracterizar los diferentes escenarios. También se revisa el estado del arte. El tratamiento digital de imágenes de vídeo permite numerosas aplicaciones en el campo de la hidromorfodinámica, pues es posible controlar la evolución espacial y temporal de cualquier parámetro con evidencias visibles y es una técnica no intrusiva que ofrece datos de oleaje de una zona, en contraposición a los datos puntuales de los sensores. Las imágenes sufren numerosas alteraciones, deformaciones, ruidos, etc., que hay que depurar previamente. Los coeficientes de difusión presentan una gran variedad condicionada a la dependencia característica con la escala temporal y espacial de los fenómenos predominantes. Los coeficientes de difusión medidos se agruparon según el número de Reynolds y se hizo una clasificación: hipodifusividad, hiperdifusividad y difusión anómala. Esta caracterización de escenarios permite parametrizar el medio para modelizar su comportamiento y poder predecir su evolución. En el campo del oleaje se pueden obtener espectros de energía y otros parámetros para su caracterización, detectar la morfología de barras sumergidas, identificar corrientes de retorno, caracterizar run-up, etc. En el puerto de Barcelona se tomaron numerosos datos de velocidades de viento (Vv) y corriente (Vc) llegando a una buena correlación entre ambas (Vcx (cm/s)= 2.306 Vvx (m/s)+ 0.148) y constatando que hay una influencia de otros efectos como la marea, reflexión de los muelles o difracción que no se pueden obviar. Las imágenes de Rádar de Apertura sintética SAR permiten detectar episodios de contaminación y analizar la vorticidad a gran escala del medio. Resultó sorprendente el gran número de manchas detectadas. Se comprobó que los vertidos siguen la Ley de Zipp (distribución hiperbólica entre los accidentes y su tamaño). Se vió que los remolinos siguen la dirección de los cañones submarinos. Con el análisis fractal y multifractal del contorno de la mancha se puede caracterizar su origen (antropogénico o natural como masas de plankton) y su envejecimiento o persistencia, etc. Se comprueba que es posible que la intermitencia de la turbulencia pueda parametrizarse mediante medidas fractales y que el uso de momentos de orden superior ayuda a comparar medidas de difusión a distintas escalas mediante la Ley de Richardson Generalizada. Así se relaciona la pendiente del espectro, la intermitencia y la dependencia temporal de la difusión efectiva. Los distintos agentes que producen difusión en el mar sufren interacciones no-lineales complejas. Con todo ello, se pretende contribuir a comprender mejor los procesos de dispersión de los contaminantes en el mar y, por consiguiente, ayudar en la lucha contra este fenómeno.

    In our society the derivatives of petroleum are the main source of energy. The accidents with hydrocarbons have carried out tragic episodes of contamination for the biosphere of the ocean. Some of them, their effects and systems of cleaning are analyzed. The complexity of the physical, chemical or biological processes that act on the oil in the sea, makes their study in laboratory difficult. For it numerous campaigns of field with different scales and different predominant physical processes become: coastal zones (Delta of the Ebro and beach of Vilanova); in confined waters (port of Barcelona and port of Recife); and in open waters (West Mediterranean), with different technologies (photo, video, satellite), to follow Lagrangian tracers (milk spots and fluoresceine, floating or hydrocarbons) and Euler tracers (ballasted buoys), to measure the agents: wind, waves, tide, etc. and they are correlated to characterize the different scenes. Also the state-of-the-art is reviewed. Treatment digital of images of video allows many applications in field of hydromorfodynamics, because it is possible to control the space and temporary evolution of any parameter with visible evidences and is a nonintrusive technique that offers data of a zone, in contrast to the pointing data of the sensors. The images put up with numerous alterations, deformations, noises, etc., that have to purify previously. The diffusion coefficients present/display a great conditional variety to the dependency characteristic with the temporary and space scale of the main phenomena. The measured coefficients of diffusion were grouped according to the Reynolds number and a classification became: hypo-diffusion, hyper-diffusion and anomalous diffusion. This characterization of scenes allows obtaining the waves parameters, the average one to model its behavior and power to predict its evolution. In the field of the waves run-up, etc. can be obtained spectra of energy and other parameters for their characterization, the morphology of submerged bars, identification of return currents. In the port of Barcelona numerous speed data of wind (Vv) and current were taken (Vc) arriving at a good correlation between both (Vcx (cm/s) = 2,306 Vvx (m/s) + 0,148) and stating that an influence of other effects are as the tide, reflection of the wharves or diffraction that cannot be avoided. The images of Radar of synthetic Opening SAR allow to detect episodes of contamination and to analyze the vorticity on great scale of means. Was surprising the great number of spots identifies. It was verified that the spills follow the Law of Zipp (hyperbolic distribution between the accidents and their size). Saw that the eddies follow the direction of the submarine tubes. With the analysis fractal and multifractal of the contour of the spot it is possible to be characterized its origin (human or natural like masses of plankton) and its aging or persistence, etc. It is verified that it is possible that the intermitency of the turbulence can obtain parameters by means of measures fractals and that the use of moments of superior order aid to compare measures of diffusion on different scales by means of the Generalized Law of Richardson. Thus it is related the slope of the phantom, the intermitency and the temporary dependency of the effective diffusion. The different agents who produce diffusion in the sea undergo complex not-linear interactions. It, is tried yet to contribute to include/understand better the

  • Trend analysis of wave direction and associated impacts on the Catalan coast

     Casas Prat, Merce; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Climatic change
    Vol. 115, num. 3-4, p. 667-691
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0466-9
    Date of publication: 2012-05-17
    Journal article

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  • Energía renovable marina en la costa catalana: una evaluación del recurso mediante simulaciones de alta resolución

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Encuentro Oceanografía Física Española
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Informe sobre la caracterización meteorológica e hidrodinámica de la ría de Vigo

     Mestres Ridge, Marc; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Date: 2011-10
    Report

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  • Biogeophysical and social vulnerability indicators: coastal case studies information sheet: Gulf of Valencia, Spain

     Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Date: 2011-03-31
    Report

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  • Access to the full text
    Short-term morphodynamic changes in a fetch limited beach at the Ebro delta (Spain), under low wave-energy conditions  Open access

     Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Rodríguez Allende, Andrés
    International Coastal Symposium
    p. 185-189
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Sandy beaches in fetch-limited environments are protected from large ocean-generated swell waves, and fetch characteristics allow local wind-generated waves and currents to develop and drive the main morphodynamic processes. The morphodynamics of these low-energy beaches present a peculiar behaviour since there is not a dominant forcing mechanism inducing the beach changes. The main objective of this work is to describe and quantify the observed morphodynamic changes at the barred, quasi longshore-uniform beach of the Trabucador Bar at the Ebro Delta (Spain) under low-energy conditions. A nine-day field campaign was carried out within the framework of the European project FANS (Fluxes Across Narrow Shelves. The Ebro Delta Case) supported by the EC MAST-III Research Programme, (Contract No. MAS3-CT95-0037, DG12 – ESCY) and the measurements included a detailed topo-bathymetric surveying at the beginning and at the end of the campaign, video recordings covering the whole domain of the study area, surf zone waves and currents time series obtained at different positions and depths, nearshore pressure and horizontal velocities time series outside the surf zone. The results show that the beach underwent important longshore and cross-shore (the breaching of the submerged bar) morphodynamic changes under low-energy conditions. The observations suggest that the low-energy wave field and the beach profile played a key role in the generation of low frequency oscillations and rip currents that reshaped the whole study zone.

  • Coastal-scale oceanographic forecasts: the FIELD_AC project

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Pallarés, E.; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Espino Infantes, Manel; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Symposium on the Future of Operational Oceanography
    p. 1-27
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Composite modelling

     Gerritsen, Herman; Sutherland, James; Santos, Joao Alfredo; van den Boogaard, Henk; Caires, Sofia; Deigaard, Rolf; Dixen, Martin; Fortes, Juana; Fredsoe, Jorgen; Freire, Paula; van Gent, Marcel; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Grüne, Joachim; Grunnet, Nicolas; Jensen, Palle Martin; Lemos, Rute; Neves, Maria Gracia; Obhrai, Charlotte; Oliveira, Filipa; Castro Alves Oliveira, Tiago; Oumeraci, Hocine; Palha, Artur; Pinheiro, Liliana; Schmidt-Koppenhagen, Reinold; Schmidtke, Ulrike; Reis, Maria Teresa; Marcos Rita, Manuel; Sancho, Francisco; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Sousa, Isaac; Sumer, Multlu
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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  • Future scenario simulations of wave climate in the NW Mediterranean sea

     Casas Prat, Merce; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Journal of coastal research
    Vol. SI64, p. 200-204
    Date of publication: 2011-05-11
    Journal article

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    In this study, 20-year wave climate simulations (1991-2010 and 2081-2100) were performed and analysed in the NW Mediterranean with a fine resolution of 1/8º. The forcing wind was obtained from the ENSEMBLES project, including 3-hourly resolution, daily mean and maximum winds. The validation of the reference situation was done by comparing the probability density function of the datasets. It showed a reasonable agreement between results from 3-hourly winds and buoy data and between results from daily mean wind and wave hindcast data, although the spreading of the distribution is underestimated and some spatial discrepancies were found. The general tendency of the mean significant wave height is to decrease with the exception of the Northern Catalan coast for which no significant variation was detected. A seasonal analysis revealed a change in the annual pattern. During spring and summer the mean significant wave height tends to increase in some areas whereas milder winter and autumn periods are expected. The analysis of the 95% cumulative significant wave height showed similar results but accentuated changes were found.

  • Composite modelling of interactions between beaches and structures

     Gerritsen, Herman; Sutherland, James; Deigaard, Rolf; Sumer, Multlu; Fortes, C.J.E.M.; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schmidtke, Ulrike
    Journal of hydraulic research
    Vol. 49, num. Sup. 1, p. 2-14
    DOI: 10.1080/00221686.2011.589134
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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    An overview of Composite Modelling (CM) is presented, as elaborated in the EU/HYDRALAB joint research project Composite Modelling of the Interactions Between Beaches and Structures. An introduction and a review of the main literature on CM in the hydraulic community are given. In Section 3, the case studies of CM of the seven partners participating in this project are discussed. The focus is on the methodologies used and their impact on the modelling approach, rather than the results of the experiments per se. A further section presents reflections on key elements in CM, as they emerged in the various case studies. The related subject of Good Modelling Practice is summarized in Section 5. Then guidelines are given on how to decide if CM may be beneficial, and how to set up a CM experiment. It is concluded that CM in the hydraulic community is still in its infancy but involves challenging research with significant potential.

  • Wave reflection, transmission and spectral changes at permeable low-crested structures

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Dowding, D.D.; Persetto, Vito; Castro Alves Oliveira, Tiago; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc
    Journal of coastal research
    num. Special Issue 64, p. 593-597
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Short-term morphodynamic changes in a fetch limited beach at the Ebro delta (Spain), under low wave-energy conditions  Open access

     Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Rodríguez Allende, Andrés
    Journal of coastal research
    num. SI64, p. 185-189
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    Sandy beaches in fetch-limited environments are protected from large ocean-generated swell waves, and fetch characteristics allow local wind-generated waves and currents to develop and drive the main morphodynamic processes. The morphodynamics of these low-energy beaches present a peculiar behaviour since there is not a dominant forcing mechanism inducing the beach changes. The main objective of this work is to describe and quantify the observed morphodynamic changes at the barred, quasi longshore-uniform beach of the Trabucador Bar at the Ebro Delta (Spain) under low-energy conditions. A nine-day field campaign was carried out within the framework of the European project FANS (Fluxes Across Narrow Shelves. The Ebro Delta Case) supported by the EC MAST-III Research Programme, (Contract No. MAS3-CT95-0037, DG12 – ESCY) and the measurements included a detailed topo-bathymetric surveying at the beginning and at the end of the campaign, video recordings covering the whole domain of the study area, surf zone waves and currents time series obtained at different positions and depths, nearshore pressure and horizontal velocities time series outside the surf zone. The results show that the beach underwent important longshore and cross-shore (the breaching of the submerged bar) morphodynamic changes under low-energy conditions. The observations suggest that the low-energy wave field and the beach profile played a key role in the generation of low frequency oscillations and rip currents that reshaped the whole study zone.

  • Access to the full text
    Wave reflection, transmission and spectral changes at permeable low-crested structures  Open access

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Dowding, D.D.; Persetto, Vito; Oliveira, Tiago; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc
    International Coastal Symposium
    p. 593-597
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Physical model tests were carried out in order to improve the understanding about the hydrodynamic processes that take place around a LCS when it is under wave attack. In particular, the wave transmission and reflection coefficients as well as the spectrum transformation were analysed for both emerged and submerged structures. The results of the experiments indicated that there is a clear inverse proportionality between the transmission (Kt) and reflection (Kr) coefficients and the wave steepness sop. This trend is much more noticeable for emerged than for submerged structures. A comparison with some widely employed formulae was also made; in most of the cases these expressions underpredicted Kt and overpredicted Kr. Moreover, the spectral changes in the waves transmitted through the structure were analyzed, showing a shift of energy to higher frequency bands greater than that observed in previous works. It was also noted that the higher the sop, the more likely it is for the transmitted energy to be retained in the lower frequency bands.

  • Wave climate projections in the NW Mediterranean

     Casas Prat, Merce; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    The WCRP-JCOMM Workshop on Coordinated Global Wave Climate projections
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Future scenario simulations of wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

     Casas Prat, Merce; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    International Coastal Symposium
    p. 200-204
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fluxes, interactions and environment at the land-ocean boundary. Downscaling, assimilation and coupling (FIELD_AC)

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Gracia Garcia, Vicente
    Competitive project

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  • Fluxes, Interactions and Environment at the Land-Ocean Boundary. Downscaling, Assimilation and Coupling

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; González Marco, Daniel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Alomar Dominguez, Marta; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    Competitive project

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  • Valutazione della tracimazione oltre la nuova bariera frangiflutti del porto di Bisceglie

     Altomare, Corrado; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier
    Date: 2010-04
    Report

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  • Completamento opere foranee del nuovo porto commerciale di Molfetta: Modello fisico di riflessione in canale di piccola scala (CIEMITO) e analisi numeriche di agitazione ondosa interna

     Altomare, Corrado; Marzeddu, Andrea; Persetto, Vito; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier
    Date: 2010-06
    Report

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  • Completamento opere foranee del nuovo porto commerciale di Molfetta: Modello fisico di riflessione e analisi numeriche dei agitazione ondosa interna

     Altomare, Corrado; Marzeddu, Andrea; Persetto, Vito; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier
    Date: 2010-10
    Report

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  • Anàlisi de la proposta de dic exempt per protegir el dic de recer de la marina Palamós II

     Altomare, Corrado; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Date: 2010-06
    Report

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  • Atlas preliminar de agitación portuaria y riesgos medioambientales del Puerto de Barcelona

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Date: 2010-05-31
    Report

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  • Anàlisi de la proposta de dic exempt per protegir el dic de recer de la marina Palamós I

     Altomare, Corrado; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo
    Date: 2010-03
    Report

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  • Antemurale a protezione dell¿imboccatura del porto di Bisceglie: modelli e analisi di propagazione, agitazione, e tracimazione ondosa

     Altomare, Corrado; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Gironella i Cobos, Framcesc Xavier
    Date: 2010-04
    Report

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  • Quay design and operational oceanography: the case of Bilbao harbour

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Spyroupoulu, Stella; Hernáez, Mario; Ojanguren, Alberto; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique
    International Conference on Coastal Engineering
    p. 229
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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