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  • OPTIMIZACION DE LOS MÉTODOS DE PROTECCIÓN ANTE EROSIÓN DE OBRAS FLUVIALES.

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Debris-flow susceptibility analysis using fluvio-morphological parameters and data mining: application to the Central-Eastern Pyrenees

     Chevalier, Guillaume Gerard; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Natural hazards
    Date of publication: 2013-06
    Journal article

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    Based on debris-flow inventories and using a geographical information system, the susceptibility models presented here take into account fluvio-morphologic parameters, gathered for every first-order catchment. Data mining techniques on the morphometric parameters are used, to work out and test three different models. The first model is a logistic regression analysis based on weighting the parameters. The other two are classification trees, which are rather novel susceptibility models. These techniques enable gathering the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the models tested, with and without optimization. The analysis was performed in the Catalan Pyrenees and covered an area of more than 4,000 km(2). Results related to the training dataset show that the optimized models performance lie within former reported range, in terms of AUC, although closer to the lowest end (near 70 %). When the models are applied to the test set, the quality of most results decreases. However, out of the three different models, logistic regression seems to offer the best prediction, as training and test sets results are very similar, in terms of performance. Trees are better at extracting laws from a training set, but validation through a test set gives results unacceptable for a prediction at regional scale. Although omitting parameters in geology or vegetation, fluvio-morphologic models based on data mining, can be used in the framework of a regional debris-flow susceptibility assessment in areas where only a digital elevation model is available.

  • Derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides as a tool for debris flow early warning systems

     Papa, Maria Nicolina; de Medina Iglesias, Vicente César; Ciervo, Fabio; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Hydrology and Earth system sciences
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Real-time assessment of debris-flow hazard is fundamental for developing warning systems that can mitigate risk. A convenient method to assess the possible occurrence of a debris flow is to compare measured and forecasted rainfalls to critical rainfall threshold (CRT) curves. Empirical derivation of the CRT from the analysis of past events' rainfall characteristics is not possible when the database of observed debris flows is poor or when the environment changes with time. For debris flows and mud flows triggered by shallow landslides or debris avalanches, the above limitations may be overcome through the methodology presented. In this work the CRT curves are derived from mathematical and numerical simulations, based on the infinite-slope stability model in which slope instability is governed by the increase in groundwater pressure due to rainfall.

  • Experimental and theoretical analysis of flow and sediment transport in 90-degree fluvial diversions.  Open access

     Herrero Casas, Albert
    Defense's date: 2013-06-07
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Fluvial bifurcations are systems that have a great influence on human society. Their formation and evolution can affect to activities as agriculture or industry and a good knowledge of the mechanisms that affect the processes involved can be determinant for a proper land management. From a geometrical point of view, diversions or lateral intakes are a particular case of fluvial bifurcations in which one of the downstream branches exits laterally while the other follows the same direction as the incoming channel. Diversions are characterized by a significant trend of sediment to deviate towards the lateral branch. The first part of this document describes the experimental work performed in the Fluvial Morphodynamic Laboratory in BarcelonaTech University. Water and solid discharge distributions, as well as bed and water surface levels are measured along the model, during tests with different total water discharges. Results confirm the sediment distributions reported in the literature and but also highlight the influence of bed bathymetry evolution and three-dimensional flow patterns in the local sediment transport of the diversion area. A threshold value is found for total discharge, above which a vortex is formed in front of the diversion entrance and a scour hole is formed in the first stretch of the main channel downstream of the diversion. An energy balance equation is proposed between upstream and downstream of the diversion taking into account the energy losses associated with the vortex, and a good comparison is found when tested against the experimental results. A nodal equation that relates water discharge to sediment discharge distribution is developed considering separately bed load and suspended sediment transport. Calculated values of sediment discharge ratio compare reasonably well with experimental values. Joining these equations, uniform flow, transport capacity and mass continuity equations for water and sediment, a theoretical model is proposed to evaluate the equilibrium situation of a fluvial diversion in terms of water discharge, sediment discharge, water depth and bed slope in both downstream branches.

    Les bifurcacions fluvials son sistemes amb una gran influència a la societat. La seva formació i evolució pot afectar a activitats com l’agricultura i la indústria, i un bon coneixement dels mecanismes que afecten els processos involucrats pot ser determinant per una correcta gestió del territori. Des d’un punt de vis ta geom ètric, les derivacions o pres es d’aigua laterals són un cas particular de les bifurcacions fluvials , en el qual un dels ramals s urt lateralment i l’altre s egueix la mateixa direcció que el canal entrant. Les derivacions es caracteritzen per una tendència significativa del sediment a ser desviat cap al ramal lateral. La primera part d’aquest document descriu el treball experimental portat a terme al Laboratori de Morfodinàmica Fluvial de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. S’han realitzat experiments amb diferents cabals totals d’aigua, durant els quals s’han pres mesures de la distribució de cabal líquid i sòlid, així com dels nivells del fons i la superfície de l’aigua al llarg de tot el model. Els resultats confirmen el desequilibri de cabals s òlids reportat en estudis anteriors, però també posen de manifest la influència de l’evolució de la batimetria i les característiques tridimensionals del flux en la dinàmica local del transport dels ediments . S’ha trobat un valor límit pel cabal líquid total, per sobre del qual es genera un vòrtex davant de l’entrada del ramal lateral i es form a un fos s at d’eros ió al tram inicial del ramal recte, aigües avall de la derivació. Es proposa una equació de balanç d’energia entre aigües amunt i aigües avall de la derivació tenint en compte les pèrdues d’energia associades al vòrtex, que reprodueix de forma bastant bona els resultats experimentals. Es desenvolupa una equació nodal que relaciona les distribucions de cabal líquid i sòlid, considerant per separat el transport de fons i el transport en suspensió. Els valors del rati de cabal sòlid calculat es corresponen raonablement bé amb els obtinguts experimentalment. Unint aquestes equacions amb les de flux uniforme i transport s òlid a cada ramal, i continuïtat de massa per aigua i sediment, es proposa un model teòric per avaluar la situació d’equilibri d’una derivació fluvial en termes de cabal líquid, cabal sòlid, calat d’aigua i pendent de la llera en cadas cun dels ramals d’aigües avall.

  • PIV Applications in Vortex Rings and Oscillatory Boundary Layers  Open access

     Mujal Colilles, Anna
    Defense's date: 2013-05-13
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is one of the most used experimental techniques in fluid mechanics to obtain the velocity field of a flow. One of its most celebrated characteristics is that it does not have interference on the phenomenon of study which makes it suitable to describe qualitatively and quantitatively many phenomena either micro or macroscopic. This thesis presents the PIV technique applied to two different fluid mechanic problems: vortex rings impinging permeable boundaries and oscillatory boundary layers in the laminar-to-turbulent regime. The first part of this thesis focuses on the impingement of vortex rings towards permeable boundaries and compares the results with the interaction of a vortex ring with a solid boundary. Assuming that a vortex ring is an axisymmetric structure, 2D PIV experiments are performed over boundaries on 4 different permeabilities and a solid boundary. When a vortex approaches a solid boundary, three different phenomena are clearly visible: the vortex ring decelerates when the distance between the core and the wall is in the order of the initial diameter of the ring. At the same time, the diameter starts increasing producing a stretching effect and, finally, secondary vorticity appears after the ring has reached the minimum distance from the wall. Experimental results lead to some interesting conclusions when the permeability of the boundary increases: the deceleration of the vortex ring starts later, the diameter does not increase as much and, finally, secondary vorticity is weaker and has shorter life. The second and third part of this thesis focus on the study of oscillatory boundary layers over smooth and rough walls. Experimental measurements were conducted over smooth and two different rough beds spanning the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. A multi-camera 2D-PIV system was used in an experimental oscillatory-flow tunnel. Characteristic variables like boundary layer thickness and friction factor were computed using different methods. Results obtained experimentally in smooth wall experiments are consistent with theoretical work. For the rough wall cases different formulations have been compared. Finally, results show how the phase lead between wall velocity and free-stream velocity is better defined when the integral of momentum equation is used to estimate the friction velocity. The observed differences are highly sensitive to the zero level definition. Finally, a detailed analysis of the structures present in such oscillatory boundary layers yield to a description of four different features: vortex tubes present in oscillatory flows over smooth beds, and vortices, turbulent spots and shear layers present in oscillatory flows over rough beds. The inception of vortex tubes is consistent with the state-of-art predictors as a result of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Furthermore, structures present in rough wall experiments are a little bit more complicated because their inception and evolution are clearly influenced by the position of the sediment grains forming the bed. Vortices are created behind a kink in the bed sediment profile during the wall flow reversal and are shed from the wall when flow starts its acceleration cycle. Both the vertical and horizontal evolutions of the vortex position depend on the ratio between the amplitude of oscillation and roughness of the sediment bed. Turbulent spots are defined as structures which are born vortices but lose their shape in an early stage. They follow the same trajectories as vortices but reach lower heights before dissipating. Finally, shear layers were only detected in the larger bed roughness and are described as a sum of vortices that are shed consecutively from the same sediment. These shear layers are linked to vortices during the wall flow reversal when a big vortex is formed in the same place as the shear layer.

    La tècnica experimental del Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) és una de les més utilitzades en el món de la mecànica de fluids per obtenir el camp de velocitats en un flux. La seva no interferència en el desenvolupament del fenomen que s’estudia la fa aplicable a tot tipus de fenòmens, ja sigui micro com macroscòpics i permet estudiar qualitativa i quantitativament la dinàmica de fluids d’un fenomen particular. Aquesta tesis presenta l’aplicació del PIV a dos problemes de mecànica de fluids diferents: anells de vorticitat impactant contorns permeables i capes límit oscil•latòries dins del règim transitori. La primera part d’aquesta tesis es centra en l’estudi dels anells de vorticitat impactant contorns permeables i la seva comparació amb l’impacte del mateix anell amb una paret sòlida. Assumint que un anell de vorticitat és una estructura axisimètrica, s’han realitzat experiments PIV en 2D, en quatre contorns permeables diferents i un contorn sòlid. Quan un anell de vorticitat es mou cap a una superfície sòlida es fan presents tres fenòmens principals: la desacceleració de l’anell de vorticitat quan assoleix una distància amb la paret de l’ordre del diàmetre inicial de l’anell. Al mateix temps un augment del diàmetre produint un efecte estirament i finalment l’aparició d’un segon anell de vorticitat quan el primer anell ha assolit la distància mínima de la paret. El treball experimental aporta algunes conclusions interessants sobre l’evolució d’aquestes característiques principals a mesura que la permeabilitat del contorn d’impacte augmenta: la distància de la paret a la qual comença la desacceleració disminueix, el diàmetre de l’anell de vorticitat primari creix amb menys intensitat i finalment el segon anell de vorticitat és més dèbil i té una vida més curta. La segona i tercera part de la tesis es centren en descriure el fenomen de capa límit oscil•latòria en fluxos sobre llits llisos i rugosos. En aquesta tesis es descriuen els experiments centrats en l’estudi de la capa límit oscil•latòria sobre fons llis i dos tipus diferents de fons rugós per a un rang de Rew = 0.4.104 ~ 2.104; els experiments es centren en la transició de règim laminar a règim laminar a turbulent i utilitzen la tècnica de 2D PIV amb multicàmera aplicada a un túnel de flux oscil•latori. Algunes variables característiques com el gruix de la capa límit o el factor de fricció s’analitzen des de diferents perspectives. Els resultats obtinguts en els experiments de llit rugós coincideixen amb les prediccions realitzades per a teoria existent. Per als experiments en llit rugós diferents formulacions es comparen. Finalment els resultats mostren com la diferència de fase entre la velocitat de paret i a la velocitat del pistó que activa l’oscil•lació es defineix més bé quan es calcula a través de la integral de la quantitat de moviment. Les diferències observades amb els resultats obtinguts quan es calcula a través de la suma de tensions de Reynolds i tensions viscoses són degudes principalment a la sensibilitat d’ambdues equacions a la definició del zero d’ordenades. Per altra banda, el gruix màxim observat per la capa límit es produeix just abans de que es produeixi l’instant de velocitat zero, també anomenat fase del revers, independentment del règim del flux. Finalment es realitza un anàlisi detallat de les estructures presents en les capes límit oscil•latòries definint fins a quatre tipus diferents: tubs de vorticitat presents en fluxos oscil•latoris sobre llits llisos, vòrtexs, bursts i capes de tensió detectades en els fluxos sobre llits rugosos. L’evolució dels tubs de vorticitat coincideix amb la teoria ja publicada i són el resultat de l’aparició de la inestabilitat de Kelvin-Helmholtz. Els experiments descrits en aquesta tesis confirmen les mateixes característiques i permeten definir la vida d’aquests tubs de vorticitat. Les estructures presents en llits rugosos són una mica més complicades degut a que la seva formació i evolució està clarament influenciada per la posició dels grans de sediment que formen el fons. Els vòrtexs es creen darrere una punta en el perfil del llit de sediment durant la fase del revers prop de la paret i es separen d’aquesta quan comença el cicle d’acceleració. L’evolució tant de la posició vertical com horitzontal d’aquests vòrtexs depenen del quocient entre l’amplitud de l’oscil•lació i la rugositat del sediment. Els bursts es defineixen com a aquelles estructures que neixen sent un vòrtex però perden la forma de seguida. De fet, aquests bursts són vòrtexs de mida més petita i que apareixen en localitzacions properes en el camp de velocitats instantani. No obstant quan es realitza la mitjana en fase, la seva forma desapareix, mostrant-se com a bursts. La seva trajectòria és semblant a la dels vòrtexs prèviament descrits, però assoleixen una alçada inferior. Finalment les capes de tensió es visualitzaren només en els experiments portats a terme amb la màxima rugositat i es defineixen com una successió de vòrtexs creats en el mateix gra. Aquestes últimes estructures estan relacionades amb els vòrtexs inicialment descrits ja que aquests es formen amb les estructures romanents de la capa de tensió just quan es produeix el revers del flux. El treball presentat en aquesta tesis es basa en dos problemes de mecànica de fluids. No obstant confirma que la tècnica del PIV és aplicable a fenòmens totalment diferents.

  • Assessing debris-flow hazard focusing on statistical morpho-fluvial susceptibility models and magnitude-frequency relationships. Application to the central-eastern Pyrenees  Open access

     Chevalier, Guillaume Gerard
    Defense's date: 2013-06-21
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Occurrence of debris flows has received little attention in the Pyrenees, probably due to the small risk faced by most of the debris-flow prone sites in this mountain range. Nevertheless, the event of Biescas, which occurred in august 1996 and causing 87 casualties, demonstrates the existence of high-risk spots in the region and justifies the elaboration of the debris-flow hazard assessment presented in this thesis. Five debris flows, which occurred in 2008, are selected; and site-specific descriptions and analysis, regarding geology and morphology, were performed. The results are compared with worldwide data and some conclusions on hazard assessment are presented. The preliminary analysis of some major Eastern Pyrenean debris flows represents the background for this thesis. The necessity of possessing an inventory of past occurrences is of crucial importance when assessing debris-flow hazard. Criteria of reconnaissance were thought to be visible from aerial viewing. 691 tracks through which debris flows are thought to have travelled have been revealed. Based on debris-flow inventories and using a geographical information system, the debris-flow hazard assessment presented in this thesis takes into account fluvio-morphologic parameters, gathered for every 1st-order catchment as well as every 2nd-order catchment. Mountainous headwaters are a common subject in geomorphological studies. Often investigated at local scale, the geomorphological context in which headwaters evolve has been poorly reported in the Central-Eastern Pyrenees or worldwide. A series of parameters obtained for Central-Eastern Pyrenean headwaters catchments consisting of 3005 1st- and 655 2nd-order catchments are presented. Acquired from a digital elevation model, these catchments have been digitalised, identified and attributed a value for each parameter. Previously reported parameters¿ ranges agree with those presented in this study. For the first time, the ranges of values give details about the Central-Eastern Pyrenees headwater catchments. Data mining techniques are used on the morphometric parameters, to calculate and test three different models. The first model is a logistic regression. The other two are classification trees, which are rather novel susceptibility models associated with debris flows. Results related to the training dataset show that the optimized model¿s performance lies within existing reported range although closer to the lowest end (near 70%). When the models are applied to the test set, the logistic regression seems to offer the best prediction, as training and test set results are very similar in terms of performance. Trees are better at extracting laws from a training set, but validation through a test set gives poorer results for a prediction at regional scale. The determination of magnitude of a historic event can be done by distinguishing its deposits. However this is not a trivial task in debris fans that accumulate deposits, corresponding to consecutive debris flows, especially if only a conventional geomorphological analysis is carried out. The event deposits can be mapped and, subsequently, trees damaged by the flows sampled for dating events. A magnitude-frequency relationship was prepared for El Rebaixader site, at local scale, and is compared to that of the Tordó creek. Moreover, a debris-flow inventory was created in the "Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici" National Park in the Central Pyrenees, Spain, and this regional magnitude-frequency relationship is compared to that of Rebaixader. Both curves include a strong rollover effect at about 2000 m2, and events larger than this magnitude can be represented by a power law, with an exponent between -1.5 and -1.9. This thesis is a first step toward the assessment of debris-flow hazard in the Central-Eastern Pyrenees. Although a lot of information is provided, more work is still to be done, in order to fully capture debris-flow importance in landscape evolution.

  • OPTIMIZACION DE LOS MÉTODOS DE PROTECCIÓN ANTE EROSIÓN DE OBRAS FLUVIALES.

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Participation in a competitive project

     Share

  • High-speed debris-flows generating 2D impulse waves: Experimental analysis

     Bregoli, Francesco; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    When a landslide or a debris-flow falls in a water body, a big wave, known as impulse wave or landslide tsunami wave, can be generated. That phenomenon can be highly destructive and unlikely predicted, involving dams and shorelines. Disastrous past events have been extensively analyzed and experimental studies have been carried out by different authors, but do not fully account for the description of the phenomenon. In the present study we introduce a new experimental set up installed in the fluvial-morphodynamic laboratory of the GITS team in the Technical University of Catalonia. The experimental device consists of a wheeled box sliding on a steep slope flume, releasing granular material, which enters a 2D basin. Defining a set of governing parameters and after several run of experiment, a description of the behavior of the waves was attempted. First results are here presented and analyzed.

  • Simulación numérica del flujo de un tramo fluvial con una turbina de paso situada en su lecho y los efectos en el comportamiento de su lámina libre

     Oller Aramayo, Sergio A.; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Nallim, Liz G.; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio
    Congreso Argentino de Mecánica Computacional
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Las turbinas de paso o WCT (Water Current Turbines) abren nuevas y mayores posibilidades, con grandes ventajas en cuanto al aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico. Éstas evitan las construcciones de costosas presas y reducen considerablemente el impacto medioambiental que producen otras soluciones de aprovechamiento energético. Pero a su vez esta solución plantea una serie de nuevos retos tecnológicos, debido a sus diseños sin todavía ningún tipo de estandarización y pocos antecedentes en su utilización. Además, a todo esto hay que agregar la complejidad que añade el estudio del comportamiento del flujo del río donde deben instalarse. El modelo que se analiza en el presente trabajo representa un tramo fluvial con una turbina de paso axial situada en su lecho. Dicho modelo se analiza mediante la técnica de simulación numérica CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) y la turbina de paso se representa introduciendo en el cauce del río un bloque constituido por un medio continuo poroso para representar las perturbaciones que esta introduce y sus intercambios energéticos con el flujo del cauce. En este artículo se analizan las velocidades alcanzadas en las distintas zonas del río, presiones, líneas de corriente, y el comportamiento de la lámina libre que resulte de la presencia de la turbina representada a través de un bloque de medio poroso. Con este trabajo se estudia un eslabón importante en la cadena de desarrollos necesarios para el diseño y factibilidad de aplicación y puesta en marcha de una turbina de paso que está actualmente en desarrollo por los autores. (Oller et al., Revista Iberoamericana de Ingeniería Mecánica, Vol.16 Nº1 pp. 03-16 (2012)).

  • Derivation of critical rainfall thresholds for debris flow warnings through mathematical and numerical modeling

     Papa, M; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Olas de impulsión generadas por corrientes de detritos rápidas : estudio experimental

     Bregoli, Francesco; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Bedload Transport of Sand-Gravel Mixtures With Antidunes. Flume Experiments  Open access

     Nuñez González, Francisco
    Defense's date: 2012-07-20
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    In this thesis, the interaction between flow and sediment in alluvial channels is studied from an empirical approach, for conditions close or pertaining to supercritical flow, and for four types of sediment: sand, gravel and two mixtures with sand and gravel in a relative proportion of 70-30 and 55-45, respectively. The objective is to obtain by means of laboratory experiments a data set with the characteristics of flow, sediment transport, bed configurations and sediment sorting patterns in sediment mixtures, for different conditions within upper- and transitional-regimes. From a practical perspective, the aim of this work is to reproduce similar conditions to those likely to occur in torrential ephemeral streams, common in the Mediterranean coast and known in Spain as ¿ramblas¿. The experimental work consisted in searching for mobile-bed equilibrium states, for different water discharges and sediment-feed rates. The definitive data set comprises 22 runs, with durations up to 12 hours. Sediment-feed rates were constant during each run, and they were even higher than 1 kg/s. Dominant bed configurations included transitional bedforms and trains of antidunes, coexisting with alternate bars. Antidunes were mostly three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional, and in contrast to the most referred antidunes in literature, the antidunes herein reported moved in the downstream direction and were stable most of the time. Short-crested stationary waves on the water surface accompanied the antidunes. Characterization of the experimental bedforms allowed identifying the range of Froude numbers in which transitional regime prevails for the studied sediment; also, this characterization allowed assessing the performance of theoretical and empirical diagrams for bedform stability phases. It is here demonstrated that for very coarse sand, fine gravel and mixtures of these two materials, plane bed does not occur in the transition from lower- to upper-regime, and if it would occur, it would be restricted to a very narrow range of Froude numbers. Regarding flow resistance related to bedforms in upper-regime, it has been here probed that for similar geometrical conditions, downstream-migrating antidunes produce less flow resistance than dunes, and more flow resistance than upstream-migrating antidunes. An important concern in this work has been to investigate the effect of the relative sand content of sediment in bedforms, flow resistance and sediment transport. It is here demonstrated that bedforms in sand beds can be higher and they can produce much more drag than bedforms in gravel and sand-gravel mixtures. Regarding sediment transport, it is here shown that for the high sediment-feed rates tested in the experiments, certain ranges of sand content would affect sediment mobility. Besides sand content, it is shown that the ratio between sand and gravel grain sizes would also be relevant in the mobility of sediment in comparison to well-sorted material. A conceptual model is suggested for computation of sediment incipient motion, which model is based on the variation of bed porosity with sand content and on the relative size between particles. Some supplementary themes considered in this work include the study of the required conditions for the formation of three-dimensional stationary waves over antidunes; the hydraulic analysis of flow over antidunes and the morphological consequences of such a flow for the three likely regimes of antidune direction of movement; sediment sorting patterns according to sand content, especially bed surface patches of homogeneous sediment; and finally, the analysis of the process by which fine sediment penetrates into a bed composed of particles of diverse sizes.

    En esta tesis se estudia de manera empírica la interacción entre el flujo y el sedimento en canales aluviales, para condiciones cercanas o pertenecientes al régimen rápido y para cuatro tipos de sedimento: arena, grava y dos mezclas con grava y arena, en una proporción relativa de 70-30 y 55-45, respectivamente. El objetivo es obtener de manera experimental en laboratorio un grupo de datos sobre las características del flujo, transporte de sedimento, configuraciones de fondo y patrones de clasificación en mezclas de sedimento, para diferentes condiciones dentro de los regímenes superior y de transición. De manera práctica, la intención de este trabajo es reproducir condiciones comparables a las que pueden ocurrir en ríos efímeros de carácter torrencial, comunes en la costa Mediterránea y conocidos en España como ramblas. El trabajo experimental consistió en la búsqueda de condiciones de equilibrio dinámico en lecho móvil, para diferentes caudales líquidos y tasas de alimentación de sedimento. 22 ensayos, con duraciones de hasta 12 horas, conformaron el grupo de datos definitivo. Las tasas de alimentación fueron constantes durante cada ensayo, y alcanzaron valores de incluso más de 1 kg/s. Las configuraciones de fondo dominantes incluyeron formas de fondo de transición y trenes de antidunas, en coexistencia con barras alternadas. Predominaron las antidunas tridimensionales sobre las bidimensionales y, a diferencia de las antidunas más referidas en la literatura, las aquí descritas migraban hacia aguas abajo y eran bastante estables. En la superficie del agua acompañaban a las antidunas ondas estacionarias de cresta corta. La caracterización de las formas de fondo experimentales permitió identificar el intervalo de números de Froude en el cual prevalece el régimen de transición en el sedimento estudiado y también evaluar diagramas teóricos y empíricos para las regiones de estabilidad de formas de fondo. Se demuestra que en arena muy gruesa, grava fina y mezclas de estos dos materiales, en la transición de régimen inferior a superior no ocurre el fondo plano, y si así fuese, estaría restringido a un intervalo muy estrecho de números de Froude. En cuanto a la resistencia al flujo producida por las formas de fondo en régimen superior, se ha probado que para condiciones geométricas similares las antidunas que migran hacia aguas abajo producen menos resistencia al flujo que las dunas y más resistencia que las antidunas que migran hacia aguas arriba. De particular interés ha sido reconocer el efecto en las formas de fondo, la resistencia al flujo y el transporte de sedimento, del contenido relativo de arena en el sedimento. Se muestra que las formas de fondo desarrolladas en lechos compuestos sólo de arena pueden ser de mayor magnitud y producir mucha mayor resistencia de forma que las formas de fondo en grava y mezclas de grava-arena. En cuanto al transporte de sedimento, se muestra que para las altas tasas de transporte probadas ciertos intervalos de contenido de arena afectan la movilidad del sedimento. Además de la proporción de arena en la mezcla, el grado de afectación en la movilidad estaría relacionado con la relación entre tamaños de la arena y la grava. Se propone un modelo conceptual para el cálculo del inicio de movimiento de las partículas del fondo, el cual considera la variación de la porosidad en el lecho con el contenido de arena y la relación de tamaños de las partículas.

  • A two-layer, shallow-water model for 3D gravity currents

     la Rocca, Michele; Adduce, C.; Sciortino, Gianpiero; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Boniforti, M.A.
    Journal of hydraulic research
    Date of publication: 2012-04-01
    Journal article

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  • Estudio experimental de la eficiencia de mezcla en depósitos de abastecimiento de agua

     Mujal Colilles, Anna; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; de Medina Iglesias, Vicente César
    Tecnologia y Ciencias del Agua
    Date of publication: 2011-07
    Journal article

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  • Reconstruction of magnitude and frequency of debris flows in the Rebaixader torrent (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) by dendrogeomorphological analysis

     Chevalier, G.; Moya Sanchez, Jose; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Erosión local en pilas puente: los procesos y su mitigación. Aplicación al Pabellón Puente de la Expo 2008 de Zaragoza  Open access

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Martin Vide, Juan Pedro
    Jornada de Recerca i innovació a l'Escola de Camins
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Se exponen los avances en el estudio de la erosión local en pilas de puente gracias a la experimentación en modelos a escala reducida en laboratorio. Se describe la evolución temporal, las características de la erosión local en pilas de base cuadrada y circular, la influencia de las presiones no hidrostáticas, así como también la protección que ha de utilizarse para mitigar la erosión. Desde el punto de vista de la ingeniería el uso de modelos reducidos es imprescindible debido a la complejidad de los fenómenos que intervienen. Se presenta la aplicación a la evaluación del riesgo de erosión fluvial en una pila compleja de gran anchura, construida en el cauce del río Ebro en Zaragoza. Se describe el problema de erosión local, las características del modelo físico ensayado y los mantos de escollera que consiguen detener la erosión, así como la ejecución y auscultación de esta protección.

  • Development of preliminary assessment tools to evaluate debris flow hazard

     Bregoli, Francesco; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Ciervo, F; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Chevalier, G.
    International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Setup of an experimental device for high-speed debris flows generating 2D impulse waves

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Bregoli, Francesco; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Rast, Manuel; Bentz, Clara
    IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Landslides and debris flows falling into reservoirs, natural lakes, fjords or seas can generate impulse waves, which can be assimilated to tsunami-water waves. Such wave’s behavior can be highly destructive regarding dams and other structures and infrastructures as well as people living along shorelines. Destructive observed past events, such Vajont Dam in Italy (1963) or Lituya Bay in Alaska (1958), are not enough to describe and finally properly prevent the phenomenon. Experimental studies on the topic have been carried out in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) water basins with a sliding block or sliding granular material. Due to the lack of studies on the effect of granular material falling in a 2D basin and to explore new ranges of governing parameters of experiments, the present research work is being carried out. In the Fluvial-Morphodynamics Laboratory of GITS in the Technical University of Catalonia, a facility to study that phenomenon is set up. The whole project was founded through the project “Debris Flow” (CGL 2009-13039) by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology. The system consists of a steep slope flume releasing granular material in a two dimensional basin. The main drawback was to develop a system able to reach high speed mass movement which was achieved building a metallic wheeled box, sliding in rails with a very low roughness. The second issue was to define a system able to measure the velocity of the granular material and its depth, solved processing images of a high speed camera. Finally a grid on the water surface, done by laser sheets, was set. The water surface being filmed and the resulting images successively processed, the produced wave can be measured. All the measurement systems are designed to not distort the process. First results relative on a first set of experiments are presented and preliminary discussed.

  • Experimental study of mixing efficiency in water storage tanks

     Mujal Colilles, Anna; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    Tecnologí­a y ciencias del agua
    Date of publication: 2011-09
    Journal article

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  • Estudio teórico de pasos de peces y desarrollo de una metodologia de evaluación de su eficacia

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Trapote, Borja; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    Date of publication: 2011
    Book chapter

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  • Debris flows and general steep slope shallow water flows numerial simulation

     Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    Defense's date: 2011-01-24
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Incisión de ríos por extracción aluvial y retirada de presas. Estudio matemático y experimental.

     Ferrer Boix, Carles
    Defense's date: 2011-03-23
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Improving risk management for flash floods and debris flow events

     Sempere Torres, Daniel; Velasco Montes, David; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Germann, Urs; Thielen, Jutta; Beven, K.; Zappa, Massimiliano; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Escaler, I.; Papa, M; Pegram, Geoff; Vilaclara, E.; Sanchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Wittwer, C.; Velasco, E.; Gaechter, M.; Bertoli, M.; Demarchi, M.; Lombardi, G.; Santiago, A.; Zawadzki, Isztar
    Date of publication: 2010
    Book chapter

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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Gravity and turbidity currents

     Bolster, Diogo; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Redondo Apraiz, Jose Manuel; Bezerra Menezes, Maria Ozilea
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Desarrollo de herramientas para la evaluación preliminar de la peligrosidad de corrientes detríticas

     Bregoli, Francesco; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel
    Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidráulica
    Presentation's date: 2010-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Con el objetivo de proporcionar recomendaciones para la alerta temprana de fenómenos potencialmente desencadenantes de corrientes detríticas (“Debris Flow”), uno de los temas principales es la identificación preliminar de zonas de riesgo. Esta identificación es sustancialmente diferente de los mapas de riesgo que se suelen realizar por las autoridades de cuenca con el fin de dar una guía para planes de gestión del territorio. En el caso de alerta temprana, una identificación más aproximativa de las zonas de riesgo es suficiente. En esta perspectiva, los dos componentes del riesgo, peligrosidad y vulnerabilidad, se pueden estimar de una manera simplificada. En este trabajo se han desarrollado unas herramientas para la evaluación rápida de peligro por corrientes detríticas. Se han adaptado metodologías existentes y modelos simplificados y se ha llevado a cabo un útil paquete común de metodologías para una rápida evaluación de la peligrosidad. Se modelan tanto la iniciación como la propagación de corrientes detríticas. Uno de los requisitos del proyecto es definir una herramienta utilizable en diferentes contextos donde el nivel de detalle en los datos de entrada puede ser muy variado. Para lograr este objetivo se define un enfoque multinivel. La metodología se aplica en tres cuencas con características diferentes.

  • Development of preliminary assessment tools to evaluate debris flow hazard

     Bregoli, Francesco; Ciervo, F; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Chevalier, G.; Papa, Maria Nicolina
    International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Flow structure and resistance in flexible vegetated channels  Open access

     Velasco Montes, David; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Redondo Apraiz, Jose Manuel
    Workshop on Advances in Turbulence
    Presentation's date: 2010-08-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The present paper helps to understand the behaviour of the flow through plants, as a first approximation to the environmental interactions happening in natural rivers.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Experimental and theoretical modelling of 3D gravity currents  Open access

     Larocca, Michelle; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Book chapter

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  • A study of the structure of radar rainfall and its errors  Open access

     Llort Pavon, Xavier
    Defense's date: 2010-06-28
    Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-Sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Els objectius principals d’aquesta tesi són dos: d’una banda estudiar l’estructura de la variabilitat de la precipitació a diferents escales espacials i temporals, i de l’altra, estudiar l’estructura dels errors en les estimacions quantitatives de precipitació a través de radar. Pel que fa a l’estudi de l’estructura de la precipitació es proposa un marc de comparació per a mètodes de downscaling basat en valorar el grau amb què cada mètode és capaç de reproduir la variabilitat observada a les diferents escales de la pluja i la seva estructura multifractal. Finalment es proposa un mètode de downscaling tridimensional per a generar camps de precipitació d’alta resolució. Partint de dades mesurades amb radar, és capaç de reproduir la variabilitat a totes les escales de la pluja, i a la vegada, conservar l’estructura vertical de la precipitació observada pel radar. En aquesta tesi s’estudia també l’estructura dels errors associats a les mesures de radar, tant terrestre com embarcat en satèl·lit, que queden després de la cadena de correcció. Es realitza un estudi mitjançant simulació física de les observacions del radar, sobre un camp de precipitació d’alta resulució, per caracteritzar l’error relacionat amb la distància d’observació. També es caracteritza l’error total en les estimacions quantitatives de pluja dels radars terrestres mitjançant comparació contra un producte de referència basat en la combinació de radar i pluviòmetres. L’estructura de l’error trobada ha estat usada per generar un ensemble d’estimacions de pluja, que representa la incertesa en les estimacions, i pot ser emprat per aplicacions probabilístiques. Pel que fa a l’estudi de l’estructura de l’error associat a les estimacions de radar embarcat en satel·lit, s’han realitzat comparacions del radar embarcat en el satèl·lit TRMM contra equipament terrestre, per tal de caracteritzar, sota diverses condicions, les diferències en les mesures de precipitació.

    The principal objectives of this thesis are two: on one hand study the structure of the precipitation’s variability at different spatial and temporal scales, and on the other hand study the structure of the errors in the quantitative precipitation estimates by radar. In relation to the precipitation structure, a comparison framework for downscaling methods is proposed. Within this framework, the capability of each method reproducing the variability and multifractal behaviour observed in rainfall can be tested. A three-dimensional downscaling method to generate high-resolution precipitation fields from radar observations is proposed. The method is capable to reproduce the variability of rainfall at all scales and, at the same time, preserve the vertical structure of precipitation observed by the radar. In this thesis the structure of the errors that remain after the correction chain in radar measurements (both ground- and space-borne) is also studied. Simulation of the radar physical measurement process over high-resolution precipitation fields is performed to characterize the error related with range. The overall error in quantitative precipitation estimates by radar is characterized through comparison of radar estimates with a reference product based on a radar-raingauges merging. The error structure is used to generate a radar ensemble of precipitation estimates that represents the uncertainty in the measurements and can be used in probabilistic applications. Regarding the study of the errors associated to spaceborne radar measurements, comparisons of TRMM Precipitation Radar with ground equipment are performed to characterize the discrepancies between the precipitation estimates under different conditions.

  • ESTUDIOS DE LOS PROCESOS DE DESARROLLO DE FLUJOS DE DETRITOS EN ALTA MONTAÑA Y METODOS DE MITIGACION.

     Mujal Colilles, Anna; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Herrero Casas, Albert; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Development of preliminary assessment tools to evaluate debris flow risks  Open access

     Bregoli, Francesco; Ciervo, F; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Chevalier, G.; Papa, M
    International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In the framework of the IMPRINTS European Research Project (FP7), a toolbox for fast assessment of debris flow hazard has been developed. The aim of this toolbox is to implement different existing models inside a common package useful for a fast evaluation of potential hazard. The initiation and propagation of the debris flow is included. One of the requirements of the projects is to define different scenarios with different detail levels in data input. As an example of this, the results could be obtained just using topographical data or improve accuracy by adding geological and hydrological data.

  • The impressive case of the uncontrolled diversion of the Patía River at its Delta and the social and environmental consequences

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Mujal Colilles, Anna; Diaz Loaiza, Manuel Andres; García Blandón, Walter; Puig Polo, Carolina
    River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Flatmodel, modelo numérico bidimensional para la simulación de eventos de flujos de agua y de flujos detríticos de alta pendiente. Aplicación a la delimitación de zonas de riesgo.

     Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Seminario RLHE sobre las Líneas Prioritarias de investigación de la Red
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Estudio sobre la capacidad de resuspensión de las corrientes de densidad. Aplicación al caso del embalse de Flix.

     Herrero Casas, Albert; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Seminario RLHE sobre las Líneas Prioritarias de investigación de la Red
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • ESTRATEGIAS SOSTENIBLES DE GESTIÓN DEL RIESGO DE INUNDACION CON MEDIDAS NO ESTRUCTURALES EN CUENCAS

     Diaz Loaiza, Manuel Andres; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • IMPROVING PREPAREDNESS AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR FLASH FLOODS AND DEBRIS FLOW EVENTS

     Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • IMPROVING PREPAREDNESS AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR FLASH FLOODS AND DEBRIS FLOW EVENTS

     Roca Sancho, Jordi; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Sempere Torres, Daniel
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • A compilation of data on European flash floods

     Gaume, Eric; Valerie, Bain; Bernardara, Pietro; Newinger, Olivier; Mihai, Barbu; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Bla¿kovic(Ová, Lotta; Joachim, Garcia; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Velasco Montes, David; Marco, Borga; Sempere Torres, Daniel
    Journal of hydrology
    Date of publication: 2009-03
    Journal article

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  • Application of FLATModel, a 2D finite volume code, to debris flows in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula

     Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Landslides
    Date of publication: 2008-02
    Journal article

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  • Evaluation of approaches to calculate debris-flows parameters for hazard assessment

     Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Rickenmann, Dieter; Medina, Vicente; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Mitsche, Dieter Wilhelm
    Engineering geology
    Date of publication: 2008-12
    Journal article

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  • FLATModel: a 2D finite volume code for debris-flow modelling. Application to events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees

     Demedina, V; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Hürlimann Ziegler, Marcel
    International journal of sediment research
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Estudio de la eficiencia de la mezcla en depósitos de abastecimiento de agua

     Mujal Colilles, Anna; Bateman Pinzon, Allen; Medina Iglesias, Vicente Cesar de
    Congreso Latinoamericano de la Hidráulica
    Presentation's date: 2008-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Outstanding rewier 2007

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Award or recognition

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  • Environmental modelling and software

     Bateman Pinzon, Allen
    Collaboration in journals

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