The use of multiple robots working cooperatively in a redundant way offers new possibilities in the execution of complex tasks in dynamic workspaces. The aim of this work is to increase the range of applicability of teleoperated systems by means of the automatic cooperation of multiple slave robots which, controlled by a human operator, act as if they were a unique robot: a Multi-Robot Cooperation Platform fer Task-Oriented Teleoperation, MRCP. From the human operator commands, this robotic platform, the MRCP, dynamically selects the most suitable slave robot and manages, when necessary, a task transfer from one robot to another in order to achieve a smooth execution of teleoperated tasks.; The result of the proposed methodology is an improved teleoperated system in terms of reachable workspace (volume, manoeuvrability and accessibility) and dexterity, thus widening its range of applicability. This approach allows human operators to focus their attention on the ongoing task more than on the teleoperated robots.
Endowing current surgical robotic systems with haptic feedback
to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS), such as laparoscopy,
is still a challenge. Haptic is a feature lost in surgical teleoperated systems limiting surgeons capabilities and ability. The availability of haptics would provide important advantages to the surgeon: Improved tissue manipulation, reducing the breaking of sutures and increase the feeling of telepresence, among others. To design and develop a haptic system, the measurement of forces can be implemented based on two approaches: Direct and indirect force sensing. MIS performed with surgical robots, imposes many technical constraints to measure forces, such as: Miniaturization, need of sterilization or materials compatibility, making it necessary to rely on indirect force sensing. Based on mathematical models of the components involved in an intervention and indirect force sensing
techniques, a global perspective on how to address the problem of
measurement of tool-tissue interaction forces is presented.
Campos, J.; Laporte, E.; Gili, G.; Peñas, C.; Casals, A.; Amat, J. Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing p. 109-112 DOI: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-00846-2_27 Presentation's date: 2013-09-26 Presentation of work at congresses
A connection between two vessels or other tubular
structures is known as anastomosis, one of the most common
procedures in its field but, at the same time, one of the
most complex suture-based techniques. This procedure requires
not only a lot of skill and dexterity but also a lot of
attention and plenty of concentration from the surgeon. This
makes many of the actions to be performed irregularly, exposing
the patient to human error resulting from the monotony.
On the other hand, the field of robotics has earned itself a
place in medicine, especially as assistants during a surgical
intervention. Even so, medical robotics is quite young and still
has not done much in the field of vessel anastomosis. Therefore,
this paper presents a preliminary study of the most common
suturing techniques, taking into account their typology
and performance, within all the possible anastomosis procedures
known. Subsequently, a detailed study of workflow and
actions during an anastomosis is made, obtaining a diagram
for each of the suturing techniques studied. This allows analyzing
all procedures and to create a tool to find those actions and
repeated tasks and/or common in all of them, indicating which
of these are potential candidates for an automation study. This
preliminary work focuses on finding where robotics can help
to avoid rutinary tasks, which can be learned in a mechanical
level and therefore, relatively easy to be automated using a
robotic system or to assist the surgeon in certain tasks that
need a lot of skill and attention.
Surgical robots are endowed with valuable features that allow surgeons mproving their work in terms of accuracy, quality, efficiency and liability. Tremor reduction, scaled movements, virtual fixtures, pre and intraoperative imaging are some examples of enhancing aids for the surgeon. Moreover, being robotics surgery still at an early phase of development, current research efforts are focused to develop robotic systems able to solve more complex tasks, though the associated costs of robotics makes the convenience of its use in some kind of interventions questionable. After analyzing the main performances and limitations of current surgical robots, this paper foresees dvances towards ideal robotic systems that satisfy the requirements of future robots.
Hernansanz, A.; Amat, J.; Casals, A. IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics p. 749-754 DOI: 10.1109/BioRob.2012.6290803 Presentation's date: 2012-06-26 Presentation of work at congresses
This paper presents a novel teleoperation paradigm, the Virtual Robot (VR), focused on facilitating the surgeon tasks in minimally invasive robotic surgery. The VR has been conceived to increase the range of applicability of traditional master slave teleoperation architectures by means of an automatic cooperative behavior that assigns the execution of the ongoing task to the most suitable robot. From the user's point of view, the VR internal operation must be automatic and transparent. A set of evaluation indexes have been developed to obtain the suitability of each robot as well as an algorithm to determine the optimal instant of time to execute a task transfer. Several experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the VR, as well as indicates the next steps of the research.
Amigo, L.; Fernández, Q.; Giralt, X.; Casals, A.; Amat, J. IEEE RAS & EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics p. 1098-1103 DOI: 10.1109/BioRob.2012.6290777 Presentation's date: 2012-06-25 Presentation of work at congresses
The design of mechanical joints that kinematically behave as their biological counterparts is a challenge that if not addressed properly can cause inadequate forces transmission between robot and patient. This paper studies the interaction forces in rehabilitation therapies of the elbow joint. To measure the effect of orthosis-patient misalignments, a force sensor with a novel distributed architecture has been designed and used for this study. A test-bed based on an industrial robot acting as a virtual exoskeleton that emulates the action of a therapist has been developed and the interaction forces analyzed.
La percepción que el cirujano tiene de la
intervención que está realizando es esencial para garantizar una operación segura y eficiente. En cirugía robotizada los sistemas de percepción disponibles son muy limitados, lo que puede paliarse generando información visual a proyectar sobre el paciente. El trabajo describe el modo de generar y proyectar la imagen 3D obtenida por TAC, así como trayectorias previamente planificadas, que serán de ayuda al guiado. Esta información es también utilizada para el guiado del robot que trabaja en cooperación con el cirujano, en modo comanipulación, evitando situaciones de riesgo y ayudando al cirujano en el guiado de los instrumentos quirúrgicos.
Uno de los principales objetivos de las
terapias de rehabilitación del miembro superior asistidas por robots es incrementar la recuperación funcional al finalizar la terapia y a su vez disminuir el tiempo de esta recuperación, promoviendo la neuroplasticidad en pacientes con problemas
neuromusculares. En este sentido es importante que los exoesqueletos se adapten a los movimientos del paciente y no al revés. Este artículo presenta un ortesis para la extremidad superior con servoadaptación dinámica para la articulación del codo con el objetivo de reducir las fuerzas de interacción causadas por el desalineamiento entre el robot y la extremidad superior. Se estudia además el grado de asistencia que se debe efectuar durante la terapia con el objetivo de promover la neuroplasticidad y que el paciente trabaje en la totalidad de sus capacidades optimizando así la recuperación.
La presente invención permite el control automático de ocupación de vehículos en una estación de peaje. Dicho sistema automático comprende medios para la adquisición de imágenes de un vehículo a controlar, medios para el tratamiento de las imágenes adquiridas y la detección de caras dentro del vehículo y su conteo. Según el número de ocupantes validadas, se procede a aplicar un descuento en el peaje.
Most exoskeleton designs rely on structures and mechanical joints that do not guarantee the right match between the orthosis and the user. This paper proposes a virtual joint model based on three active degrees of freedom aimed to emulate a human joint. This joint is capable of performing a dynamic servo-adaptation in real-time to avoid misalignments and to provide a flexible adjustment to different users’ sizes in order to avoid undesirable interaction forces.
Frigola, M.; Vinagre, M.; Casals, A.; Amat, J.; Santana, F.; Torrens, C. Applied bionics and biomechanics Vol. 7, num. 3, p. 231-239 DOI: 10.1080/11762322.2010.503111 Date of publication: 2010-09 Journal article
This paper presents a strategy for a cooperative multirobot system, constituting a Virtual Robot. The Virtual Robot is composed of a set of robotic arms acting as only one, transferring the execution of a teleoperated task from one to another when necessary. To decide which of the robots is the most suitable to execute the task at every instant, a multiparametric decision function has been defined. This function is based on a set of intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation indexes of the robot. Since the internal operation of the Virtual Robot must be transparent to the user, a control architecture has been developed.
Casals, A.; Amat, J.; Frigola, M.; Rodríguez-Cheu, L.; Torrens, C.; Ginés, A. International journal of computer assisted radiology and sugery (Online) Vol. 3, num. Num 1-2, p. 61-67 Date of publication: 2008-05 Journal article
Casals, A.; Muñoz, L.; Frigola, M.; Amat, J. 2007 IARP International Workshop on Technical Challenges on Dependable Robots in Human Environments Presentation's date: 2007-04-15 Presentation of work at congresses
Amat, J.; Casals, A.; Frigola, M.; Giralt, X. IARP/IEEE-RAS/EURON Workshop on Technical Challenges for Dependable Robots in Human Environments Presentation's date: 2005-06-16 Presentation of work at congresses