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  • Hormigones autocompactantes de resistencias medias

     Rodríguez Viacava, Iliana; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Rodríguez de Sensale, Gemma; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Cemento hormigón : fabricación, investigación y aplicaciones del cemento y del hormigón
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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  • Estimation of the modulus of elasticity for sprayed concrete

     Galobardes Reyes, Isaac; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Garcia Vicente, Tomas
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2014-02
    Journal article

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    The modulus of elasticity is a fundamental parameter for the structural design. It has been studied in the literature and several standards include equations to predict its value for conventional concrete. However, the same is not true in the case of sprayed concrete. This special concrete presents singular characteristics due to the spraying process that must be considered in the prediction of this property. The objective of the present work is to perform an analysis of the modulus of elasticity of sprayed concrete. For that, an experimental program about the mechanical properties of the material was executed. Furthermore, the applicability of formulations available in current codes and guidelines to estimate the modulus of elasticity of conventional concrete is assessed. The analysis conducted provides the basis to adapt these formulations, taking into account the specificities of sprayed concrete. Finally, empirical and semi-analytical expressions are proposed and validated using data from real tunnels.

  • Bi-layer diaphragm walls: parametric study of construction processess

     Segura-Castillo, Luís; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2014-02
    Journal article

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    The bi-layer diaphragm wall is a new type of slurry wall, designed to improve watertightness and to counter leakage problems. These walls consist of two bonded concrete layers: the first, a conventional Reinforced Concrete (RC) diaphragm wall and the second, a sprayed Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) layer with a waterproof additive. Here, we analyse and quantify the influence of different construction process parameters on the effectiveness of the bi-layer diaphragm wall technique. Thirty numeric simulations were conducted with an uncoupled structure-section analysis, placing special emphasis on the SFRC layer contribution. The results show that, in all cases, the main flexural strength is provided by the RC layer, with a secondary flexural contribution (between 8% and 15%) by the sprayed SFRC layer. Using satisfactory spraying sequences (detailed herein), a reduction in the steel reinforcement of the RC layer can be obtained in every structural configuration and construction sequence, reaching a maximum percentage reduction of 7.0% of the total bending reinforcement. The displacements are almost completely governed by the thickness of the first layer, and a minor reduction (less than 7.3%) is obtained, when the second layer is included.

  • Radiological protection and mechanical properties of concretes with EAF steel slags

     González-Ortega, Martha Alejandra; Segura Pérez, Ignacio; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Toralles-Carnonari, Berenice; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Andrello, A. C.
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2014-01-31
    Journal article

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    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of concretes with EAF slags with structural responsibility exposed to gamma radiation. Six mixes were designed: four concretes made with EAF slags, one conventional concrete, and one heavyweight concrete with barite aggregates. Tests were performed to assess properties such as occluded air, density, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and gamma rays attenuation (µ). The mechanical properties of concretes with EAF are similar or higher than the measured for conventional concretes and, in all cases, are significantly higher than the obtained for concretes with barite. Although the attenuation coefficients of the concretes with EAF slags are lower than that of concrete with barite, the differences in terms of the equivalent wall thickness are relatively small. Such results support the use of EAF slags as a structural concrete with radiological protection capability.

  • FIBHAC: Fibras y hormigón autocompactante. Desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de dovela prefabricada para túneles

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Desarrollo de mejores rehabilitaciones locales en infraestructuras (MERLIN)

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Characterization of the properties of steel fiber reinforced concrete by means of the generalized Barcelona test

     Carmona Malatesta, Sergio; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Molins Borrell, Climent
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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  • Analysis of differences in the behaviour of traditional and self-compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete

     Liao, Lin; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    International Conference Fibre Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fibre orientation in SFRC slabs

     Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    International Conference Fibre Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Steel fibre reinforced concrete precast segments for vertical shafts

     de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Liao, Lin; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    International Conference Fibre Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Analytical model for the generalization of the Barcelona test by using the axial displacement to determine the toughness of the FRC

     Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    International Conference Fibre Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of temperature on the assessment of fibre content and orientation with the inductive method

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; López Carreño, Rubén - Daniel; Torrents Dolz, Josep Maria; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    International Conference Fibre Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Incorporación del hormigón reforzado con fibras en el programa de un curso de estructuras de hormigón

     Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Jornadas Internacionales de Enseñanza de la Ingeniería Estructural
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Design of macro-synthetic fibre reinforced concrete pipes

     de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Campos Escariz, Renata; Domingues de Figueiredo, Antonio; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-06-03
    Journal article

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    This paper presents an experimental campaign in which concrete pipes were manufactured using plastic fibres as the sole reinforcement material. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that the use of plastic fibres is compatible with pipe production systems, and that, when subjected to the crushing test (CT), plastic fibre reinforced pipes yield strength classes that are attractive in terms of the growth of this material in the concrete pipe industry. Moreover, the results obtained from both the characterisation of the material and the mechanical behaviour of the pipes have been used to verify that the Model for the Analysis of Pipes (MAPs) is an appropriate tool for the design of such pipes. Finally, this paper presents a direct design methodology which was used to establish the firsts design tables for fibre reinforced concrete pipes presented in the scientific literature. This methodology can be used to estimate the strength requirements of the fibre reinforced concrete needed to reach the strength classes set out in EN 1916:2002, without having to resort to the CT as an indirect design method.

    This paper presents an experimental campaign in which concrete pipes were manufactured using plastic fibres as the sole reinforcement material. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that the use of plastic fibres is compatible with pipe production systems, and that, when subjected to the crushing test (CT), plastic fibre reinforced pipes yield strength classes that are attractive in terms of the growth of this material in the concrete pipe industry. Moreover, the results obtained from both the characterisation of the material and the mechanical behaviour of the pipes have been used to verify that the Model for the Analysis of Pipes (MAPs) is an appropriate tool for the design of such pipes. Finally, this paper presents a direct design methodology which was used to establish the firsts design tables for fibre reinforced concrete pipes presented in the scientific literature. This methodology can be used to estimate the strength requirements of the fibre reinforced concrete needed to reach the strength classes set out in EN 1916:2002, without having to resort to the CT as an indirect design method.

  • Gaudi and reinforced concrete in construction

     Grima Lopez, Rosa Maria; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Gomez Serrano, Jose
    International journal of architectural heritage
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    The first two decades of the 20th century witnessed the introduction and expansion of reinforced concrete as a building material in Spain. Few years passed between the introduction of the first patents in the most industrialized areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent generalization of the technique through scientific knowledge obtained in universities. This period coincides almost completely with the professional career of Antoni Gaudí, one of the most famous Catalan architects. This study reports that Gaudí had contact with this new material and discusses the transition he made from the traditional construction methods to the use of reinforced concrete in his later works. Placing the starting point in the relationship between Antonio Gaudí and the industrialists who built the first cement factories in Catalonia (especially Eusebi Güell), the research on the patents to which he had access are presented and the characteristics of his works with reinforced structures and materials are described.

    The first two decades of the 20th century witnessed the introduction and expansion of reinforced concrete as a building material in Spain. Few years passed between the introduction of the first patents in the most industrialized areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent generalization of the technique through scientific knowledge obtained in universities. This period coincides almost completely with the professional career of Antoni Gaudí, one of the most famous Catalan architects. This study reports that Gaudí had contact with this new material and discusses the transition he made from the traditional construction methods to the use of reinforced concrete in his later works. Placing the starting point in the relationship between Antonio Gaudí and the industrialists who built the first cement factories in Catalonia (especially Eusebi Güell), the research on the patents to which he had access are presented and the characteristics of his works with reinforced structures and materials are described.

  • New unreacted-core model to predict pyrrhotite oxidation in concrete dams

     Oliveira da Silva, Izelman; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Journal of materials in civil engineering
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    Pyrites and pyrrhotites are the most abundant minerals of the iron sulfide group in nature and may be found in the aggregates used to produce concrete. In the presence of water and oxygen, such compounds generate expansive reactions that may have severe structural damages. This is especially critical in concrete dams, given the large volume of material used and the restrictions in movement imposed by the surroundings. In these cases, the definition of adequate rehabilitation programs depends on the prediction of the expansive reaction evolution and the future behavior of the structure. Although models that describe solid particle¿gas reactions may be used with this purpose, none were specifically developed to simulate this phenomenon in dams. This paper introduces a new kinetic model based on the unreacted-core model for pyrrhotite oxidation. The comparison of the results obtained with this new model and with the direct application of the unreacted-core model show significant differences. Following an extensive parametric study, a simplified constitutive equation is proposed to estimate the pyrrhotite oxidation kinetics in concrete dams. The estimations performed with this constitutive equation agree with the experimental data obtained in the tests of different particle sizes.

  • New kinetic model to quantify the internal sulfate attack in concrete

     Oliveira, Izelman; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Cement and concrete research
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • Application of constitutive models in European codes to RC-FRC

     Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    The recent publication of codes for the design of FRC is a major step towards extending the use of the material. An in depth analysis indicates several differences between the constitutive models proposed in the existing codes. In this study, these models are compared and a numerical simulation is performed to evaluate their differences in terms of the structural behavior predicted and measured in an experimental program of RC-FRC elements. The predictions provided by the models fit satisfactorily the experimental results for elements with steel fibers and with plastic fibers

  • Estudio experimental y analítico sobre el comportamiento a compresión de paneles sandwich ligeros con EPS

     Carbonari, Gilberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Cansario Pérez, María del Mar; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Materiales de construcción (Madrid)
    Date of publication: 2013-07
    Journal article

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    This study presents a detailed characterization of the behavior of EPS sandwich panels subject to normal load taking into account several variables. For that, two experimental programs were performed, leading to the proposal of an analytical formulation to estimate the maximum load resisted. The results obtained show how the height of the panel, the material properties, the position and configuration of the reinforcement may affect the resistance of panels. Special attention should be given to the eccentric position of the reinforcement, which may reduce considerably the maximum load resisted. Some recommendations about the optimum placement of the reinforcement are proposed.

  • Bi-layer diaphragm walls: experimental and numerical structural analysis

     Segura-Castillo, Luís; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Josa Garcia-tornel, Alejandro
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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    The bi-layer diaphragm wall, a new type of wall, consists of two concrete layers, the first of which is poured and the second sprayed, in different construction stages. A major aim of the research conducted is to maximize the functional attributes of the second layer, enhancing both structural performance and watertightness. The central objective of this study is to corroborate the structural behaviour of these walls in experimental and numerical terms. It follows a three-step methodology: a full-scale experimental campaign; development of a Finite Element Model (FEM) capable of predicting the structural behaviour of the wall; and, assessment of the second layer contribution. The experimental campaign confirmed the viability of the constructive solution and the FEM model accurately reflected the experimental data. A comparison between the bi-layer wall and other single-layer walls showed that the contribution of the second layer permitted reductions in first-layer reinforcement, adding to its various other functional advantages.

  • Ensayo de doble punzonamiento para concreto reforzado con fibra: efecto del tamaño y origen de la probeta

     Aire, Carlos; Molins Borrell, Climent; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Concreto y cemento: investigación y desarrollo
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Traditionally, to characterize the behavior of reinforced concrete with fiber (CRF) flexural tests are performed on beams. However, in accordance with various studies on FRC, it has been seen different variation coefficients of the order of 20 % for the results of flexural test beams. Recently, it has been developed a new method based on the double punching, called Barcelona test, as an alternative to determine the resistance to the indirect traction of the FRC. It is a test of easy execution over which a cylinder of 150 mm of diameter and 150 mm of height, undergoes double punching test, which allows to obtain the resistance to indirect tension of the FRC, with coefficients of variation less than those obtained by methods which employ beams. This article shows the results of a comparative study between results of resistance and toughness applying the Barcelona test obtained in molded test cylinders of 100 and 150 mm and cores of 93 and 153 mm.

  • Optimización térmica y energética de la doble fachada acristalada con ventilación mecánica en clima mediterráneo

     Cuerva Contreras, Eva
    Defense's date: 2013-11-04
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Bi-layer diaphragm walls: Experimental and numerical analysis

     Segura Castillo, Luis
    Defense's date: 2013-11-22
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Characterization and control of wet-mix sprayed concrete with accelerators

     Galobardes Reyes, Isaac
    Defense's date: 2013-11-22
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Interacciones microorganismo-hormigón: métodos de evaluación y posibles soluciones  Open access

     Vaquero Martinez, Jose Maria
    Defense's date: 2013-02-22
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La interacción microorganismo–hormigón es un proceso que, debido a la naturaleza porosa del hormigón, lo hace susceptible de ser colonizado por los microorganismos presentes en prácticamente todos los hábitats. Esta interacción puede provocar cambios indeseables en el hormigón o hacer que éste sea un foco de contaminación microbiológica, si bien, en algunos casos, la presencia de microorganismos puede ser beneficiosa. La presente tesis doctoral se focaliza en las interacciones negativas y tiene como objetivos principales, en primer lugar, realizar una selección de sustancias químicas y valorar su efectividad frente a microorganismos patógenos para el ser humano y/o su actividad (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger,) o frente al crecimiento de microorganismos que pueden provocar el biodeterioro del hormigón (Scenedesmus vacoulatus, Stichococcus bacillaris y Thiobacillus thiooxidans). En segundo lugar, desarrollar una metodología global (ensayos en laboratorio y ensayos de campo) que permita evaluar la efectividad de diferentes agentes químicos frente a diferentes factores a lo largo del tiempo. A nivel de laboratorio se realizan tres campañas de ensayos, en las que se evalúan las prestaciones antimicrobianas de 15 formulados diferentes (10 monocomponente y 5 multicomponente) que contienen 10 principios activos distintos. En la 1ª campaña de ensayos se valora la eficacia de los formulados monocomponente, poniéndose de manifiesto que ninguno de ellos alcanza los objetivos requeridos y, por tanto, se descartan debido a las siguientes razones: perjudicar las prestaciones fundamentales del hormigón (desarrollo de resistencias, densidad y consistencia), lixiviación del principio activo y, no alcanzar los niveles de actividad antimicrobiana aceptables. En la 2ª campaña se emplearon formulados multicomponente, obteniendo excelentes resultados con el formulado PL-UV H+M-2B, el cual presentó una efectividad antimicrobiana duradera en el tiempo sin comprometer el resto de prestaciones. Estas fueron confirmadas en condiciones reales de uso en la fase experimental de campo (puerto de Barcelona) retrasando la aparición de algas sobre la superficie de hormigón hasta en 16 semanas. Por último, en la 3ª campaña se evalúa la efectividad del formulado BXT/ I frente el ataque ácido sulfúrico biogénico producido por el metabolismo del Thiobacillus thiooxidans. En primera instancia se realizan los ensayos por impregnación mediante los cuales se demuestra, de forma cualitativa, que el formulado BXT / I inhibe el desarrollo del Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Posteriormente se lleva a cabo un ensayo en el que simula la acción del ácido sulfúrico biogénico siguiendo el método descrito por Vincke (1999), demostrándose que el empleo del formulado BXT/I reduce en más de un 30% la pérdida de masa de hormigón debida al metabolismo del Thiobacillus thiooxidans, considerándose, de esta manera, una solución efectiva contra este proceso de biodegradación. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, esta tesis doctoral propone una nueva metodología de evaluación global de la eficacia de principios activos antimicrobianos, en la que se abarca el estudio de la influencia del principio activo en las propiedades del hormigón, la posible lixiviación del principio activo, la eficacia del efecto antimicrobiano (cultivo microbiológico en placa de Petri) y su durabilidad, tanto a nivel de laboratorio como en ensayos de campo

    Microorganism-concrete interaction is a process which makes concrete a very porous material very susceptible to colonization by microorganism present in almost any habitat. This interaction may cause undesirable changes in the concrete and turn it a source of microbiological contamination. Although in some cases, the presence of microorganisms in concrete may be beneficial.This investigation is focused just on the negative interactions. Its main objectives are two, first one, to make a selection of chemicals and evaluate their effectiveness against pathogenic to humans and / or their activity (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger) or against the microorganisms growth that could cause concrete biodeterioration (Scenedesmus vacoulatus, and Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Stichococcus bacillaris). The second objetives is to develop a comprehensive methodology (laboratory tests and field trials) to evaluate the different chemicals effectiveness against different factors over time. The laboratory tests are divided in three phases, in which the antimicrobial efficiency of 15 different formulations (10 and 5 multi-component) containing 10 different active ingredients is evaluated. In the first phase the monocomponent products efficacy was assessed, evidencing that none of them reaches the required objectives and thus are discarded for the following reasons: key concrete properties were prejudiced (strength development, density and slump), chemical leaching and acceptable antimicrobial activity not reached. In the second phase multicomponent formulations were evaluated and when using PL-UV PL-H+M-2B excellent results were reached. This product presents a long lasting antimicrobial effect without compromising the rest of concrete performancesThese good results obtained with PL-UV PL-H+M-2B, were confirmed in real use conditions field trials conducted in the port of Barcelona, in which the algae appearance was delayed up to 16 weeks. Finally, in the third phase the BXT/I effectiveness against biogenic sulfuric acid (Thiobacillus thiooxidans metabolism) attack was evaluated. Firstly, impregnation tests were done and demonstrate, qualitatively, that BXT/I inhibits the T. thiooxidans growth. Subsecquently, sulfuric acid attack simulation tests were carried out, following the method described by Vincke (1999), showing that the use of formulated BXT/I reduced by more than 30% concrete mass loss due T. thiooxidans metabolism; hence, this treatment can be considered effective against this biodeterioration process. From the methodological point of view, this PhD proposes a new methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial chemicals efficacy by studying the chemical influence in concrete properties, its possible leaching, antimicrobial effectiveness (microbiological cultures in Petri plate) and its durability, both laboratory and field trials.

  • Caracterización y diseño del homigón reforzado con fibras plásticas  Open access

     Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo
    Defense's date: 2013-03-22
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordan aspectos de gran interés en relación a la caracterización del HRFP, la definición de una ecuación constitutiva considerando la orientación de las fibras, y el comportamiento diferido del material. Con ello se pretende contribuir a abrir el camino definitivo del HRFP como posible material de refuerzo frente a las tracciones en elementos con clara responsabilidad estructural y superar, de este modo, las barreras que existen en la actualidad. En primer lugar se analiza la validez de las metodologías de diseño propuestas en las distintas normativas y se evalúan los modelos constitutivos que en ellas se proponen. Para ello se han realizado dos campañas experimentales a escala real: la primera sobre elementos tipo vigas de hormigón reforzados con armadura mixta, es decir macro-fibras plásticas y armadura convencional y la segunda sobre losas hiperestáticas reforzadas únicamente con macro-fibras plásticas. En dicho análisis se ha observado que los planteamientos de análisis inversos tradicionalmente utilizados en dichas normativas conducen a una clara sobreestimación de los resultados experimentales para elementos únicamente reforzados con fibras plásticas. Ello es debido a que la configuración de los ensayos de caracterización a flexotracción y la geometría y orientación de las fibras en las probetas prismáticas utilizadas no son representativas de los elementos tipo losa. Así mismo, las ecuaciones constitutivas de EHE y RILEM (trilineal y multiilineal), son excesivamente optimistas para el cálculo de elementos únicamente reforzados con fibras plásticas. Todo ello pone de manifiesto la necesidad de revisar los modelos constitutivos propuestos en las normativas para el HRFP y proponer una nueva ecuación constitutiva para el diseño basada en una filosofía diferente. Como pasos previos hasta la definición de la nueva ecuación constitutiva con la que superar los inconvenientes de los enfoques actuales, se ha desarrollado un modelo analítico para convertir el desplazamiento de pistón (delta ) en TCOD, eliminando la necesidad de emplear la cadena extensométrica en el ensayo Barcelona. Adicionalmente, se ha propuesto un nuevo ensayo de caracterización (MDPT) con el que determinar la resistencia a fisuración, tenacidad y resistencia residual a tracción del HRF teniendo en cuenta de manera indirecta la orientación de las fibras según tres direcciones principales. Ambas propuestas se han validado en base a campañas experimentales con probetas y testigos de HRFP. Finalmente, se presenta y valida un nuevo planteamiento directo para predecir la respuesta postfisuración del HRFP a partir del ensayo MDPT. La nueva filosofía tiene sentido físico y refleja de forma fidedigna el comportamiento a tracción del material, considerando la orientación de las fibras bajo las condiciones reales de puesta en obra y geometría de la estructura. El comportamiento diferido del HRFP no debe convertirse en un inconveniente para el uso de este material siempre y cuando la consideración de sus efectos sea contemplada en el diseño estructural. Por ello, la Tesis se completa con el estudio de las deformaciones diferidas que se producen en elementos fisurados de HRFP cuando están sometidos a cargas de larga duración. Para ello se ha realizado un campaña experimental con la que se evalúa la influencia del nivel de carga y fisuración en el rendimiento a largo plazo del material bajo cargas mantenidas en el tiempo y se propone un modelo para predecir el comportamiento diferido de los HRFP en base a los resultados obtenidos.

    This thesis discusses issues of great interest for the design of PFRC regarding its characterization, the definition of a constitutive equation for PFRC that takes into account the orientation of fibers and its long-term behavior. First, in addition to reviewing the key technical papers on the definition of constitutive equations, a detailed analysis of the main regulatory models proposed Europe-wide for the use of structural fibre-reinforced concrete is done. The intention is to provide an overview of the most relevant aspects of these models and the conceptual grounds on which they were developed. A detailed comparative study was conducted to determine the capacity of each model analyzed to predict PFRC structural behaviour. In this part, two real scale experimental campaigns are conducted: the first one with beams reinforced with both, macro-plastic fibers and conventional reinforcement and the second on hyperstatic slabs only reinforced with macro- plastic fibers. The results of the experimental campaigns are compared to the numerical results obtained with the constitutive equations analyzed. The inverse analysis approaches traditionally used for design of FRC lead to a clear overestimation of the experimental results in the case of the real-scale slabs, which were only reinforced with plastic fibres.This may be attributed to the characterization tests (flexural tests on small beams), whose test setup, geometry of the specimens and the fiber orientation are not representative the real-scale slabs. Likewise, the constitutive equations proposed by RILEM and EHE (trilinear and multilinear, respectively) are overly optimistic for the design of PFRC elements. This highlights the need to review the existing constitutive models for PFRC and propose a new constitutive equation, based on a different philosophy. As the first step to obtain a constitutive equation that overcomes the drawbacks of the existing approaches, an analytical model to transform the axial displacement (d) into TCOD in the Barcelona test is developed (eliminating the need to use in the chain gage). In addition to that, a new characterization test (MDPT) is proposed to determine the cracking strength, toughness and tensile residual strength of the PFRC indirectly considering the fiber orientation in three main directions. Both proposals are validated with experimental results. Finally, a new direct approach to predict the PFRC postcracking response by means of the MDPT test is presented and validated. The rational and comprehensive new approach provides physical insight that may be gathered into a straightforward procedure, in which the real orientation of the fibers (according to the casting method and the geometry of the structural application) is considered to obtain the tensile behavior of the material. Creep behavior of PFRC must not become an inconvenience for the use of this material as long as the its effects areconsidered in the structural design. Thus, this thesis includes the study of long-term deformations occurring in cracked specimens of FRCP when subjected to long-term loading. An experimental campaign iscarried out in order to evaluate the influence of load and cracking levels in the long-term performance of the material under maintained load over time. Based on the results, a simple model to predict the creep behavior of PFRC is proposed.

  • Characterization and modelling of SFRC elements  Open access

     Blanco Álvarez, Ana
    Defense's date: 2013-03-20
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The use of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) as a construction material has expanded beyond the traditional applications since the publication of design codes and guidelines. In fact, the industry is demanding FRC with increasing structural responsibilities and, in some cases, with the fibres as the only reinforcement. Despite the remarkable advances in the fibre reinforcement technology and the publication of design guidelines, questions continue to arise regarding the performance, the characterization and the modelling of the material. The definition of the constitutive model of FRC and the development of methods for the characterization have been extensively studied. However, their adequacy for certain applications still remains an issue. Moreover, properties such as the fibre orientation and the creep behaviour are not minor concerns and need to be properly considered. These subjects require further research in order to work towards an accurate and efficient design procedure. In this context, the great interest of the industry to understand better FRC behaviour has created the opportunity of performing small-scale and real-scale tests that are a valuable source of information. Therefore, a rather generalist doctoral thesis covering several subjects about the characterization and modelling of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) elements is proposed. The subjects addressed in this research refer to the flexural behaviour and modelling of RC-SFRC beams (beams with combined reinforcement of steel fibres and rebars); the flexural behaviour, fibre orientation and modelling of SFRC slabs with changing dimensions; the prediction of the tensile behaviour of SFRC and the post-cracking creep behaviour of SFRC. The first subject concerns the adequacy of the constitutive models proposed in the current European codes and guidelines to model the flexural response of RC-SFRC beams. For that, real-scale elements with different steel fibres and fibre contents were tested. The results of the numerical modelling show that, in general, these constitutive models reproduce satisfactorily the experimental data. In the second subject, based on the flexural behaviour of real-scale SFRC slabs, geometry factors are proposed to compensate for the inaccuracies of the current constitutive models to reproduce the response of such elements. The study conducted on the modelling of the flexural behaviour of the slabs allowed identifying a favourable effect of the fibre orientation (fibre network effect) as the width of the slabs increased. The third subject covers a proposal of an analytical formulation to estimate the tensile stress-strain diagram of FRC from the results of the Barcelona test. The validation performed indicates the applicability of the new model to concrete with either steel fibres or plastic fibres. The last subject focuses on the post-cracking creep behaviour of SFRC, which is assessed by performing flexural tests under sustained load on pre-cracked small-scale beams. Based on the results, a simple model to predict the evolution of the creep coefficient with time is proposed.

  • Estudio del efecto de la nauraleza del árido reciclado en la microestructura y propiedades de la zona de transición árido-pasta de cemento.  Open access

     Sidorova, Anna
    Defense's date: 2013-07-24
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Hoy día está ampliamente reconocido que la estructura de la matriz de cemento en las proximidades de los áridos, es distinta a la del resto de la pasta, aunque dicha microestructura de la zona interfacial es variable en función de la naturaleza del cemento, del tipo de áridos, de las condiciones de curado, etc. Los estudios de diferentes investigaciones muestran que la formación de la ITZ depende no solo de las propiedades de la pasta sino también de la naturaleza, propiedades físicas y químicas de los áridos empleados. El uso de los áridos reciclados y los estudios de las propiedades de hormigones con áridos reciclados tienen alto interés en todo el mundo y es el tema de muchas investigaciones de los últimos años. Las características y propiedades de la zona de transición tienen gran influencia en una parte de las propiedades del hormigón, especialmente la resistencia, la rigidez y la durabilidad. Explicando los conocimientos existentes sobre la microestructura de hormigón, sobre sus fases, tales como la matriz de pasta de cemento, los áridos y la ITZ, aplicando diferentes métodos de ensayos, como microdureza Vickers, SEM, nanoindentación, se plantea este tesis con el objetivo principal de proporcionar nuevos conocimientos de la microestructura formada y en particular de la ITZ de los hormigones de áridos reciclados, para comprender mejor el comportamiento de este material. Se han realizado una amplia campaña experimental donde se ha estudiado las propiedades de pastas de cemento y morteros con y sin aditivos (superplastificante e inclusor de aire); se ha estudiado y ha comparado la ITZ formada en las pastas de cemento con áridos reciclados de hormigón y reciclados de cerámica y también, la influencia de la humedad del árido reciclado de hormigón. Como referencia se ha estudiado la pasta de cemento con inclusión de árido natural calizo. Finalmente, se ha realizado el análisis y comparación de los resultados obtenidos de los diferentes ensayos realizados durante el estudio.

    Today it is highly recognized that the structure of the matrix of the cement paste near of the aggregates is different from the rest of the cement paste, although this microstructure of the interfacial zone (ITZ) is variable according to the nature of the cement, of the type of aggregate, of the conditions of curing, etc. The studies of different investigations show that the formation of the ITZ depends not only on the properties of the cement bulk but also of the nature, physical and chemical properties of the aggregates. The use of the recycled aggregates and the studies of the properties of the recycled concretes have high interest in the whole world and it is the subject of many investigations of last years. The characteristics and properties of the interfacial transition zone have big influence in a part of the properties of the concrete, especially the resistance, the tiffness and the durability. Explaining the existing knowledge on the microstructure of concrete, on its phases, such as matrix of cement paste, the aggregates and the ITZ, applying differences experiments, like micro hardness Vickers, SEM, nanoindentation, this thesis have the main objective to provide new knowledge of the formation of microstructure and in particular of the ITZ en concretes with recycled aggregate, to better understanding of the behavior of this material. During the experimental program were studied the properties of cement paste and mortars with and without additives (superplasticizer and air-entrainment); were compared the formed ITZ in the cement paste with recycled aggregate of concrete and recycled aggregates of ceramics and also was studied the influence of the humidity of the recycled aggregate of concrete. The cement bulk with inclusion of natural lime aggregate was produced, as reference. Finally, have been realized the analysis and comparison of the obtained results of the different experiments realized during the study.

  • Estructuras en Cataluña: volumen 11: curso 2012-2013

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Segura Pérez, Ignacio
    Date of publication: 2013-07
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  • Estructuras en Cataluña: volumen 10: curso 2011-2012

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto
    Date of publication: 2013-04-29
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  • Método de doble punzonamiento de tracción indirecta para concreto reforzado con fibra: Ensayo Barcelona

     Aire, Carlos; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Molins Borrell, Climent
    Date of publication: 2013-12-10
    Book

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    The present work describes the results of an experimental investigation on the performances of concrete specimens reinforced with steel fibers using the double punch test (DPT). The DPT is an indirect tensile test based on the configuration of double-punch test, named, Barcelona test that was developed for the systematic control of fiber reinforced concrete. DPT can be carried out by testing 150 × 150 mm concrete cylinders subjected to double punching test. Previous experimental results have showed that DPT gives significantly lower variability compared to other test methods. In the test performed, indirect tensile strength and fracture toughness result obtained by DPT were compared using molded cylinder and core concrete specimens.

  • UHPC Escofet Slimconcrete

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Award or recognition

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  • Premi Construmat al Producte

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Award or recognition

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  • FIBHAC: Fibras y hormigón autocompactante. Desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de dovela prefabricada para túneles

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Desarrollo de mejores rehabilitaciones locales en infraestructuras (MERLIN)

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • New analytical model to generalize the Barcelona Test using axial displacement

     Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Journal of civil engineering and management (Spausdinta)
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    The Barcelona Test has proved to be very suitable for the systematic control of the tensile properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC). Nevertheless, the need to measure the total circumferential opening displacement (TCOD) of the specimen entails the use of an expensive circumferential extensometer. In order to simplify the test, studies from the literature propose the use of the axial displacement of the press (d) instead of the TCOD, obtaining empirical equations to correlate the energy estimated with both measurements. However, these equations are only valid for d ranging from 1 to 4 mm and were adjusted based on the test results of just a few types of FRC. The verification of this formulation for other types of FRC shows an average error of 51.1%, thus limiting the simplification proposed for the test. In this paper, a new analytical model to convert the d into the TCOD is developed and validated for a wide range of FRC. Besides being applicable to the whole range of d, the new model provides a clear physical understanding of the main mechanism observed during the test and shows an average error of only 6.7%, making it possible to simplify the Barcelona test.

    The Barcelona Test has proved to be very suitable for the systematic control of the tensile properties of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC). Nevertheless, the need to measure the total circumferential opening displacement (TCOD) of the specimen entails the use of an expensive circumferential extensometer. In order to simplify the test, studies from the literature propose the use of the axial displacement of the press (δ) instead of the TCOD, obtaining empirical equations to correlate the energy estimated with both measurements. However, these equations are only valid for δ ranging from 1 to 4 mm and were adjusted based on the test results of just a few types of FRC. The verification of this formulation for other types of FRC shows an average error of 51.1%, thus limiting the simplification proposed for the test. In this paper, a new analytical model to convert the δ into the TCOD is developed and validated for a wide range of FRC. Besides being applicable to the whole range of δ, the new model provides a clear physical understanding of the main mechanism observed during the test and shows an average error of only 6.7%, making it possible to simplify the Barcelona test.

  • Estimación de las imperfecciones de contacto límite en juntas circunferenciales

     Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Congresso Brasileiro de Túneis e Estruturas Subterrâneas
    Presentation's date: 2012-03-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Ejecución de pilares de hormigón autocompactante con acabado visto en un edificio de oficinas en L¿Hospitalet de Llobregat

     Ainchil Lavin, Javier; Durà, F.; Félez, C.; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Parellada, R.
    Congreso Iberoamericano sobre Hormigón Autocompactante
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Innovación del hormigón con fibras estructural

     Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Agulló Fité, Luís; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Segura, L
    Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Civil
    Presentation's date: 2012-02-23
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  • Metodología para el diseño óptimo de dovelas de hormigón reforzado con fibras

     de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Pujadas Alvarez, Pablo; Blanco Álvarez, Ana; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Congresso Brasileiro de Túneis e Estruturas Subterrâneas
    Presentation's date: 2012-03-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En este trabajo se presentan una de las experiencias más relevantes relativas al uso de fibras estructurales como refuerzo del hormigón substitución prácticamente toda la armadura pasiva tradicional en dovelas para anillos de revestimiento en el área metropolitana de Barcelona. Es conocido, que la adición de fibras estructurales mejora, por una parte, la respuesta estructural del elemento durante su construcción, especialmente durante la acción del empuje de los gatos, y, por otra parte, conduce a reducciones globales de los costes en virtud de la disminución de la cuantía de armadura pasiva tradicional que se produce. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en exponer uno de los varios casos reales de aplicación de esta tecnología en túneles urbanos así como el método de diseño implementado para tener en cuenta la contribución de las fibras a nivel seccional. El caso que se presenta, en particular, ha permitido reducir hasta un 70% de la armadura pasiva convencional mediante el empleo de 25 kg/m3 de fibras metálicas. A la luz de este buen resultado, así como de la robustez del método de diseño propuesto, varias compañías de prefabricación españolas de dovelas para túneles se han interesado por este sistema así como de las ventajas que aparecen fruto del uso de fibras en este tipo de elementos. Esta actitud positiva e innovadora ha sido fuertemente influenciada por la aprobación de la nueva Instrucción de Hormigón Estructural española (EHE-08), la cual incluye un anejo (Anejo 14. Recomendaciones para la utilización de hormigón con fibras) en la que se regula y se exponen las bases de diseño, fabricación y control de elementos de hormigón reforzado con fibras.

  • Comparación entre ensayos para evaluar la segregación en hormigones autocompactantes

     Parapinski Dos Santos, Ana Carolina; Pialarissi Cavalaro, Sergio Henrique; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Congreso Iberoamericano sobre Hormigón Autocompactante
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Análisis numérico de la influencia de la fisuración en el comportamiento de una presa de hormigón

     Campos, A.; Lopez Garello, Carlos Maria; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Encuentro del Grupo Español de Fractura
    Presentation's date: 2012-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper introduces a 2D simulation of a cross section of the block 13-14 of Mequinenza Dam, which presents pronounced and uncommon remaining displacements. Joint elements have been included in to the model with a nonlinear constitutive law in order to represent the cracking of concrete. Potential cracking planes defined according with the crack pattern observed in the upstream face were incorporated. The numerical results show how the formation, evolution and opening of a series of horizontal cracks provide much of the observed displacements, thus helping to explain the uncommon behavior detected in the dam. In this study, the influence of fracture parameters such as tensile strength and fracture energy of the joints was considered. En este artículo se presenta una simulación 2D de una sección transversal del bloque 13-14 de la presa de Mequinenza que presenta unos movimientos remanentes acentuados en este bloque. Se ha incluido elementos junta con un comportamiento constitutivo no lineal para representar la fisuración. Se han incorporado en el modelo planos potenciales de fisuración, coincidiendo con algunas juntas de construcción, para lo cual se ha tenido en cuenta un levantamiento detallado de fisuras realizado en paramento aguas arriba de la presa. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos muestran cómo la formación, evolución y apertura de una serie de fisuras horizontales aportan gran parte de los desplazamientos observados en la estructura y permiten explicar de forma consistente el comportamiento diferenciado detectado en la presa. Los trabajos han incluido diversos análisis sobre la influencia de parámetros de fractura, como la resistencia a tracción y la energía de fractura de las juntas.

  • Muros pantalla bi-capa: adherencia entre hormigones a primeras edades evaluada mediante ensayos de corte y pull-off

     Segura Castillo, Luis; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Jornadas Sul Americanas de Engenheria Estructural
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

     Grünewald, Steffen; Laranjeira de Oliveira, Filipe; Walraven, Joost; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Molins Borrell, Climent
    RILEM International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The performance of fibre-reinforced materials in the hardened state depends on the material behaviour, the production method and influences related to the structure. The position and the orientation of fibres in a structure can differ from the homogenous distribution and the random orientation in a mixer. Due to the flow of the concrete, fibres are able to orient which makes the prediction of the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete more complex, but it also offers the potential for an improved structural performance. Synergetic effects were observed with regard to flowable concrete related to the fibre efficiency. This paper discusses two studies on the effect of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre- reinforced concrete. The first study discusses the relation between fibre orientation and the distribution of fibre orientation. The analysis indicates that the variation of fibre orientation follows a Gaussian law and the distribution of fibre orientation can be predicted from the average fibre orientation. The second study on tunnel segments discusses the influence of production on the fibre orientation and how this affects the splitting tensile strength. The fibre orientation affects the fibre efficiency and the structural performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete.

  • Ensayo de doble punzonamiento (ensayo Barcelona) para caracterizar el comportamiento del hormigón reforzado con fibra

     Aire, Carlos; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Molins Borrell, Climent
    Congreso Internacional y Reunión Técnica Asociación Argentina de Tecnología del Hormigón
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tradicionalmente, para caracterizar el comportamiento del hormigón reforzado con fibra se realizan ensayos de flexotracción en vigas. Sin embargo, existen otros procedimientos que debido a la complejidad y variabilidad de sus resultados no son considerados como procedimientos sistemáticos de control. Recientemente, se desarrolló un nuevo método llamado ensayo Barcelona, como una alternativa para determinar la resistencia a tracción indirecta del hormigón reforzado con fibra. Es un ensayo de fácil ejecución mediante el cual un cilindro de 150 mm de diámetro y 150 mm de altura, se someten a ensayo de doble punzonamiento. El método permite obtener la resistencia a tracción del hormigón confinado con fibra con coeficientes de variación menor a los obtenidos por otros métodos. Este artículo presenta un estudio comparativo entre los resultados de resistencia y tenacidad aplicando el ensayo Barcelona y el de Flexotracción.

  • Macro-synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological characterization

     Domingues de Figueiredo, Antonio; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Pícolo Salvador, Renan; Campos Escariz, Renata
    Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Use of double punching test (Barcelona test) for quality control of fiber reinforced concretes

     Carmona Malatesta, Sergio Alejandro; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Molins Borrell, Climent
    International Conference: Concrete in the Low Carbon Era
    Presentation's date: 2012-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Traditionally, flexural testing is used to characterize the strength and post–peak behavior of fiber–reinforced concretes (FRC). Nevertheless, these tests results exhibit a high dispersion, and therefore invalidate their use as tests for the systematic control of FRCs in works. Also, they have the disadvantage of being complex tests, which require heavy specimens and highly qualified staff. With the aim to solve these problems, an indirect tensile test based on double punching test set up, called the Barcelona test, has been proposed to control tensile behavior of FRC. This test requires smaller specimens, with a high specific surface of fracture, allowing obtain values representative of strength and toughness of materials, with considerably less dispersion than other experimental methodologies, and was recently standardized in Spain. This paper presents the results of an experimental program, which validate the use of Barcelona test as a suitable methodology to systematic characterization FRC in works.

  • Influence of the sample preparation in the determination of the pH in pastes, mortars and concretes

     Manso Blanco, Sandra; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Segura Pérez, Ignacio
    Congresso Brasileiro do Concreto
    Presentation's date: 2012-10
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  • Numerical analysis of Mequinenza dam

     Buil, J.; Río, F.; Campos, A.; Lopez Garello, Carlos Maria; Aguado De Cea, Antonio
    Congres des Grands Barrages de la Commission International des Grands Barrages
    Presentation's date: 2012-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Due to its historical and strategic significance, the Mequinenza dam has a vital importance within the Spanish hydrographic system. From its early stages in the 1960s, it is endowed with a complex and complete auscultation system which at one time detected some remanent displacements, the cause of which was attributed to the swelling (expansion induced by water absorption) of the dam concrete. The works carried out during the 1970s were efficient in controlling the movements, but the diagnosis given includes several questionable aspects. The diagnosis has been recently reformulated and a new proposal has been put forward, explaining the displacements produced more consistently [1]. This paper introduces a numerical analysis based on the 2D finite elements method (FEM), which includes joint elements with no thickness in order to represent the formation and growth of cracking, the results from which support the new proposal regarding the behavior of this dam.