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  • Predicting the flammable region reach of propane vapor clouds

     Vílchez, Juan; Villafañe, Diana; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of loss prevention in the process industries
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    Liquified gas fuels are widely used around the world, and the growth of LNG and LPG consumption continues to increase. However, using these fuels can lead to accidents if they are released to the environment. Consequently, the challenge to control and predict such hazards has become an objective in emergency planning and risk analysis. In a previous article the ¿Dispersion Safety Factor¿ (DSF) was proposed, defined as the ratio between the distance at which the lower flammability limit concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of a vapor cloud. Its interest was demonstrated by applying it to the specific case of an LNG spill. With the appropriate modifications, this factor may be applied to the dispersion of other substances; in this communication it is applied to the atmospheric dispersion of propane, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. Due to the similarity between the properties of both gases, these expressions could probably be applied as well to the dispersion of propylene

    Liquified gas fuels are widely used around the world, and the growth of LNG and LPG consumption continues to increase. However, using these fuels can lead to accidents if they are released to the environment. Consequently, the challenge to control and predict such hazards has become an objective in emergency planning and risk analysis. In a previous article the “Dispersion Safety Factor” (DSF) was proposed, defined as the ratio between the distance at which the lower flammability limit concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of a vapor cloud. Its interest was demonstrated by applying it to the specific case of an LNG spill. With the appropriate modifications, this factor may be applied to the dispersion of other substances; in this communication it is applied to the atmospheric dispersion of propane, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. Due to the similarity between the properties of both gases, these expressions could probably be applied as well to the dispersion of propylene.

  • The significance of domino effect in chemical accidents

     Hemmatian, Behrouz; Abdolhamidzadeh, B; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of loss prevention in the process industries
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    A historical survey was performed on 330 accidents involving domino effect, occurred in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials; only accidents occurred after 1st-January-1961 have been considered. The main features – geographical location, type of accident, materials involved, origin and causes, consequences, domino sequences – were analyzed, with special consideration to the situation in the developing countries and compared to those from other previous surveys. Among the involved substances, LPG was the most frequent one, followed by liquid hydrocarbons. Process plants (38.5% of cases) and storage areas (33%) were the most common settings; 10.6% of past domino accidents occurred in transfer operations. The ratio between “two-step” and “three-step” domino accidents was found to be 6. A specific analysis of the accidents (84) occurred in the 21st century was performed, comparing them with the total set of accidents. Finally, a set of specific recommendations inferred from the results is provided.

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    Analysis of methodologies and uncertainties in the prediction of BLEVE blast  Open access

     Hemmatian, Behrouz; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    Even though BLEVEs have been studied by a number of authors, there are still significant gaps in their knowledge and in the prediction of their physical effects. Diverse methodologies have been proposed to calculate the peak overpressure of the explosion, but their results sh ow an important scattering. Most of them assume a reversible, isentropic phenomenon, not at all logical for an explosion. Instead, some recent papers have assumed an irreversible process, much closer to the real phenomenon. This communication analyses these aspects, comparing the results obtaine d by applying the diverse methodologies to data obtained from a real case. The uncertainties found (v essel failure mode, directional effects) are also commented. Finally, some conclusions are derived on the best way to estimate the overpressure.

    Even though BLEVEs have been studied by a number of authors, there are still significant gaps in their knowledge and in the prediction of their physical effects. Diverse methodologies have been proposed to calculate the peak overpressure of the explosion, but their results sh ow an important scattering. Most of them assume a reversible, isentropic phenomenon, not at all logical for an explosion. Instead, some recent papers have assumed an irreversible process, much closer to the real phenomenon. This communication analyses these aspects, comparing the results obtaine d by applying the diverse methodologies to data obtained from a real case. The uncertainties found (v essel failure mode, directional effects) are also commented. Finally, some conclusions are derived on the best way to estimate the overpressure.

  • Socio-economic impact of the maritime transport and ports in the Mediterranean and Black Seas

     Puig, Martí; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    PERSEUS Scientific Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2014-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Environmental pressures caused by ports in the Mediterranean and Black Sea

     Puig, Martí; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    PERSEUS Scientific Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2014-01-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds

     Vílchez Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Villafañe, Diana; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Date of publication: 2013-02-15
    Journal article

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    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire

  • Fuzzy model for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems

     Segui Julia, Xavier; Pujolasus, Edgar; Betró, S.; Àgueda Costafreda, Alba; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Ocampo Duque, W.; Rudolph, Ignacio; Barra, Ricardo; Páez, Martha; Baron, E.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló Culleres, Damià; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    Environmental pollution
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers.

    We developed a model for evaluating the environmental risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to aquatic organisms. The model is based on fuzzy theory and uses information provided by international experts through a questionnaire. It has been tested in two case studies for a particular type of POPs: brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The first case study is related to the EU-funded AQUATERRA project, with sampling campaigns carried out in two Ebro tributaries in Spain (the Cinca and Vero Rivers). The second one, named the BROMACUA project, assessed different aquatic ecosystems in Chile (San Vicente Bay) and Colombia (Santa Marta Marsh). In both projects, the BFRs under study were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). However, the model can be extrapolated to other POPs and to different aquatic ecosystems to provide useful results for decision-makers.

  • Tracking global flows of e-waste additives by using substance flow analysis, with a case study in China

     Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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  • Human and environmental impact produced by e-waste releases at Guiyu region (China)

     Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Tanaka, Taku; Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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  • Environmental fate models

     Suciu, Nicoleta; Tanaka, Taku; Trevisan, Marco; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Capri, Ettore
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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  • Analysis of past accidents and relevant case-histories

     Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    Date of publication: 2013
    Book chapter

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    The diverse historical surveys on accidents involving domino effect have been analyzed to identify their significance and their most important features. From these data, the importance of domino effect among all accidents in the process industry and in the transportation of hazardous materials has been highlighted. The characteristics of this type of accidents have been studied with a statistical approach: origin and causes of domino effect, materials most frequently involved and effects and consequences of accidents. The significance of the diverse domino sequences have been assessed by using the relative probability event tree. Finally, four relevant cases have been discussed, corresponding to the following initiating events: two vapor cloud explosions (Buncefield, 2005 and Naples, 1985), one jet fire (Valero, 2007) and one accident associated with dust explosion.

  • Estudio de la dispersión e incendio de nubes inflamables de gas (GNL y GLP)  Open access

     Villafañe Santander, Diana
    Defense's date: 2013-06-20
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Esta tesis se centra en el estudio de la dispersión e incendio de nubes de vapor o gas inflamables resultado de vertidos de GNL y GLP, sustancias con un mercado claramente en expansión y un consumo basado en múltiples instalaciones de almacenamiento y diferentes formas de transporte. La posibilidad de un derrame y de la posterior formación de una nube inflamable es por tanto considerable. La aplicación de las medidas adecuadas de seguridad en las terminales y las instalaciones relacionadas con estos productos es fundamental para garantizar su seguridad. En caso de escape, un aspecto importante es la gestión de la emergencia una vez la nube ha alcanzado el estado estacionario (el tiempo para alcanzar este estado depende de la velocidad del viento, pero usualmente es muy corto). En esta situación, cualquier información acerca de la posición de la región inflamable de la nube puede ser muy útil. Se ha realizado un análisis histórico sobre 176 casos de incendio de nubes de vapor inflamables, el cual ha permitido obtener información sobre las causas, orígenes y consecuencias de este tipo de eventos. Se ha propuesto un factor de seguridad de dispersión (DSF) como una herramienta para ayudar a la toma de decisiones bajo estas circunstancias. El factor DSF es la relación entre la distancia alcanzada por el límite inferior de inflamabilidad y la distancia alcanzada por la nube visible. Los resultados obtenidos para el factor de seguridad de dispersión con el código DEGADIS concuerdan bastante bien con la evidencia de los datos experimentales a gran escala. Este factor es fuertemente dependiente de la humedad relativa del aire. Si la humedad relativa es alta, la nube será visible más allá de la región inflamable (DSF < 1). Si es baja, la región inflamable se extiende más allá del contorno de la nube visible (DSF > 1). En este último caso, la situación es potencialmente más peligrosa con respecto a la existencia de una fuente de ignición, ya que la nube inflamable no resulta visible en toda su extensión. Se proponen dos expresiones para estimar el factor DSF para el GNL en función de HR. Dicho factor ha sido también aplicado al caso de un derrame de gas propano licuado refrigerado a presión atmosférica, habiéndose propuesto expresiones para su estimación. Con respecto a la combustión de las nubes de vapor, se ha obtenido una nueva expresión que permite la predicción de la velocidad de propagación de la llama en función de la velocidad del viento, basada en diversas pruebas experimentales a gran escala realizadas con GNL entre 1968 y 1982, que da un mejor ajuste para velocidades elevadas del viento. Se ha propuesto asimismo un modelo relativamente sencillo para el cálculo de la altura de las llamas, basado en las dimensiones de la nube de gas en función del tipo de combustible y de las condiciones atmosféricas. El tamaño de las llamas depende del de la nube, siendo su altura siempre superior a la de ésta. Se ha observado de los diversos datos experimentos disponibles, que la altura de las llamas aumenta proporcionalmente a la de la nube visible.

    This thesis is focuses on the study of the dispersion and combustion of a vapor cloud resulting from the escape of LNG and LPG. The consumption of natural gas and LPG is clearly growing, and is based on multiple storage facilities and different types of transport. The possibility of a release and the subsequent vapor cloud formation is significant. The application of appropriate measures to ensure safety in terminals and facilities related to these products is essential to the community safety. An important aspect is the management of the emergency once the cloud has reached the stationary state (the time to reach this state depends on wind velocity, but is usually very short). In this situation, any information about the position of the flammable region of the cloud can be very helpful. A historical analysis of accidents involving vapor cloud fires has been carried out. 176 accidents have been analyzed, which have yielded information on the causes, origins and consequences of such events. A dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been proposed as a tool to help in the decision process under these circumstances. The parameter DSF is the ratio between the distance reached by the lower flammability limit and that of the visible cloud. The results obtained for the dispersion safety factor with the DEGADIS code agree fairly well with the evidence from experimental data obtained at large scale. This factor is strongly dependent on the atmospheric relative humidity. Thus, when high relative humidity prevails, the cloud will be visible for some distance beyond the flammable region (DSF < 1). When the relative humidity in the air is low, the flammable region extends beyond the visible cloud contour (DSF > 1). In this case, the flammable vapor cloud will not be visible at the location of any potential ignition source. Two expressions have been proposed to estimate the parameter DSF for a release of LNG according to the range of HR. The same treatment has also been applied to the case of a spill of liquefied propane gas cooled at atmospheric pressure. With respect to the combustion of the flammable vapor cloud, a new expression has been obtained, which determines the flame speed as a function of the wind speed, based on various large scale tests conducted with LNG between 1968 and 1982; this expression gives a better fit for high wind speeds. A relatively simple model of the flash fire has been developed based on the dispersion of the cloud as a function of fuel properties and atmospheric conditions (stability and wind velocity). The size of the flames will depend on the size of the cloud, being higher that the latter. It has been observed from the available data experiments, that the flame height increases proportionally to the visible cloud.

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    Environmental reporting and communication ¿ ¿Show me the evidence¿!  Open access

     Puig, Martí; Wooldridge, Chris; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    GreenPort Congress
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Risk-based optimization of the design of on-shore pipeline shutdown systems

     Medina, Héctor; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio
    Journal of loss prevention in the process industries
    Date of publication: 2012-05
    Journal article

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    Crude oil and other liquid materials are transported in large quantities through pipelines. Pipelines are an efficient and safe transport way as compared to both rail and road transportation, both from the economical and environmental points of view. Nevertheless, loss of containment accidents can occur due to external action ea mechanical impact, for examplee or to corrosion, aging, etc. Even though the frequency of such events is certainly very low, the effects and consequences on environment can be very important. The consequences of accidents in pipelines can be efficiently reduced through a suitable design of the whole system. One of the points which must be decided in the design is the installation of blocking valves at appropriate distances, so that emergency shutdowns can interrupt the flow of substance and isolate the section where the loss of containment has taken place. In the case of pipe rupture the amount released is therefore limited to the content between two consecutive valves, usually placed according to heuristic criteria. However, if too many valves are used, the capital cost of equipment increases excessively, and if too few are used, the risk of serious accidents increases. In this paper we consider the possibility of improving the design of such systems by applying riskbased optimization criteria. We propose an optimization methodology to solve this conflict by means of an objective function that analyzes the variations in overall costs, including the cost of the investment (with specific reference to blocking valves) and the cost of accidents. The result is an optimum situation in which costs are kept to a minimum. As an example, we apply the methodology to the transportation of gasoline by pipeline.

  • Risk analysis active learning through the investigation of real cases

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez, Juan Antoni; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Process safety and environmental protection
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Risk analysis is a topic of high relevance in chemical engineering. Courses on this topic are being introduced increasingly into the university curricula. The investigation of real cases is an interesting opportunity to consolidate the concepts taught in such courses and to get a better engagement of students through a creative work. The exercise proposed in this paper has to be performed by a group of students to whom a set of information has been provided. In the exercise, the students play the role of an expert team: they have to deliver a final report including diverse sections such as the description of the accident, the explanation of why and how it occurred, different calculations and finally, some conclusions. From the pedagogical point of view, the results obtained from this type of exercise are very positive and promote the students active and cooperative learning.

  • Thermal radiation from vertical jet fires

     Palacios, Adriana; Muñoz, Miguel; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Fire safety journal
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Geometric and thermal data, obtained from a series of large outdoor jet fire experiments, were used to estimate the thermal radiation intensity from the flames towards targets located at diverse distances. Vertical turbulent sonic and subsonic exit velocity propane jet fires, up to 10.3 m in length released in still air, were studied. The temperatures of the flame surface and the surface emissive power of the flame were also analysed by processing infrared images. Thermal radiation intensity was estimated by applying the solid flame model in both one-zone and multiple-zone configurations (taking into account the variation of surface emissive power), considering the flame as a cylinder defined by the 800 K isotherm. Experimental and predicted thermal radiation intensity values were compared.

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    Jet fires: a "minor" major accident?  Open access

     Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Palacios, Adriana
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Jet fires have received only a rather reduced attention as compared to other types of fires; this is probably due to the fact that they are usually much smaller that fireballs, pool fires or tank fires. However, jet fires often occur in areas where there is other equipment and the probability of flames impinging on a pipe or a vessel can be high. Furthermore, due to the turbulence of the phenomenon, the combustion in such fires is very good and high heat fluxes can seriously affect this equipment, thus originating a domino effect which will enlarge the scale of the accident. A historical survey has shown that, of the jet fires reported in accident data bases, 50 % caused another event with severe effects. In 90 % of the domino effect cases there was an explosion, usually of a vessel; this was especially frequent in transportation accidents. In this communication the main features of jet fires are commented: most frequent domino effect sequences, shape and size, thermal behaviour, mathematical modelling.

  • Application of life cycle from functional security to the maintenance of security valves

     Basco, J.; Vílchez, Juan Antoni; Blanco, E.; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Ingeniería química
    Date of publication: 2012-09
    Journal article

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  • Additives in the textile industry

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; González Dan, Jose Roberto; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Àgueda, Alba; Capri, Ettore; Fait, G; Schumacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Grundmann, Veit; Barceló, D; Ginebreda Marti, Antoni; Guillén, Daniel
    Date of publication: 2012-01-31
    Book chapter

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  • Global E-waste trade impact on China

     Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim
    Risk-based Management of Chemicals and Products in a Circular Economy at a Global Scale
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Environmental and human risk assessment of e-waste releases in China through USEtoxTM

     Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco
    Risk-based Management of Chemicals and Products in a Circular Economy at a Global Scale
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Jet fires: a "minor" fire hazard?

     Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Muñoz, Miguel; Palacios, Adriana
    International Conference on Safety & Environment in Process & Power Industry
    Presentation's date: 2012-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Use of a multimedia exposure model for health risk assessment of lead released during e-waste recycling processes in South of China

     Suciu, Nicoleta; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore; Tanaka, Taku; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim
    Risk-based Management of Chemicals and Products in a Circular Economy at a Global Scale
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Human and environmental impact produced by the e-waste releases at Guiyu Region (China)

     Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    Risk-based Management of Chemicals and Products in a Circular Economy at a Global Scale
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Application of the multimedia environmental model QWASI for asessing the aquatic risk in an area of informal e-waste recycling

     Heise, Susanne; Tien, Henning; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Suciu, Nicoleta; Trevisan, Marco; Capri, Ettore
    Risk-based Management of Chemicals and Products in a Circular Economy at a Global Scale
    Presentation's date: 2012-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Fuzzy approach for risk assessment of brominated flame retardants in aquatic ecosystems  Open access

     Pujolasus, Edgar; Betró, S; Segui Julia, Xavier; Àgueda, Alba; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Ocampo-Duque, W; Rudolph, I; Barra, R; Páez, M; Barón, E; Santín, G; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, D; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    SETAC Europe Annual Meeting
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Brominated flame retardants (BFR) are pollutants that represent a threat to both human health and environment due to their industrial use, their persistence and their ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains, especially in the aquatic one. For the last ten years contamination levels for this type of compounds have been reported for European, North American and Asian human tissue, sediments and biota samples [1-3]. However, monitoring efforts into the assessment of BFRs contamination levels in Latin America are scarce. In this study, a model for the evaluation of the environmental risk of BFRs in the aquatic ecosystems has been developed. It has been based on a technical application of the Fuzzy Theory [4]. In particular, three interconnected Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) have been created through the use of the Fuzzy Toolbox in Matlab. In order to improve and make the model scientifically robust, several international experts have been questioned about different information required to build the fuzzy system. Information from 38 questionnaires have been collected and statistically treated.

    Brominated flame retardants (BFR) are pollutants that represent a threat to both human health and environment due to their industrial use, their persistence and their ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in food chains, especially in the aquatic one. For the last ten years contamination levels for this type of compounds have been reported for European, North American and Asian human tissue, sediments and biota samples [1-3]. However, monitoring efforts into the assessment of BFRs contamination levels in Latin America are scarce. In this study, a model for the evaluation of the environmental risk of BFRs in the aquatic ecosystems has been developed. It has been based on a technical application of the Fuzzy Theory [4]. In particular, three interconnected Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) have been created through the use of the Fuzzy Toolbox in Matlab. In order to improve and make the model scientifically robust, several international experts have been questioned about different information required to build the fuzzy system. Information from 38 questionnaires have been collected and statistically treated.

  • Combination of SFA and multi-media fate modeling to assess the consequences of global trade and informal recycling of WEEE in China

     Tien, Henning; Heise, Susanne; Suciu, Nicoleta; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Segui Julia, Xavier; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    SETAC Europe Annual Meeting
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Medalla Narcís Monturiol al mèrit científic i tecnològic

     Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Award or recognition

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  • Generic event trees and probabilities for the release of different types of hazardous materials

     Vilchez Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Espejo, Vicenç; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of loss prevention in the process industries
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Assessment of the shape of vertical jet fires

     Palacios Rosa, Adriana; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Fuel (Guildford)
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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    Experiments were carried out on relatively large vertical propane sonic and subsonic exit velocity jet fires (up to approximately 10 m in length and 1.5 m in width). The main geometrical features of jet fires (flame shape, length and width) were determined by analyzing infrared images. From the observations of visible and infrared images, the flame boundary was defined as that corresponding to a temperature of 800 K. Results were compared with the shapes proposed in previous research projects. In the present study, data for sonic and subsonic exit velocity flames indicated that a cylindrical shape could accurately describe the shape of a vertical propane jet fire in still air. The length of such a cylindrical jet fire was the radiant flame length and the equivalent diameter was that corresponding to a volume equal to that surrounded by the aforementioned boundary. The ratio of flame length to diameter was found to be 7. Expressions are proposed to predict the values of jet flame length and width as a function of orifice exit diameter and Reynolds number.

  • Study of jet fires geometry and radiative features  Open access

     Palacios Rosa, Adriana
    Defense's date: 2011-01-11
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Entre els accidents greus que poden ocórrer a les instal·lacions industrials o durant el transport de substàncies perilloses, els dolls de foc presenten un especial interès. Tot i que tenen una distància relativament més curta d'afectació que altres accidents greus, es caracteritzen per originar grans fluxos de calor i, en cas de contacte de la flama amb un equip, originen sovint un efecte domino, desencadenant una subseqüent explosió, incendi o altres esdeveniments amb greus conseqüències.Diversos estudis experimentals i teòrics han estat efectuats; no obstant això, la majoria d'aquests han estat enfocats a dolls de foc a escala de laboratori, flames subsòniques o torxes, les condicions de les quals difereixen significativament d'aquelles trobades en dolls de foc accidentals reals, que normalment assoleixen majors longituds de flama i velocitats de sortida sònica. Aquesta manca d'investigació és la raó per explicar perquè els dolls de foc eren encara molt mal coneguts i la predicció dels seus efectes i conseqüències era encara un problema. Aquesta tesi ha estat elaborada per a obtenir informació nova i útil sobre els dolls de foc, millorant la comprensió de la seva geometría i de les característiques tèrmiques, mitjançant l'anàlisi, l'experimentació i el modelatge matemàtic.Aquest estudi s'ha centrat alhora en dades existents i en noves dades experimentals, implicant Aixa dolls de foc verticals i horitzontals alliberats en absència de vent, implicant diversos combustibles (hidrogen, metà i propà). L'estudi comprèn una àmplia gamma de variables d'operació (velocitats de sortida del combustible, pressions en la canonada i diàmetres d'orifici de sortida). L'estudi experimental ha implicat dolls de foc amb flames de fins a 10.3 m de longitud i 1.5 m d'amplada. El combustible utilitzat ha estat propà, amb velocitats de sortida sònica i subsònica, utilitzant diversos diàmetres d'orifici de sortida. Els dolls de foc han estat filmats amb dues càmeres de vídeo (VHS) i una càmera termográfica d'alta velocitat (IR). Les principals característiques geomètriques de les flames (dimensions i forma) han estat analitzades en funció de la velocitat de sortida del combustible,del flux màssic i del diàmetre d'orifici de sortida. L'anàlisi i tractament d'imatges infraroges i de les mesures obtingudes amb tres sensors de flux de calor situats a diferents distàncies de la sortida del doll de foc han permès l'obtenció de les seves principals característiques de radiació: flux de calor irradiat als voltants (persones i instal·lacions) en funció de la distancia, poder emissiu i emisivitat de les flames. Diverses expressions han estat proposades per estimar les dimensions de la flama en funció de diverses variables (flux màssic, diàmetre d'orifici de sortida i nombres de Froude i Reynolds). Els resultats i expressions obtinguts en aquest estudi contribueixen a una millor comprensió dels dolls de foc, representant un avanç en les metodologies i l'establiment de noves mesures, normes i polítiques de planificació per a la prevenció i/o el control d'aquest tipus d'accident greu amb foc, tant en establiments industrials com en el transport de materials perillosos.

    Among the major accidents that can occur in processing plants or in the transportation of hazardous materials, jet fires are of particular interest. Although they have a relatively shorter distance of influence than other major accidents, they are characterized by high heat fluxes and if there is flame impingement they can originate a domino effect, leading to a subsequent explosion, large fire, or other events with severe effects. Several experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out; however, most of those works have been focused on small-scale jet fires, subsonic flames or flares, the conditions of which significantly differ from those found in real accidental jet fires, usually reaching larger flame lengths and sonic exit velocities. This lack of research is the reason to explain why the current knowledge of jet fires was still rather poor and the accurate prediction of their effects and consequences was still a problem. The present thesis has been addressed to produce a significant amount of novel and useful information on jet fires, by improving understanding of jet fire structure, reach and radiative features, through analyses, experiment and mathematical modelling. This study has been focused on both existing and also new experimental jet flame data, comprising all together, turbulent non-premixed jet flames vertically and horizontally released into still air, involving several fuels (hydrogen, methane and propane), over a wide range of operational conditions (jet exit velocities, release pressures and pipe diameters). The experimental study developed in this thesis has concerned relatively large jet fires with flames of up to 10.3 m in length and 1.5 m in width. The fuel was propane, and both sonic and subsonic jet exit velocities were obtained from different outlet diameters. The jet fires were filmed with two videocameras registering visible light (VHS) and a thermographic camera (IR). The main geometrical features of the flames were analyzed as a function of the fuel velocity, mass flow rate and jet outlet diameter: jet flame size and flame shape. The treatment of infrared images and measurements obtained from three heat flow sensors located at different distances from the jet fire outlet also led the main radiative features of jet fires to be obtained: incident thermal radiation heat over a target, surface emissive power and emissivity of the flames.Expressions for estimating jet flame reach as a function of several variables (mass flow rate, orifice exit diameter, Froude and Reynolds numbers) have also been proposed. The results and the expressions obtained in this study contribute to a better understanding of jet fires for accurate risk assessment, allowing the obtention of important advances in risk assessment methodologies and the establishment of new measures, regulations, and risk planning policies for the prevention and/or control of this type of major fire, occurred world-wide in industrial establishments and in the transportation of hazardous materials.

  • Main Features and mathematical modelling of flash fires

     Villafañe, D; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Flash fire: historical analysis and modeling

     Villafañe, D; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Risk-based inspection and its applications to the optimization of chemical plants

     Medina, H; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Convective heat transfer around vertical jet fires: an experimental study

     Kozanoglu, Bulent Kozanoglu; Zárate, Luis Zárate; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Main features and mathematical modelling of flash fires  Open access

     Villafañe, Diana; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Assessing the effects of flash fires

     Villafañe, Diana; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fuzzy approach for risk assessment of brominated flame retardants in aquatic ecosystems of Latin America

     Àgueda, A.; Betrò, S.; Pujolasus, E.; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, D.; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    SETAC Europe Annual Meeting
    Presentation's date: 2011-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Environmental risk assessment of brominated flame retardants through fuzzy logic

     Betrò, S.; Pujolasus, A.; Àgueda, E.; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Ocampo-Duque, William; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, D.; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria
    RISKCYCLE Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Flash fire: historical analysis and modeling

     Villafañe, Diana; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Risk-Based inspection and its application to the optimization of chemical plants

     Medina, Héctor; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Review of models used for human health and environmental risk assessment

     Rovira Solano, Joaquim; Mari, M.; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo Fuster, Jose Luis; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Àgueda, A.; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Capri, Ettore; Tanaku, T; Ginebreda Marti, Antoni; Guillén, Daniel; Barceló, D.
    SETAC Europe Annual Meeting
    Presentation's date: 2011-05
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  • Aplicación del Análisis de Riesgos a la Optimización de Plantas Industriales

     Medina, Héctor
    Defense's date: 2010-12-14
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Palacios, Adriana; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Date of publication: 2010-09-06
    Journal article

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    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%).

  • The behaviour of vertical jet fires under sonic and subsonic regimes

     Palacios, Adiana; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Chemical engineering transactions
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • El risc químic i el territori

     Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Vilchez Sanchez, Juan Antonio
    Revista Catalana de Seguretat pública
    Date of publication: 2010-11-01
    Journal article

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  • The behaviour of vertical jet fires

     Palacios, Adriana; Gómez-Mares, Mercedes; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    13th International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Risk-based optimization of the design of on-shore pipelines shutdown systems

     Medina, Héctor; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio
    European Meeting on Chemical Industry and Environment
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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