Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
Total activity: 57
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Department of History and Theory of Architecture
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josep.quetglasupc.edu
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  • La idea d'espai a l'arquitectura de Martienssen. La casa Martienssen a Greenside.  Open access

     Miralles Jori, Roger
    Defense's date: 2012-02-10
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The PhD is a two-sided lecture of the work of Rex Martienssen (1905-1942). The first lecture is about his written production and the second about his built production. The former follows the well known book of Martienssen, The Idea of Space in Greek Architecture, first published in 1956; and the latter the house that he built for his wife and himself at Greenside, Johannesburg in 1941. This is the reason why the primary sources included in the Annex of the present PhD can be classified in two parts: on the one hand the writings of Martienssen, and on the other the drawings and specifications that he uses to build the house at Greenside. The PhD hypothesis is that the writings of Martienssen -his work on architecture criticism- show the only possible way to understand modernity in architecture and that this approach is valid both for ancient and modern architecture. Therefore, we can explain the Greenside house following his Martienssen¿s modern thesis on Greek Architecture. The PhD follows the structure of Martienssen¿s book and according to it, it presents three types of different architectonic criticism. The first critic concerns the objective data of architecture, base on its measurable aspects. This is the way how Martienssen and this PhD, choose to write about the city, the measurable aspects of the house and the types of construction: the city of Johannesburg on the 30¿s, the project of the house and his archaeology, and the building materials. The second critic is based on the relationship between the architecture and its surroundings. The relation of the Greenside house with the buildings that surround it, from the material and cultural point of view. This chapter examine the facade of the house in close relation to the idea of the city and to the British architectonic tradition of the 30¿s. At this point the PhD discusses the formal aspects of the house that are related with the modernity overseas ¿Terragni, Lubetkin and Léger- and to the architectonic tradition of the Renaissance facade. The third critic is based on architecture as a humanist discipline, on architecture as a discipline that puts the man in the centre of decision. There are two chapters pursuing this idea: the first is dedicated to the new constructivist idiom which focusses on the relation of the spectator with several new elements such as the concrete balcony, the material combination between modernity and tradition, the entrance canopy, the V-Pole, the par pilar-beam, and the fênetre longueur. The second is dedicated to the perception of the spectator as a moving entity in the area of the Greenside house. In this chapter, the sources that Martienssen uses to conceptualize his Temple and Temenos are discussed. The PhD reports not only Martienssen¿s classical sources but also the modern ones. It also analyses the relation of Martienssen with the architecture of his precessors: Choisy, Le Corbusier, Duiker, Rietveld, etc. Finally, it also analyses a successor of the same way of understanding architecture: the architecture of the Smithson¿s. The PhD concludes that Martienssen¿s architecture -both his built production and critisicm- can only be understood when the spectator is placed in the centre of the architectural problem. The idea of space is constructed by the spectator looking at the mental and material relations established between the constructed area and the human body. From this analysis it can be extrapolated that the criticism of data and the criticism of the relationship of architecture and its surroundings are useful to describe the built work but the only criticism capable of making us understand the purposes of modern architecture is the humanist one. This criticism is related to the spectator and to the ideas of the architect disposing the volumes, this criticism is the only one based on the specific object of architecture: space.

    La tesi és una lectura en dos temps de l'obra de Rex Martienssen (1905-1942). La primera lectura és de la producció escrita i la segona de la producció construïda. La primera segueix el ben conegut llibre de Martienssen, "The Idea of Space in Greek Architecture", publicat pòstumament l'any 1956; la segona descriu la casa que es va construir per ell, i la seva esposa, a Greenside Johannesburg al 1941. D'aquesta manera l'annex, el material amb el que s'ha bastit la tesis, està estructurat en dues parts: d'una banda els escrits de Martienssen i de l'altra els dibuixos i especificacions que va usar per construir la seva casa a Greenside. La hipòtesi és que els escrits de Martienssen -el seu treball crític- mostren l’únic camí possible per entendre l'arquitectura moderna. No importa si es parla d'arquitectura moderna o antiga, la crítica és la mateixa. D'aquesta manera podem explicar la casa a Greenside seguint les tesis modernes de Martienssen quan parla d’arquitectura grega. La tesi mostra tres tipus de crítica arquitectònica tot seguint l'estructura del llibre de Martienssen. La primera crítica es basa en les dades objectives de l'arquitectura, en els seus aspectes mesurables. D'aquesta manera Martienssen, i la present tesi, parlen de la ciutat, dels aspectes mesurables de la casa i dels sistemes constructius: la ciutat de Johannesburg als anys 30, el projecte de la casa i la seva arqueologia i els materials de construcció. La segona crítica es basa en les relacions entre l’arquitectura i el seu entorn. La relació de la casa de Greenside amb els edificis que l'envolten des del punt de vista físic i cultural. Aquesta part examina la façana de la casa en relació amb la idea de ciutat i la cultura arquitectònica britànica dels anys 30. És en aquest punt que la tesi explica els aspectes formals de la casa relacionats amb la modernitat Europa -Terragni, Lubetkin i Léger- i la tradició de la façana renaixentista. La tercera crítica es basa en l'arquitectura entesa com una disciplina humanista. L'arquitectura com una disciplina que posa l'home al centre de la decisió. Hi ha dos capítols que es funden en aquesta crítica: el primer és el que segueix el "constructivist idiom" i que es basa en la relació de l'espectador amb els nous elements arquitectònics: el balcó de formigó, la combinació de materials moderns i tradicionals, la marquesina d'entrada, el V-Pole, la dupla pilar-biga i la "fenêtre longueur". La segona està dedicada a la percepció de l'espectador entès com una entitat mòbil a l'àrea de la casa de Greenside. Aquest és el capítol on s'analitza el "Temple and Temenos" de Martienssen. No només s'expliquen les fonts clàssiques sinó que també les dels seus predecessors moderns: Choisy, Le Corbusier, Duiker, Rietveld, etc. I també s’analitza l'obra d'un successor de la mateixa manera d'entendre l’arquitectura. L'arquitectura dels Smithsons. La tesi conclou que l’arquitectura de Martienssen, tant la seva producció escrita com la construïda, poden ser enteses per un espectador situat al centre del problema arquitectònic. L'espectador és qui construeix la idea de l'espai mirant les relacions, mentals i materials, entre l'àrea construïda i el cos humà. Entendre com Martienssen limita l'espai i tracta d'engrandir-lo, és entendre la idea de l'espai en l'arquitectura de Martienssen. D'aquesta anàlisi es pot extrapolar que la crítica de les dades i la crítica de l'arquitectura en relació a l'entorn són útils per a descriure les construccions però l'única crítica capaç de fer-nos entendre l'arquitectura moderna és la humanista. Aquesta darrera crítica està relacionada amb l'espectador i amb les idees de l'arquitecte disposant els volums, aquesta crítica és l'única que es basa en l'objecte específic de l'arquitectura: l'espai.

  • El Libro abierto. Sistemas de representación arquitectónica en el libro Gesamtes Werk - Oeuvre complète. Le Corbusier - Pierre Jeanneret 1910-1929.  Open access

     Velásquez Hernández, Víctor Hugo
    Defense's date: 2012-03-26
    Department of Architectural Presentation I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The aim of this thesis is to study the book LE CORBUSIER UND PIERRE JEANNERET, IHR GESAMTES WERK VON 1910-1929, originally published in German in 1929 and reissued in 1937 as LE CORBUSIER ET PIERRE JEANNERET, ŒUVRE COMPLÈTE 1910-1929. The book brings together in one place some of his first projects, the ones he had planned and built at that point, and would later become the first volume of his complete works, a collection of eight volumes which covers much of his work as an architect and town planner over a period of 55 years (1910 -1965). From the time of the publication of the first volume onwards, the collection then becomes the main reference, the storage receptacle, the documentary source and the graphic support for the dissemination of his projects. The thesis aims to analyse the book in two distinct parts, differentiated by the figure of the closed and the open book. In the first part we study the closed book, that is, the book as an object in itself. It is an investigation into the origins of the book, the circumstances that led to its development and the people involved in this process, both the original 1929 edition and the reissued version of 1937. Formal considerations related to the format and typesetting are discussed, and a search for the book¿s precedents is undertaken, firstly from the point of view of Le Corbusier himself, as the prolific author he was becoming, with considerable and growing experience in the production of books and journal articles written to disseminate his architectural work. After this, the editorial context of the period will be examined in greater detail, through the study of previous and contemporary publications which might serve as a reference point, in particular those which contain drawings and/or other graphic information on his projects. The thesis also examines the books on architecture or on the works of prominent contemporary architects of the 1920s, a period of particular importance in the emergence and consolidation of modern architecture in Europe, and one in which publications played an important role. In the second part, the book is opened, and viewed from a highly specific perspective, that of architectural representation. First of all, the drawing of perspective, which is considered to provide key structural documentation on the book¿s content, is analysed. With this in mind, a specific methodology is proposed as part of the analysis: with the starting point of the technical reconstruction of the drawings, hypotheses were formed regarding the processes by which they were built, the possible intentions of the artist and the measures required to communicate these intentions. The thesis goes on to examine other systems, such as axonometric graphics, photography and photomontage, before highlighting the differences in the systems of representation used for three types of project: a) theoretical studies, in which Le Corbusier¿s main postulates in the fields of architecture and town planning, developed primarily for the exhibitions of 1922 and 1925, are outlined; b) constructed projects where the use of photography complements the drawing; and c) large-scale projects developed from 1927 onwards, by which time the workshop had at its disposal more staff and more orders. In order to reach some conclusions, the coherence and effectiveness of such systems and geometrical procedures are interpreted in the light of certain theories of the psychology of perception, and also bearing in mind the architect's own ideas.

  • L'arquitectura escolar de Guillem Forteza 1917-1943  Open access  awarded activity

     Mayol Amengual, Jaume
    Defense's date: 2010-06-10
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The thesis starts with a specific question: How does the modern movement arrive to Mallorca? In the early twentieth century, the number of architects from Mallorca is very small. Chronologically we can discern two groups: The first one is constituted by architects who get their qualification between 1899 and 1906. Nearly all of them graduate at the school of Madrid. They move between the eclecticism of the beginning of the century and the incipient modernism. They are: G. Bennàzar, J. Aleñà, J. Alomar,G. Reynés and F. Roca. The second group graduates from 1919, most of them at the school of Barcelona. They are students which have been educated in the postwar period, and who have already heard about the rationalist architecture that is practiced all over Europe. They start their practice in the 1920’s and, therefore, they are closer, to the modern architectures. They are: C. Garau, J. Olesa, E. Juncosa, F. Casas, G. Muntaner, G. Alomar and A. Roca. There is a hiatus of thirteen years between both groups. A huge chronological gap, where the only graduated Majorcan architect is Guillem Forteza Pinya. Forteza studies at the school of Barcelona and finishes his university education at the end of 1917. His condition of hinge architect helps us to understand the process of transformation that suffers the Majorcan architecture between the 20’s and the 30’s of the last century. Guillem Forteza has a chronologically particular and delimited life. He was born in 1892, he graduates in 1917 and died in 1943. His professional life is condensed in a quarter of century, which coincides with the most intense period of recent history of the architecture. Of all his polyhedral professional biography highlights a fact: in 1921 he is appointed Directive Architect of School Constructions of the State in Balears. This position gives rise to a more than one hundred of school projects between 1921 and 1940. These projects are analyzed one by one, to understand, from inside, the projectuals mechanisms of each proposal. We can distinguish two models: First, we find traditional, regional schools. They are designed with symmetrical floor, compact volumetry and centripetal organization. The classrooms are organized around a courtyard, wich is understood as an additional classroom outdoors. This courtyard inherited the local architectural tradition and was the solution to pedagogic and hygienic issues. Second, in Forteza Works we can distinguish the school groups clearly tied to the modern movement. They are drawed with asymmetrical floor, disperse volumetry and centrifugal organization. The flat roof is imposed to the traditional tile roof. The plan prevails over the relief. The big vitreous areas are imposed to the small windows. Any type of decorative element is canceled. The asymmetry, the visions in foreshortening and the game of volumes are setted. Once all the school projects of Forteza are analyzed and studied, the thesis moves chronologically until the third and fourth decade of the 20th century. The thesis does not resign itself on understanding the thought of Forteza, but it looks for itself. It does not observe passively from the distance but it enters into the 17 of Sant Bartomeu street in Palma and, from there, it discovers the personal and intimate conditions in which the architecture of Forteza is produced. The thesis understands that these conditions are closely related to his professional results. The thesis, through different articles, complete in themselves and related to each other, articulates the attained knowledge. It emphasizes the task of the collaborators of Forteza. It demonstrates the origin of his architecture. It points out some personal conditions of the architect, for instance his illness or his journeys. It emphasizes a new character and demonstrates his authorship in many of the projects appeared from 1931. The thesis fixes its eyes on another person, intimately related to the European environment. The thesis demonstrates the way in which modern architecture poured into the studio of Guillem Forteza. The thesis gives an answer (there are probably others), exact and accurate, to the question we originally asked.

    La tesi s’inicia amb una pregunta concreta: Com arriba el moviment modern a Mallorca? A principis del segle XX, el nombre d’arquitectes illencs és molt reduït. Cronològicament en podem destriar dos grups: El primer està format per arquitectes que obtenen el títol entre el 1899 i el 1906. Pràcticament tots es titulen a l’escola de Madrid. Es mouen entre l’eclecticisme de principis de segle i l’incipient modernisme. Són: G. Bennàzar, J. Aleñà, J. Alomar, G. Reynés i F. Roca. El segon grup es titula a partir del 1919, la major part ho fa a l’escola de Barcelona. Són estudiants educats en la postguerra, que ja han sentit a parlar de l’arquitectura racionalista que es practica arreu d’Europa. Inicien la seva pràctica dins la dècada dels anys vint i, per tant, més propers a les arquitectures modernes. Són: C. Garau, J. Olesa, E. Juncosa, F. Casas, G. Muntaner, G. Alomar i A. Roca. Entre un i altre grup passen tretze anys. Un buit cronològic enorme, on l’únic arquitecte mallorquí titulat és Guillem Forteza Pinya. Forteza estudia a l’escola de Barcelona i acaba la carrera a finals de l’any 1917. La seva condició d’arquitecte frontissa ens ajuda a entendre el procés de transformació que sofreix l’arquitectura mallorquina entre els anys vint i trenta del segle passat. Guillem Forteza té una vida cronològicament particular i acotada. Neix al 1892, es titula al 1917 i mor al 1943. La seva etapa professional es condensa en un quart de segle, que coincideix amb el període més intens de la recent història de l’arquitectura. De tota la seva polièdrica biografia professional destaca un fet: el 1921 és nomenat Arquitecte Director de Construccions Escolars de l’Estat a Balears. Aquest càrrec dóna peu a més d’un centenar de projectes escolars, compresos entre 1921 i 1940. S’analitzen aquests projectes un a un, per entendre, des de dins, els mecanismes projectuals de cada proposta. En podem distingir dos models: En primer lloc, veiem escoles tradicionals, regionals. Són de planta simètrica, de volumetria compacte i organització centrípeta. S’organitzen les aules al voltant d’un pati, entès com una aula més a l’aire lliure. Aquest pati és hereu de la tradició arquitectònica local i solució a temes pedagògics i higiènics. En segon lloc, en l’obra de Forteza, es distingeixen els grups escolars clarament lligats al moviment modern. Són de planta asimètrica, de volumetria dispersa i d’organització centrífuga. La coberta plana s’imposa a la tradicional coberta de teula. El pla preval sobre el relleu. Les grans superfícies vidriades s’imposen a les petites finestres. S’anul•la qualsevol tipus d’element decoratiu. S’imposa l’asimetria, les visions en escorç i el joc de volums. Analitzats i estudiats tots els projectes escolars de Forteza, la tesi es desplaça cronològicament fins a la tercera i quarta dècada del segle XX. La tesi no es conforma en entendre el pensament de Forteza, sinó que mira amb els seus propis ulls. No observa passivament desde la distància sinó que entra al número 17 del carrer de Sant Bartomeu de Palma i, des d’allà, descobreix les condicions personals i íntimes en les que es produeix l’arquitectura de Forteza. La tesi entèn que aquestes condicions són indeslligables dels seus resultats professionals. La tesi, a través de diferents articles, complets en sí mateixos i relacionats entre ells, articula el coneixement assolit. Destaca la tasca dels col•laboradors de Forteza. Demostra la procedència de la seva arquitectura. Posa de relleu algunes condicions personals de l’arquitecte, com ara la seva malaltia o els seus viatges. Destaca un nou personatge i demostra la seva autoria en molts dels projectes apareguts desde 1931. La tesi fa caure la llum sobre una altra persona, íntimament relacionada amb l’ambient europeu. La tesi demostra una via per la qual l’arquitectura moderna s’escola dins el despatx de Guillem Forteza. La tesi dóna una nova resposta (segurament n’hi ha d’altres) exacta i precisa a la pregunta que inicialment ens hem formulat.

  • Architecture and revolution: Pavillon des Temps Nouveaux by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret at the International Exposition of 1937 in Paris

     Shumkov, Ivan Rumenov
    Defense's date: 2010-02-08
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Il progetto di le corbusier per il centro di calcolo elettronico olivetti a Rho RHO OL LC (1960-1964)

     Bodei, Silvia
    Defense's date: 2010-03-01
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • El viaje de oriente. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret y Auguste Klipstein. 23 de mayo - 1 de noviembre 1911.

     Daza Caicedo, Ricardo
    Defense's date: 2009-06-15
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Jocs i joguines. Fàbrica d'utillatges propis per a inventar arquitectura

     García Cors, Josep
    Defense's date: 2009-12-11
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Premi Nacional d'Arquitectura i Espai Públic

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
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  • El proyecto para el Hospital de Venecia de le Corbusier  Open access

     O'BYRNE OROZCO, MARIA CECILIA
    Defense's date: 2008-01-21
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El objetivo primero de la tesis era hacer un análisis del proyecto del hospital de Venecia de Le Corbusier, siguiendo una metodología de trabajo que permitía hacer dicho análisis en dos vías que se complementaban: el análisis del proyecto o descripción física y el análisis de su arquitectura o desde un punto de vista cultural, con el fin de producir conocimiento concreto acerca de una de las últimas obras de Le Corbusier que, a pesar de haber sido fuente para numerosas publicaciones y exposiciones en los últimos años, carece todavía de una mirada que abarque todas las fases del proyecto.Sin embargo, tal y como se evidencia en los cinco cuadernos que componen la tesis, la investigación no se limitó al estudio del proyecto del hospital de Venecia (Cuadernos I y V), sino que también incluye el estudio de los cinco primeros museos en espiral cuadrada que propone Le Corbusier entre 1928 y 1953 (Cuadernos II y III). El vínculo entre los museos y el hospital es la tesis: la reconstrucción del proceso por el cual Le Corbusier da forma, a través de un estudio que le lleva más de 25 años, a un edificio tipo, originalmente pensado para albergar un museo, pero que en los años sesenta utiliza para otros usos.Por esto, la tesis no es una monografía del hospital de Venecia. Es un trabajo analítico en dos vías paralelas:- el primer recorrido fue hecho a través de los documentos que componen las cuatro versiones del hospital que se hacen entre agosto de 1962 y febrero de 1966, incluyendo los bocetos, fotos, carnets, correspondencia, documentos escritos y demás documentación gráfica, así como la documentación correspondiente de los cinco museos estudiados.- el segundo recorrido se hizo paralelo al primero: es el recorrido que permite hacer el hospital y los museos a través de la Arquitectura -tanto de Le Corbusier: como aquella que él vio, conoció y recordó al estar proyectándolos. Con los dos recorridos intento rehacer los proyectos, a través de un análisis que busca indagar sobre aquello que Le Corbusier propuso, conoció y recordó al proyectar estas obras.La tesis es la reconstrucción de la Unité de bâtisse del hospital a través de un prototipo que se ordena en planta a partir de una esvástica. Una elección objetiva y personal. Objetiva, porque se deduce del propio proyecto, y porque lo dice el propio Le Corbusier.Es también un recorrido individual, donde busqué entrar en el mundo de la memoria, donde el hospital, a manera de la "mónada" de Benjamín, permitió encontrar en él toda la obra del autor, la arquitectura de todos los tiempos y, de vuelta, entender cómo esta obra es también única e irrepetible. Porque entender, conocer un proyecto sería proyectarlo, lo cual es diferente a hacer "un recuento de lo que sucedió en la mente del pintor [arquitecto], sino una reflexión analítica sobre sus fines y medios", partiendo de la diferencia que hay entre el "participante" - Le Corbusier - y el "observador" - quien estudia a Le Corbusier.Al igual que el Menard de Borges, la intención primera e imposible fue "reescribir" todo el Hospital.Desde una posición que dice que la tarea de quien quiere conocer la arquitectura es asumir el papel de otro creador de la obra, el ejercicio que se hizo en esta tesis, pretendió, al igual que Menard, lograr "reescribir" unos pocos capítulos. Este ejercicio permitió "viajar" a través de la arquitectura de todos los tiempos. Recorrer este tapiz dibujado ha sido un ejercicio de aprendizaje y proyección arquitectónica.El mundo de conocimiento que se me ha abierto a través del H VEN LC es inconmensurable y rico: a través del recorrido por los planos, bocetos, textos y demás información que encontré al recorrer el laberinto de pilares-pantalla, patios y luz engalanada de luces y sombras del hospital, he podido, en el sentido más amplio que se le pueda dar al término, aprender Arquitectura.

    The main objective of the thesis was to make an analysis of the Le Corbusier's Venice project, following a methodology that could make the analysis in two complementary ways: the project's analysis or physical description; and the architecture's analysis or from the cultural point of view. Both with the aim to produce specific knowledge of one of the Le Corbusier's last works that, despite the fact that lately there are various publications and expositions about this specific project, there is still no work with a view that includes all the project phases. However, as the 5 Notebooks that form the thesis evidence, the research was not only limited to study the Venice hospital project (Notebooks I and IV), and also includes the study of the first five museums in square spiral proposed by Le Corbusier between 1928 and 1953 (Notebooks II and III).The link between the museums and the hospital is the thesis: the process re-construction of the work made by Le Corbusier in wish he gives shape to a building type, through 25 years of work, originally thought to be a museum, but that is used during the sixties for other uses (Annexes and biography in Notebook V)That's why the thesis is not a Venice hospital project's monograph. Is an analytical work made in two parallel ways: one, through the documents that compose the 4 Venice hospital versions dated between August 1962 and February 1966, including sketches, photos, notebooks, correspondence, written documents and any other graphic material, and also the same documents for the 5 analysed museums.The second way was parallel to the first: is the research that both the hospital and the museums let to do through de Architecture -not only of Le Corbusier himself, but specially of that architecture that Le Corbusier saw, knew and remembered while projecting this buildings. With the two ways of analysis, what I try to do is to rebuild the projects, inquiring those things that Le Corbusier proposed and remembered while projecting the Unité de bâtisse.The thesis is the Unité de bâtisse rebuilt process through the prototype that is ordered in plan from a swastika. An election that is both objective and personal.Objective, because is a deduction that is possible to make from the project and also, because Le Corbusier himself explains it somehow.And a personal choice because my intention was to go inside the memory world where the hospital, as a Benjamin's "monad", led find in it the whole work of Le Corbusier, the architecture of all times, and, back, it led to understand that it's also unique, a work that is not possible to repeat.Because to deal, to know a project would be to project it again. This doesn't means that I was going to "make a inventory of what happened in the artist [architect] mind, but an analytical reflection over his goals and means", departing from the difference between the "participant" -Le Corbusier- and the "observer" -who studies Le Corbusier.As what Borges' Menard tries to do, my first and impossible intention was to "rewrite" the whole hospital. From a position that assures that the work that one has to do if you want to learn architecture is to assume the part of other work's creator. I was able, as Menard, to re-write only few chapters. This exercise let my "travel" through the all times architecture. To walk around this drawn tapestry has been an exercise of learning and projecting architecture.The world of knowledge that has been open through the plans of the Venice hospital project is incommensurable and rich: I have learn Architecture in the more wide sense of the term through the plans, sketches, texts and all the information found while running over the hospital's labyrinth of screen-pillars, courts and light adorned with colours and shadows.

  • La Casa Errázuriz de Le Corbusier y Pierre Jeanneret: Bases para un proyecto de ejecución

     Vásquez Zaldívar, Claudio Marcelo
    Defense's date: 2008-02-14
    Department of Architectural Technology I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Las villas Meyer y Hutheesing-Shodhan de Le Corbusier  Open access

     CANDELA SUAREZ, MARIA
    Defense's date: 2007-03-02
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Entiendo el proyecto como una especie de film, en donde los planos finales (o la obra construida), son tan sólo uno de sus fotogramas. La conjunción de todas sus partes es el resultado de la génesis del proyecto. Ella les da su razón de ser y de estar, las dota de sentido. Un proyecto es una solución concreta y terminada a un problema (Michael Baxandall, 1989). Conocida dicha solución, se vuelve la mirada hacia atrás, se recolectan los datos disponibles y se reconstruye el problema que le dio origen, se infieren las condiciones que lo hicieron posible. Esta tesis se inscribe en el área de la crítica inferencial o genética.Un análisis basado únicamente en la última etapa de un proyecto sólo es útil para establecer una serie de atributos de dicha etapa. En tal caso, se renuncia a toda especulación sobre las intenciones del autor que no se manifiesten en el o los dibujos analizados. Afirmaciones del tipo "El arquitecto buscaba tal o cual cosa, quería conseguir tal o cual efecto., etc" no podrían exteriorizarse si no hay pruebas que las avalen.La hipótesis principal que rige esta tesis es que la etapa final de un proyecto, incluso el objeto construido, no es más que una fase dentro de un proceso, un fotograma dentro de todo el film. No es incorrecto analizar un objeto arquitectónico a través de sus últimos planos, pero esta tarea debe hacerse con el conocimiento de la parcialidad que tal estudio puede implicar. Debe hacerse con el conocimiento de que el sentido total de un proyecto se construye con cada uno de los pasos dados a lo largo del proceso, pudiendo sus momentos álgidos coincidir o no con la imagen estática de la obra terminada, ya sea en el papel (obra no construida) o en el espacio (obra construida). Una vez comprendida la relevancia del proceso de proyecto en la lectura global de una obra de arquitectura es necesario reconocer, además, que dicho proceso nunca es lineal sino zigzagueante, que su carácter es más bien el de un organismo vivo, que recorre un sendero de titubeos y firmezas.En la primera y segunda parte de este trabajo, despliego a fondo, y de manera independiente, el proceso creativo de las villas Meyer y Hutheesing-Shodhan (la primera, sin construir; la segunda, construida). Aunque la postura que rige ambos análisis es la misma, el tipo y la cantidad de materiales de trabajo han obligado a aplicar diferentes estrategias de trabajo. La tercera parte de la tesis, a modo de conclusión, busca justificar la intuición que me llevó a reunir estas dos villas: que la distancia temporal, geográfica y cultural que las separa no sería tal. Para ello se hace un zoom sobre el factor común en ambos procesos creativos: el jardín suspendido. A partir de la noción de tipo, se reúne una serie de proyectos que comparten dicho elemento formal-espacial funcional: las villas unifamiliares Princesse de Polignac (1926), Stein-de Monzie (1927), Ocampo (1928), Savoye (1929) y Chimanbhai (1951-55); el immeuble-villas (1922-25), y sus dos descendientes directos: el pabellón de L'Esprit Nouveau y las villas de banlieue (1925); algunosde los apartamentos del immeuble Wanner (1928-29), otros del immeuble del Village coopératif (1934-38) y el immeuble-villas de la primera versión para la Unité d'Habitation à Marseille (1945). Antes que en el estudio genético de sus jardines suspendidos, presento unas referencias latentes en este espacio interior-exterior que, aunque no fueran una recreación concientemente hecha por parte de Le Corbusier, son útiles para desvelar algunos atributos - formales, espaciales y/o simbólicos que sí pudieron formar parte de sus intenciones proyectuales. Una de estas referencias, ya apuntada por varios autores, es el jardín de la celda cartujana. Otras son el jardín que acompaña a las casas balcánicas, el jardin clos médiéval, y el jardín cerrado persa o pairidaeza.

    The project is to be understood as a kind of movie, where the final plans (the constructed work), are only one frame. The conjunction of all of the parts is the result of the project genesis, giving them reason to be, giving them sense. A project is a specific and complete solution to a problem (Michael Baxandall, 1989). Knowing the solution, you turn your eyes back, collect available facts and reconstruct the problem that originated it; the conditions that made it possible are inferred. This dissertation is inscribed in the inferential or genetic critique area.An analysis of the project last phase is only useful to establish a series of attributes of that specific step. In such a case, any speculation about the author intentions that are not manifested in the analysed drawing(s), are renounced. It would be impossible to express outward affirmations such as "the architect's search was., the effect he was looking for was., etc" if there's no supporting documents. The main hypothesis that rules this dissertation is that the project's final phase, as well as the constructed object, is only a step inside a process, one shot inside a film. The analysis of an architectural object through its final plans is correct but this duty must be done with the knowledge of the partiality that such a research may involve. It must be done with the knowledge that the overall sense of a project is constructed with each one of the steps realized during the process, the most intense moments may coincide or not with the static image of the finished work, whether it is on paper (not constructed work) or in space (constructed work). Once understood the relevance of the project process in the global reading of an architectural work, it is not only necessary to realize that such a process is never linear but zigzag, but also that its character is one of a living organism that follows a path of hesitations and firmness.The creative process of the villas Meyer and Hutheesing-Shodhan (first one not constructed, second one constructed) is thoroughly displayed independently in the first and second part of this dissertation. Even though the attitude is the same in both analyses, the type and quality of work materials have forced the application of different working strategies.As a conclusion, the third part of the dissertation, seeks to justify the intuition in putting these two villas together: the time, geographic and cultural distance that separates them not being a factor. For that purpose a focus has been used over a common factor of both creative processes: the hanging garden. Starting with the notion of type, a series of projects that share the formal/spatial/functional element have been putted together: the single family villas Polignac Princess (1920), Stein de Monzie (1927), Ocampo (1928), Savoye (1929) and Chimanbhai (1951-55); the immeuble-villas (1922 25) and its two direct descendants: the Esprit Nouveau Pavillion and the Banlieue Villas(1925); some of the Wanner Building apartments (1928-29), others from Village Coopératif Building (1934-48) and the immeuble-villas of the first version for the Marseille Unité d'Habitation (1945). Rather than making a genetic study on its hanging gardens, I present some latent references in this interior/exterior space, even though they were not a conscious recreation made by Le Corbusier, they are useful to explain some attributes -formal, spatial and/or symbolic- that certainly could be part of his design intentions. One of these references, already pointed out by several authors, is the Carthusian cell garden. Others are the garden attached to the balcanic houses, the "jardin clos médiéval" and the closed Persian garden or pairidaeza.

  • A casa de siza (Sine distantia)

     MARIA RODRIGUES DA SILVA, ISABEL
    Defense's date: 2006-09-21
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Le Corbusier desde el palacio del Gobernador. Un análisis de la arquitectura del Capitolio de Chandigarh  Open access  awarded activity

     Fuertes Perez, Pere
    Defense's date: 2006-11-08
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La tesis reúne un conjunto de cinco observaciones a partir del proyecto no construido para el palacio del Gobernador de Chandigarh (1951-1957) que -sin intención de agotar las direcciones posibles- profundizan en aquéllas que ponen en relación los aspectos formales y materiales de la obra de Le Corbusier, insistiendo en el ascendente que la materia ejerce sobre la forma, antes de que ésta cristalice.La primera observación sigue una dirección reflexiva, hacia el propio edificio, que ha de permitir advertir las estrechas relaciones que se desgranan entre la imaginación de la materia y la vida de las formas. No puede haber un «desde el palacio del Gobernador» sin una toma de contacto con el propio Palacio y, por lo tanto, es necesario que se planteen aquí temas que se desarrollarán en las observaciones siguientes; todos ellos como parte de un denso y complejo tejido de correspondencias mutuas que Le Corbusier ha trabado teórica y poéticamente con los años.La segunda observación es sobre el propio material que constituye el edificio y el Capitolio: el hormigón aparente, vinculado originariamente al agua en tanto que materia plástica que toma forma mediante la construcción de recipientes que, a su vez, llegan a contener el agua de lluvia y que pueden ser imaginados como producto de la acción combinada de unas manos que actúan y unos ojos que analizan. Aquí el béton brut es materia que sobrepasa el plano de la técnica; que se transporta, se vierte y se muestra con el mismo cuidado con el que se recoge el agua de lluvia para llenar las balsas del Capitolio.La tercera es, pues, una observación sobre el agua y sus propiedades como sustrato material y poético de la obra de Le Corbusier que alcanza incluso sus escritos, manifestándose con igual intensidad, a partir de la clasificación aristotélica de los cuatro elementos o de la noción de espacio denso cubista. El agua es fuente de complicidades y dualidades, fuente de ambigüedad controlada; es lluvia devuelta a la tierra mediante la construcción de un mecanismo formal de captación. La facilidad de penetración del agua la convierte en el elemento apropiado para impregnar transversalmente otros elementos trastornando sus propiedades.La cuarta, analiza la luz y la sombra como resultado de la acción de la arquitectura sobre los rayos de sol, gracias a las incisivas aristas de los brise-soleil, que actúan como compuertas de espacios en penumbra cruzados por corrientes de aire. Le Corbusier confía a la densidad que toman los límites de la arquitectura, la capacidad de retener un 'rumor visual' sobre la superficie de béton brut que se amplifica hasta devenir volumetría en claroscuro. Esta convergencia de recursos en escalas sucesivas, con la luz y la sombra como base, parece contener la manifestación de un orden arquitectónico nuevo, hecho de concordancias y disonancias.La quinta es la observación del modo en que Le Corbusier manipula la tierra que constituye la base de toda la operación topográfica que sustenta una idea de Capitolio, en la cual los edificios se manifiestan como emergencias. Una manipulación del espacio exterior, externo, hasta convertirlo en espacio interior, interiorizado, aprehensible; que se concreta en la definición de sus límites y en las operaciones de relieve por encima y por debajo de la línea de tierra, y que resuenan en otros relieves en béton brut, ayudados por el potencial especular del agua, que los vincula de nuevo a las capacidades de la materia.Planteando el Capitolio como un sistema, como un conjunto cuyas partes están coordinadas por una suma de principios, entonces el Palacio se manifiesta como el objeto que más sui generis las pone en práctica. «Governor's House» -tal como la designa Le Corbusier- es antes que nada, una casa transpuesta al papel de palacio y cabeza del Capitolio; y, en tanto que casa, se singulariza y singulariza sus elementos y se sitúa en una posición focal en la obra de Le Corbusier análoga a la que ocupa el Palacio en el Capitolio.

    The thesis is structured around five observations on -and 'from'- the unbuilt Governor's Palace in Chandigarh (1951-1957). Among the possible subjects to discuss, the thesis develops those that relate formal and material features of Le Corbusier's work, emphasizing the influence of matter over form, before the latter crystallizes.The first observation is a reflexive one, towards the building itself. It is expected to reveal the close relations between the imagination on matter and the life of forms. There is no «from the Governor's Palace» without an initial contact with the Palace itself. This contact provides topics that develop in later observations, as a part of a dense and complex mesh of mutual correspondences that Le Corbusier has combined theoretically and poetically over the years.The second observation is about the material that constitutes the Palace and the Capitol as a whole: rough concrete. Béton brut is originally related to water as a plastic matter. Béton is given form by means of shuttering moulds, shaped as vases that will later capture rainwater; all as the product of a combined action of analyzing eyes and acting hands. Béton brut is matter that exceeds a mere technical condition: it is transported, poured and cast as carefully as rainwater is collected to fill the Capitol ponds.The third one is therefore an observation on water and its properties both as a material and as a poetic substrate of Le Corbusier's work, as his own writings sustain; presenting itself with the same intensity as one of the four Aristotelian elements or through the Cubist notion of dense space. Water is a source of complicities and dualities; a source of controlled ambiguity. It is rain returned to the ground by means of constructing a formal mechanism of capture. The ability of water to penetrate substances is responsible for impregnating other elements, altering their properties.The fourth observation analyzes light and shade as the result of architecture dividing sun rays, thanks to the incisive edges of brise-soleil, operating as floodgates of spaces in penumbra, crossed by airflows. Le Corbusier assigns to the new density of architectural limits the capacity of retaining a 'visual rumor' on the surface of béton brut; amplified to become a volumetric chiaroscuro. This convergence of resources in successive scales -based upon light and shade- seems to contain the manifestation of a new architectonic order, made of correspondences and dissonances. The fifth one is the observation on the way Le Corbusier manipulates the ground that constitutes the base of all topographic operations that sustain an idea of Capitol in which buildings manifest themselves as relief. A manipulation of exterior -external- spaces to become interior -interiorized, conceivable- space, by means of boundary definition and topographic activation. Such artificial relief echoes those other reliefs cast in béton brut, close to the specular quality of water, associated again to the potentialities of matter.Conceiving the Capitol as a system -as a set of coordinated principles- the Palace reveals itself as an object that interprets sui generis those principles. The «Governor's House» -as called by Le Corbusier- is first of all, a house in the role of a palace, the head of the Capitol. As a house, it stands out and differentiates its elements; it takes a key position in the work of Le Corbusier analogous to the one occupied by the Palace in the Capitol.

  • Gordon Matta-Clark

     LUIZA TRISTAO DE ARAÚJO, MARIA
    Defense's date: 2005-09-09
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • DEBAT: LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA ARQUITECTURA

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Barcelona-Madrid
    Presentation's date: 2005-05-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • LA MATIERE REVEILLEE. Aalto, Eisenstein et Proust

     DE CATERS, ADELAÏDE
    Defense's date: 2005-01-24
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Pau Pérez Jové

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco; Gallego Olmos, Moises
    Date of publication: 2005-03
    Book

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  • OIZA-OTEIZA EN EL PAISAJE

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Collaboration in exhibitions

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  • LA TETE EN BAS, LES PIEDS EN L'AIR: ALGUNES QÜESTIONS SOBRE "LA CAIGUDA DE BARCELONA", DE LE CORBUSIER

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    EXPOSICIO LE CORBUSIER, LA PROMENADE
    Presentation's date: 2004-03-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • S/T. Donald Judd; Pabellones de Artillería, Marfa, Tx, 1979-94

     ZUAZNABAR UZCUDUN, GUILLERMO
    Defense's date: 2003-06-26
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Sutis substâncias da arquitectura de Lina Bo Bardi

     Fernades de Oliveira, Olivia
    Defense's date: 2002-01-17
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • La construcción de la mirada. Naturaleza,Ciudad y Discurso en la Arquitectura de Paulo Archias Mendes de Rocha

     ISABEL VILLAC, MARÍA
    Defense's date: 2002-01-16
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Pasado a Limpio I - Pretextos de Arquitectura

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Date of publication: 2002-01
    Book

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  • Papers pintats a Espanya (1815-1929)

     TERESA CANALS AROMI, M
    Defense's date: 1999-12-16
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Pasado a Limpio II - Pretextos de Arquitectura

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Date of publication: 1999-01
    Book

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  • Arquitectura moderna i cine. Projectar en l'entorn contemporani

     Valor Montero, Jaume
    Defense's date: 1998-07-21
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Manuel brullet introducciones moceen mostafan

     Brullet Tenas, Manuel; Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Date of publication: 1998-06-30
    Book

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  • Movemo-nos à deriva e somos devorados pelo espetáculo.

     Esteves, Milton
    Defense's date: 1997-11-26
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • La capilla de Ronchamp de Le Corbusier. De la percepción de la materia al vuelo del espíritu

     SARMIENTO OCAMPO, JAIME ALBERTO
    Defense's date: 1997-11-04
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • CUERPO Y MÁQUINA. ORGANIZACIÓN Y ECONOMÍA DEL CUERPO EN LA ÉPOCA DE LAS VANGUARDIAS.

     Crosas Navarro, Jose
    Defense's date: 1995-03-31
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • IM CAFE MUSEUM. FIGURES VIENESES DE LA PRIMERA...

     Ferrer Sala, Manuel
    Defense's date: 1995-11-02
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • ARQUITECTURA DE LA INDETERMINACION

     Conde Font, Santiago
    Defense's date: 1994-04-11
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Le Corbusier: La Forma Acústica  awarded activity

     Coll Lopez, Jaime
    Defense's date: 1994-05-13
    Department of Architectural Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • EL SUEÑO MODERNO EN BUENOS AIRES

     Alvarez Prozorovich, Fernando-victorino
    Defense's date: 1991-10-17
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • INVENTARIO DE LA OBRA DE JOSEP M. JUJOL

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • IMAGEN E IMAGINARIO EN LA CATALUDA CONTEMPORANEA.(LEC.UNIV.BARNA).

     Irizar Romero, Narcis
    Defense's date: 1990-01-01
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • INTRODUCCIO A JUJOL.

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    JUJOL ARQUITECTE.
    Presentation's date: 1990-02-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • HANS HOLLEIN. COMPILACION DE UNA ESCENA

     ESTEVEZ ESCALERA, ALBERTO T.
    Defense's date: 1990-12-12
    Department of History and Theory of Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Josep Maria Sostres: cinc assaigs d'arquitectura

     Muro Soler, Carles; Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Book

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  • M. Lapeña/Torres

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco; Torres Tur, Elias; Martinez Lapeña, Jose Antonio
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Book chapter

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  • ACERCA DE JOHN HEIDUK.

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    ARQUITECTURA CONTEMPORANEA.
    Presentation's date: 1990-03-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • LA FORMA DEL TIEMPO.

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    CRITICA Y ARQUITECTURA - TIEMPO Y ARTE.
    Presentation's date: 1990-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Triptic de barcelona

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Quaderns d'arquitectura i urbanisme
    Date of publication: 1990-10
    Journal article

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  • Marjades

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    D'A (Palma de Mallorca)
    Date of publication: 1990-06
    Journal article

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  • Titos: un projecte desconegut de jm sostres

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    D'A (Palma de Mallorca)
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Journal article

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  • Escrito con su sangre:jujol en la catedral de mallorca

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Quaderns d'arquitectura i urbanisme
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Journal article

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  • Para ir con dos proyectos de victor rahola

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Quaderns d'arquitectura i urbanisme
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Journal article

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  • Nubes angeles ciudades

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    Quaderns d'arquitectura i urbanisme
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Journal article

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  • Boxing le corbusier

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    AA files
    Date of publication: 1990-01
    Journal article

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  • Iglesia en 6 47' este/ 39 20' norte

     Quetglas Riusech, Jose Francisco
    D'A (Palma de Mallorca)
    Date of publication: 1990-06
    Journal article

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