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  • Células y módulos de alta eficiencia basadas en el silicio negro y técnicas de eliminación de defectos

     Martin Garcia, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Competitive project

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  • Selective thermal emitters based on photonic crystals  Open access

     Hernández García, David
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Un dels límits fonamentals que afecta l'eficiència de conversió en cèl·lules fotovoltaiques és la distribució espectral de la radiació solar. D'una banda, només els fotons amb energia superior al gap del semiconductor poden convertir-se en electricitat a la cèl·lula. Els fotons de baixa energia no generen parells electró-forat. D'altra banda, l'excés d'energia dels portadors generats per fotons de molt alta energia es perd ràpidament per termalització en el propi dispositiu. Aquests fotons d'alta energia no generen una major energia elèctrica, pel que l'excés d'energia òptica es perd.Per superar aquesta limitació, la investigació s'ha centrat majoritàriament en millorar la conversió directa de fotons d'alta i baixa energia a través de, per exemple, l'ús d'up- i down-converters. Una alternativa menys estudiada consisteix en adaptar la radiació solar al dispositiu com a pas previ a la conversió. Aquesta adaptació es realitza mitjançant l'ús d'emissors selectius òpticament adaptats al semiconductor. Un emissor selectiu és un material amb una emissió tèrmica que ocupa una banda espectral estreta, en comptes d'emetre en tot l'espectre freqüencial. Aquests emissors són una alternativa eficient per obtenir grans conversions, treballant a temperatures al voltant dels 1500 K, donat que un material calentat pel Sol, o una altra font d'energia, pot reemetre llum amb una distribució espectral molt més adequada al dispositiu fotovoltaic. Aquest mode d'operació es coneix com a conversió d'energia termofotovoltaica.A la natura existeixen materials capaços de comportar-se com emissors selectius. Els òxids de terres rares representen un interesant camp d'investigació. Aquests òxids tenen una emissió tèrmica molt baixa en tot l'espectre excepte a certes freqüències. Aquestes freqüències d'emissió són úniques i selectives i provenen de ressonàncies a l'estructura cristal·lina del material. El desavantatge en la seva utilització radica en què la posició espectral d'aquests pico d'emissió, propis del material i la seva estructura, no pot ser controlada. A més, aquestes bandes d'emissió són relativament estretes, generant una baixa densitat de potència radiada.Per tant, existeix la necessitat de treballar amb materials amb una banda d'emissió selectiva que pugui ser dissenyada i controlada convenientment. La solució és l'ús de cristalls fotònics (materials artificials amb propietats òptiques que no existeixen en la natura). Encara que la seva fabricació presenta molts reptes, aquests cristalls artificials permeten el control de l'emissió espontània, suprimint-la o potenciant-la a la banda freqüencial d'interès.Existeixen varies interaccions que permeten aquest control: l'efecte de banda prohibida, la interacció per plasmons o fonons, o l'efecte de microcavitat. Tots permeten modificar l'espectre d'emissió tèrmica d'un material.La present tesis doctoral està dedicada a l'estudi de les propietats d'emissió tèrmica, i estabilitat tèrmica, d'emissors selectius basats en cristalls fotònics. S'han analitzat varies estructures: cristalls fotònics basats en silici macroporós, quasi-cristalls fotònics i microcavitats metàl·liques. També, en col·laboració amb altres grups d'investigació, s'han analitzat les propietats tèrmiques de cristalls col·loïdals.En el present treball, es mostra que els cristalls i quasi-cristalls basats en silici macroporós poden inhibir eficientment la radiació tèrmica de manera controlable, sent a més estables a alta temperatura fins 1500 K. Respecte els cristalls metàl·lics, l'estudi realitzat mostra la seva alta selectivitat espectral, encara que aquests emissors han de treballar a temperatures inferiors a 1100 K per garantir la seva estabilitat estructural i òptica.

    Un dels límits fonamentals que afecta l'eficiència de conversió en cèl·lules fotovoltaiques és la distribució espectral de la radiació solar. D'una banda, només els fotons amb energia superior al gap del semiconductor poden convertir-se en electricitat a la cèl·lula. Els fotons de baixa energia no generen parells electró-forat. D'altra banda, l'excés d'energia dels portadors generats per fotons de molt alta energia es perd ràpidament per termalització en el propi dispositiu. Aquests fotons d'alta energia no generen una major energia elèctrica, pel que l'excés d'energia òptica es perd. Per superar aquesta limitació, la investigació s'ha centrat majoritàriament en millorar la conversió directa de fotons d'alta i baixa energia a través de, per exemple, l'ús d'up- i down-converters. Una alternativa menys estudiada consisteix en adaptar la radiació solar al dispositiu com a pas previ a la conversió. Aquesta adaptació es realitza mitjançant l'ús d'emissors selectius òpticament adaptats al semiconductor. Un emissor selectiu és un material amb una emissió tèrmica que ocupa una banda espectral estreta, en comptes d'emetre en tot l'espectre freqüencial. Aquests emissors són una alternativa eficient per obtenir grans conversions, treballant a temperatures al voltant dels 1500 K, donat que un material calentat pel Sol, o una altra font d'energia, pot reemetre llum amb una distribució espectral molt més adequada al dispositiu fotovoltaic. Aquest mode d'operació es coneix com a conversió d'energia termofotovoltaica. A la natura existeixen materials capaços de comportar-se com emissors selectius. Els òxids de terres rares representen un interesant camp d'investigació. Aquests òxids tenen una emissió tèrmica molt baixa en tot l'espectre excepte a certes freqüències. Aquestes freqüències d'emissió són úniques i selectives i provenen de ressonàncies a l'estructura cristal·lina del material. El desavantatge en la seva utilització radica en què la posició espectral d'aquests pico d'emissió, propis del material i la seva estructura, no pot ser controlada. A més, aquestes bandes d'emissió són relativament estretes, generant una baixa densitat de potència radiada. Per tant, existeix la necessitat de treballar amb materials amb una banda d'emissió selectiva que pugui ser dissenyada i controlada convenientment. La solució és l'ús de cristalls fotònics (materials artificials amb propietats òptiques que no existeixen en la natura). Encara que la seva fabricació presenta molts reptes, aquests cristalls artificials permeten el control de l'emissió espontània, suprimint-la o potenciant-la a la banda freqüencial d'interès. Existeixen varies interaccions que permeten aquest control: l'efecte de banda prohibida, la interacció per plasmons o fonons, o l'efecte de microcavitat. Tots permeten modificar l'espectre d'emissió tèrmica d'un material. La present tesis doctoral està dedicada a l'estudi de les propietats d'emissió tèrmica, i estabilitat tèrmica, d'emissors selectius basats en cristalls fotònics. S'han analitzat varies estructures: cristalls fotònics basats en silici macroporós, quasi-cristalls fotònics i microcavitats metàl·liques. També, en col·laboració amb altres grups d'investigació, s'han analitzat les propietats tèrmiques de cristalls col·loïdals. En el present treball, es mostra que els cristalls i quasi-cristalls basats en silici macroporós poden inhibir eficientment la radiació tèrmica de manera controlable, sent a més estables a alta temperatura fins 1500 K. Respecte els cristalls metàl·lics, l'estudi realitzat mostra la seva alta selectivitat espectral, encara que aquests emissors han de treballar a temperatures inferiors a 1100 K per garantir la seva estabilitat estructural i òptica.

    One of the fundamental limits of conversion efficiency in photovoltaic cells is the broadband distribution of solar spectrum. On one hand, only photons with energy higher than the semiconductor's bandgap can be converted in the device, on the other hand, carriers generated by high energy photons rapidly loose their excess of energy by thermalization with the lattice. To overcome this limitation, and span the useful convertible region of solar spectrum, many approaches have focused on improving the direct photon to electron conversion by the development of up- and down-converters. A less studied alternative, however, is the use of spectrally narrow distributed emitters, optically matched with the gap energy of the photovoltaic cell, instead of direct sunlight. Indeed, a material heated by the sun, or another energy source as methane or hydrogen, can re-emit light with suitable spectral distribution and significant higher power density, improving conversion efficiencies in solar cells. This way of operation is known as thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. Several materials have been considered to be used as emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems. Silicon carbide is a common one, thanks to its high stability at temperatures up to >2000 K. However, its broadband spectral emission limits the conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic device and forces to work at elevated temperatures. Selective emitters, which stand for materials whose thermal emission occupies a narrow spectral region, are a promising alternative to reach elevated conversion efficiencies at lower temperatures. Natural selective emitters as rare earths have attracted considerable research interest as they present unique emission peaks with the highest emittance level. This approach, however, presents some drawbacks, the spectral position where strong emission appears is not controllable, and the width of the emission band is relatively narrow, leading to a low power density emitted by the source. An advantageous way to engineer the selective emission of a thermal source and control the spectral position and bandwidth of strong emission, is by making use of photonic crystals (articial materials engineered to show optical properties that may not be found in nature). The spectral control of the spontaneous emission in such materials is a unique feature of photonic crystals, although their fabrication, mainly in three-dimensions, is still challenging. Several interactions between photonic crystals and radiation have been reported: the photonic bandgap effect, surface plasmon polaritons, phonon polaritons, or the microcavity effect, to give some examples. All these approaches allow engineering the thermal emission of materials to match the energy band of the photovoltaic cell and benefit the optical to electrical conversion efficiency, although some limitations arise when utilized in high temperature thermophotovoltaic systems which will be analyzed during the realization of this thesis. This thesis is therefore devoted to the study of the thermal emission properties and thermal stability of photonic crystal based selective emitters. Various structures have been analyzed: macroporous silicon crystals, photonic quasi-crystals and metallic microcavities. A study in self-assembled colloidal crystals was also started and the preliminary results are presented in the appendix of the document. Here, it is demonstrated that macroporous silicon crystals and quasi-crystals can inhibit thermal radiation in a controllable manner with thermal stability up to 1500 K. The great selective emission properties of metallic microcavities is also demonstrated, although the working temperature of such structures is limited below 1100 K to prevent degradation of the metallic layer.

  • Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies (MNT)

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Bardes Llorensi, Daniel; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Calderer Cardona, Josep; Dominguez Pumar, Manuel M.; Prat Viñas, Luis; Garcies Salva, Pau; Jimenez Serres, Vicente; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Pons Nin, Joan; Silvestre Berges, Santiago; Garin Escriva, Moises; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Coll Valenti, Arnau; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria
    Competitive project

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  • HIGH EFFICIENCY REAR CONTACT SOLAR CELLS AND ULTRA POWERFUL MODULES

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Martin Garcia, Isidro
    Competitive project

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  • 3D simulations of back-contact back-junction c-Si(P) solar cells with doped point contacts

     Carrió Díaz, David; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; López Martí, Gema; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1607-1610
    DOI: 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2CV.3.44
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The back-contact back-junction BC-BJ solar cell concept is a promising photovoltaic structure for both laboratory and industrial c-Si solar cells. High efficiency devices based on this concept have been reported in the past using either diffused regions or applying the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer HIT concept to perform both base and emitter contacts. In this work we use 3D numerical simulations to study the impact of technological parameters on device performance of c-Si(p) BC-BJ solar cells with point-like doped contacts. Numerical simulations allow us to optimize rear contact geometry as a trade-off between recombination and base resistive losses, leading to photovoltaic efficiencies higher than 18.3% and up to 22.3% on 2.2 ¿cm FZ substrates depending on the back contact pattern and the passivation quality of base contacts.

    The back-contact back-junction BC-BJ solar cell concept is a promising photovoltaic structure for both laboratory and industrial c-Si solar cells. High efficiency devices based on this concept have been reported in the past using either diffused regions or applying the heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer HIT concept to perform both base and emitter contacts. In this work we use 3D numerical simulations to study the impact of technological parameters on device performance of c-Si(p) BC-BJ solar cells with point-like doped contacts. Numerical simulations allow us to optimize rear contact geometry as a trade-off between recombination and base resistive losses, leading to photovoltaic efficiencies higher than 18.3% and up to 22.3% on 2.2 cm FZ substrates depending on the back contact pattern and the passivation quality of base contacts.

  • Impact of metallization techniques of surface passivation of high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

     Coll Valenti, Arnau; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; López Martí, Gema; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1213-1216
    DOI: 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2BV.2.1
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Most of the high-efficiency c-Si solar cells are based on dielectric films that electrically passivate c-Si surface and must keep their passivation properties after metal deposition on top of them. This work studies the impact of three different aluminum Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) methods (thermal, e-beam, sputtering) on the c-Si surface passivation provided by SiO2 and Al2O3 films. Effective surface recombination velocity is measured before and after metal deposition. Results show that e-beam and sputtering techniques degrade surface passivation while thermal evaporation has no impact. Surface passivation can be recovered and even improved by means of an annealing with the aluminum film on top of the dielectric leading to the so-called alnealing. Additionally, after this alnealing Capacitance-Voltage measurements and lifetime spectroscopy analysis suggest a strong dependence of fixed charge density for SiO2 films on the metal deposition technique that helps in c-Si surface passivation.

  • Single-Step multiple-layers wafer slicing from macroporous silicon

     Garin Escriva, Moises; Hernández García, David; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Cardador, D.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 933-936
    DOI: 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2CO.2.5
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    There is a rising interest, from both photovoltaics and microelectronics industry, in wafer thickness reduction. During the last decade, it has been steadily reduced from 350 µm to 180 µm, but benefits are foreseen for thicknesses well below these values. The current sawing technology, however, suffers from large kerf losses and further reductions are increasingly difficult. Several technologies have emerged aiming to produce thin Si foils from a wafer, such as layer transfer, induced cleaving, or pore reorganization. These methods produce a single layer by step. In this work we report on a method able to produce many crystalline layers from a single silicon wafer and in a single fabrication step.

  • DopLaCell: a new c-Si solar cell based on laser processing of dielectric films

     Martin Garcia, Isidro; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1311-1315
    DOI: 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2BV.2.30
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we introduce a new crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell fabrication technology based on the laser processing of dielectric films to create all the highly-doped regions. We call it DopLaCell (Doped by Laser Cell) structure. The resulting fabrication process can be simplified to just four steps: wafer cleaning, film depositions, laser processing and metallization. We used phosphorus-doped silicon carbide stacks (SiCx(n)) and aluminium oxide/silicon carbide (Al2O3/SiCx) stacks for the creation of n+ and p+ regions respectively. As a proof of concept, 1x1 cm2 solar cells were fabricated on 0.45 Wcm p-type substrates with promising results. The main feature of DopLaCell structure is the location of the emitter at the rear surface consisting of a point-like laser processed n+ regions combined with an induced inversion layer in between based on the fixed charge density of the SiCx(n) stacks. Solar cells with distance between rear emitter regions or pitch ranging from 200 to 350 µm are characterized resulting in a strong decrease of Fill Factor (FF) from 75.4 to 59.7 %. Suns-Voc measurements show excellent pseudo-FF (p-FF) values beyond 81% in all devices demonstrating the high quality of laser doping process and the actual limitation of FF by ohmic losses. Device modelling through 3D simulations demonstrates that these ohmic losses are related to the high sheet resistance of the inversion layer induced in-between n+ regions. We conclude that there is room for improvement to fully develop the potential of this new structure, particularly for low resistivity n-type substrates where the high fixed charge densities of Al2O3 can help to improve FF.

  • Silicon heterjunction for advanced rear contact cells: main results of the SHARCC project

     Desrues, T.; Martin Garcia, Isidro; de Vecchi, S.; Abolmasov, S.; Diouf, D.; Lukyanov, A.; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Versavel, M.; Tuseau, M.; Souche, F.; Nychyporuk, T.; Gueunier-Farret, M.; Muñoz, D.; Lemiti, M.; Kleider, J.P.; Cabarrocas, P. Roca; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Schlumberger, Y.; Ribeyron, P.J.
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1135-1138
    DOI: 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2BV.1.32
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents the main results of a research project called SHARCC, focused on rear contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells. Within this project, funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), different tasks were shared by the partners taking into account their specific skills. This project led to efficiencies about 19% on innovative cell structures obtained with an industrial process based on laser ablation. Keywords: silicon heterojunction, back contact

    This paper presents the main results of a research project called SHARCC, focused on rear contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells. Within this project, funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), different tasks were shared by the partners taking into account their specific skills. This project led to efficiencies about 19% on innovative cell structures obtained with an industrial process based on laser ablation.

  • Surface passivation and optical characterization of Al2O3/a-SiCx stacks on c-Si substrates

     López Martí, Gema; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    E-MRS Spring Meeting
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of laser micro-doping processes for silicon photovoltaic applications

     Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; López Martí, Gema; Garcia Molina, Francisco Miguel; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Muñoz Martín, D.; Sánchez Aniorte, M. Isabel; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    E-MRS Spring Meeting
    p. D.PI. 31
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Recovery of indium-tin-oxide/silicon heterojunction solar cells by thermal annealing

     Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; López Martí, Gema; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    E-MRS Spring Meeting
    p. D.PI. 20
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Model for the charge carrier collection in organic small-molecule solar cells

     Galindo Lorente, Sergi; Ahmadpour Sayyar, Mehrad; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Asensi, J.M.; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    E-MRS Spring Meeting
    p. PI 7
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Progress in silicon heterojunction solar cell fabrication with rear laser-fired contacts

     Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Garcia Rodriguez, Miguel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 345-348
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481413
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Silicon Heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells are one of the most promising alternatives for high efficiency industrially feasible solar cells. The structure of these devices is based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layers deposited at low temperature on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates. This fabrication process reduces the thermal stress on the substrate and is compatible with thinner wafers. In this work, we present our recent progress in the fabrication of SHJ solar cells on p-type c-Si wafers. The deposition conditions of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon (a-SiCx:H) layers obtained by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) are optimized. We have also applied a novel laser-firing process to contact the rear side of the fabricated devices. In this way, solar cells with point contacts through rear passivating layers can be fabricated without any photolithographic step.

  • An IBC solar cell for the UPC CubeSat-1 mission

     Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Jove Casulleras, Roger; Pedret, A; Gonzalvez, G.; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Dominguez Pumar, Manuel M.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Camps Carmona, Adriano Jose
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 333-336
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481410
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work the fabrication and electrical characterization of interdigitated back contact IBC solar cells is shown. These solar cells have been specifically designed for a CubeSat based satellite under developement at the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC). Solar cells incorporate a transparent cover-glass as an extraterrestrial radiation shield. Front surface passivation was achieved using an Al2O3 layer exhibiting surface recombination velocities 100 cmls at the final device. Measurements confirm photovoltaic efficiencies n's-12%, with open circuit voltages Voc's 650 m V and short circuit current densities Jsc's 25 mA/cm 2. A module with 11 IBC solar cells interconnected in series will be integrated in one of the faces of the satellite forming part of the power subsystem. Preliminary results confirm the good electrical performance of the module.

    In this work the fabrication and electrical characterization of interdigitated back contact IBC solar cells is shown. These solar cells have been specifically designed for a CubeSat based satellite under developement at the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC). Solar cells incorporate a transparent cover-glass as an extraterrestrial radiation shield. Front surface passivation was achieved using an Al2O3 layer exhibiting surface recombination velocities <; 100 cmls at the final device. Measurements confirm photovoltaic efficiencies η's-12%, with open circuit voltages Voc's ~650 m V and short circuit current densities Jsc's ~25 mA/cm2. A module with 11 IBC solar cells interconnected in series will be integrated in one of the faces of the satellite forming part of the power subsystem. Preliminary results confirm the good electrical performance of the module.

  • Boron diffused emitters passivated with Al2O3 films

     Masmitja Rusinyol, Gerard; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Calle Martin, Eric; Garcia Molina, Francisco Miguel; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 329-332
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481409
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work we study the fabrication and characterization of boron diffused emitters using FZ c-Si(n) substrates. Emitter surface was passivated with Al2O3(25 nm thick) layers deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition ALD technique. This study covers a broad emitter sheet resistance Rsh range from 20 to 250 O/sq using both polished and textured wafers. Emitter electrical quality was tested by means of lifetime measurements using quasi-stationary photoconductance QSS-PC method. Dark saturation emitter current densities Joe's were extracted from lifetime measurements resulting in Joe's values ranging from 10 to 150 fA/cm2 depending on Rsh. These results are in the-state-of-the-art in boron emitter passivation.

    In this work we study the fabrication and characterization of boron diffused emitters using FZ c-Si(n) substrates. Emitter surface was passivated with Al2O3(25 nm thick) layers deposited by thermal atomic layer deposition ALD technique. This study covers a broad emitter sheet resistance Rsh range from 20 to 250 Ω/sq using both polished and textured wafers. Emitter electrical quality was tested by means of lifetime measurements using quasi-stationary photoconductance QSS-PC method. Dark saturation emitter current densities Joe's were extracted from lifetime measurements resulting in Joe's values ranging from 10 to 150 fA/cm2 depending on Rsh. These results are in the-state-of-the-art in boron emitter passivation.

  • Laser processing for high efficiency c-Si solar cells

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Workshop Nanophotonics for Photovoltaics, a step forward
    p. 1-33
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • 27th EU PVSEC Poster Award

     Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Sánchez Aniorte, M. Isabel; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos
    Award or recognition

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  • Optimization of laser doping processes for the creation of p+ regions from solid dopant sources

     Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Sánchez Aniorte, M. Isabel; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1885-1889
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of al2o3 films obtained by ald to passivate p-type c-silicon wafers

     Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1692-1695
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Low recombination n+ regions created by n+ c-Si epitaxial layers and laser processing of phosphorus-doped SiCx films

     Martin Garcia, Isidro; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; De Vecchi, S.; Desrues, T.; Abolmasov, S.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1519-1523
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of laser wavelength on laser-fired contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells

     Sanchez Aniorte, Maria Isabel; Muñoz Martín, D.; Morales Furio, Miguel; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1688-1691
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of wavelength on laser doping and laser-fired contact processes for c-Si solar cells

     Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos; Sanchez Aniorte, Maria Isabel; Morales Furio, Miguel; Muñoz, David; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    SPIE Optics+Photonics
    p. 847308-1-847308-11
    DOI: doi: 10.1117/12.929456
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work investigates the influence of the laser wavelength on laser doping (LD) and laser - fired contact (LFC) formation in solar cell structures . We compare the results obtained using the three first harmonics (corresponding to wavelengths of 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) of fully commercial solid state laser sources with pulse width in the ns range. The discussion is based on the impact on the morphology and electrical characteristics of test structures. In the case of LFC the study includes th e influence of different passivation layers and the assessment of the process quality through electrical resistance measurements of an alumin i um single LFC point for the different wavelengths. Values for the normalized LFC resistance far below 1 .0 m Ω cm 2 have been obtained, with better results at s horter wavelen g ths. To assess the influence of the laser wavelength on LD we have created n+ regions into p - type c - Si wafers , using a dry LD approach to define punctual emitters. J - V characteristics show exponen tial trends at mid - injection for a broad parametric window in all wavelengths, with local ideality factors well below 1.5. In bot h processes the best results have been obtained using green (532 nm) and , specially, UV (355 nm) . This indicates that to minim ize the thermal damage in the material is a clear requisite to obtain th e best electrical performance, thus indicating that UV laser shows better potential to be used in high efficiency solar cells.

  • Método para el dopado selectivo de un semiconductor mediante transferencia inducida por láser

     Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos; Sanchez Aniorte, Maria Isabel
    Date of request: 2012-07-06
    Invention patent

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    Método para el dopado selectivo de un semiconductor mediante transferencia inducida por láser, que comprende un sistema precursor (200) compuesto de al menos una capa absorbente (202) a la radiación láser, con una solución dopante (203) y un soporte transparente (201) , el cual se coloca enfrentado y en contacto directo con el sistema receptor (300) donde se integra el substrato (301) semiconductor y se irradia con uno o más pulsos de un haz láser (100) focalizados en la interfaz entre la fuente y el substrato, provocando la transferencia de material proveniente de la fuente hacia el substrato y la introducción de átomos dopantes provenientes de la fuente dentro del substrato semiconductor. El sustrato (301) es, preferentemente, una oblea de silicio con una cara frontal (302) y una cara posterior (303) con capas pasivante antirreflejo dieléctricas.

  • Procedimiento para la obtención de múltiples capas de silicio cristalino a partir de una oblea de silicio

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Garin Escriva, Moises
    Date of request: 2012-06-13
    Invention patent

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    Procedimiento para la obtención de múltiples capas de silicio cristalino a partir de una oblea de silicio.

    Se divulga un método y sistema para la fabricación de multicapas de silicio cristalino a partir de una oblea de silicio por el cual se puede controlar el grosor de las distintas capas para que varíe desde la escala de cientos de nanómetros a la escala de decenas de micrómetros. El método de fabricación comprende etapas de litografía, de ataques electroquímicos, y recristalización de la oblea al mismo tiempo que se controlan los parámetros de reacción.

  • Dopado con láser del silicio cristalino: aplicación a emisores selectivos y nuevas estructuras de células solares

     Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Coll Valenti, Arnau; Martin Garcia, Isidro
    Competitive project

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  • Electronic Density of States of DP-PTCDI Thin-films grown by thermal vacuum sublimation

     Marsal Vinade, Albert; Galindo Lorente, Sergi; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cheylan, S.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    International Conference on Organic Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Crystalline silicon solar cells beyond 20% efficiency  Open access

     Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Garcia Molina, Miguel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    —This paper describes a fabrication process to obtain high efficiency c-Si cells (> 20%) based on the Laser Fired Contact Passivated Emitter Rear Cell (LFC-PERC) concept. Photovoltaic efficiencies beyond 20% have been achieved using thermal SiO2 as a rear passivation layer on 2 cm x 2 cm solar cells with 0.45 cm Fz c-Si substrates. Efficiencies up to 22% are expected for material resistivities in the 0.4–5 cm using an optimized rear contact grid

  • Optical properties of Al2O3 and TiO2 coated 3D macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Garin Escriva, Moises; Vega Bru, Didac; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 47-48
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Low voltage operating complementary inverters fabricated at low temperature

     Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Marsal Vinade, Albert; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 223-224
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Blackbody behaviour from spiked macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Vega Bru, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 257-258
    DOI: 978-1-4244-7864-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Photonic Crystals (PhC) are structured materials, which show very attractive optical properties. In this report, we study and discuss the reflection and emission characteristics of a “black face” Macro-porous Silicon (MpSi) Photonic Crystal (PhC). This “black face” is formed by silicon spikes ending in a sharp tip, of high aspect radio. Measures reveal that this face is nearly a perfect absorber at MIR wavelenghs

  • Negative refraction Index in 3D macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Vega Bru, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 83-84
    DOI: 978-1-4244-7864-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Photonic crystals (PhC) are sturctured materials, which show very attractive propieties, specially their optical behaviour and electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper, we simulate a three-dimensional Photonic Chrystal (3D-PhC) structure made from Macropourus silicon (MpSi)in which we can find a range of frenquencies that exhibit notable dispersion characteristics. One promising trait is the existence of negative refraction index, which we show in this paper.

  • Q-00026

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Competitive project

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  • Optimization of the ohmic contact to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

     Fontserè, Abel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Pérez Tomás, Amador
    Barcelona Forum on Ph.D. Research in Communications, Electronics and Signal Processing
    p. 7-8
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of the rear point contact scheme of crystalline silicon solar cells using laser-fired contacts

     Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; López, Gema; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Sánchez Aniorte, M. Isabel; Perales, Francisco; Molpeceres Alvarez, Carlos
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 2126-2129
    DOI: ISBN 3-936338-26-4
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper is focused on the optimization of the rear contact scheme of p-type c-Si LFC-PERC high efficiency solar cells minimizing base ohmic losses without jeopardize rear passivation. This is carried out optimizing on one hand the LFC laser conditions for minimum point resistance and on the other hand through a proper design of the contact grid layout finding the optimum trade off for a given base resistivity between rear passivation and base resistance. LFC process was carried out through 110 nm thermal SiO2 passivation layer using IR and green lasers. Very low specific contact resistances, 0.1 mcm2 have been achieved independently of the laser used. For optimum rear contacted area fraction efficiencies over 21.5% and 22%, for IR and green lasers respectively are expected in the 0.5-5 cm resistivity range.

  • Electronic density of states of DP-PTCDI thin-films grown by thermal vacuum sublimation

     Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Marsal Vinade, Albert; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Della Pirriera, Monica; Cheylan, S.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    International Conference on Synthetic Materials
    p. 252
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • INNDISOL

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal
    Competitive project

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  • Oxidos metálicos nanoestructurados y substratos nanotexturados para células solares orgánicas

     Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin
    Competitive project

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    Tuning the emissivity of 3D macroporous silicon in the mid-infrared  Open access

     Hernández García, David; Vega Bru, Didac; Garin Escriva, Moises; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 33-34
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tailoring the thermal emission of a particular material by using periodic micro-structures has attracted great interest for its potential applications in heating and lighting systems or thermophotovoltaics. […] Metallic and dielectric gratings, can be designed to introduce sharp emissions peaks which can be controlled with the grating parameters. 3D photonic band gap materials are particularly flexible in managing and confining light and, therefore, they are excellent candidates for controlling thermal radiation. Macroporous silicon, consisting of periodic arrays of etched pores in hydrofluoric acid solution, is a versatile material that provides large-area, high-quality and thermally-stable microstructures. It features full three-dimensionality, well controlled pore distribution and growth, and scalable dimensions in a range from 0.5 μm up to 100 μm. Silicon 3D structures operate at infrared wavelengths, efficiently reducing the emissivity inside the PBG regions. We present several Si microstructures and their emissivity/reflectivity responses measured by FT-IR spectrometry.

  • Macroporous silicon : a next generation catalytic monolith for ethanol steam reforming

     Vega, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Jiménez, Nuria; Llorca Pique, Jordi; López, E.
    International conference on Porous Semiconductors Science and Technology
    p. 383-384
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Macroporous silicon membranes, consisting of straight parallel pores with a diameter of 3.3μm and depth/width ratio >60, are used as microreactors for high efficiency hydrogen generation via steam reforming of ethanol. The inner walls of the pores were coated with Co3O3*ZnO catalyst film. The as-prepared reactors were fed with water-ethanol gas mixture and the effect of the reactor temperature and inlet flow rate on the H2 generation was studied. We observed a superior H2 generation efficiency in comparison with conventional microreactors.

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    Catalytic membrane reactors based on macroporous silicon for hydrogen production  Open access

     Vega Bru, Didac; Hernández, D.; Jiménez, N.; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Llorca, J.; López, E.
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 104-105
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The typology of using hydrogen as an energy carrier and its implementation in portable fuel cells has motivated a considerable research interest in the development of new efficient hydrogen production technologies. Hydrogen storage and manipulation is however a problematic and hazardous issue. Therefore, the low temperature on-site steam reforming of alcohols for hydrogen supply offers a nice solution to safety and storage issues, while providing several environment advantages […]

  • Nanophotonics for Energy Efficiency

     Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Competitive project

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    Template fabrication of 3D metallic microstructures by electrochemical etching and electroplanting  Open access

     Hernández García, David; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Lange, Diego; Garin Escriva, Moises; Garcia Molina, Miguel; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 1-2
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work, we show that macroporous silicon consisting of periodic arrays of etched pores is a feasible alternative for synthesis of 2D and 3d metallic microstructures due to its flexibility in the definition of complex geometries bulk. In addition macroporous silicon features full three-dimensionality, well controlled pore distribution and growth, and scalable dimensions (0.5-100 μm). We present here the fabrication of 3D Ni micro-structures by electroplating of macroporous silicon templates. The given approach can be applied for depositions of different metals and in more complicated template-structures.

  • Engineering the thermal emission of macroporous silicon

     Garin Escriva, Moises
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • 3D metallo-dielectric structures combining electrochemical and electroplating techniques

     Hernández García, David; Lange, Diego; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Garin Escriva, Moises; Garcia Molina, Francisco Miguel; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Micro Nano Engineering
    p. 273-281
    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2009.11.108
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Functionalized Silicon-based Proton Exchange Membranes for Monolithic Microf Fuel Cells

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Torres Herrero, Nuria; Tarancón, A.; Santander, Joaquim; Sabaté, Nuria; Cané Ballart, Carles; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Esquivel, J.P.; Duch, Marta; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Iberian Symposium on Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Advanced Batteries
    p. 367-375
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMART LIGHT COLLECTING SYSTEM FOR THE EFFICIENCY ENHANCEMENT OF SOLAR CELLS

     Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin
    Competitive project

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  • Advances in a baseline process towards high efficiency c-Si solar cell fabrication

     Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Lopez, G.; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Blanqué, Servane; Garcia Molina, Miguel; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 349-352
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    High-efficiency solar cells based on inversion layer emitters  Open access

     Martin Garcia, Isidro; Lövblom, R.; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition
    p. 1985-1991
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells based on p-type substrates, inversion layer emitters have been proposed as an alternative to high-temperature phosphorus diffusion. Dielectric film deposition at low temperature (≤400 ºC) is widely used for c-Si surface passivation and in this case emitters are induced by the positive fixed charge,Qf, at the c-Si/dielectric interface. In this work, we use 2-D simulations to explore solar cell structures with inversion layer emitters placed between local n+-emitters. The local diffusions could be defined by laser processing, resulting in potentially low-temperature processed structures. From simulation results, the low conductivity of inversion layer emitters obligates to short contact spacing and, hence, dense front grids and high shadow losses. However, placing the emitter at the back reduces these penalties, increasing the efficiency about 1% absolute. Furthermore, taking advantage of the fully metallized back surface, inversion layer emitters can be assisted by the workfunction difference between the c-Si substrate and the metal (typically aluminum) over the dielectric. As a result, the necessity of a high positive Qf value is relaxed.