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1 to 50 of 1075 results
  • Modelling wind resources in climate change scenarios in complex terrains

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi
    Renewable energy
    Vol. 76, p. 670-678
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.11.066
    Date of publication: 2015-04
    Journal article

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    Wind farms have suffered a spectacular growth in Europe in the last few decades. However, future changes in climate could affect the availability of the wind resource in certain regions. This work assesses the capabilities of a Regional Climate Model (WRF) applied at medium-to-high resolution (10 km, 33 vertical layers) over a particularly complex and vulnerable terrain (North Eastern Iberian Peninsula) to derive mean wind speed and direction for 1981e2000. The model is able to reproduce geographical wind patterns, although it generally overemphasises surface wind intensity when compared to individual observations. Projections of mean wind speed changes for 2031e2050 suggest a decrease in surface wind intensity. Energy density estimations at 60 m agl (typical hub-height) show that the implications of the wind speed weakening could affect the preferential areas for the wind farm locations defined at present. Reductions up to 20% of wind energy density are found already in mid-21st century. Therefore, it is advisable to derive dynamic methodologies to assess the preferential areas for wind farm locations, not only considering past-time wind climatologies, but also considering future climate changes in geographical patterns. Regional Climate Models applied at medium-to-high resolution can be useful for this purpose.

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    On the evaluation of global sea-salt aerosol models at coastal/orographic sites  Open access

     Spada, Michele; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 101, p. 41-48
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.019
    Date of publication: 2015-01-01
    Journal article

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    Sea-salt aerosol global models are typically evaluated against concentration observations at coastal stations that are unaffected by local surf conditions and thus considered representative of open ocean conditions. Despite recent improvements in sea-salt source functions, studies still show significant model errors in specific regions. Using a multiscale model, we investigated the effect of high model resolution (0.1 degrees x 0.1 degrees vs. 1 degrees x 1.4 degrees) upon sea-salt patterns in four stations from the University of Miami Network: Baring Head, Chatam Island, and Invercargill in New Zealand, and Marion Island in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean. Normalized biases improved from +63.7% to +3.3% and correlation increased from 0.52 to 0.84. The representation of sea/land interfaces, mesoscale circulations, and precipitation with the higher resolution model played a major role in the simulation of annual concentration trends. Our results recommend caution when comparing or constraining global models using surface concentration observations from coastal stations. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Air quality management: Assessing the impacts of on-road transport strategies and industrial emissions in urban areas

     Soret Miravet, Albert
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El creixement de les ciutats, l'ús de combustibles fòssils i els mitjans de transport actuals causen greus problemes de contaminació de l'aire. En les últimes dècades, hi ha hagut importants iniciatives per tal de millorar la qualitat de l'aire (per exemple: implementació d'ambiciosos estàndards d'emissió en els vehicles, millora de la qualitat dels combustibles i la reducció de les emissions industrials). Malgrat aquestes mesures, el trànsit per carretera i la presència d'activitats industrials, encara impliquen problemes de qualitat de l'aire a zones urbanes. En aquest sentit, la present tesi Doctoral ha aplicat tècniques de modelització per avaluar els impactes de: 1) les dues principals iniciatives Europees per reduir les emissions de trànsit a les zones urbanes i millorar la qualitat de l'aire urbà: gestió de la mobilitat i vehicles elèctrics; i 2) les emissions industrials.S'ha demostrat que la modelització de la qualitat de l'aire és una part important en el desenvolupament d'estratègies de gestió de la qualitat de l'aire. La modelització permet avaluar quantitativament amb anticipació els efectes d'una estratègia futura i també permet complementar altres enfocaments metodològics (observacions i anàlisis de les emissions).En termes generals, el transport per carretera és la principal font d'emissions a les ciutats. En la present tesi s'han analitzat dos canvis en el paradigma actual: l'aplicació de mesures de gestió de la mobilitat per reduir els kilòmetres recorreguts totals (de les seves sigles en anglès: VKT) i la introducció dels vehicles elèctrics. La primera conclusió que s'ha d'assenyalar és que no existeix una solució universal o única per a reduir les emissions del transport per carretera. Tot indica que l'objectiu és la combinació de diferents mesures complementàries. A més, per tal d'aconseguir canvis significatius en els actuals nivells d'immissió, aquestes mesures han de ser ambicioses i el nivell de canvi requerit elevat.L'efecte de les estratègies analitzades en els nivells d'immissió és positiu. No obstant això, el grau de l'efecte és diferent en funció de cada mesura, composició del parc vehicular i contaminant en qüestió.La gestió de la mobilitat per tal de reduir els VKT millora els nivells de qualitat de l'aire; incloent tant NO2 i PM10. Per tal de definir els escenaris futurs de mobilitat, s'han projectat les emissions de les diferents fonts d'emissió, especialment pel que fa la introducció de vehicles amb els nous estàndards d'emissió. Els resultats confirmen que la renovació de la flota vehicular és una mesura eficaç per millorar la qualitat de l'aire en entorns urbans. Pel que fa a la introducció dels vehicles elèctrics, aquests permeten millorar els nivells d'immissió del contaminants atmosfèrics, especialment NO2 y CO. En el cas del material particulat aquesta reducció és menor degut a que els vehicles elèctrics només redueixen les emissions del tub d'escapament; no les de resuspensió, desgast frens, etc. Per altre banda, la recàrrega dels vehicles elèctrics suposa una demanda addicional d'energia elèctrica, que depenent del mix energètic, pot donar lloc a un increment de les emissions degudes a generació elèctrica.Tot i que en termes generals el transport per carretera és la principal font d'emissions en les zones urbanes, altres fonts d'emissió tenen un impacte significatiu en la qualitat de l'aire urbà. La ciutat de Santa Cruz de Tenerife presenta problemes de qualitat de l'aire, especialment relacionats amb SO2 i PM10. S'ha analitzat la dinàmica atmosfèrica a Santa Cruz de Tenerife amb dos enfocaments complementaris: l'anàlisi de les observacions de qualitat de l'aire i l'aplicació de tècniques de modelització. La combinació d'ambdues metodologies ha permès concloure que la refineria té un important impacte en els nivells de SO2 mentre que els episodis de PM10 són principalment deguts a intrusions de pols del Sàhara.

  • Development of a high-resolution emission model for air quality modelling in Spain

     Guevara Vilardell, Marc
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La contaminació atmosférica és un problema important pera la salut pública, l'economia i el medí ambient. Per tal d'avaluar, preservar i millorar l'estat de l'atmosfera, la modelització de la qualitat de l'aire és una eina necessaria que ofereix una descripció completa del problema de la qualitat de l'aire, incloent una analis ideis factors i les causes (fonts d'em issió, processos meteorológics i atmosférics) , complementant així la informació obtinguda de les xarxes de vig ilancia de la contaminació de l'aire. En aquest marc, un coneixement adequat de les fonts d'emissió i la seva distribució en el temps i l'espai és crucial pel desenvolupament d'un sistema de modelització de la qualitat de l'aire d'alta resolució . Aquesta tes i doctoral presenta el High-Eiective Resolution Modelling Emisslon System (HERMESv2 .0) , un model d'emissions d'alta resolució espacial (fins a 1 km x 1 km) i temporal (1 hora) pera Europa 1 Espanya que proporciona informació d'emissions antropogéniques í biogéniques enfocada a la modelització de la qualitat de l'aire i la gestió ambiental, prenent el2009 coma any de referencia . El model ha estat desenvolupat en el marc del sistema de pronóstic de la qualitat de l'aire CALIOPE AQFS, desenvolupat pel departament de Ciéncies de la Terra del Barcelona Supercomputing Center-Centre Nacional de Supercomputació (BSC-CNS) i aplicat en el supercomputador MareNostrum3. HERMESv2.0 estima les emissions atmosfériques d'óxids de nitrogen (NOx), óxids de sofre (SOx), monóxid de carboni (CO), compostos organics volatils diferents del meta (NMVOC), amoníac (NH3), partícules primaries (PM), partícules amb diametre menor o igual a 1O IJm (PM1O) i partícules amb diametre menor o igual a 2.51Jm (PM2.5), i considera diferents activitats contaminants, incloent: (1) combustió en indústries de l'energia, (2) plantes de combustió residencials/comercials, (3) combustió en indústries manufactureres, (4) processos industrials, (5) extracció i distribució de combustibles fóssils, (6) ús de dissolvents, (7) transport per carretera, (8) altres fonts móbils, (9) tractament de residus , (1O) agricultura i (11) fonts biogéniques. El model utilitza per Europa un sistema de processament i desagregació de les emissions EMEP, mentre que per Espanya es fa ús majoritariament d'enfocaments bottom-up, combinant factors d'activitat de fonts oficials amb factors d'emissió i metodologies reportats pera guíes oficials o mesures in situ. Les emissions anuals estimades per HERMESv2.0 pera Espanya el 2009 són: NOx, 939 kt; NMVOC, 2,332 kt; SOx, 284 kt; CO, 2,183 kt; NH3, 342 kt; TSP, 184 kt; PM1O, 141 kt i PM2.5,106 kt. El transport per carretera és la font contaminant més important de NOx (38%), CO (31%) i PST, PM1O i PM2.5 (31%), mentre que les fonts puntuals representen gairebé el 90% del total de SOx. D'altra banda, més de la meitat de NMVOC provenen de fonts biogéniques (67%), mentre que !'agricultura contribueix a la major part de NH3 (97%). Les emissions resultants s'han comparat amb les reportades per l'lnventari Nacional d'Em issions Espanyol (INESP) i HERMES04, la versió anterior del model. D'altra banda, també s'ha realitzat una inter-comparació entre HERMESv2.0 i l'inventari europeu d'emissions TNO-MACC-11 utilitzant el sistema CALIOPE-AQFS, per tal d'avaluar el rendiment d'ambdós en la modelització de concentracions de N02, S02, 03 i PM1Opera Espanya al Febrer i Juny de 2009. La realització d'aquests treballs han ajudat a validar les emissions estimades, confirmar patrons de distribució i identificar errors en HERMESv2.0. Respecte a aquest últim punt s'han desenvolupat dos treballs ambla finalitat de millorar el modelen termes de: distribució vertical de les emissions de fonts puntuals i caracterització de fonts d'emissions fugitives de pols . Aquesta tesi ha demostrat que HERMESv2.0 pot ser utilitzat com a model d'emissions dins del sistema CALIOPE-AQFS peral diagnóstic i la previsió de la qualitat de l'aire a Espanya.

  • The Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

     Soret Miravet, Albert; Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 99, p. 51-63
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.048
    Date of publication: 2014-12-01
    Journal article

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    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (similar to 13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 x 1 km(2)) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NO and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (similar to 40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 mu g m(-3) in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 mu g m(-3). Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban air quality. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Implementation of plume rise and its impacts on emissions and air quality modelling

     Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Arevalo Roa, Gustavo; Soret Miravet, Albert; Martinez Farre, Francesc Xavier; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 99, p. 618-629
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.029
    Date of publication: 2014-12-01
    Journal article

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    This work analyses the impact of implementing hourly plume rise calculations over Spain in terms of: i) vertical emission allocations and ii) modelled air quality concentrations. Two air quality simulations (4 km x 4 km, 1 h) were performed for February and June 2009, using the CALIOPE-AQFS system (WRF-ARW/HERMESv2.0/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) differing only by the vertical allocation of point source emissions: i) using fixed vertical profiles based on the stack height of each facility and ii) using an hourly bottom-up calculations of effective emission heights. When using plume rise calculations, emissions are generally allocated to lower altitudes than when using the fixed vertical profiles, showing significant differences depending on source sector and air pollutant (up to 75% between estimated average effective emission heights). In terms of air quality, it is shown that hourly plume rise calculations lead to improved simulation of industrial SO2 concentrations, thus increasing modelled concentrations (1.4 mu g m(-3) increase in February, 1.5 mu g m(-3) increase in June) and reducing the model biases for both months (31.1% in February, 73.7% in June). The increase of SO2 concentrations leads to an increase of SO4-2 surface levels that varies according to the season and location (4.3% in February and 0.4% in June, on average). On the other hand, the impact on NO2 and PM10 concentrations is less significant, leading to average changes of a few mu g.m(3) at most (0.4 mu g m(-3) for NO2 and 0.2 mu g m(-3) for PM10). In order to maximize the precision of plume rise calculations, the use of stack parameters based on real-world data is mandatory. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Inter-comparison between HERMESv2.0 and TNO-MACC-II emission data using the CALIOPE air quality system (Spain)

     Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Martínez Palau, Francesc; Soret Miravet, Albert; Denier Van der Gon, Hugo; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 98, p. 134-145
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.067
    Date of publication: 2014-12-01
    Journal article

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    This work examines and compares the performance of two emission datasets on modelling air quality concentrations for Spain: (i) the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMESv2.0) and (ii) the TNO-MACC-II emission inventory. For this purpose, the air quality system CALIOPE-AQFS (WRF-ARW/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b) was run over Spain for February and June 2009 using the two emission datasets (4 km x 4 km and 1 h). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O-3) and particular matter (PM10) modelled concentrations were compared with measurements at different type of air quality stations (i.e. rural background, urban, suburban industrial). A preliminary emission comparison showed significant discrepancies between the two datasets, highlighting an overestimation of industrial emissions in urban areas when using TNO-MACC-II. However, simulations showed similar performances of both emission datasets in terms of air quality. Modelled NO2 concentrations were similar between both datasets at the background stations, although TNO-MACC-II presented lower underestimations due to differences in industrial, other mobile sources and residential emissions. At Madrid urban stations NO2 was significantly underestimated in both cases despite the fact that HERMESv2.0 estimates traffic emissions using a more local information and detailed methodology. This NO2 underestimation problem was not found in Barcelona due to the influence of international shipping emissions located in the coastline. An inadequate characterization of some TNO-MACC-II's point sources led to high SO2 biases at industrial stations, especially in northwest Spain where large facilities are grouped. In general, surface O-3 was overestimated regardless of the emission dataset used, depicting the problematic of CMAQ on overestimating low ozone at night. On the other hand, modelled PM10 concentrations were less underestimated in urban areas when applying HERMESv2.0 due to the inclusion of road dust resuspension, whereas the underestimation at suburban industrial stations indicated deficiencies in fugitive emission sources characterization (agricultural operations, windblown dust emissions). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    Projeccions climàtiques futures regionalitzades a Catalunya a alta resolució  Open access

     Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Jornades de Meteorologia Eduard Fontseré
    p. 65-76
    Presentation's date: 2014-11-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Es presenten els principals resultats del projecte ESCAT desenvolupat entre el BSC-CNS i l’SMC sobre projeccions climàtiques al Mediterrani nord-occidental a 10 km de resolució (1971-2050) mitjançant el model mesoescalar WRF-ARW. Les simulacions desenvolupades reprodueixen els patrons generals espai-temporals de les observacions (1971-2000: temperatura i precipitació), però subestimant la temperatura i sobreestimant la precipitació. La temperatura s’espera que augmenti fins al 2050 independentment de l’escenari considerat (0,9-1,4ºC respecte 1971-2000), especialment a l’alta muntanya. En canvi, la precipitació disminuiria molt probablement (5-13% total anual respecte 1971-2000), però particularment a l’alta muntanya. També es projecten valors extrems més secs i càlids que els actuals, amb un augment significatiu en la durada de les sequeres i l’ocurrència de precipitacions extremes. Aquestes projeccions permeten definir les àrees més vulnerables (Pirineus i Vall de l’Ebre) i millorar l’avaluació dels futurs impactes en les activitats socioeconòmiques del territori.

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    Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the mediterranean sea at ecological time scales  Open access

     Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    PLoS one
    Vol. 9, num. 10, p. 1-10
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110762
    Date of publication: 2014-10-21
    Journal article

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    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer

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    Air quality forecasts on a kilometer-scale grid over complex Spanish terrains  Open access

     Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Martínez Palau, Francesc; Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Geoscientific model development
    Vol. 7, num. 5, p. 1979-1999
    DOI: 10.5194/gmd-7-1979-2014
    Date of publication: 2014-09-08
    Journal article

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    The CALIOPE Air Quality Forecast System (CALIOPE-AQFS) represents the current state of the art in air quality forecasting systems of high-resolution running on high-performance computing platforms. It provides a 48 h forecast of NO2, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO, and C6H6at a 4 km horizontal resolution over all of Spain, and at a 1 km horizontal resolution over the most populated areas in Spain with complex terrains (the Barcelona (BCN), Madrid (MAD) and Andalusia (AND) domains). Increased horizontal resolution from 4 to 1 km over the aforementioned domains leads to finer textures and more realistic concentration maps, which is justified by the increase in NO2/O3spatial correlation coefficients from 0.79/0.69 (4 km) to 0.81/0.73 (1 km). High-resolution emissions using the bottom-up HERMESv2.0 model are essential for improving model performance when increasing resolution on an urban scale, but it is still insufficient. Decreasing grid spacing does not reveal the expected improvement in hourly statistics, i.e., decreasing NO2bias by only ~ 2 µg m-3and increasing O3 bias by ~ 1 µg m-3. The grid effect is less pronounced for PM10, because part of its mass consists of secondary aerosols, which are less affected than the locally emitted primary components by a decreasing grid size. The resolution increase has the highest impact over Barcelona, where air flow is controlled mainly by mesoscale phenomena and a lower planetary boundary layer (PBL). Despite the merits and potential uses of the 1-km simulation, the limitations of current model formulations do not allow confirmation of their expected superiority close to highly urbanized areas and large emissions sources. Future work should combine high grid resolutions with techniques that decrease subgrid variability (e.g., stochastic field methods), and also include models that consider urban morphology and thermal parameters.

  • Modelització dels recursos eòlics sota escenaris de canvi climàtic a Catalunya

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Jornada anual d'actualització de coneixements sobre el canvi climàtic a Catalunya
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El model WRF s’ha aplicat a alta resolució (10 km i 33 nivells verticals) a Catalunya, per a reproduir la velocitat i direcció mitjanes del vent per al període 1981-2050. El WRF és capaç d’obtenir els patrons geogràfics del vent present en les observacions, tot i que amb una sobreestimació general de la seva velocitat en superfície. Els canvis projectats en la velocitat mitjana del vent en superfície (2031-2050 vs 1981-2000) apunten cap a una disminució i reduccions de fins al 20% en la densitat de l'energia eòlica a 60 m d’altura (alçada típica de treball de les turbines dels parcs eòlics) per a zones específiques del territori. Les àrees preferencials per a les ubicacions de parcs eòlics definides en l'actualitat es veuran afectades. Per tant, per a noves ubicacions serà recomanable no tenir només en compte les climatologies actuals del vent, sinó també com aquestes poden canviar sota escenaris climàtics futurs.

  • Effects of sources and meteorology on particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: An overview of the DAURE campaign

     Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Jiménez, José-Luis; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Day, D.; Ortega, A.; Cubison, M.J.; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Minguillón, M.C.; Pey, Jorge; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Burkhart, J.F.; Seco, Raquel Irene; Peñuelas, J.; van Drooge, B.L.; Artiñano, Begoña; Di Marco, C.; Nemitz, E.; Metzger, A.; Schallhart, S.; Hansel, A.; Lorente, J.; Ng, S.; Jayne, J.; Szidat, S.
    Journal of geophysical research: atmospheres
    Vol. 119, num. 8, p. 4978-5010
    DOI: 10.1002/2013JD021079
    Date of publication: 2014-04-27
    Journal article

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    DAURE (Determination of the Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the Western Mediterranean) was a multidisciplinary international field campaign aimed at investigating the sources and meteorological controls of particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). Measurements were simultaneously performed at an urban-coastal (Barcelona, BCN) and a rural-elevated (Montseny, MSY) site pair in NE Spain during winter and summer. State-of-the-art methods such as 14C analysis, proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry were applied for the first time in the WMB as part of DAURE. WMB regional pollution episodes were associated with high concentrations of inorganic and organic species formed during the transport to inland areas and built up at regional scales. Winter pollutants accumulation depended on the degree of regional stagnation of an air mass under anticyclonic conditions and the planetary boundary layer height. In summer, regional recirculation and biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation mainly determined the regional pollutant concentrations. The contribution from fossil sources to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol concentrations were higher at BCN compared with MSY due to traffic emissions. The relative contribution of nonfossil OC was higher at MSY especially in summer due to biogenic emissions. The fossil OC/EC ratio at MSY was twice the corresponding ratio at BCN indicating that a substantial fraction of fossil OC was due to fossil SOA. In winter, BCN cooking emissions were identified as an important source of modern carbon in primary organic aerosol. Key Points Analysis of the sources and meteorological controls of PM in the WMB

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    Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework  Open access

     Akita, Yasuyuki; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Beelen, Rob M. J.; Cirach, Marta; De Hoogh, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Serre, Marc L.; De Nazelle, Audrey
    Environmental science and technology
    Vol. 48, num. 8, p. 4452-4459
    DOI: 10.1021/es405390e
    Date of publication: 2014-04-15
    Journal article

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    In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also need to handle large study populations distributed over large geographic domains. Even though several modeling approaches have been introduced, a consistent modeling framework capturing within-city exposure variability and applicable to large geographic domains is still missing. To address these needs, we proposed a modeling framework based on the Bayesian Maximum Entropy method that integrates monitoring data and outputs from existing air quality models based on Land Use Regression (LUR) and Chemical Transport Models (CTM). The framework was applied to estimate the yearly average NO2 concentrations over the region of Catalunya in Spain. By jointly accounting for the global scale variability in the concentration from the output of CTM and the intraurban scale variability through LUR model output, the proposed framework outperformed more conventional approaches.

  • Integrated assessment of air pollution using observations and modelling in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)

     Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Soret Miravet, Albert; Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Martínez Palau, Francesc; Gassó Domingo, Santiago
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 473-474, p. 576-588
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.062
    Date of publication: 2014-03-01
    Journal article

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    The present study aims to analyse the atmospheric dynamics of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife region (Tenerife, Canary Islands). This area is defined by the presence of anthropogenic emissions (from a refinery, a port and road traffic) and by very specific meteorological and orographic conditions-it is a coastal area with a complex topography in which there is an interaction of regional atmospheric dynamics and a low thermal inversion layer. These factors lead to specific atmospheric pollution episodes, particularly in relation to SO2 and PM10. We applied a methodology to study these dynamics based on two complementary approaches: 1) the analysis of the observations from the air quality network stations and 2) simulation of atmospheric dynamics using the WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b and WRF-ARW/HYSPLIT modelling systems with a high spatial resolution (1×1km2). The results of our study show that the refinery plume plays an important role in the maximum SO2 observed levels. The area of maximum impact of the refinery is confined to a radius of 3km around this installation. A cluster analysis performed for the period: 1998-2011 identified six synoptic situations as predominant in the area. The episodes of air pollution by SO2 occur mainly in those with more limited dispersive conditions, such as the northeastern recirculation, the northwestern recirculation and the western advection, which represent 33.70%, 11.23% and 18.63% of the meteorological situations affecting the study area in the year 2011, respectively. In the case of particulate matter, Saharan dust intrusions result in episodes with high levels of PM10 that may exceed the daily limit value in all measurement station; these episodes occur when the synoptic situation is from the east (3.29% of the situations during the year 2011). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Projections of temperature and precipitation extremes in the North Western Mediterranean Basin by dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios at high resolution (1971-2050)

     Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Guerreiro, Dolores; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Climatic change
    Vol. 122, num. 4, p. 567-582
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-1027-6
    Date of publication: 2014-02-01
    Journal article

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    The North Western Mediterranean basin (NWMB) is characterised by a highly complex topography and an important variability of temperature and precipitation patterns. Downscaling techniques are required to capture these features, identify the most vulnerable areas to extreme changes and help decision makers to design strategies of mitigation and adaptation to climate change. A Regional Climate Model, WRF-ARW, is used to downscale the IPCC-AR4 ECHAM5/MPI-OM General Circulation Model results with high resolution (10 km), considering three different emissions scenarios (B1, A1B and A2) for 2001-2050. Model skills to reproduce observed extremes are assessed for a control period, 1971-2000, using the ERA40 reanalysis to drive the WRF-ARW simulations. A representative set of indices for temperature and precipitation extremes is projected. The modelling system correctly reproduces amplitude and frequency of extremes and provides a high degree of detail on variability over neighbouring areas. However, it tends to overestimate the persistence of wet events and consequently slightly underestimate the length of dry periods. Drier and hotter conditions are generally projected for the NWMB, with significant increases in the duration of droughts and the occurrence of heavy precipitation events. The projected increase in the number of tropical nights and extreme temperatures could have a negative effect on human health and comfort conditions. Simulations allow defining specifically vulnerable areas, such as the Ebro Valley or the Pyrenees, and foreseeing impacts on socio-economic activities in the region

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    Seasonal to yearly assessment of temperature and precipitation trends in the North Western Mediterranean Basin by dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios at high resolution (1971-2050)  Open access

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Guerreiro, Dolores; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi
    Climatic change
    Vol. 122, p. 243-256
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-013-0994-y
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    The complex topography and high climatic variability of the North Western Mediterranean Basin (NWMB) require a detailed assessment of climate change projections at high resolution. ECHAM5/MPIOM global climate projections for mid-21st century and three different emission scenarios are downscaled at 10 km resolution over the NWMB, using the WRF-ARW regional model. High resolution improves the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation climatologies, with Pearson's correlation against observation being higher for WRF-ARW (0.98 for temperature and 0.81 for precipitation) when compared to the ERA40 reanalysis (0.69 and 0.53, respectively). However, downscaled results slightly underestimate mean temperature (≈1.3 K) and overestimate the precipitation field (≈400 mm/year). Temperature is expected to raise in the NWMB in all considered scenarios (up to 1.4 K for the annualmean), and particularly during summertime and at high altitude areas. Annual mean precipitation is likely to decrease (around −5 % to −13 % for the most extreme scenarios). The climate signal for seasonal precipitation is not so clear, as it is highly influenced by the driving GCM simulation. All scenarios suggest statistically significant decreases of precipitation for mountain ranges in winter and autumn. High resolution simulations of regional climate are potentially useful to decision makers. Nevertheless, uncertainties related to seasonal precipitation projections still persist and have to be addressed.

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    EARLINET dust observations vs. BSC-DREAM8b modeled profiles: 12-year-long systematic comparison at Potenza, Italy  Open access

     Mona, L; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Binietoglou, I; Cornacchia, C; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 14, num. 16, p. 8781-8793
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-8781-2014
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    In this paper, we report the first systematic comparison of 12-year modeled dust extinction profiles vs. Raman lidar measurements. We use the BSC-DREAM8b model, one of the most widely used dust regional models in the Mediterranean, and Potenza EARLINET lidar profiles for Saharan dust cases, the largest one-site database of dust extinction profiles. A total of 310 dust cases were compared for the May 2000-July 2012 period. The model reconstructs the measured layers well: profiles are correlated within 5% of significance for 60% of the cases and the dust layer center of mass as measured by lidar and modeled by BSC-DREAM8b differ on average 0.3 +/- 1.0 km. Events with a dust optical depth lower than 0.1 account for 70% of uncorrelated profiles. Although there is good agreement in terms of profile shape and the order of magnitude of extinction values, the model overestimates the occurrence of dust layer top above 10 km. Comparison with extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar shows that BSC-DREAM8b typically underestimates the dust extinction coefficient, in particular below 3 km. Lowest model-observation differences (below 17 %) correspond to a lidar ratio at 532 nm and Angstrom exponent at 355/532 nm of 60 +/- 13 and 0.1 +/- 0.6 sr, respectively. These are in agreement with values typically observed and modeled for pure desert dust. However, the highest differences (higher than 85 %) are typically related to greater ngstr m values (0.5 +/- 0.6), denoting smaller particles. All these aspects indicate that the level of agreement decreases with an increase in mixing/modification processes.

  • Grup de recerca de ciències de la terra

     Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Badia Moragas, Alba; Banks, Robert Franklin; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Competitive project

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    Aerosol radiative effects in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectral ranges using long-term aerosol data series over the Iberian Peninsula  Open access

     Mateos, D; Anton, M; Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Sorribas, M.; Costa, M. J.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 14, num. 24, p. 13497-13514
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-13497-2014
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    A better understanding of aerosol radiative properties is a crucial challenge for climate change studies. This study aims at providing a complete characterization of aerosol radiative effects in different spectral ranges within the shortwave (SW) solar spectrum. For this purpose, long-term data sets of aerosol properties from six AERONET stations located in the Iberian Peninsula (southwestern Europe) have been analyzed in terms of climatological characterization and inter-annual changes. Aerosol information was used as input for the libRadtran model in order to determine the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) at the surface in the ultraviolet (ARE(UV)), visible (ARE(VIS)), near-infrared (ARE(NIR)), and the entire SW range (ARE(SW)) under cloud-free conditions. Over the whole Iberian Peninsula, yearly aerosol radiative effects in the different spectral ranges were found to be -1.1 < ARE(UV) < -0.7, -5.7 < ARE(VIS) < -3.5, -2.6 < ARE(NIR) < -1.6, and -8.8 < ARE(SW) < -5.7 (in Wm 2). Monthly means of ARE showed a seasonal pattern with larger values in spring and summer. The aerosol forcing efficiency (AFE), ARE per unit of aerosol optical depth, has also been evaluated in the four spectral ranges. AFE exhibited a dependence on single scattering albedo as well as a weaker one on the Angstrom exponent. AFE is larger (in absolute value) for small and absorbing particles. The contributions of the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges to the SW efficiency varied with the aerosol types. The predominant aerosol size determined the fractions AFE(VIS)/AFE(SW) and AFE(NIR)/AFE(SW). The AFE(VIS) was the dominant contributor for all aerosol types, although non-absorbing large particles caused more even contribution of VIS and NIR intervals. The AFE(UV)/AFE(SW) ratio showed a higher value in the case of absorbing fine particles.

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    Aerosol characterization at the Saharan AERONET site Tamanrasset  Open access

     Guirado, C.; Toledano, C.; Mimouni, M.; Zeudmi, L.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 14, num. 21, p. 11753-11773
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-14-11753-2014
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    More than 2 years of columnar atmospheric aerosol measurements (2006-2009) at the Tamanrasset site (22.79 degrees N, 5.53 degrees E, 1377 ma.s.l.), in the heart of the Sahara, are analysed. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) level 2.0 data were used. The KCICLO (K is the name of a constant and ciclo means cycle in Spanish) method was applied to a part of the level 1.5 data series to improve the quality of the results. The annual variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Angstrom exponent (AE) has been found to be strongly linked to the convective boundary layer (CBL) thermodynamic features. The dry-cool season (autumn and winter) is characterized by a shallow CBL and very low mean turbidity (AOD similar to 0.09 at 440 nm, AE similar to 0.62). The wet-hot season (spring and summer) is dominated by high turbidity of coarse dust particles (AE similar to 0.28, AOD similar to 0.39 at 440 nm) and a deep CBL. The aerosol-type characterization shows desert mineral dust as the prevailing aerosol. Both pure Saharan dust and very clear sky conditions are observed depending on the season. However, several case studies indicate an anthropogenic fine mode contribution from the industrial areas in Libya and Algeria. The concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) source apportionment method was used to identify potential sources of air masses arriving at Tamanrasset at several heights for each season. Microphysical and optical properties and precipitable water vapour were also investigated.

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    Optimizing CALIPSO saharan dust retrievals  Open access

     Amiridis, Vassilis; Wandinger, Ulla; Marinou, E.; Giannakaki, E.; Tsekeri, A.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Kazadzis, Stylianos; Gkikas, A.; Taylor, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Ansmann, Albert
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 13, num. 23, p. 12089-12106
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-12089-2013
    Date of publication: 2013-12-13
    Journal article

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    We demonstrate improvements in CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) dust extinction retrievals over northern Africa and Europe when corrections are applied regarding the Saharan dust lidar ratio assumption, the separation of the dust portion in detected dust mixtures, and the averaging scheme introduced in the Level 3 CALIPSO product. First, a universal, spatially constant lidar ratio of 58 sr instead of 40 sr is applied to individual Level 2 dust-related backscatter products. The resulting aerosol optical depths show an improvement compared with synchronous and collocated AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) measurements. An absolute bias of the order of -0.03 has been found, improving on the statistically significant biases of the order of -0.10 reported in the literature for the original CALIPSO product. When compared with the MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collocated aerosol optical depth (AOD) product, the CALIPSO negative bias is even less for the lidar ratio of 58 sr. After introducing the new lidar ratio for the domain studied, we examine potential improvements to the climatological CALIPSO Level 3 extinction product: (1) by introducing a new methodology for the calculation of pure dust extinction from dust mixtures and (2) by applying an averaging scheme that includes zero extinction values for the nondust aerosol types detected. The scheme is applied at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1 × 1 for ease of comparison with the instantaneous and collocated dust extinction profiles simulated by the BSC-DREAM8b dust model. Comparisons show that the extinction profiles retrieved with the proposed methodology reproduce the well-known model biases per subregion examined. The very good agreement of the proposed CALIPSO extinction product with respect to AERONET, MODIS and the BSC-DREAM8b dust model makes this dataset an ideal candidate for the provision of an accurate and robust multiyear dust climatology over northern Africa and Europe

  • An Improved system for modelling Spanish emissions: HERMESv2.0

     Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Martínez Palau, Francesc; Arevalo Roa, Gustavo; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 81, p. 209-221
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.08.053
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    Emission models play a key role in the development of high-resolution air quality modelling systems (AQMS). To minimise the uncertainty presented by these models, it is essential to match the high-resolution requirements of chemical transport models (CTMs) and to use up-to-date information and emission methodologies. During 2005 and 2006, the Barcelona Supercomputing Center - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS) developed the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMES04), which is a model that estimates anthropogenic and biogenic emissions for Spain with a temporal and spatial resolution of 1h and 1km2, taking 2004 as the reference period. Due to both the changes in Spanish emissions patterns and the age of the activity data and methodologies used, it has become necessary to update and improve the whole system. Hence, a new high-resolution emission model for Spain (HERMESv2.0) has been developed. This work introduces the improved emission estimation methodologies and data on which the model is based, as well as an analysis of the results obtained. The annual emissions estimated by HERMESv2.0 for Spain in 2009 are: NOx, 924kt; NMVOCs, 2331kt; SO2, 278kt; CO, 2178kt; NH3, 339kt; PM10, 139kt; and PM2.5, 105kt. Compared with HERMES04, major differences are found in NMVOCs (+1172kt) and SO2 (-870kt). Important changes inemission patterns are also observed in terms of spatial and temporal distributions. A numerical comparison of both models with the Spanish National Emission Inventory indicates that previous underestimations have been heavily reduced in HERMESv2.0, especially for NOx (from -669kt·year-1 to -176kt·year-1), CO (from -761kt·year-1 to 271kt·year-1) and NMVOCs (from -1217kt·year-1 to 135kt·year-1). The new model substitutes HERMES04 as the emission core of the operational air quality forecasting system for Spain CALIOPE.

    Emission models play a key role in the development of high-resolution air quality modelling systems AQMS.To minimise the uncertainty presented by these models,it is essential to match the highresolution requirements of chemical transport models (CTMs) and to use up-to-date information and emission methodologies. During 2005 and 2006, the Barcelona Supercomputing Center e Centro Nacional de Supercomputación(BSC-CNS) developed the High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System (HERMES04), which is a model that estimates anthropogenic and biogenic emissions for Spain with a temporal and spatial resolution of 1 h and 1 km2, taking 2004 as the reference period. Due to both the changes in Spanish emissions patterns and the age of the activity data and methodologies used, it has become necessary to update and improve the whole system. Hence, a new high-resolution emission model for Spain (HERMESv2.0) has been developed. This work introduces the improved emission estimation methodologies and data on which the model is based, as well as an analysis of the results obtained. The annual emissions estimated by HERMESv2.0 for Spain in 2009 are: NOx, 924 kt; NMVOCs, 2331 kt; SO2, 278 kt; CO, 2178 kt; NH3, 339 kt; PM10, 139 kt; and PM2.5, 105 kt. Compared with HERMES04, major differences are found in NMVOCs (þ1172 kt) and SO2 (_870 kt). Important changes in emission patterns are also observed in terms of spatial and temporal distributions. A numerical comparison of both models with the Spanish National Emission Inventory indicates that previous underestimations have been heavily reduced in HERMESv2.0, especially for NOx (from _669 kt$year_1 to _176 kt$year_1), CO (from _761 kt$year_1 to 271 kt$year_1) and NMVOCs (from _1217 kt$year_1 to 135 kt$year_1). The new model substitutes HERMES04 as the emission core of the operational air quality forecasting system for Spain CALIOPE.

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    Application of a synergetic lidar and sunphotometer algorithm for the characterization of a dust event over Athens, Greece  Open access

     Tsekeri, A.; Amiridis, Vassilis; Kokkalis, P; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Dubovik, O; Mamouri, R.E.; Papayannis, Alexander; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    British journal of environment and climate change
    Vol. 3, num. 4, p. 531-546
    DOI: 10.9734/BJECC/2013/2615#sthash.YeD42fFe.dpuf
    Date of publication: 2013-11-18
    Journal article

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    We present first retrievals of the Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC), applied on combined lidar and sunphotometer data during a Saharan dust episode over Athens, Greece, on July 20, 2011. A full lidar dataset in terms of backscatter signals at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, as well as depolarization at 532 nm was acquired from the European Aerosol Research Network (EARLINET) station of Athens and combined with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, in order to retrieve the concentration and extinction coefficient profiles of dust. The lidar measurements showed a free tropospheric layer between 1-5 km above Athens, with low Ångström exponent of ~0.5 and high particle depolarization ratio, ~25-30%, both values characteristic of dust particles. The application of LIRIC revealed high concentration profiles of non-spherical coarse particles in the layer, in the range of 0.04-0.07 ppb and a smaller fine particle component with concentrations of ~0.01 ppb. The extinction coefficients at 532 nm ranged between 50 and 90 Mm-1 for coarse non-spherical particles and between 25 and 50Mm-1 for fine particles. The retrievals were compared with modeled dust concentration and extinction coefficient profiles from the Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (BSC-DREAM8b), showing good agreement, especially for the coarse mode

  • Dynamical downscaling of climatic temperature and precipitation trends for the North Western Mediterranean Basin at high resolution

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    International Conference on Regional Climate
    p. 153
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Overview of the meteorology and transport patterns during the DAURE field campaign and their impact to PM observations

     Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pandolfi, Marco; Spada, Michele; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Pey, Jorge; Alastuey, Andres; Arnold Arias, Delia; Sicard, Michaël; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M.A.; Querol, Xavier
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 77, p. 607-620
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.040
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    The experimental campaign "Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in Spain" (DAURE) took place in a urban (Barcelona city) and a rural (the Montseny Natural Park) Spanish sites. Its main objective was to study the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region during winter and summer time. This paper presents a description of the meteorological conditions during the campaign by means of meteorological observations, high-resolution mesoscale meteorological modelling and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations. Modelling results are in agreement with observations and provide a valuable tool for characterizing transport patterns in relation to episodes of air pollution. An objective classification of the synoptic conditions and a classification of the main local dispersion patterns is presented and discussed. Additionally, the measured PM1 and PM10 levels in both urban and rural sites are discussed and related to the meteorological conditions observed

    The experimental campaign “Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and RuralEnvironments in Spain “(DAURE) took place in a urban (Barcelona city) and a rural (the Montseny Natural Park) Spanish sites. Its main objective was to study the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region during winter and summer time. This paper presents a description of the meteorological conditions during the campaign by means of meteorological observations, high-resolution mesoscale meteorological modelling and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations. Modelling results are in agreement with observations and provide a valuable tool for characterizing transport patterns in relation to episodes of air pollution. An objective classification of the synoptic conditions and a classification of the main local dispersion patterns is presented and discussed. Additionally, themeasured PM1 and PM10 levels in both urban and rural sites are discussed and related to the meteorological conditions observed.

  • A Comparative analysis of two highly spatially resolved european atmospheric emission inventories

     Ferreira, Joaquim; Guevara Vilardell, Marc; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Tchepel, Oxana; Schaap, M.; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, Carlos
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 75, p. 43-57
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.03.052
    Date of publication: 2013-08
    Journal article

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    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS – High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System – DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially...

    A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling. This research performs an inter-comparative analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS – High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System – DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 × 12 km2 was used to compare the three datasets spatially. The inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP – Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences. From the spatial analysis, greater differences were found for residential/commercial combustion (SNAP02), solvent use (SNAP06) and road transport (SNAP07). These findings were related to the different spatial disaggregation that was conducted by the TNO and HERMES-DIS for the first two sectors and to the distinct data sources that were used by the TNO and HERMES-DIS for road transport. Regarding the regression analysis, the greatest correlation occurred between the EMEParea and HERMES-DIS because the latter is derived from the first, which does not occur for the TNO emissions. The greatest correlations were encountered for agriculture NH3 emissions, due to the common use of the CORINE Land Cover database for disaggregation. The point source emissions (energy industries, industrial processes, industrial combustion and extraction/distribution of fossil fuels) resulted in the lowest coefficients of determination. The spatial variability of SOx differed among the emissions that were obtained from the different disaggregation methods. In conclusion, HERMES-DIS and TNO are two distinct emission inventories, both very well discretized and detailed, suitable for air quality modelling. However, the different databases and distinct disaggregation methodologies that were used certainly result in different spatial emission patterns. This fact should be considered when applying regional atmospheric chemical transport models. Future work will focus on the evaluation of air quality models performance and sensitivity to these spatial discrepancies in emission inventories. Air quality modelling will benefit from the availability of appropriate resolution, consistent and reliable emission inventories

  • Sistema de pronóstico de radiación solar a corto plazo a partir de un modelo meteorológico y técnicas de post-proceso para España  Open access

     Rincón Rodríguez, Ángel Alberto
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El incremento de la utilización de la energía solar como fuente de generación de energía requiere de una adecuada estimación de la radiación solar global y directa incidente en la superficie terrestre. La estimación de la radiación global se realiza mediante simulaciones de modelos numéricos de pronóstico meteorológico que contienen la información sobre la variabilidad de las condiciones temporales, geográficas y atmosféricas. Dicha estimación representa la base del pronóstico de la radiación solar para aplicaciones energéticas. Sin embargo, los esquemas de transferencia radiativa implementados en los modelos meteorológicos, evidencian limitaciones en el cálculo de la radiación y extinción atmosférica con errores sistemáticos en la simulación de la radiación solar. Esta tesis presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de pronóstico de radiación solar basado en simulaciones del modelo meteorológico de meso-escala WRF-ARW, corrección del Bias de la radiación global mediante técnicas de post-proceso y estimaciones de radiación directa a partir de un modelo paramétrico. El modelo WRF-ARW es aplicado con una resolución espacial de 4kmx4km y temporal horaria sobre la península Ibérica. La evaluación anual de las simulaciones del modelo mediante 114 estaciones radiométricas distribuidas en España para el año 2004, muestra un rMBE de 9.8%, un rRMSE de 51% y un coeficiente de correlación r de 0.89 con los errores más significativos en primavera (rMBE=14%, rRMSE=42% y r=0.89) y verano (rMBE=11%, rRMSE=37% y r=0.91). La sobrestimación para condiciones de cielo despejado es superior a 80 W·m-2 y la subestimación con valores inferiores a -80 W·m-2 se presenta en condiciones de cielo completamente nublado para todo el rango del vector posición del Sol entre el horizonte y el cenit.Las técnicas de post-proceso implementadas y evaluadas en el Noreste de España (Cataluña) a través de 90 estaciones radiométricas son: Model Output Statistics (MOS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Kalman Filter (KF) y método Recursivo (REC). A partir de la revisión bibliográfica, dichas técnicas son utilizadas para minimizar los errores sistemáticos de los pronósticos debido a las diferencias entre los resultados de las simulaciones y las observaciones. Con el propósito de obtener los mejores resultados, se han combinado los post-procesos KF y MOS, los cuales presentan un rMBE anual promedio de 1.2%, un rRMSE de 43% y un coeficiente de correlación de 0.92. Los porcentajes de corrección anual son de 87% y 17% para el Bias y el RMSE, respectivamente.Para la estimación de la radiación solar directa y las horas de Sol, se han evaluado cinco modelos de descomposición paramétrica. El modelo paramétrico de Macagnan que presenta el mejor comportamiento, realiza la estimación a partir del índice de transparencia atmosférica calculado mediante la radiación global corregida por los post-procesos KF y MOS. Las correcciones de la radiación global, la estimación de la radiación directa y la contabilización de las horas de Sol, son interpolados espacialmente a través del método geoestadístico de Kriging. Los resultados son evaluados para analizar las limitaciones de la interpolación en función al comportamiento geográfico y atmosférico de la zona de estudio.Finalmente, el sistema es aplicado y evaluado en 48h de pronóstico del año 2009. Los resultados permiten analizar las correcciones de los post-procesos y las estimaciones de la radiación directa a partir de los elementos establecidos en el sistema de pronóstico con un alcance temporal de 48h. La aplicación de estas metodologías en un sistema de pronóstico permite analizar el impacto de la corrección del Bias, la estimación de la radiación directa y las horas de Sol a partir de simulaciones de pronóstico meteorológico. Por lo tanto, los resultados proporcionan un relevante aporte para futuras aplicaciones de pronósticos de la radiación solar en este sector energético.

    El incremento de la utilizaci on de la energ a solar como fuente de generaci on de energ a requiere de una adecuada estimaci on de la radiaci on solar global y directa incidente en la super cie terrestre. La estimaci on de la radiaci on global se realiza mediante simulaciones de modelos num ericos de pron ostico meteorol ogico que contienen la informaci on sobre la variabilidad de las condiciones temporales, geogr a cas y atmosf ericas. Dicha estimaci on representa la base del pron ostico de la radiaci on solar para aplicaciones energ eticas. Sin embargo, los esquemas de transferencia radiativa implementados en los modelos meteorol ogicos, evidencian limitaciones en el c alculo de la radiaci on y extinci on atmosf erica con errores sistem aticos en la simulaci on de la radiaci on solar. Esta tesis presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de pron ostico de radiaci on solar basado en simulaciones del modelo meteorol ogico de meso-escala WRF-ARW, correcci on del Bias de la radiaci on global mediante t ecnicas de post-proceso y estimaciones de radiaci on directa a partir de un modelo param etrico. El modelo WRF-ARW es aplicado con una resoluci on espacial de 4kmx4km y temporal horaria sobre la pen nsula Ib erica. La evaluaci on anual de las simulaciones del modelo mediante 114 estaciones radiom etricas distribuidas en España para el año 2004, muestra un rMBE de 9.8 %, un rRMSE de 51% y un coe ciente de correlaci on r de 0.89 con los errores m as signi cativos en primavera (rMBE=14 %, rRMSE=42% y r=0.89) y verano (rMBE=11 %, rRMSE=37% y r=0.91). La sobrestimaci on para condiciones de cielo despejado es superior a 80 W m_2 y la subestimaci on con valores inferiores a -80 W m_2 se presenta en condiciones de cielo completamente nublado para todo el rango del vector posici on del Sol entre el horizonte y el cenit. Las t ecnicas de post-proceso implementadas y evaluadas en el Noreste de España (Cataluña) a trav es de 90 estaciones radiom etricas son: Model Output Statistics (MOS), Arti cial Neural Networks (ANN), Kalman Filter (KF) y m etodo Recursivo (REC). A partir de la revisi on bibliogr a ca, dichas t ecnicas son utilizadas para minimizar los errores sistem aticos de los pron osticos debido a las diferencias entre los resultados de las simulaciones y las observaciones. Con el prop osito de obtener los mejores resultados, se han combinado los post-procesos KF y MOS, los cuales presentan un rMBE anual promedio de 1.2%, un rRMSE de 43% y un coe ciente de correlaci on de 0.92. Los porcentajes de correcci on anual son de 87% y 17% para el Bias y el RMSE, respectivamente. Para la estimaci on de la radiaci on solar directa y las horas de Sol, se han evaluado cinco modelos de descomposici on param etrica. El modelo param etrico de Macagnan que presenta el mejor comportamiento, realiza la estimaci on a partir del ndice de transparencia atmosf erica calculado mediante la radiaci on global corregida por los post-procesos KF y MOS. Las correcciones de la radiaci on global, la estimaci on de la radiaci on directa y la contabilizaci on de las horas de Sol, son interpolados espacialmente a trav es del m etodo geoestad stico de Kriging. Los resultados son evaluados para analizar las limitaciones de la interpolaci on en funci on al comportamiento geogr a co y atmosf erico de la zona de estudio. Finalmente, el sistema es aplicado y evaluado en 48h de pron ostico del año 2009. Los resultados permiten analizar las correcciones de los post-procesos y las estimaciones de la radiaci on directa a partir de los elementos establecidos en el sistema de pron ostico con un alcance temporal de 48h. La aplicaci on de estas metodolog as en un sistema de pron ostico permite analizar el impacto de la correcci on del Bias, la estimaci on de la radiaci on directa y las horas de Sol a partir de simulaciones de pron ostico meteorol ogico. Por lo tanto, los resultados proporcionan un relevante aporte para futuras aplicaciones de pron osticos de la radiaci on solar en este sector energ etico.

    The increased contribution of solar energy in the power generation resources requires an accurate estimation of global and direct beam solar radiation incident on the earth's surface. The estimation of global radiation is performed by means of numerical weather prediction models that include all the information to solve the temporal, geographical and atmospheric conditions variability. Being this the basis of the forecast of solar radiation for energy applications. However, the radiative transfer schemes implemented in meteorological models show limitations in the estimation of atmospheric radiation and extinction, with systematic errors in the simulation of solar radiation. This thesis presents the development of a forecasting system based on solar radiation simulations of the WRF-ARW meteorological mesoscale model, Bias corrections of global radiation from post-processing techniques and direct beam radiation estimations using a parametric model. The WRFARW model is applied in the Iberian peninsula with a spatial resolution of 4kmx4km and hourly temporal resolution. The annual evaluation of the model using 114 radiometric stations in Spain for the year 2004, shows rMBE of 9.8%, rRMSE of 51% and correlation coe cient r of 0.89 with the most signi cant errors in spring (rMBE=14 %, rRMSE=42% and r=0.89) and summer (rMBE=11 %, rRMSE=37% and r=0.91). The overestimation for clear sky conditions is over 80 W m_2 and the underestimation below -80 W m_2 are presented in overcast sky conditions for the entire range of Sun's position vector between the horizon and the zenith. The post-processing techniques implemented and evaluated in northeastern Spain (Catalonia) through 90 radiometric stations are: Model Output Statistics (MOS), Arti cial Neural Networks (ANN), Kalman Filter (KF) and Recursive method (REC). These techniques selected from the literature are used to minimize the systematic errors of the forecasts due to di erences between the results of simulations and observations. Combination of the techniques has also been analyzed, being the KF and MOS post-processes those with the best results in annual average with a rMBE of 1.2 %, rRMSE of 43% and correlation coe cient of 0.92. The annual rates of correction are 87% and 17% for Bias and RMSE, respectively To estimate direct beam radiation and sunshine hours, ve parametric models have been evaluated. The Macagnan model showed the best performance. The estimation is performed from the atmospheric transparency index calculated through global radiation corrected by KF and MOS post- processes. The Bias corrections of global radiation, estimations of direct beam radiation and sunshine hours are spatially interpolated through geostatistical method of Kriging. The results are evaluated to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of interpolation according to geographic and atmospheric behavior of the study area. Finally, the system is implemented and evaluated over 48h forecast of year 2009. The results have provided a valuable set of data to analyze the Bias correction of post-processes and the estimation of direct beam radiation from the elements of the forecast system with 48 hours ahead. The implementation of these methodologies on a forecasting system allows the impact analysis of bias correction, estimation of direct beam radiation and sunshine hours from meteorological forecast simulations. Thus, the results provide a relevant contribution for future applications of solar radiation forecast on solar radiation energy sector.

  • Evaluation of the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system for epidemiological research: the example of NO2 in the province of Girona (Spain)

     Aguilera, Inmaculada; Basagaña, Xavier; Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, María; Rivera, Marcela; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Künzli, Nino
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 72, p. 134-141
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.035
    Date of publication: 2013-06-01
    Journal article

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    Background Air quality models are being increasingly used to estimate long-term individual exposures to air pollution in epidemiological studies. Most of them have been evaluated against measurements from a limited number of monitoring stations, which may not properly reflect the exposure characteristics of the study population. Methods We evaluated the performance of the high-resolution CALIOPE air quality forecasting system over a large sample of passive measurements of NO2 conducted at 635 home outdoor locations of the Girona province (Spain) during several 4-week sampling campaigns over one year (July 2007–June 2008). Sampling sites were superposed over the 4 km × 4 km CALIOPE grid, and average NO2 modeled concentrations were derived for all measurements conducted during the same sampling campaign at all the sampling sites located within the same grid cell. In addition, the ratio between measured and modeled concentrations for the whole study period at one fixed monitoring station was used to post-process the modeled values at the home outdoor locations. Results The correlation between measured and modeled concentrations for the entire study area (which includes urban settings, middle-size towns, and rural areas) was 0.78. Modeled concentrations were underestimated in the whole study area. After correcting the modeled concentrations by the measured to modeled ratio at the fixed station (r = 0.25), they were very similar to the measured concentrations (27.7 μg m−3 and 29.3 μg m−3, respectively). However, the performance of the modeling system depends on the type of subarea and is affected by the sub-grid emission sources. Conclusions The evaluation over the heterogenous Girona province showed that CALIOPE is able to reproduce the spatial variability of 4-week NO2 concentrations at the small regional level. CALIOPE output data is a valuable tool to complement study-specific air pollution measurements by incorporating regional spatial variability as well as short- and long-term temporal variability of background pollution in epidemiological research.

  • Effect of high-resolution meteorological forcing on nearshore wave and current model performance

     Bricheno, Lucy M; Soret Miravet, Albert; Wolf, Judith; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Journal of atmospheric and oceanic technology
    Vol. 30, num. 6, p. 1021-1037
    DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00087.1
    Date of publication: 2013-06-01
    Journal article

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    Accurate representation of wind forcing and mean sea level pressure is important for modeling waves and surges. This is especially important for complex coastal zone areas. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been run at 12-, 4-, and 1.33-km resolution for a storm event over the Irish Sea. The outputs were used to force the coupled hydrodynamic and the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modeling System (POLCOMS)–Wave Model (WAM) and the effect on storm surge and waves has been assessed. An improvement was observed in the WRF model pressure and wind speed when moving from 12- to 4-km resolution with errors in wind speed decreasing more than 10% on average. When moving from 4 to 1.33km no further significant improvement was observed. The atmospheric model results at 12 and 4 km were then applied to the ocean model. Wave direction was seen to improve with increased ocean model resolution, and higher-resolution forcing was found to generally increase the wave height over the Irish Sea by up to 40cm in places. Improved clustering of wave direction was observed when 4-km meteorological forcing was used. Large differences were seen in the coastal zone because of the improved representation of the coastline and, in turn, the atmospheric boundary layer. The combination of high-resolution atmospheric forcing and a coupled wave–surge model gave the best result.

  • Temperature and precipitation trends for the North Western Mediterranean Basin as derived from dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Guerreiro, Dolores; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    International Meeting on Meteorology and Climatology of the Mediterranean
    Presentation's date: 2013-02-28
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    Abstract available online at: http://www.tethys.cat/IMMCM/4Banyuls/ficheros/B4_Gonçalves.pdf

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    Estimation of future emission scenarios for analysing the impact of traffic mobility on a large Mediterranean conurbation in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area (Spain)  Open access

     Soret Miravet, Albert; Jiménez Guerrero, Pedro; Andrés, David; Cárdenas, Francisco; Rueda, Salvador; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric Pollution Research
    Vol. 4, num. 1, p. 22-32
    DOI: 10.5094/APR.2013.003
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    Emission modelling permits us to quantitatively assess the effects of emission abatement strategies. In urban areas, such strategies are designed mainly to reduce the emissions from the on–road traffic sector. This work analyses the impact of several mobility strategies on urban emissions in the coastal city of Barcelona, Spain, when the High Elective Resolution Modelling Emission System (HERMES) is applied at a very high resolution (1 km × 1 km and 1 h). The analysis was conducted by projecting the emissions data obtained from a base case scenario in 2004 onto three future scenarios set in 2015, where each future scenario represented a set of traffic mobility management measures. Specific developments were considered per emission sector, including power generation, industrial activities, domestic– commercial, solvents, on–road traffic, biogenic emissions, ports and airports, to best compare the present base case scenario with the future mobility scenarios generated for 2015. These emission scenarios for 2015 take into account the population projections and the variations in port and airport activities among other factors, while the main focus is on the on–road traffic sector, the types of vehicles used, such as technologically improved buses and hybrid vehicles, as well as the types of fuels used, including natural gas and biofuels. The results of the emission model indicate that the mobility management strategies, the technological improvements and the use of alternative fuels reduce the emissions from on–road traffic by approximately 75% (in terms of nitrogen oxides emission reductions in the city centre of Barcelona). This decrease leads to a 35% reduction in overall nitrogen oxides emissions, even if some sectors individually experience increases based on their specific projections.

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    Changes in particulate matter physical properties during Saharan advections over Rome (Italy): A four-year study, 2001-2004  Open access

     Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Angelini, Federico; Barnaba, Francesca; Costabile, Francesca; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Sozzi, Roberto; Bolignano, Andrea
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 13, num. 15, p. 7395-7404
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-7395-2013
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001–2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events such as Saharan dust advections are associated with a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterise such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the “regionalbackground method” suggested by EC Guidelines and a “local background” method, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. In terms of exceedances, the two approaches provided results within 20% of each other at background sites, and at 50% of each other in traffic conditions.

    Particulate matter mass concentrations measured in the city of Rome (Italy) in the period 2001–2004 have been cross-analysed with concurrent Saharan dust advection events to infer the impact these natural episodes bear on the standard air quality parameter PM10 observed at two city stations and at one regional background station. Natural events such as Saharan dust advections are associated with a definite health risk. At the same time, the Directive 2008/50/EC allows subtraction of PM exceedances caused by natural contributions from statistics used to determine air quality of EU sites. In this respect, it is important to detect and characterise such advections by means of reliable, operational techniques. To assess the PM10 increase we used both the “regionalbackground method” suggested by EC Guidelines and a “local background” method, demonstrated to be most suited to this central Mediterranean region. In terms of exceedances, the two approaches provided results within 20% of each other at background sites, and at 50% of each other in traffic conditions.

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    Modeling and evaluation of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution: sensitivity to emission schemes and resolution effects at coastal/orographic sites  Open access

     Spada, Michele; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Janjic, Z; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Vol. 13, num. 23, p. 11735-11755
    DOI: 10.5194/acp-13-11735-2013
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    One of the major sources of uncertainty in model estimates of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution is the emission parameterization. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol life cycle module coupled to the online multiscale chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. We compare 5 yr global simulations using five state-of-the-art sea-salt open-ocean emission schemes with monthly averaged coarse aerosol optical depth (AOD) from selected AERONET sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network, and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1). Model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of sea-surface-temperature (SST)-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Emission ranges from 3888 Tg yr(-1) to 8114 Tg yr(-1), lifetime varies between 7.3 h and 11.3 h, and the average column mass load is between 5.0 Tg and 7.2 Tg. Coarse AOD is reproduced with an overall correlation of around 0.5 and with normalized biases ranging from +8.8% to +38.8 %. Surface concentration is simulated with normalized biases ranging from -9.5% to +28% and the overall correlation is around 0.5. Our results indicate that SST-dependent emission schemes improve the overall model performance in reproducing surface concentrations. On the other hand, they lead to an overestimation of the coarse AOD at tropical latitudes, although it may be affected by uncertainties in the comparison due to the use of all-sky model AOD, the treatment of water uptake, deposition and optical properties in the model and/or an inaccurate size distribution at emission.

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in model estimates of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution is the emission parameterization. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol life cycle module coupled to the online multiscale chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. We compare 5 yr global simulations using five state-of-the-art sea-salt open-ocean emission schemes with monthly averaged coarse aerosol optical depth (AOD) from selected AERONET sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network, and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1#. Model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of sea-surface-temperature #SST#-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Emission ranges from 3888 Tg yr#-1# to 8114 Tg yr#-1), lifetime varies between 7.3 h and 11.3 h, and the average column mass load is between 5.0 Tg and 7.2 Tg. Coarse AOD is reproduced with an overall correlation of around 0.5 and with normalized biases ranging from +8.8% to +38.8 %. Surface concentration is simulated with normalized biases ranging from -9.5% to +28% and the overall correlation is around 0.5. Our results indicate that SST-dependent emission schemes improve the overall model performance in reproducing surface concentrations. On the other hand, they lead to an overestimation of the coarse AOD at tropical latitudes, although it may be affected by uncertainties in the comparison due to the use of all-sky model AOD, the treatment of water uptake, deposition and optical properties in the model and/or an inaccurate size distribution at emission.

  • Analysis of long-range transport of aerosols for Portugal using 3D Chemical Transport Model and satellite measurements

     Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, Joaquim; Fernandes, A.P.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Borrego, Carlos
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 64, num. 1, p. 229-241
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.09.061
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    The objective of this work is to assess the contribution of long-range transport of mineral dust from North Africa to the air pollution levels in Portugal based on a combination of a modelling approach and satellite observations. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) was applied together with the updated Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (BSC-DREAM8b) to characterise anthropogenic and natural sources of primary aerosols as well as secondary aerosols formation. The modelling results, after their validation and bias removing process, have been used in combination with aerosol measurements provided by Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), using OMAERUV Level-2 v003 product, aiming to better understand the advantages and shortcomings of both, satellite and modelling aerosol data. The data analysis is presented for Portugal for July 2006 focusing on aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm and aerosol type. Based on the modelling results, the importance of the long-range transport of mineral dust was demonstrated for the simulation days, achieving a 60% contribution to AOD levels. The mineral dust is affecting atmospheric layers up to 6 km but peak concentrations are presented at layers below 2 km. The model predicts a complex mixture of different types of aerosol for the pixels classified by OMI as “mineral dust” and “sulphates”. Although a good agreement between the model outputs and OMI observations has been found in terms of the spatial pattern and AOD correlation is about 0.48 for mineral dust, several problems were identified. The model is systematically underestimating the aerosol concentration at near ground level in comparison with the air quality monitoring stations, while OMI is in general overestimating AOD for the analysed period based on the comparison with AERONET data. Additionally, misclassification of mineral dust for some geographical locations and discontinuity in AOD values along the coastal line at water/land interface in the OMI data are discussed.

  • Intercomparison and evaluation of dust prediction models

     Terradellas, E.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Schulz, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Pejanovic, G.; Menut, L.; Benedetti, Andrea; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Mulcahy, J.; Benincasa, Francesco
    ACCENT/GLOREAM Workshop
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-18
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  • Evaluation of the last features of CMAQ model v5.0 within the framework of the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system over Europe

     Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    ACCENT/GLOREAM Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-18
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  • Dust forecast model intercomparison: case study of the dust cloud of April 2011

     Basart Alpuente, Sara; Huneeus, N.; Schulz, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Morcrette, J.J.; Mulcahy, J.; Walters, D.; Brooks, M.E.; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Terradellas, E.
    ACCENT/GLOREAM Workshop
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-18
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  • Implementation and Evaluation of a Sea-salt module within the on-line multiscale NMMB/BSC-CTM

     Spada, M.; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    ACCENT/GLOREAM Workshop
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-17
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    Evaluation of the CMAQ5.0 in the framework of the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system over Europe  Open access

     Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Gassó Domingo, Santiago; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Annual Community Modeling and Analysis System Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    CALIOPE is a high-resolution air quality system which provides forecast for 24 and 48h since October 2006 for Europe (12 km x 12 km, 1h) and Spain (4 km x 4 km, 1h). The meteorological model is the WRF-ARW model (version 3.2.1) initialized by the FNL/NCEP data. The emissions are estimated by means a top-down approach implemented in the High-Elective Resolution Modeling Emission System (HERMES version 2.0) based on the EMEP inventory for the year 2008. The Chemical Transport Model (CTM) is the CMAQ (version 4.5) using the CB-IV chemical mechanism and AERO4 mode for aerosols. Several evaluation studies and near-real time evaluation (NRT) against air quality measurements on an hourly basis support the confidence on the system. The present contribution evaluates the CALIOPE system over Europe using CMAQ CTM version 5.0 (CB05 and AERO5) which is working in forecast mode since 9 April 2012. The comparison between both CMAQ versions is done in terms of gaseous and aerosol concentrations (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) at the lowest level. Forecast concentrations are compared against observations on an hourly basis from the European air quality database (Airbase) which classifies stations as background rural/suburban. Results indicate that CMAQv5.0 improves O3 forecast daily cycle, especially at nighttime over suburban stations, where O3 biases are reduced between 20 and 40 µgm-3. The CMAQv5.0 improves the forecast of NO2 peaks at suburban stations reducing biases ~10-20 µgm-3. PM10 forecast also improves with the new CMAQ version. Episodes of secondary aerosol formation are now reproduced (i.e. 7-14 may 2012), where bias are reduce in ~10-20 µgm-3. Furthermore, PM10 hourly peaks in suburban stations are better reproduced reducing hourly biases ~5-10 µgm-3. The contribution also evaluates the effect of using the Kalman filter post-process to reduce systematic bias in both CMAQ versions. Results show that the bias-adjustment technique is more effective over CMAQv5.0.

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    Monitoring and forecasting dust storms : a GMES contribution to health hazard warning and cooperation with Africa  Open access

     Cuevas, Emilio; Boucher, O.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Schulz, M.; Terradellas, E.; Morcrette, J.J.
    Date of publication: 2012-10-01
    Book chapter

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  • Complex vertical aerosol layering of natural and anthropogenic particles over the Southeastern Mediterranean: observations with Earlinet lidar and Aeronet photometer at Lemesos, Cyprus and comparison with transport modeling results

     Mamouri, R.E.; Ansmann, Albert; Nisantzi, A.; Schwarz, A.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Hadjimitsis, D.G.; Kokkalis, P.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    International Global Atmospheric Chemistry
    p. 352-354
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Evaluation of the NMMB/BSC chemical transport model from global to regional scales

     Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Badia Moragas, Alba; Spada, M.; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Dabdubd, D.
    European Meteorological Society Annual Meeting
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • High resolution climate scenarios by dynamic downscaling modelling techniques over the Northwestern Mediterranean Basin

     Gonçalves Ageitos, Maria; Barrera Escoda, Antoni; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Cunillera i Grañó, Jordi
    European Meteorological Society Annual Meeting
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Intercomparison of dust prediction models in the ramework of the WMO SDS-WAS programme

     Terradellas, E.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Schulz, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Morcrette, J.J.; Pejanovic, G.; Menut, L.; Benedetti, Andrea; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Nickovic, Slodoban; Benincasa, Francesco
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A New sea-salt module implemented within the NMMB/BSC chemical transport model

     Spada, M.; Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pérez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Aerosol variability over Lemesos, Cyprus : use of ground based data, satellite observations and model simulations

     Mamouri, R.E.; Kleanthous, S.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Amiridis, V.; Nisantzi, A.; Hatzimitsis, D.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An Empirical relationship to estimate mineral dust concentration from visibility observations

     Camino, Carlos; Alonso-Pérez, S; Terradellas, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Gómez-Peláez, A.J.; Romero-Campos, P.M.; Hernández, Y.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Cuevas, Emilio
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modelling of long-range transport of mineral dust in Cape Verde

     Tchepel, Oxana; Ferreira, Joaquim; Fernandes, A.P.; Gama, C.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Borrego, Carlos; Cardoso, J. F.; Almeida, S.M.; Pio, C
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optical properties and radiative impact of intense dust outflows in the Mediterranean Basin, based on synergistic use of satellite, ground-based measurement and modeling

     Gkikas, A.; Hatznianastassiou, N.; Kazadzis, S.; Amiridis, V.; Basart Alpuente, Sara; Marinou, E.; Taylor, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    European Aerosol Conference
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Trends in ozone concentrations in the Iberian Peninsula by quantile regression and clustering

     Monteiro, Alexandra; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I; Scotto, M.; Barbosa, S.; Alonso, A.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Pay Pérez, M. Teresa; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, Carlos
    Atmospheric environment
    Vol. 56, num. September, p. 184-193
    DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.069
    Date of publication: 2012-09-01
    Journal article

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    In this paper, 10-years of ozone (O3) hourly concentrations collected over the period 2000e2009 in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) are analyzed using records from 11 background sites. All the selected monitoring stations present an acquisition efficiency above 85%. The changes in surface ozone over the Iberian Peninsula are examined by means of quantile regression, which allows to analyse the trends not only in the mean but in the overall data distribution. In addition, the ozone hourly concentrations records are clustered on the basis of their resulting distributions. The analysis showed that high altitude stations (>900 m) have higher background O3 concentrations (w80 mg m 3). The same magnitude of background O3 concentrations is found in stations near the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, the rural stations near the Atlantic coast present lower background values (w50e60 mg m 3) than those of Mediterranean influence. The two sub-urban stations exhibit the lowest background concentrations (w45 mg m 3). The results of the quantile regression show a very distinct behaviour of the data distribution, the slopes for a fixed quantile are not the same over IP, reflecting the spatial dependence of O3 trends. Hence the rate of temporal change is not the same for all parts of the data distribution, as implicitly assumed in ordinary regression. The lower quantile (percentile 5) presents higher rates of change than the middle (percentile 50) and the upper quantile (percentile 95). The clustering procedure reveals what has been already detected in the quantile regression. The station with highest rates of decrease on the O3 concentrations (easternmost station of IP) is isolated and then other clusters are formed among the moderately positive/negative O3 trends around the IP. The clustering procedure highlighted that the largest trends are found for the lower ozone O3 values, with largest negative trend at the easternmost station of IP, and also in northern and mainland stations, and an opposite behaviour, with positive O3 trends, is observed at the Atlantic coast stations