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1 to 50 of 385 results
  • Fate and transport of Naproxen in a sandy aquifer material: saturated column studies and model evaluation

     Teijón, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; ¿imunek, Jirka; Tamoh, Karim; Valdés Abellán, Javier
    Soil and sediment contamination
    Vol. 23, num. 7, p. 736-750
    DOI: 10.1080/15320383.2014.869194
    Date of publication: 2014-10-03
    Journal article

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    Naproxen-C14H14O3 is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been found at detectable concentrations in wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. Naproxen is relatively hydrophilic and is in anionic form at pH between 6 and 8. In this study, column experiments were performed using an unconsolidated aquifer material from an area near Barcelona (Spain) to assess transport and reaction mechanisms of Naproxen in the aquifer matrix under different pore water fluxes. Results were evaluated using HYDRUS-1D, which was used to estimate transport parameters. Batch sorption isotherms for Naproxen conformed with the linear model with a sorption coefficient of 0.42 (cm3 g-1), suggesting a low sorption affinity. Naproxen breakthrough curves (BTCs) measured in soil columns under steady-state, saturated water flow conditions displayed similar behavior, with no apparent hysteresis in sorption or dependence of retardation (R, 3.85-4.24) on pore water velocities. Soil sorption did not show any significant decrease for increasing flow rates, as observed from Naproxen recovery in the effluent. Sorption parameters estimated by the model suggest that Naproxen has a low sorption affinity to aquifer matrix. Most sorption of Naproxen occurred on the instantaneous sorption sites, with the kinetic sorption sites representing only about 10 to 40% of total sorption.

  • Groundwater flow simulation at the Grombalia phreatic aquifer (Cap Bon, Northeastern Tunisia)

     Gaaloul, Noureddine; Candela, Lucila; Chebil, Ali; Soussi, Abderrazak; Tamoh, Karim
    Desalination and water treatment
    Vol. 52, num. 10-12, p. 1997-2008
    DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2013.821026
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    During the last few decades, the Grombalia shallow, an unconfined aquifer, had been under stress by groundwater pumping due to the increasing population and development of agricultural activity. Recently, the aquifer has displayed an important decline in the water level of boreholes and wells, and considerable deterioration of groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion. A groundwater numerical model for the Grombalia aquifer has been developed based on the Visual Modflow 3.1 code to simulate the groundwater changes under steady state regime and transient conditions. The results of the model show reasonable agreement between observed and estimated groundwater levels in the observation wells. Sebkaht Soliman wetland aquifer connection has been identified. This paper presents the effect of different groundwater management scenarios and pumping discharge on groundwater resources in the Grombalia aquifer (Cap-Bon peninsula, Tunisia).

  • Irrigation return flow and nitrate leaching under different crops and irrigation methods in Western Mediterranean weather conditions

     Poch, Ricard; Jiménez Martinez, Joaquin; Wallis, Kelly J; Ramírez de Cartagena Bisbe, Francisco; Candela, Lucila
    Agricultural water management
    Vol. 134, p. 1-13
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2013.11.017
    Date of publication: 2014-03
    Journal article

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    Agriculture constitutes a major source of non-point pollution (e.g., nitrates) where overall water resources are affected, in particular, aquifers. Intensive agricultural practices take place in regions with appropriate weather conditions that are usually deficient in water resources. The preservation of water resources in these types of regions depends on the evaluation of the efficiency of agricultural practices for specific crops and conditions. Although water scarcity is a characteristic feature in the Western Mediterranean, it is one of the most appropriate regions in the world for intensive agriculture development for climatic reasons. In the current work, percolation and N leaching from different crops (corn, potato, and rotation of lettuce and melon) under different irrigation methods (surface, sprinkler and drip) were evaluated through experimental plots. Water (irrigation + precipitation) and fertilizer inputs were accurately controlled. Soil water content and nitrate concentration were monitored from time domain reflectometry measurements, and cup lysimeters and destructive sampling, respectively. Percolation and nitrate leaching was simulated from different numerical codes (STICS and GLEAMS, tipping bucket method; HYDRUS-1D, Richards¿ equation), which were chosen based on the available information and the specific purposes of each experiment. For the studied periods, the obtained results showed high percolation values: 34, 58 and 37% of total applied water for corn, potato, and rotation of lettuce and melon, respectively. Also, high N leaching values across all experiences were observed, even higher than the applied doses in some periods as consequence of remobilizing mineralized N, despite following the recommended agricultural management practices. Percolation and N leaching were mostly controlled by the precipitation regime, namely, unevenly distributed intensive rainfall events, mainly in autumn and spring, which have a great impact in irrigated agriculture due to the permanent high soil water content. In detail, irrigation water applied for frost prevention on potato crops and plastic cover for melon crops, played a very important role for both percolation and N leaching. Whilst for the corn crop, N leaching mainly took place in the fallow period (autumn and winter), where the rain leached N present in soil from previous crops.

  • Assessment of water resources management in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley: environmental conservation and poverty reduction

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Codony, Jordi; Raventós, Ester; Candela, Lucila
    International journal of water resources development
    Vol. 30, num. 3, p. 572-587
    DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2013.843410
    Date of publication: 2014-09-01
    Journal article

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    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods.

    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods

  • Evaluación de los efectos del uso de aguas no convencionales en la zona no saturada y saturada: enfoque multidisciplinar

     Alfranca Burriel, Oscar; Medero, Gabriela; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Valdés Abellán, Javier; Tenza Abril, Antonio; Segui Amortegui, Luis Alberto; Candela, Lucila
    Competitive project

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  • Naproxen adsorption-desorption in a sandy aquifer matrix-characterisation of hysteretic behaviour at two different temperature values

     Teijón Avila, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Sagristá, Ester; Hidalgo Muñoz, Manuela
    Soil and sediment contamination
    Vol. 22, num. 6, p. 641-653
    DOI: 10.1080/15320383.2013.756446
    Date of publication: 2013-01-31
    Journal article

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    Adsorption/desorption processes (sorption isotherms) of Naproxen in a sandy aquifer matrix sediment were investigated using batch tests to compare Naproxen sorption behavior at 15°C and 25°C. Both temperatures are representative of the aquifer media and environmental conditions. Adsorption was well described by linear isotherms with low sorption affinity to aquifer material (Kd of 0.4 µg kg-1) at both temperatures (15°C and 25°C). Desorption isotherm coefficients at 15°C and 25°C were 5.0 and 4.9, respectively. Naproxen hysteresis indices were between 9.98 and 10.8, indicating that a Naproxen fraction may be irreversibly fixed in the aquifer media, being higher at 25°C (10.88) compared to 15°C, showing a decreasing trend with increasing compound concentration at 15°C. The low sorption of Naproxen leads to potential leaching to groundwater if present in irrigation water, and its prevalence in an aquifer media when directly injected in wells for groundwater recharge.

  • Vertical distribution profiles and diagenetic fate of synthetic surfactants in marine and freshwater sediments

     Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A.; Candela, Lucila; González Mazo, Eduardo
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 461-462, p. 568-575
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.100
    Date of publication: 2013-09
    Journal article

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    This manuscript deals with the presence and degradation of the most commonly-used surfactants, including anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs) compounds, in sediments and pore water from several aquatic environments (Southwest, Spain). Different vertical distributions were observed according to the respective sources, uses, production volumes and physicochemical properties of each surfactant. Levels of nonionics (up to 10 mg kg- 1) were twice as high as anionics in industrial areas and harbors, whereas the opposite was found near urban wastewater discharge outlets. Sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (SPCs), LAS degradation products, were identified at anoxic depths at some sampling stations. Their presence was related to in situ anaerobic degradation of LAS in marine sediments, whereas the occurrence of these metabolites in freshwater sediments was attributed to the existence of wastewater sources nearby. No significant changes in the average length of AEO and NPEO ethoxylated chains were observed along the sediment cores, suggesting that their biodegradation was very limited in the sampling area. This may be directly related to their lower bioavailability, as their calculated sediment¿pore water distribution coefficients (log Ksw), which showed that non-ionic surfactants examined in this study had greater sorption affinity than the anionic surfactants (e.g., 2.3 ± 0.3 for NPEOs).

  • Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis at the University of Alicante (Spain): presence of emerging contaminants and potential impacts on soil-aquifer media

     Valdés Abellán, Javier; Candela, Lucila; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Saval Pérez, José Miguel
    Desalination and water treatment
    Vol. 51, num. 10-12, p. 2431-2444
    DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.747506
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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  • Treated wastewater reuse for aquifer recharge: a three years monitoring of selected pharmaceuticals in injected water and wells

     Candela, Lucila; Vadillo Pérez, Iñaki; Tamoh, Karim
    International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
    p. 188
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Presence of emerging contaminants in the vadose zone of two aquifers systems in Jerez de la Frontera area (SW, Spain)

     Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A.; Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Candela, Lucila; González Mazo, Eduardo
    International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology
    p. 436
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A 3D geological model of the Campo de Cartagena, SE Spain: hydrogeological implications

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Candela, Lucila; Aragón, R.; García Aróstegui, J.L.
    Geologica acta
    Vol. 10, num. 1, p. 49-62
    DOI: 10.1344/105.000001703
    Date of publication: 2012-03
    Journal article

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  • Monitoring the occurrence of emerging contaminants in treated wastewater and groundwater between 2008-2010: the Baix Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain)

     Cabeza, Yoar; Candela, Lucila; Ronen, Daniel; Teijón Avila, Gloria
    Journal of hazardous materials
    Vol. 239-240, p. 32-39
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.032
    Date of publication: 2012-11-15
    Journal article

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  • Vadose zone tritium tracer test to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated areas

     Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila
    Hydrological processes
    Vol. 27, num. 22, p. 3150-3158
    DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9441
    Date of publication: 2012-06-12
    Journal article

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    Environmental tracers, such as tritium, have generally been used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test is presented for estimating recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions. The test was performed along 429¿days (June 2007¿August 2008) on an experimental plot located in SE Spain with drip irrigation and annual row crops (rotation of lettuce and melon), in which common agricultural practices were followed in open air. Tritiated water was sprinkled (simulated rainfall) over the plot, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure tritium concentration in soil water samples. Tritium transport, as liquid or vapor phase, was simulated with the one-dimensional numerical code SOLVEG. Simulations show that the crop water use was below potential levels, despite regular irrigation. Continuous high water content in soil promoted a great impact of rainfall events on the aquifer recharge. The results obtained from tritium tracer test have been compared with other independent recharge assessment, soil water balance method, to evaluate the reliability of the first one. Total recharge from tracer test was 476¿mm for the October 2007¿September 2008 period versus 561¿mm from soil water balance method for the same period, which represents 37.1% and 43.7% of the applied water (1284¿mm, irrigation¿+¿precipitation), respectively.

  • Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds: application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

     Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares Cerpa, Gonzalo; Gomez Valentin, Manuel
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 440, p. 253-260
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.06.062
    Date of publication: 2012-12-01
    Journal article

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  • Global change and agricultural management options for groundwater sustainability

     Candela, Lucila; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Elorza, Francisco Javier; von Igel, Wolf
    Computers and electronics in agriculture
    Vol. 86, p. 120-130
    DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2011.12.012
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Multiphase transport of tritium in unsaturated porous media: bare and vegetated soils

     Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila; Elorza, F.J.; Hunkeler, D
    Mathematical geosciences
    Vol. 44, num. 2, p. 187-208
    DOI: 10.1007/s11004-012-9383-8
    Date of publication: 2012-02
    Journal article

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    Tritium is a short-lived radioactive isotope (T 1/2=12.33 yr) produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation but also released into the atmosphere and hydrosphere by nuclear activities (nuclear power stations, radioactive waste disposal). Tritium of natural or anthropogenic origin may end up in soils through tritiated rain, and may eventually appear in groundwater. Tritium in groundwater can be re-emitted to the atmosphere through the vadose zone. The tritium concentration in soil varies sharply close to the ground surface and is very sensitive to many interrelated factors like rainfall amount, evapotranspiration rate, rooting depth and water table position, rendering the modeling a rather complex task. Among many existing codes, SOLVEG is a one-dimensional numerical model to simulate multiphase transport through the unsaturated zone. Processes include tritium diffusion in both, gas and liquid phase, advection and dispersion for tritium in liquid phase, radioactive decay and equilibrium partitioning between liquid and gas phase. For its application with bare or vegetated (perennial vegetation or crops) soil surfaces and shallow or deep groundwater levels (contaminated or non-contaminated aquifer) the model has been adapted in order to include ground cover, root growth and root water uptake. The current work describes the approach and results of the modeling of a tracer test with tritiated water (7.3×108 Bq m−3) in a cultivated soil with an underlying 14 m deep unsaturated zone (non-contaminated). According to the simulation results, the soil’s natural attenuation process is governed by evapotranspiration and tritium re-emission. The latter process is due to a tritium concentration gradient between soil air and an atmospheric boundary layer at the soil surface. Re-emission generally occurs during night time, since at day time it is coupled with the evaporation process. Evapotranspiration and re-emission removed considerable quantities of tritium and limited penetration of surface-applied tritiated water in the vadose zone to no more than ∼1–2 m. After a period of 15 months tritium background concentration in soil was attained.

  • RIEGO Y FERTILIZACIÓN NITROGENADA EN MAIZ (Zea mays L.): EFECTO SOBRE EL RENDIMIENTO DEL CULTIVO Y LA CONTAMINACIÓN SUBTERRÁNEA POR NITRATOS  Open access

     Poch Massegú, Ricard
    Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-Sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Intensive farming often leads environmental consequences. This is the case of the study area of this thesis: the Empordà, a region with a variety of intensive crops (fruits, cereals, forage,...) and manifest problems of groundwater pollution by nitrates whose origin points also to agricultural practices in the area. The work has focusen on monoculture production of corn for grain with furrow irrigation and mineral nitrogen fertilization. Within this framework, objectives has been defined as: (1) to evaluate the influence that irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have on production and environmental impacts (groundwater pollution by nitrates), and (2) to evaluate an implement simulation codes to deepen in knowledge of irrigation and crop management in the area. It has been defined an experimental test of two years on the same plot where five modules -with eight furrows each- of surface irrigation has been set for evaluating performance irrigation. On these modules has been sown corn and defined five different treatments -with three replicates each- resulting from the interaction of three doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (0, 210, and 500 kg N/ha) and two types of fertilizer: conventional (with two applications) an low release (with one application). The corn crop management was carried out according to standard practices in the study area. The experimental plot has been intensively monitored and sampled for monitoring and for quantifying all the variables that have influenced the behavior of irrigation and crop response to the treatments done. This information has also been used for to calibrate and/or to validate the RAIEOPT, EVASUP2, SIMRAIE, SIRMOD, HYDRUS, and STICS codes. The conclusions drawn from the results obtained on the irrigation system are: (1) first irrigation behaves very differently from other irrigations of the campaign, (2) the environment conditions where irrigation is developed are variable (furrow cross section, infiltration, soil compactation, and surface roughness) and influence on the behavior of irrigation, (3) the total dose of applied water did not exceed in any case 75% of the theoretical needs of the crop, (4) the simulation codes that best reflect observed irrigation behavior are RAIEOPT for calculating the average infiltration function and SIMRAIE for estimating doses of water infiltrated along the furrow, and (5) in the conditions experienced, the dose profiles of the infiltrated water along the furrows are practically flat. In terms of crop response to experimental scenarios tested is concluded that: (1) treatment with no application of nitrogen fertilizer has a grain yield of about 40% lower than the other treatments, (2) there are no differences in crop yield rates on treatments with some application of mineral fertilizer nitrogen, (3) the nitrogen leaching losses are associated with periods of drainage and are proportional to soil nitrogen content at the beginning of these periods, and (4) there has been no drainage during the two irrigation periods tested. Finally, on the simulation of soil-plant-atmosphere with STICS code is concluded that: (1) STICS is a useful tool for simulating the agricultural system in scenarios with and without crops, and (2) STICS tends to overestimate the risk of nitrate leaching observed in plot.

    L’agricultura intensiva normalment porta associades conseqüències sobre el medi ambient. Aquest és el cas de l’àrea d’estudi de la present tesi doctoral: l’Empordà, una regió amb gran varietat de cultius intensius (fruiters, cereals, farratges,...) i amb problemes manifestos de contaminació d’aigües subterrànies per nitrats l’origen dels quals apunta, també, a les pràctiques agrícoles de la zona.El treball realitzat s’ha centrat en el monocultiu de blat de moro per a producció de gra amb reg per superfície en solcs i amb fertilització nitrogenada mineral. En aquest marc, s’han definit com a objectius (1) avaluar la influència que el reg i la fertilització nitrogenada tenen sobre la producció i l’impacte ambiental (contaminació subterrània per nitrats) i (2) avaluar i aplicar codis de simulació que permetin aprofundir en el coneixement del sistema de reg i el maneig del cultiu a la zona.S’ha plantejat un assaig experimental de dos anys de durada sobre la mateixa parcel•la experimental. En ella s’han configurat cinc mòduls de reg de 8 solcs cadascun per a l’avaluació del comportament del reg. Sobre aquests mòduls s’ha sembrat blat de moro i s’han definit cinc tractaments diferents (amb tres repeticions cadascun) fruit de la interacció de tres dosis de fertilitzant mineral nitrogenat (0, 210 i 500 kg N/ha) i dos tipus de fertilitzant: convencional (amb aplicacions de fons i de cobertora) i d’alliberació gradual (amb una aplicació de fons). El maneig del cultiu s’ha realitzat segons les pràctiques habituals de la regió.La parcel•la experimental s’ha monitoritzat i s’han pres mostres intensivament per a fer un seguiment i quantificar totes les variables que han influït en el comportament del reg i en la resposta agronòmica del cultiu als tractaments realitzats. Amb aquesta informació s’han calibrat i/o validat els codis de simulació RAIEOPT, EVASUP2, SIMRAIE, SIRMOD, LIXIM, HYDRUS i STICS.De l’anàlisi dels resultats obtinguts, sobre el sistema de reg per superfície es conclou que: (1) que el primer reg es comporta de forma molt diferent a la resta de regs de la campanya; (2) que les condicions del medi on es desenvolupa el reg són variables (secció transversal del solc, infiltració, compactació i rugositat del sòl) i influeixen en el comportament del reg; (3) que les dosis totals d’aigua aplicades no han superat en cap cas el 75% de les necessitats teòriques del cultiu; (4) que els codis de simulació que millor reflecteixen el comportament del reg observat són el RAIEOPT pel càlcul de la funció mitjana d’infiltració en solcs i el SIMRAIE per preveure les dosis d’aigua infiltrades al llarg del solc de reg; i (5) que, en les condicions experimentades, els perfils de les dosis d’aigua infiltrades al llarg dels solcs són pràcticament horitzontals.En quant a la resposta del cultiu als escenaris experimentals realitzats es conclou que: (1) el tractament sense aportació de fertilitzant nitrogenat té un rendiment en producció de gra de prop del 40% menor que la resta de tractaments; (2) no s’observen diferències en els índexs de rendiment del cultiu entre els tractaments amb alguna aportació de fertilitzant mineral nitrogenat; (3) les pèrdues de nitrogen per lixiviació van associades a períodes dedrenatge i són proporcionals al nitrogen present en el sòl a l’inici d’aquests períodes; i (4) no s’ha produït drenatge durant els períodes de reg assajats.Finalment, sobre la simulació del sistema sòl-planta-atmosfera amb el codi STICS es conclou que: (1) STICS és una eina útil de simulació del sistema agrícola en escenaris amb i sense cultiu; i (2) STICS tendeix a sobreestimar els risc de lixiviació de nitrats observat en parcel•la.

  • Brazilian Journal of Geology

     Candela, Lucila
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Simulation of nitrate leaching under potato crops in a Mediterranean area: influence of frost prevention irrigation on nitrogen transport

     Wallis, Kelly J; Candela, Lucila; Mateos, R.M.; Tamoh, Karim
    Agricultural water management
    Vol. 98, num. 10, p. 1629-1640
    DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2011.06.001
    Date of publication: 2011-07-05
    Journal article

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    Tracking sewage derived contamination in riverine settings by analysis of synthetic surfactants  Open access

     Corada-Fernández, Carmen; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; Candela, Lucila; González-Mazo, Eduardo
    Journal of environmental monitoring
    Vol. 13, num. 7, p. 2010-2017
    DOI: 10.1039/C1EM10150A
    Date of publication: 2011-05-31
    Journal article

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    A study has been made of the presence and reactivity of the most commonly used surfactants, both anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs), in water and surface sediments from the middle stretch of the Guadalete River in SW Spain (12 stations). Average values were between 0.1 and 3.7 mg kg_1 in sediment, and between 0.2 and 37 mg L_1 in water. The sorption of surfactants was dominated by hydrophobic mechanisms, so those homologues having longer alkyl chains (e.g. C18AEO) showed higher relative percentages and concentrations in sediments compared with water. Local and sharply higher concentrations of these compounds were observed at three sampling stations (7, 9 and 12), indicating the occurrence of wastewater discharges into the river. By analysing the distributions of different surfactant homologues and their metabolites we were able to distinguish between sewage contamination from sources discharging treated and untreated wastewaters. Upstream (stations 1–2), LAS concentrations were below 30 mg L_1 and the composition of their degradation intermediates (sulfophenyl carboxylic acids, SPCs) (160 mg L_1) was dominated by short-chain homologues (C6–C9SPCs), indicating that the degradation of this surfactant is at an advanced stage. The highest concentration (487 mg L_1) of SPCs was detected near the effluent outlet of a sewage treatment plant (STP) (station 12). Sampling stations (7 and 9) affected by untreated wastewater discharges were the only ones showing the presence of the most reactive and biodegradable SPC isomers and homologues (e.g. C11SPC). Here, LAS reached the highest concentration values measured (>2 mg L_1), and showed a homologue distribution closer to that of commercial mixtures than LAS found at the other stations.

  • X-Ray fluorescence analysis for total bromine tracking in the Vadose zone : results for Mnsara, Morocco

     Abderrahim, Hmimou; Candela, Lucila; Queralt, Ignasi; Tamoh, Karim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif
    Vadose zone journal
    Vol. 10, num. 4, p. 1331-1335
    DOI: 10.2136/vzj2010.0150
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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  • The role of leaky boreholes on the contamination of a regional confined aquifer: a case study in the Campo de Cartagena region, Spain

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Aravena, R; Candela, Lucila
    Water, air and soil pollution
    Vol. 215, num. 1-4, p. 311-327
    DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0480-3
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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  • Aplicación de agua no convencional (tratada-desalada) y fangos preocedentes de depuradoras urbanas....

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila
    Competitive project

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  • A multispecies tracer test in a detritic aquifer (SE Spain)

     Teijón Avila, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín
    International Applied Geochemistry Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Aplicación de métodos en la zona no saturada para cuantificar la recarga. Ejemplos bajo agricultura intensiva.

     Candela, Lucila; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín
    Date of publication: 2011-09-15
    Book chapter

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    Bibliografia del professor Dr. Emilio Custodio Gimena, catedràtic de la UPC

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    Presence of emerging contaminants priority substances and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater in the Llobregat delta area (Barcelona, Spain)  Open access

     Teijón Avila, Gloria; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila
    International Congress Smallwat
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Initial sampling results of emerging contaminants at the Llobregat delta deep aquifer (Barcelona, Spain) are presented. Among micro contaminants selected are 82 pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, lipid regulation agents, analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs, etc), 18 personal care products (sunscreen agents, preservatives and disinfectants/antiseptics), 4 metals, 44 pesticides, 6 volatile priority pollutants, 16 PAHS and dioxins. Monitoring programme consisted on periodical water sampling from municipal wastewater tertiary treatment plant (WWTP), tertiary water with additional treatment being injected in the aquifer and from the aquifer. With regard to the emerging contaminants, the applied treatment has demonstrated its effectiveness for the removal of this type of microcontaminants

  • Presencia de contaminantes emergentes en el acuífero profundo del Delta del Llobregat (Barcelona, España)

     Cabeza, Yoar; Teijón Avila, Gloria; Candela, Lucila
    Congreso Argentino de Hidrogeología
    p. 173
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Emerging contaminants in treated wastewater and groundwater after a three years monitoring period: the Baix Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain)  Open access

     Teijón Avila, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Cabeza, Yoar; Tamoh, Karim
    International Conference on Environmental Science & Technology
    p. A-1874-A-1880
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Distribución y transporte de tensioactivos sintéticos no iónicos (AEOs) en la zona no saturada

     Corada-Fernández, C; Vanclooster, M; Candela, Lucila; Jiménez Martínez, Joaquín; Smith, J.E; González-Mazo, E
    Jornadas de Investigación de la Zona no Saturada del Suelo
    p. 211-216
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de un etoxímero de tensioactivo sintético no iónico (alcoholes polietoxilados, AEOs) en condiciones no saturadas a partir de un ensayo de laboratorio mediante una célula de flujo. Se presentan los resultados de la simulación correspondientes a la aplicación del código HYDRUS y una primera aproximación del transporte del etoxímero seleccionado (C16AEO6EO). De acuerdo a los resultados de la modelación, estos reproducen satisfactoriamente los datos experimentales, mostrando para el C16AEO6EO altos índices de degradación y adsorción en el suelo. In this work the behavior of an ethoxymer of non-ionic synthetic surfactant (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs) is studied under unsaturated conditions from a laboratory test performed in a flow cell. A first approach to the transport of the selected ethoxymer (C16AEO6EO) using HYDRUS code is presented. The results from modeling reproduce the experimental data successfully, showing a high degradation rate as well as soil adsorption of C16AEO6EO.infiltration and the delay in runoff generation.

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    Water resources management in the central rift valley: modelling for the water poor  Open access

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Kebede, S
    International Congress Smallwat
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Achieving a sustainable development is crucial, but is even more important in developing countries, where a wide number of people does not have a safe and secure access to water and relay on the environment to sustain their lives. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin is already a degraded basin from the environmental point of view: ecosystems are endangered due to human activities there developed. Moreover, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population is mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. In order to achieve sustainable development to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment and Integrated Water Resources Management approach shall be applied. First step has been to model the basin water resources, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which, after calibration and validation of the model, has given correct results. In order to follow deepening in the IWRM approach, more information on actual and future water demand and specifically water applied to agriculture will be needed.

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    Water resources management at the University of Alicante for landscape irrigation from groundwater desalination  Open access

     Valdés, Javier; Candela, Lucila; Cano Gonzalez, Miguel; Tenza, A
    International Congress Smallwat
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is an area of water resources scarcity and important seasonal demand. Moreover, aquifers with low quality water for consumption due to salinity also exist precluding its further use. However, since the important concern of water shortage has been growing, possible exploitation of low quality groundwater has been taken into consideration. An example of sustainable use of the treated saline water developed by University of Alicante (UA) is presented, where pumped groundwater from the in campus existing aquifer is applied for landscape irrigation after RO desalination by the existing plant.

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    Hydrological conceptual model characterisation of an abandoned mine site in semiarid climate: the Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain)  Open access

     Robles Arenas, Virginia; Candela, Lucila
    Geologica acta
    Vol. 8, num. 3, p. 235-248
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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    A comprehensive study at Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain) abandoned mine site was carried out to characterise the regime and water quality of the groundwater system after the mine closure. The system consists of five geologic fractured blocks belonging to the Alpujarride and Nevado-Filabride complexes. The aquifer units are composed of limestone and dolostone materials. Recharge is mainly controlled by the N-130 fault system, man-made induced fractures, open-pits and underground workings. Discharge is indicated from open pit lakes by the proximal dome-shaped groundwater level contours. Aquifer natural recharge, assessed by fracture density maps and chloride mass balance, provided consistent results. The water hydrochemical facies show a marked sulphate concentration and acidic pH (average pH of 2.53-6.30). A maximum concentration of 4,100 mg/L of Zn and 40,000 mg/L of sulphate was observed in open-pit lakes. Springs present the lowest residence time and are low mineralised with an average pH of 7.6. Geochemical modelling based on the PHREEQCI code indicates water undersaturation with respect to almost all related mineral species and anoxic conditions prevail in the system. Although an adequate understanding of the regional system is provided, a further detailed hydrochemical study is necessary to assess the undergoing geochemical changes.

  • Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Candela, Lucila; Molinero Huguet, Jorge Jose; Tamoh, Karim
    Hydrogeology journal
    Vol. 18, num. 8, p. 1811-1824
    DOI: 10.1007/s10040-010-0658-1
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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  • Occurrence of emerging contaminants, priority substances (2008/105/CE) and heavy metals in treated wastewater and groundwater at Depurbaix facility (Barcelona, Spain)

     Teijón Avila, Gloria; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Rodriguez Fernández-Alba, Amadeo
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 408, num. 17, p. 3584-3595
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.041
    Date of publication: 2010-08
    Journal article

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  • Glyphosate transport through weathered granite soils under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions: Barcelona, Spain

     Candela, Lucila; Caballero, Juan; Ronen, Daniel
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 408, num. 12, p. 2509-2516
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.03.006
    Date of publication: 2010-03
    Journal article

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    The transport of Glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl] glycine), AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, CH6NO3P), and Bromide (Br−) has been studied, in the Mediterranean Maresme area of Spain, north of Barcelona, where groundwater is located at a depth of 5.5 m. The unsaturated zone ofweathered — granite soilswas characterized in adjacent irrigated and non-irrigated experimental plots where 11 and 10 boreholes were drilled, respectively. At the non irrigated plot, the first half of the periodwas affected by a persistent and intense rainfall. After 69 days of application residues of Glyphosate up to 73.6 μgg−1 were detected till a depth of 0.5 m under irrigated conditions, AMPA, analyzed only in the irrigated plot was detected till a depth of 0.5 m. According to the retardation coefficient of Glyphosate as compared to that of Br− for the topsoil and subsoil (80 and 83, respectively) and the maximum observed migration depth of Br− (2.9 m) Glyphosate and AMPA should have been detected till a depth of 0.05 monly. Such migration could be related to the lowcontent of organicmatter and clays in the soils; recharge generated by irrigation and heavy rain, and possible preferential solute transport and/or colloidal mediated transport.

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    La reutilización de aguas regeneradas en España: ejemplos de aplicación en el marco del proyecto CONSOLIDER-TRAGUA  Open access

     De Bustamante, Irene; Cabrera Santana, Maria del Carmen; Candela, Lucila; Lillo, Javier; Palacios, MP.
    Aqua-LAC: revista del Programa Hidrológico Internacional para América Latina y el Caribe
    Vol. 2, num. 1, p. 1-17
    Date of publication: 2010-03-01
    Journal article

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    La reutilización de aguas depuradas en España se realiza desde hace décadas, siendo uno de los países en los que esta práctica está más extendida. Sin embargo, no se llega a reutilizar más del 5% del total de las aguas residuales recogidas, aunque en algunos casos, como en Canarias, el agua depurada ha llegado a suponer un 20% del agua consumida. En este artículo se presentan tres ejemplos de reutilización de aguas depuradas con una importante incidencia en los aspectos ambientales y asociados a condiciones hídricas diversas. Los estudios se están llevando a cabo dentro del Proyecto CONSOLIDER-TRAGUA cuyo objetivo es abordar de manera integrada los aspectos implicados en la reutilización de aguas residuales procedentes de las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales urbanas. Las zonas seleccionadas para los estudios de campo se sitúan en Andalucía donde el agua regenerada se aplica a filtros verdes y riego de cultivos para la obtención de biodiesel; Canarias para riego de campos de Golf y Cataluña donde el agua es inyectada para generar una barrera hidráulica contra la intrusión marina del acuífero. En los tres casos estudiados se incide en los aspectos suelo-agua-planta y sus impactos en el medio.

  • Aquifer recharge from intensively irrigated farmland. Several approaches  Open access

     Giménez Martínez, Joaquin
    Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-Sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En las últimas décadas la literatura se ha centrado en la estimación de la recarga natural y los parámetros que la controlan, incluyendo clima, vegetación, suelo, y topografía. Por el contrario, pocos son los trabajos centrados en la recarga de acuíferos a partir de zonas cultivadas intensamente regadas. Aunque estos han mejorado la compresión sobre el proceso de recarga, todavía resultan incompletos a la hora de estimarla a partir del mencionado uso de suelo. En este contexto, los objetivos de esta tesis son: (i) mejorar la compresión de la recarga a partir de zonas intensamente regadas, y (ii) proporcionar nuevas herramientas para su caracterización. Algunas de las metodologías proporcionadas pueden ser fácilmente reproducidas por profesionales para inferir información cuantitativa. Ensayos en campo, incluyendo diferentes tipos de cultivo y prácticas agrícolas, son llevados a cabo en al área del Campo de Cartagena, sureste de España, una región semi-árida donde la agricultura intensiva es el principal uso de suelo. El desarrollo de metodologías con observaciones en el medio saturado y no saturado, junto con la modelación numérica, fueron usados para mejorar la compresión de los procesos que controlan la recarga a partir de zonas intensamente regadas. Las aproximaciones desarrolladas pueden ser resumidas como sigue: Ensayo de campo a lo largo de seiscientos días bajo cultivos hortícolas anuales y riego por goteo. La distribución del contenido de agua en la zona de raíces y bajo esta fue simulada considerando un modelo de flujo no saturado. El contenido de agua y la succión fueron medidos a diferentes profundidades y empleados para la calibración y validación del modelo. Ensayo de trazador (tritio) en campo en una parcela experimental con riego por goteo y cultivos hortícolas anuales durante cuatrocientos treinta días. El movimiento de trazador a lo largo del perfil de suelo fue simulado considerando transporte multifásico. Los perfiles de concentración de trazador, a partir de un espaciado y limitado número de muestras destructivas, fueron usados para calibrar y validar el modelo. Experimento de larga duración (nueve años hidrológicos) para diferentes tipos de cultivo: cultivos hortícolas anuales, cultivos hortícolas perennes y árboles frutales. La recarga producida por cada tipo de cultivo fue estimada a partir del balance de agua en suelo, zona no saturada y acuífero. Las fluctuaciones del nivel freático registradas a lo largo del mencionado periodo fueron usadas para calibrar y validar el modelo. Esta experiencia permitió evaluar la fiabilidad de las estimaciones de recarga a partir de las otras dos metodologías previas (a corto plazo) para el tipo de cultivo coincidente (cultivos hortícolas anuales). Para las tres aproximaciones, el cubrimiento de suelo por las plantas y el crecimiento de raíces han sido incluidos en la condición de contorno superior. La evapotranspiración se ha dividido en evaporación y transpiración como una función del índice de área de hoja, y es limitada por el contenido de agua en el suelo. La transpiración a su vez ha sido distribuida a través del perfil de suelo como una función del contenido de agua y profundidad de raíces. Valores similares de recarga han sido obtenidos a partir de las tres técnicas, aunque el modelo de flujo no saturado la sobreestima ligeramente. La evapotranspiración real fue siempre más baja que la potencial, ya que el contenido de agua en suelo fue insuficiente para mantener la extracción de agua por parte de las raíces, a pesar de la alta frecuencia de riego. Aunque las prácticas agrícolas por parte de los agricultores son las correctas, con una alta eficiencia de riego, se obtuvieron altos valores de recarga. La lluvia es distribuida de manera irregular en unos pocos eventos intensivos, algo por otro lado muy común en regiones semi-áridas, lo que contribuye de manera significativa a la percolación profunda, debido al constante alto contenido de humedad en el suelo.

    In the past decades a large body of literature has focused on the assessment of the natural recharge and parameters of control (including climate, vegetation, soils, and topography). On the contrary, only few papers focused on aquifer recharge from intensively irrigated farmland. Although findings have improved the understanding of recharge phenomena, they still fail to characterize many features of aquifer recharge from the mentioned land use. In this context, the aims of this thesis are: (i) to improve the understanding of aquifer recharge from intensively irrigated farmland, and (ii) to provide new tools for its characterization. Also, this thesis provides a framework that can be easily used by practitioners to infer quantitative information. Field tests, including different crop types and agricultural management, were carried out in the Campo de Cartagena area of southeast Spain, a semi-arid region where intensive irrigated agriculture is prevalent. The development of methodologies, with field observations in both saturated and unsaturated media, along with the application of numerical modelling were used to understand the processes governing the recharge from irrigated farmland. The developed approaches can be summarized as follows: A field experiment with annual row crops and drip irrigation. Soil moisture dynamics through the root zone and below were simulated from unsaturated flow approach. Soil moisture and pressure head data at different depths were recorded along six hundred days for model calibration and prediction. A tracer test (tritium) in field along four hundred thirty days. The test was carried out in an experimental plot with drip irrigation and annual row crops. The tracer transport in soil was simulated considering a multiphase approach. Tracer concentration profiles, from a limited and sparse number of destructive samples, were used to calibrate and validate the modelling approach. A long-term field experiment (based on nine hydrologic years) for different crop types, annual row crops, perennial vegetables and fruit trees. The recharge produced from each crop type was estimated from a water balance approach, including soil, vadose zone and aquifer. Water table fluctuations, recorded along the mentioned period, were used for model calibration and predictions. This long-term approach permits to evaluate recharge estimates reliability of the two previous methodologies (short-term) for the type of crop overlapped (annual row crops). For the three approaches, ground cover and root depth are assumed as upper boundary conditions. Evapotranspiration is allocated to evaporation and transpiration as a function of leaf-area-index and is limited by soil moisture content; transpiration is distributed through the soil profile as a function of soil moisture and root depth. Similar recharge values have been obtained from the three techniques, although the unsaturated flow approach slightly overestimates values. Actual evapotranspiration was always lower than potential evapotranspiration, because soil moisture was insufficient to sustain the potential uptake, despite high irrigation frequency. Although the agricultural practices from farmers are sound, high irrigation efficiency, high recharge values are achieved. Rainfall is unevenly distributed into a few intensive events, likewise very common in semi-arid regions, and it meaningfully contributes to deep percolation, due to consistently high soil water content.

  • Use of TDR to estimate aquifer recharge in intensively irrigated areas

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Jiménez, A; Candela, Lucila
    International Symposium On Soil Water Measurement Using Capacitance, Impedance and Time Domain Transmission
    Presentation's date: 2010-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Treated wastewater reuse for a seawater intrusion hydraulic barrier implementation in the Llobregat delta aquifer (Barcelona, Spain): first phase  Open access

     Teijon Avila, Gloria; Tamoh, Karim; Soler Manuel, Manuel-amando; Candela, Lucila
    Options Méditerranéennes: série A: séminaires Méditerranéens
    num. 88, p. 171-178
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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    Sampling results of a wells network to monitor a hydraulic barrier for seawater intrusion control at the Llobregat delta deep aquifer (Barcelona, Spain) are presented here for the period March 2007-2008. The monitoring programme consisted in periodical water sampling and piezometric level control in wells, local network and wastewater treatment plant. The first-phase results of the sampling campaign show a decrease in electric conductivity in the wells closer to the injection points. Also a cation exchange index decrease is observed, indicating a continuous increase in the water mixing process in the wells. Regarding emerging contaminants, enhanced wastewater treatment removed the majority of contaminants before injection. The preliminary field results of hydrogeological control of injected water indicate that improved pre-treatment of wastewater has been appropriate for contaminants removal.

  • A root zone modelling approach to estimating groundwater recharge from irrigated areas

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Skaggs, T.H.; Genuchten, M.Th. van; Candela, Lucila
    Journal of hydrology
    Vol. 367, num. 1-2, p. 138-149
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.01.002
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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    Drainage estimation to aquifer and water use irrigation efficiency in semi-arid zone for a long period of time  Open access

     Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Molinero Huguet, Jorge Jose; Candela, Lucila
    Geophysical research abstracts
    Vol. 11, p. 1
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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    Water requirements for different crop types according to soil type and climate conditions play not only an important role in agricultural efficiency production, though also for water resources management and control of pollutants in drainage water. The key issue to attain these objectives is the irrigation efficiency. Application of computer codes for irrigation simulation constitutes a fast and inexpensive approach to study optimal agricultural management practices. To simulate daily water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer the VisualBALAN V. 2.0 code was applied to an experimental area under irrigation characterized by its aridity. The test was carried out in three experimental plots for annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke), and fruit trees (citrus) under common agricultural practices in open air for October 1999-September 2008. Drip irrigation was applied to crops production due to the scarcity of water resources and the need for water conservation. Water level change was monitored in the top unconfined aquifer for each experimental plot. Results of water balance modelling show a good agreement between observed and estimated water level values. For the study period, mean drainage obtained values were 343 mm, 261 mm and 205 mm for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus respectively. Assessment of water use efficiency was based on the IE indicator proposed by the ASCE Task Committee. For the modelled period, water use efficiency was estimated as 73, 71 and 78 % of the applied dose (irrigation + precipitation) for lettuce and melon, artichoke and citrus, respectively.

  • Impact assessment of combined climate and management scenarios on groundwater resources and associated wetland (Majorca, Spain)

     Candela, Lucila; Von Igel Grisar, Wolf Benjamin; Elorza, Javier; Aronica, Giuseppe
    Journal of hydrology
    Vol. 376, num. 3-4, p. 510-527
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.07.057
    Date of publication: 2009-10
    Journal article

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  • GRUP HIDROLOGIA SUBTERRANEA

     Candela, Lucila; Jimenez Martinez, Joaquin; Batlle Pifarre, Francisco; Barbieri, Manuela; Fernandez Garcia, Daniel; Medina Sierra, Agustin; Saaltink, Maarten Willem; Bolster, Diogo; Martinez Landa, Lourdes; Vázquez Suñé, Enric; Pedretti, Daniele; Velasco Mansilla, Domitila Violeta; Custodio Gimena, Emilio; Dentz, Marco; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Jódar Bermúdez, Jorge; Castro Ledesma, Adolfo; Valhondo Gonzalez, Cristina; Silva Rojas, Orlando Enrique; Gogu, Constantin Radu; Pool Ramirez, Maria; de Pourcq, Katrien; Pujades Garnes, Estanislao; Vilarrasa Riaño, Victor; Sanchez Vila, Francisco Javier
    Competitive project

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  • Adaptaciones en el uso del agua a los cambios climáticos en el Mediterráneo: desarrollo de un primer modelo simple de escorrentía (caja negra) para el cálculo de la escorrentía superficial en una subcuenca del Fluvià

     Olivares Cerpa, Gonzalo; Gomez Valentin, Manuel; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim
    Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de los objetivos del proyecto ACCUA, para evaluar la vulnerabilidad territorial del litoral mediterráneo en Catalunya ante los principales efectos del cambio global relacionados con las variaciones de disponibilidad de agua. ACCUA es.un proyecto de tres años de duración, financiado por la Obra Social de Caixa de Catalunya y coordinado por el CREAF, en el que participan diferentes grupos de trabajo como el Grupo de Hidrología Subterránea de la Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya (GHS-UPC), Flumen-UPC, el Instituto de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentarias (IRTA) y el European Topic Centre on Land Use and Spatial Information (ETC-LUSI).