Vadillo Pérez, I.; Candela, L.; Gambero-Sedeño, L.; Urresti-Estala, B.; Jiménez-Gavilán, P.; Corada-Fernández, C. International Association Hydrogeologists Congress p. 370 Presentation's date: 2015-09 Presentation of work at congresses
This research is focused in the Guadalhorce porous aquifer (Malaga, south of Spain), to study the distribution of EC and the interaction with the hydrogeochemistry. 14 EC (Ibuprofen, Hydrochlorothiazide, Salicilic Acid, Triclosan, Menfenamic Acid, Carbamazepine, Trimethoprim, Ofloxacin, Cafeine, Metotrexato, Metronidazole, Sulfadiazine,
Sulfamethazine and Sulfamethoxazole) and 36 paramaters including electrical conductivity, T, pH, DO, major ions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), metals (B, Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Se) and isotopes (d2H-H2O, d18O-H2O, d34S-SO42-) were controlled in a single field sampling (June 2012). Relationships between certain
pollutants by its focus of origin are studied.
Since the 1960's the coastal aquifer overlying the irrigated plain of Korba El Mida (East coast of Cap-Bon) has been under intensive exploitation leading to groundwater degradation quality by seawater intrusion and irrigation return flow. Also, the main coastal sabkhas (wetlands) are no longer the natural outlets of the aquifer, due to a
reversal of the hydraulic gradient jointly with groundwater depletion. Since 1962 geophysical surveys, use of environmental isotopes and tracers, and groundwater monitoring campaigns for sampling and level measurements of existing piezometers and surrounding wells, have been carried out in order to assess origin of salinity, extent and evolution along time. Since 2008, artificial recharge groundwater with reclaimed water through three infiltration basins is taking place to increase groundwater resources, restore the piezometric levels, and improve water quality. Values of Electric Conductivity may range between 0.3 and 10.6 dS/m in the surroundings of Korba and El Mida;
most piezometers and some wells had essentially sodium-chloride facies but some wells present a calcium-sulfate facies. High nitrate concentration (up to 300 mg/L), potassium and sulphate increase due to mineral fertilizers and manure application are observed in some areas of the aquifer, fact supported by the Cl-NO3 diagrams. The high
heterogeneity of the salinity distribution, due to geological and hydrodynamic conditions, generates complex groundwater mixing of different origins: seawater intrusion, irrigation return flow, natural recharge besides the existing induced aquifer recharge in the area. The spatial variability of concentrations in the Korba-El Mida aquifer
reveals the complexity of the groundwater contamination by salinization and anthropogenic activities.
Irrigation with slightly saline water is becoming a normal practice in water-scarce regions to increase the available water resources. Although in many areas its use has been proved sustainable, assessment of possible longterm impacts due to its application are scarce due to lack of real field experiences. To overcome this barrier,
numerical simulation of variable-saturated flow and reactive transport is an efficient tool to assess the long-term irrigation impacts on soil and aquifer caused by non-conventional water use. A multicomponent reactive transport model, HP1, to simulate long term salt leaching to groundwater has been applied to an experimental site developed in a semi-arid region (SE Spain). The model is based on a previously
validated and calibrated flow model based on several years of observation data: soil pressure head (at 20 and 60 cm depth) and volumetric water content (at 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 cm depth). Aquifer media dispersivity for the reactive model was obtained from a field tracer test and inverse modelling. Among the obtained results processes related to salt dynamics in the non-saturated zone of the aquifer, and accumulative waterborne salt recharge under different agricultural and water management strategies are shown.
Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, ¿, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control ¿ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of ¿ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, ¿s, and the n and a van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.
Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.; Olivares, G.; Gomez, M.; Valdes-Abellan, J. Aqua-LAC: revista del Programa Hidrológico Internacional para América Latina y el Caribe Vol. 7, num. 13, p. 1-10 Date of publication: 2015-03 Journal article
Se presentan los efectos del cambio global en la cuenca del río Tordera (España) para el periodo 2000-2050, escenarios climáticos A2 (medio-alto) definidos por el Panel Intergubernamental del Cambio Climático (IPCC, 200) y escenarios socioeconómicos (cambios previstos en la cuenca) denominados estable y tendencial. Los efectos sobre los recursos hídricos se han analizado de forma conjunta superficial-subterránea mediante una metodológica de tipo acoplado. Para establecer los impactos futuros sobre los recursos hídricos se ha seleccionado el Modelo de Circulación Global ECHAM5 (Max Planck Institute). Los resultados obtenidos indican una disminución de la precipitación del 11.3% y un aumento de la temperatura de 1ºC, respecto a los valores históricos de la zona. De acuerdo a la proyección futura (2050) sobre cambios en los recursos hídricos, la escorrentía superficial obtenida mediante simulación con el código HEC-HMS 3.4 experimenta una reducción del 31.8% respecto al valor histórico y la recarga natural, estimada mediante VISUAL-Balan, se reduce en un 11.7%. El balance en el acuífero deltaico simulado mediante MODFLOW 2009.1 Pro muestra igualmente una disminución de los parámetros del balance. Los cambios del uso del suelo previstos de acuerdo a la legislación vigente (escenarios socioeconómicos) no conducen a la generación de un impacto apreciable en los recursos hídricos; según los escenarios definidos la variación de precipitación y temperatura son los parámetros fundamentales del cambio previsto.
To satisfy water demand in the arid climate area (SE Spain), small private desalination plants (more than 1000) of brackish groundwater are in operation. This
process has led to an increase of groundwater salinity as a consequence of aquifers connection, uncontrolled
subsurface injection of brines and pitfalls of the brines conveyor network. Measures being taken, including the
economic efficiency of the small private desalination plants with regard to groundwater, and obtained results are presented.
Naproxen-C14H14O3 is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been found at detectable concentrations in wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. Naproxen is relatively hydrophilic and is in anionic form at pH between 6 and 8. In this study, column experiments were performed using an unconsolidated aquifer material from an area near Barcelona (Spain) to assess transport and reaction mechanisms of Naproxen in the aquifer matrix under different pore water fluxes. Results were evaluated using HYDRUS-1D, which was used to estimate transport parameters. Batch sorption isotherms for Naproxen conformed with the linear model with a sorption coefficient of 0.42 (cm3 g-1), suggesting a low sorption affinity. Naproxen breakthrough curves (BTCs) measured in soil columns under steady-state, saturated water flow conditions displayed similar behavior, with no apparent hysteresis in sorption or dependence of retardation (R, 3.85-4.24) on pore water velocities. Soil sorption did not show any significant decrease for increasing flow rates, as observed from Naproxen recovery in the effluent. Sorption parameters estimated by the model suggest that Naproxen has a low sorption affinity to aquifer matrix. Most sorption of Naproxen occurred on the instantaneous sorption sites, with the kinetic sorption sites representing only about 10 to 40% of total sorption.
Pascual, J.; Pérez-Foguet, A.; Codony, J.; Raventós, E.; Candela, L. International journal of water resources development Vol. 30, num. 3, p. 572-587 DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2013.843410 Date of publication: 2014-09-01 Journal article
This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods.
We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the
Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches 100cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60cm under a deficit regime.
Determination of reliable solute transport parameters is an essential aspect for the characterization of the mechanisms and processes involved in solute transport (e.g., pesticides, fertilizers, contaminants) through the unsaturated zone. A rapid inexpensive method to estimate the dispersivity parameter at the field scale is presented herein. It is based on the quantification by the X-ray fluorescence solid-state technique of total bromine in soil, along with an inverse numerical modeling approach. The results show that this methodology is a good alternative to the classic Br-determination in soil water by ion chromatography. A good agreement between the observed and simulated total soil Br is reported. The results highlight the potential applicability of both combined techniques to infer readily solute transport parameters under field conditions.
Irrigation with reclaimed water is becoming a common practice in arid- and semi-arid regions as a consequence of structural water resource scarcity. This practice can lead to contamination of the vadose zone if sewage-derived contaminants are not removed properly. In the current work, we have characterized soils from the Guadalete River basin (SW Spain), which are often irrigated with reclaimed water from a nearby wastewater treatment plant and amended using sludge. Physico-chemical, mineralogical and hydraulic properties were measured in soil samples from this area (from surface up to 2 m depth). Emerging contaminants (synthetic surfactants and pharmaceutically active compounds, or PhACs) were also determined. Synthetic surfactants, widely used in personal care products (PCPs), were found in a wide range of concentrations: 73–1300 µg kg-1 for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), 120–496 µg kg-1 for alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), 19–1090 µg kg-1 for alcohol polyethoxylates (AEOs), and 155–280 µg kg-1 for nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs). The presence of surfactant homologues with longer alkyl chains was predominant due to their sorption capacity. A positive correlation was found between LAS and AEOs and soil organic carbon and clay content, respectively. Out of 64 PhACs analyzed, only 7 were detected occasionally (diclofenac, metoprolol, fenofibrate, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, famotidine and hydrochlorothiazide), always at very low concentrations (from 0.1 to 1.3 µg kg-1).
One of the most important issues for water resource management is developing strategies for groundwater modelling that are adaptable to data scarcity. These strategies are particularly important in arid and semi-arid areas where access to data is poor and data collection is difficult, such as the Lake Chad Basin in Africa. In the present study, we establish a numerical groundwater flow model and evaluate the effects of dry and wet periods on groundwater recharge in the Chari–Logone area (96¿000¿km2) of the Lake Chad Basin. Boundary conditions, flow direction, sources, and sinks for the Chari–Logone local model were obtained by revising and remodelling the Lake Chad Basin regional hydrogeological model (508¿400¿km2) developed by the BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières) in the 1990s. The simulated aquifer water level showed good agreement with observed levels. Aquifer recharge is primarily determined by river–aquifer interactions and mostly occurs in the southern section of the study area. In wet years, groundwater recharge also occurs in the N'Djamena area. The approach we adopted provided relevant results and was useful as an initial step in more detailed modelling of the area. It also proved to be a useful method for groundwater modelling in large semi-arid and arid regions where available data are scarce.
Agriculture constitutes a major source of non-point pollution (e.g., nitrates) where overall water resources are affected, in particular, aquifers. Intensive agricultural practices take place in regions with appropriate weather conditions that are usually deficient in water resources. The preservation of water resources in these types of regions depends on the evaluation of the efficiency of agricultural practices for specific crops and conditions. Although water scarcity is a characteristic feature in the Western Mediterranean, it is one of the most appropriate regions in the world for intensive agriculture development for climatic reasons. In the current work, percolation and N leaching from different crops (corn, potato, and rotation of lettuce and melon) under different irrigation methods (surface, sprinkler and drip) were evaluated through experimental plots. Water (irrigation + precipitation) and fertilizer inputs were accurately controlled. Soil water content and nitrate concentration were monitored from time domain reflectometry measurements, and cup lysimeters and destructive sampling, respectively. Percolation and nitrate leaching was simulated from different numerical codes (STICS and GLEAMS, tipping bucket method; HYDRUS-1D, Richards’ equation), which were chosen based on the available information and the specific purposes of each experiment. For the studied periods, the obtained results showed high percolation values: 34, 58 and 37% of total applied water for corn, potato, and rotation of lettuce and melon, respectively. Also, high N leaching values across all experiences were observed, even higher than the applied doses in some periods as consequence of remobilizing mineralized N, despite following the recommended agricultural management practices. Percolation and N leaching were mostly controlled by the precipitation regime, namely, unevenly distributed intensive rainfall events, mainly in autumn and spring, which have a great impact in irrigated agriculture due to the permanent high soil water content. In detail, irrigation water applied for frost prevention on potato crops and plastic cover for melon crops, played a very important role for both percolation and N leaching. Whilst for the corn crop, N leaching mainly took place in the fallow period (autumn and winter), where the rain leached N present in soil from previous crops.
Gaaloul, N.; Candela, L.; Chebil, A.; Soussi, A.; Tamoh, K. Desalination and water treatment Vol. 52, num. 10-12, p. 1997-2008 DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2013.821026 Date of publication: 2014 Journal article
During the last few decades, the Grombalia shallow, an unconfined aquifer, had been under stress by groundwater pumping due to the increasing population and development of agricultural activity. Recently, the aquifer has displayed an important decline in the water level of boreholes and wells, and considerable deterioration of groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion. A groundwater numerical model for the Grombalia aquifer has been developed based on the Visual Modflow 3.1 code to simulate the groundwater changes under steady state regime and transient conditions. The results of the model show reasonable agreement between observed and estimated groundwater levels in the observation wells. Sebkaht Soliman wetland aquifer connection has been identified. This paper presents the effect of different groundwater management scenarios and pumping discharge on groundwater resources in the Grombalia aquifer (Cap-Bon peninsula, Tunisia).
Corada-Fernández, C.; Lara-Martín, P.; Jimenez, J.; Candela, L.; González, E. International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology p. 436 Presentation's date: 2013-09-06 Presentation of work at congresses
Corada-Fernández, C.; Lara-Martín, P.; Candela, L.; González, E. Science of the total environment Vol. 461-462, p. 568-575 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.100 Date of publication: 2013-09 Journal article
This manuscript deals with the presence and degradation of the most commonly-used surfactants, including anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS, and alkyl ethoxysulfates, AES) and non-ionic (alcohol polyethoxylates, AEOs, and nonylphenol polyethoxylates, NPEOs) compounds, in sediments and pore water from several aquatic environments (Southwest, Spain). Different vertical distributions were observed according to the respective sources, uses, production volumes and physicochemical properties of each surfactant. Levels of nonionics (up to 10 mg kg- 1) were twice as high as anionics in industrial areas and harbors, whereas the opposite was found near urban wastewater discharge outlets. Sulfophenyl carboxylic acids (SPCs), LAS degradation products, were identified at anoxic depths at some sampling stations. Their presence was related to in situ anaerobic degradation of LAS in marine sediments, whereas the occurrence of these metabolites in freshwater sediments was attributed to the existence of wastewater sources nearby. No significant changes in the average length of AEO and NPEO ethoxylated chains were observed along the sediment cores, suggesting that their biodegradation was very limited in the sampling area. This may be directly related to their lower bioavailability, as their calculated sediment–pore water distribution coefficients (log Ksw), which showed that non-ionic surfactants examined in this study had greater sorption affinity than the anionic surfactants (e.g., 2.3 ± 0.3 for NPEOs).
Adsorption/desorption processes (sorption isotherms) of Naproxen in a sandy aquifer matrix sediment were investigated using batch tests to compare Naproxen sorption behavior at 15°C and 25°C. Both temperatures are representative of the aquifer media and environmental conditions. Adsorption was well described by linear isotherms with low sorption affinity to aquifer material (Kd of 0.4 µg kg-1) at both temperatures (15°C and 25°C). Desorption isotherm coefficients at 15°C and 25°C were 5.0 and 4.9, respectively. Naproxen hysteresis indices were between 9.98 and 10.8, indicating that a Naproxen fraction may be irreversibly fixed in the aquifer media, being higher at 25°C (10.88) compared to 15°C, showing a decreasing trend with increasing compound concentration at 15°C. The low sorption of Naproxen leads to potential leaching to groundwater if present in irrigation water, and its prevalence in an aquifer media when directly injected in wells for groundwater recharge.
Valdés-Abellán, J.; Candela, L.; Jiménez- Martínez, J.; Saval, J. Desalination and water treatment Vol. 51, num. 10-12, p. 2431-2444 DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2012.747506 Date of publication: 2013 Journal article
Environmental tracers, such as tritium, have generally been used to estimate aquifer recharge under natural conditions. A tritium tracer test is presented for estimating recharge under semi-arid and irrigated conditions. The test was performed along 429¿days (June 2007–August 2008) on an experimental plot located in SE Spain with drip irrigation and annual row crops (rotation of lettuce and melon), in which common agricultural practices were followed in open air. Tritiated water was sprinkled (simulated rainfall) over the plot, soil cores were taken at different depths and a liquid scintillation analyzer was used to measure tritium concentration in soil water samples. Tritium transport, as liquid or vapor phase, was simulated with the one-dimensional numerical code SOLVEG. Simulations show that the crop water use was below potential levels, despite regular irrigation. Continuous high water content in soil promoted a great impact of rainfall events on the aquifer recharge. The results obtained from tritium tracer test have been compared with other independent recharge assessment, soil water balance method, to evaluate the reliability of the first one. Total recharge from tracer test was 476¿mm for the October 2007–September 2008 period versus 561¿mm from soil water balance method for the same period, which represents 37.1% and 43.7% of the applied water (1284¿mm, irrigation¿+¿precipitation), respectively.
Intensive farming often leads environmental consequences. This is the case of the study area of this thesis: the Empordà, a region with a variety of intensive crops (fruits, cereals, forage,...) and manifest problems of groundwater pollution by nitrates whose origin points also to agricultural practices in the area.
The work has focusen on monoculture production of corn for grain with furrow irrigation and mineral nitrogen fertilization. Within this framework, objectives has been defined as: (1) to evaluate the influence that irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have on production and environmental impacts (groundwater pollution by nitrates), and (2) to evaluate an implement simulation codes to deepen in knowledge of irrigation and crop management in the area.
It has been defined an experimental test of two years on the same plot where five modules -with eight furrows each- of surface irrigation has been set for evaluating performance irrigation. On these modules has been sown corn and defined five different treatments -with three replicates each- resulting from the interaction of three doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (0, 210, and 500 kg N/ha) and two types of fertilizer: conventional (with two applications) an low release (with one application). The corn crop management was carried out according to standard practices in the study area.
The experimental plot has been intensively monitored and sampled for monitoring and for quantifying all the variables that have influenced the behavior of irrigation and crop response to the treatments done. This information has also been used for to calibrate and/or to validate the RAIEOPT, EVASUP2, SIMRAIE, SIRMOD, HYDRUS, and STICS codes.
The conclusions drawn from the results obtained on the irrigation system are: (1) first irrigation behaves very differently from other irrigations of the campaign, (2) the environment conditions where irrigation is developed are variable (furrow cross section, infiltration, soil compactation, and surface roughness) and influence on the behavior of irrigation, (3) the total dose of applied water did not exceed in any case 75% of the theoretical needs of the crop, (4) the simulation codes that best reflect observed irrigation behavior are RAIEOPT for calculating the average infiltration function and SIMRAIE for estimating doses of water infiltrated along the furrow, and (5) in the conditions experienced, the dose profiles of the infiltrated water along the furrows are practically flat.
In terms of crop response to experimental scenarios tested is concluded that: (1) treatment with no application of nitrogen fertilizer has a grain yield of about 40% lower than the other treatments, (2) there are no differences in crop yield rates on treatments with some application of mineral fertilizer nitrogen, (3) the nitrogen leaching losses are associated with periods of drainage and are proportional to soil nitrogen content at the beginning of these periods, and (4) there has been no drainage during the two irrigation periods tested.
Finally, on the simulation of soil-plant-atmosphere with STICS code is concluded that: (1) STICS is a useful tool for simulating the agricultural system in scenarios with and without crops, and (2) STICS tends to overestimate the risk of nitrate leaching observed in plot.
L’agricultura intensiva normalment porta associades conseqüències sobre el medi ambient. Aquest és el cas de l’àrea d’estudi de la present tesi doctoral: l’Empordà, una regió amb gran varietat de cultius intensius (fruiters, cereals, farratges,...) i amb problemes manifestos de contaminació d’aigües subterrànies per nitrats l’origen dels quals apunta, també, a les pràctiques agrícoles de la zona.El treball realitzat s’ha centrat en el monocultiu de blat de moro per a producció de gra amb reg per superfície en solcs i amb fertilització nitrogenada mineral. En aquest marc, s’han definit com a objectius (1) avaluar la influència que el reg i la fertilització nitrogenada tenen sobre la producció i l’impacte ambiental (contaminació subterrània per nitrats) i (2) avaluar i aplicar codis de simulació que permetin aprofundir en el coneixement del sistema de reg i el maneig del cultiu a la zona.S’ha plantejat un assaig experimental de dos anys de durada sobre la mateixa parcel•la experimental. En ella s’han configurat cinc mòduls de reg de 8 solcs cadascun per a l’avaluació del comportament del reg. Sobre aquests mòduls s’ha sembrat blat de moro i s’han definit cinc tractaments diferents (amb tres repeticions cadascun) fruit de la interacció de tres dosis de fertilitzant mineral nitrogenat (0, 210 i 500 kg N/ha) i dos tipus de fertilitzant: convencional (amb aplicacions de fons i de cobertora) i d’alliberació gradual (amb una aplicació de fons). El maneig del cultiu s’ha realitzat segons les pràctiques habituals de la regió.La parcel•la experimental s’ha monitoritzat i s’han pres mostres intensivament per a fer un seguiment i quantificar totes les variables que han influït en el comportament del reg i en la resposta agronòmica del cultiu als tractaments realitzats. Amb aquesta informació s’han calibrat i/o validat els codis de simulació RAIEOPT, EVASUP2, SIMRAIE, SIRMOD, LIXIM, HYDRUS i STICS.De l’anàlisi dels resultats obtinguts, sobre el sistema de reg per superfície es conclou que: (1) que el primer reg es comporta de forma molt diferent a la resta de regs de la campanya; (2) que les condicions del medi on es desenvolupa el reg són variables (secció transversal del solc, infiltració, compactació i rugositat del sòl) i influeixen en el comportament del reg; (3) que les dosis totals d’aigua aplicades no han superat en cap cas el 75% de les necessitats teòriques del cultiu; (4) que els codis de simulació que millor reflecteixen el comportament del reg observat són el RAIEOPT pel càlcul de la funció mitjana d’infiltració en solcs i el SIMRAIE per preveure les dosis d’aigua infiltrades al llarg del solc de reg; i (5) que, en les condicions experimentades, els perfils de les dosis d’aigua infiltrades al llarg dels solcs són pràcticament horitzontals.En quant a la resposta del cultiu als escenaris experimentals realitzats es conclou que: (1) el tractament sense aportació de fertilitzant nitrogenat té un rendiment en producció de gra de prop del 40% menor que la resta de tractaments; (2) no s’observen diferències en els índexs de rendiment del cultiu entre els tractaments amb alguna aportació de fertilitzant mineral nitrogenat; (3) les pèrdues de nitrogen per lixiviació van associades a períodes dedrenatge i són proporcionals al nitrogen present en el sòl a l’inici d’aquests períodes; i (4) no s’ha produït drenatge durant els períodes de reg assajats.Finalment, sobre la simulació del sistema sòl-planta-atmosfera amb el codi STICS es conclou que: (1) STICS és una eina útil de simulació del sistema agrícola en escenaris amb i sense cultiu; i (2) STICS tendeix a sobreestimar els risc de lixiviació de nitrats observat en parcel•la.
Corada-Fernández, C.; Vanclooster, M.; Candela, L.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Smith, J.E.; González-Mazo, E. Jornadas de Investigación de la Zona no Saturada del Suelo p. 211-216 Presentation's date: 2011-10-19 Presentation of work at congresses
A comprehensive study at Sierra de Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain) abandoned mine site was carried out to characterise the regime and water quality of the groundwater system after the mine closure. The system consists of five geologic fractured blocks belonging to the Alpujarride and Nevado-Filabride complexes. The aquifer units are composed of limestone and dolostone materials. Recharge is mainly controlled by the N-130 fault system, man-made induced fractures, open-pits and underground workings. Discharge is indicated from open pit lakes by the proximal dome-shaped groundwater level contours. Aquifer natural recharge, assessed by fracture density maps and chloride mass balance, provided consistent results. The water hydrochemical facies show a marked
sulphate concentration and acidic pH (average pH of 2.53-6.30). A maximum concentration of 4,100 mg/L of Zn and 40,000 mg/L of sulphate was observed in open-pit lakes. Springs present the lowest residence time and are low mineralised with an average pH of 7.6. Geochemical modelling based on the PHREEQCI code indicates water
undersaturation with respect to almost all related mineral species and anoxic conditions prevail in the system. Although an adequate understanding of the regional system is provided, a further detailed hydrochemical study is necessary to assess the undergoing geochemical changes.
Teijón, G.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.; Molina-Díaz, A.; Fernández-Alba, A. Science of the total environment Vol. 408, num. 17, p. 3584-3595 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.04.041 Date of publication: 2010-08 Journal article
En las últimas décadas la literatura se ha centrado en la estimación de la recarga natural y los parámetros que la controlan, incluyendo clima, vegetación, suelo, y topografía. Por el contrario, pocos son los trabajos centrados en la recarga de acuíferos a partir de zonas cultivadas intensamente regadas. Aunque estos han mejorado la compresión sobre el proceso de recarga, todavía resultan incompletos a la hora de estimarla a partir del mencionado uso de suelo. En este contexto, los objetivos de esta tesis son: (i) mejorar la compresión de la recarga a partir de zonas intensamente regadas, y (ii) proporcionar nuevas herramientas para su caracterización. Algunas de las metodologías proporcionadas pueden ser fácilmente reproducidas por profesionales para inferir información cuantitativa. Ensayos en campo, incluyendo diferentes tipos de cultivo y prácticas agrícolas, son llevados a cabo en al área del Campo de Cartagena, sureste de España, una región semi-árida donde la agricultura intensiva es el principal uso de suelo. El desarrollo de metodologías con observaciones en el medio saturado y no saturado, junto con la modelación numérica, fueron usados para mejorar la compresión de los procesos que controlan la recarga a partir de zonas intensamente regadas. Las aproximaciones desarrolladas pueden ser resumidas como sigue: Ensayo de campo a lo largo de seiscientos días bajo cultivos hortícolas anuales y riego por goteo. La distribución del contenido de agua en la zona de raíces y bajo esta fue simulada considerando un modelo de flujo no saturado. El contenido de agua y la succión fueron medidos a diferentes profundidades y empleados para la calibración y validación del modelo. Ensayo de trazador (tritio) en campo en una parcela experimental con riego por goteo y cultivos hortícolas anuales durante cuatrocientos treinta días. El movimiento de trazador a lo largo del perfil de suelo fue simulado considerando transporte multifásico. Los perfiles de concentración de trazador, a partir de un espaciado y limitado número de muestras destructivas, fueron usados para calibrar y validar el modelo. Experimento de larga duración (nueve años hidrológicos) para diferentes tipos de cultivo: cultivos hortícolas anuales, cultivos hortícolas perennes y árboles frutales. La recarga producida por cada tipo de cultivo fue estimada a partir del balance de agua en suelo, zona no saturada y acuífero. Las fluctuaciones del nivel freático registradas a lo largo del mencionado periodo fueron usadas para calibrar y validar el modelo. Esta experiencia permitió evaluar la fiabilidad de las estimaciones de recarga a partir de las otras dos metodologías previas (a corto plazo) para el tipo de cultivo coincidente (cultivos hortícolas anuales). Para las tres aproximaciones, el cubrimiento de suelo por las plantas y el crecimiento de raíces han sido incluidos en la condición de contorno superior. La evapotranspiración se ha dividido en evaporación y transpiración como una función del índice de área de hoja, y es limitada por el contenido de agua en el suelo. La transpiración a su vez ha sido distribuida a través del perfil de suelo como una función del contenido de agua y profundidad de raíces. Valores similares de recarga han sido obtenidos a partir de las tres técnicas, aunque el modelo de flujo no saturado la sobreestima ligeramente. La evapotranspiración real fue siempre más baja que la potencial, ya que el contenido de agua en suelo fue insuficiente para mantener la extracción de agua por parte de las raíces, a pesar de la alta frecuencia de riego. Aunque las prácticas agrícolas por parte de los agricultores son las correctas, con una alta eficiencia de riego, se obtuvieron altos valores de recarga. La lluvia es distribuida de manera irregular en unos pocos eventos intensivos, algo por otro lado muy común en regiones semi-áridas, lo que contribuye de manera significativa a la percolación profunda, debido al constante alto contenido de humedad en el suelo.
In the past decades a large body of literature has focused on the assessment of the natural recharge and parameters of control (including climate, vegetation, soils, and topography). On the contrary, only few papers focused on aquifer recharge from intensively irrigated farmland. Although findings have improved the understanding of recharge phenomena, they still fail to characterize many features of aquifer recharge from the mentioned land use. In this context, the aims of this thesis are: (i) to improve the understanding of aquifer recharge from intensively irrigated farmland, and (ii) to provide new tools for its characterization. Also, this thesis provides a framework that can be easily used by practitioners to infer quantitative information. Field tests, including different crop types and agricultural management, were carried out in the Campo de Cartagena area of southeast Spain, a semi-arid region where intensive irrigated agriculture is prevalent. The development of methodologies, with field observations in both saturated and unsaturated media, along with the application of numerical modelling were used to understand the processes governing the recharge from irrigated farmland. The developed approaches can be summarized as follows: A field experiment with annual row crops and drip irrigation. Soil moisture dynamics through the root zone and below were simulated from unsaturated flow approach. Soil moisture and pressure head data at different depths were recorded along six hundred days for model calibration and prediction. A tracer test (tritium) in field along four hundred thirty days. The test was carried out in an experimental plot with drip irrigation and annual row crops. The tracer transport in soil was simulated considering a multiphase approach. Tracer concentration profiles, from a limited and sparse number of destructive samples, were used to calibrate and validate the modelling approach. A long-term field experiment (based on nine hydrologic years) for different crop types, annual row crops, perennial vegetables and fruit trees. The recharge produced from each crop type was estimated from a water balance approach, including soil, vadose zone and aquifer. Water table fluctuations, recorded along the mentioned period, were used for model calibration and predictions. This long-term approach permits to evaluate recharge estimates reliability of the two previous methodologies (short-term) for the type of crop overlapped (annual row crops). For the three approaches, ground cover and root depth are assumed as upper boundary conditions. Evapotranspiration is allocated to evaporation and transpiration as a function of leaf-area-index and is limited by soil moisture content; transpiration is distributed through the soil profile as a function of soil moisture and root depth. Similar recharge values have been obtained from the three techniques, although the unsaturated flow approach slightly overestimates values. Actual evapotranspiration was always lower than potential evapotranspiration, because soil moisture was insufficient to sustain the potential uptake, despite high irrigation frequency. Although the agricultural practices from farmers are sound, high irrigation efficiency, high recharge values are achieved. Rainfall is unevenly distributed into a few intensive events, likewise very common in semi-arid regions, and it meaningfully contributes to deep percolation, due to consistently high soil water content.
Jimenez, J.; Jiménez, A.; Candela, L. International Symposium On Soil Water Measurement Using Capacitance, Impedance and Time Domain Transmission Presentation's date: 2010-04 Presentation of work at congresses