Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
Total activity: 386
Research group
GR-DCS - Distributed Control Systems
Department
Department of Automatic Control
E-mail
josep.m.fuertesupc.edu
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1 to 50 of 386 results
  • Holistic indices for productivity control assessment, applied to the comparative analysis of PID and fuzzy controllers within an Isasmelt furnace

     Ojeda Sarmiento, Juan Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Griful Ponsati, Eulalia
    IEEE transactions on industrial informatics
    Date of publication: 2014-02-01
    Journal article

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    This research aims to contribute to the analysis of control performance assessment in extractive metallurgy. Productivity-based indices are proposed in addition to current measuring techniques. Such criteria are employed to compare conventional PID and fuzzy-based controllers in copper smelting. This process is mathematically modeled in order to be simulated. The comparison confirms a better performance of the fuzzy controller in dealing with the molten bath temperature within an Isasmelt furnace. In normal operating conditions (online tests), the proposed controller achieves a consistent mean square relative error reduction of 72% between measured values and the temperature setpoint and standard deviation of approximately 60% (from 27.8 degrees C to 11.1 degrees C). The productivity criteria establish a lower consumption of raw materials (13%) and energy supply (29%).

    This research aims to contribute to the analysis of control performance assessment in extractive metallurgy. Productivity-based indices are proposed in addition to current measuring techniques. Such criteria are employed to compare conventional PID and fuzzy-based controllers in copper smelting. This process is mathematically modeled in order to be simulated. The comparison confirms a better performance of the fuzzy controller in dealing with the molten bath temperature within an Isasmelt furnace. In normal operating conditions (online tests), the proposed controller achieves a consistent mean square relative error reduction of 72% between measured values and the temperature setpoint and standard deviation of approximately 60% (from 27.8 degrees C to 11.1 degrees C). The productivity criteria establish a lower consumption of raw materials (13%) and energy supply (29%).

  • An alternative discrete-time model for networked control systems with time delay less than the sampling period

     Torres Guerrero, Gina; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Martin Rull, Enric Xavier
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The majority of existing Networked Control Sys- tems (NCS) models are discrete-time formulations based on the exact discretization of the continuous-time linear plant over a sample interval. In the state-space formalism, standard control textbooks suggest that a simple approach to model discrete-time LTI systems with time delay shorter or equal than the sampling period is to extend the state vector with a new state variable representing the last control signal, which implies increasing the order of the model by one. In this paper an alternative state-sp ace model for discrete-time LTI systems with time delay is introduced that does not require increasing the order of the model. The relation between both the standard model and the new model is established, and the potential benefits of the new model with respect to the standard one are discussed. Numerical examples illustrate the concepts discussed throughout the paper.

    The majority of existing Networked Control Systems (NCS) models are discrete-time formulations based on the exact discretization of the continuous-time linear plant over a sample interval. In the state-space formalism, standard control textbooks suggest that a simple approach to model discrete-time LTI systems with time delay shorter or equal than the sampling period is to extend the state vector with a new state variable representing the last control signal, which implies increasing the order of the model by one. In this paper an alternative state-space model for discrete-time LTI systems with time delay is introduced that does not require increasing the order of the model. The relation between both the standard model and the new model is established, and the potential benefits of the new model with respect to the standard one are discussed. Numerical examples illustrate the concepts discussed throughout the paper.

  • Distributed reactive power control methods to avoid voltage rise in grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

  • Contribution to the study and design of advanced controllers.  Open access

     Ojeda Sarmiento, Juan Manuel
    Defense's date: 2013-10-09
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En esta tesis doctoral, se discuten contribuciones al estudio y diseño de controladores avanzados y su aplicación en hornos de fusión. Para ello, se ha analizado este tipo de plantas en detalle. El caso de estudio es una planta Isasmelt en el sur de Perú, que procesa anualmente 1.200.000 toneladas de concentrado de cobre. El sistema de control actual opera sobre un sistema de control distribuido. La estructura principal incluye una estrategia de cascada para regular la temperatura del baño fundido. Las variables manipuladas son el aire enriquecido con oxígeno y los flujos de alimentación de petróleo. La tasa de enriquecimiento se ajusta periódicamente por el operador con el fin de mantener la temperatura de oxidación. Este diseño de control produce desviaciones de temperatura en el rango entre 15ºC y 30ºC con relación al valor de consigna, que causa desgastes del ladrillo refractario y daños a la lanza, lo cual encarece los costos de producción.La estructura de control propuesta está orientada a reducir las desviaciones de temperatura. Los cambios consisten en mejorar el control de las variables de estado de equilibrio termodinámico: la temperatura del baño en el horno, el grado de mata (%Cu) y el contenido de escòria en la sílice (%SiO2). El diseño incluye un módulo difuso para ajustar la proporción oxígeno/nitrógeno y un predictor metalúrgico para estimar la composición del material fundido. El controlador difuso emula al mejor operador de horno mediante la manipulación de la tasa de enriquecimiento de oxígeno y el flujo de alimentación de pétróleo con el fin de controlar la temperatura de baño. El modelo humano es seleccionado teniendo en cuenta la experiencia del operador en el control de la temperatura del horno (y considerando el principio de buenas prácticas del Instituto Australiano de Minería y Metalurgia). Esta estructura se complementa con un predictor basado en redes neuronales, que estima las variables medidas de material fundido como cobre (%Cu) y el contenido de sílice (%SiO2). En el método actual, esas variables se calculan después de efectuar análisis químicos de la escoria en intervalos de una hora, por lo tanto se introducen tiempos de retardo en la operación.Para probar la estructura de control propuesta, la operación del horno ha sido modelada teniendo en cuenta los balances de masa y energía del material fundido. Este modelo se ha simulado en una plataforma de Matlab-Simulink (previamente validada mediante la comparación de variables de salida real y simulada: temperatura de baño y presión en la punta de la lanza) como referencia para hacer comparaciones técnicas entre la actual y la estructura de control propuesta. Para evaluar sistemáticamente los resultados de estas operaciones, se han definido algunas propuestas originales sobre indicadores que se relacionan con las variables de productividad y costos. Estos indicadores, complementados con indicadores tradicionales, permiten evaluar cualitativamente los resultados de las comparativas de control.Estos indicadores de productividad complementan las medidas de desempeño tradicionales y mejoran la información sobre la eficiencia del sistema de control. El resultado principal muestra que la estructura de control propuesta presenta un mejor rendimiento en el control de temperatura del baño fundido que el sistema actual (la estimación de la composición del material resultante es de gran ayuda para alcanzar esta mejora). El error relativo cuadrático medio de la temperatura se reduce de 0,72% al 0,21% (72%) y la desviación estándar de temperatura de 27,8ºC a 11,1ºC (aprox. 60%). Los indicadores de productividad establecen asimismo un menor consumo de materias primas (13%) y de energía (29%).

    In this doctoral thesis, contributions to the study and design of advanced controllers and their application to metallurgical smelting furnaces are discussed. For this purpose, this kind of plants has been described in detail. The case of study is an Isasmelt plant in south Peru, which yearly processes 1.200.000 tons of copper concentrate. The current control system is implemented on a distributed control system. The main structure includes a cascade strategy to regulate the molten bath temperature. The manipulated variables are the oxygen enriched air and the oil feed rates. The enrichment rate is periodically adjusted by the operator in order to maintain the oxidizing temperature. This control design leads to large temperature deviations in the range between 15ºC and 30ºC from the set point, which causes refractory brick wear and lance damage, and subsequently high production costs. The proposed control structure is addressed to reduce the temperature deviations. The changes emphasize on better regulate the state variables of the thermodynamic equilibrium: the bath temperature within the furnace, the matte grade of molten sulfides (%Cu) and the silica (%SiO2) slag contents. The design is composed of a fuzzy module for adjusting the ratio oxygen/nitrogen and a metallurgical predictor for forecasting the molten composition. The fuzzy controller emulates the best furnace operator by manipulating the oxygen enrichment rate and the oil feed in order to control the bath temperature. The human model is selected taking into account the operator' practical experience in dealing with the furnace temperature (and taking into account good practices from the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy). This structure is complemented by a neural network based predictor, which estimates measured variables of the molten material as copper (%Cu) and silica (%SiO2) contents. In the current method, those variables are calculated after carrying out slag chemistry assays at hourly intervals, therefore long time delays are introduced to the operation. For testing the proposed control structure, the furnace operation has been modeled based on mass and energy balances. This model has been simulated on a Matlab-Simulink platform (previously validated by comparing real and simulated output variables: bath temperature and tip pressure) as a reference to make technical comparisons between the current and the proposed control structure. To systematically evaluate the results of operations, it has been defined some original proposals on behavior indexes that are related to productivity and cost variables. These indexes, complemented with traditional indexes, allow assessing qualitatively the results of the control comparison. Such productivity based indexes complement traditional performance measures and provide fair information about the efficiency of the control system. The main results is that the use of the proposed control structure presents a better performance in regulating the molten bath temperature than using the current system (forecasting of furnace tapping composition is helpful to reach this improvement). The mean square relative error of temperature error is reduced from 0.72% to 0.21% (72%) and the temperature standard deviation from 27.8ºC to 11.1ºC (approx. 60%). The productivity indexes establish a lower consumption of raw materials (13%) and energy (29%).

    En esta tesis doctoral, se discuten contribuciones al estudio y diseño de controladores avanzados y su aplicación en hornos metalúrgicos de fundición. Para ello, se ha analizado este tipo de plantas en detalle. El caso de estudio es una planta Isasmelt en el sur de Perú, que procesa anualmente 1.200.000 toneladas de concentrado de cobre. El sistema de control actual opera sobre un sistema de control distribuido. La estructura principal incluye una estrategia de cascada para regular la temperatura del baño. Las variables manipuladas son el aire enriquecido con oxígeno y los flujos de alimentación de petróleo. La tasa de enriquecimiento se ajusta perióodicamente por el operador con el fin de mantener la temperatura de oxidación. Este diseño de control produce desviaciones de temperatura en el rango entre 15º C y 30º C con relación al valor de consigna, que causa desgastes del ladrillo refractario y daños a la lanza, lo cual encarece los costos de producción. La estructura de control propuesta esta orientada a reducir las desviaciones de temperatura. Los cambios consisten en mejorar el control de las variables de estado de equilibrio termodinámico: la temperatura del baño en el horno, el grado de mata (%Cu) y el contenido de escoria en la sílice (%SiO2). El diseño incluye un módulo difuso para ajustar la proporción oxígeno/nitrógeno y un predictor metalúrgico para estimar la composición del material fundido. El controlador difuso emula al mejor operador de horno mediante la manipulación de la tasa de enriquecimiento de oxígeno y alimentación con el fin de controlar la temperatura del baño del aceite. El modelo humano es seleccionado teniendo en cuenta la experiencia del operador en el control de la temperatura del horno (y considerando el principio de buenas prácticas del Instituto Australiano de Minería y Metalurgia). Esta estructura se complementa con un predictor basado en redes neuronales, que estima las variables medidas de material fundido como cobre (%Cu) y el contenido de sílice (%SiO2). En el método actual, esas variables se calculan después de ensayos de química de escoria a intervalos por hora, por lo tanto se introducen tiempos de retardo en la operación. Para probar la estructura de control propuesto, la operación del horno ha sido modelada en base a balances de masa y energía. Este modelo se ha simulado en una plataforma de Matlab-Simulink (previamente validada mediante la comparación de variables de salida real y lo simulado: temperatura de baño y presión en la punta de la lanza) como referencia para hacer comparaciones técnicas entre la actual y la estructura de control propuesta. Para evaluar sistemáticamente los resultados de estas operaciones, se han definido algunas propuestas originales sobre indicadores que se relacionan con las variables de productividad y costos. Estos indicadores, complementados con indicadores tradicionales, permite evaluar cualitativamente los resultados de las comparativas de control. Estos indicadores de productividad complementan las medidas de desempeño tradicionales y mejoran la información sobre la eficiencia de control. El resultado principal muestra que la estructura de control propuesta presenta un mejor rendimiento en el control de temperatura de baño fundido que el actual sistema de control. (La estimación de la composición del material fundido es de gran ayuda para alcanzar esta mejora). El error relativo cuadrático medio de la temperatura se reduce de 0,72% al 0,21% (72%) y la desviación estandar de temperatura de 27,8 C a 11,1 C (aprox. 60%). Los indicadores de productividad establecen asimismo un menor consumo de materias primas (13%) y de consumo de energía (29%).

  • Resource and performance trade-offs in real-time embedded control systems

     Lozoya Gámez, Rafael Camilo; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Martin Rull, Enric Xavier
    Real-time systems
    Date of publication: 2012-12-28
    Journal article

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    Embedded control systems are subject to conflicting demands: end-users ask for devices with better capabilities while strong industrial competition impose tight cost constrains that results in devices with limited resources. Current research in the multidisciplinary embedded systems discipline indicates that by combining realtime and control systems it is theoretically feasible to design resource-constrained embedded control systems capable of trading-off control performance and resource usage. This paper focuses on the implementation feasibility of recent state-of-the-art resource/performance-aware (RPA) policies that can be applied to a set of control loops that concurrently execute on a microprocessor. The objective of these policies is to improve control performance and/or to minimize resource utilization. The paper first reviews existing state-of-the-art RPA policies. Then it presents a performance evaluation framework (PEF) that permits to assess whether RPA policies can be implemented in practice. The PEF is designed using a modular approach and following the guidelines obtained by a taxonomic analysis performed on the state-of-the-art RPA policies. Finally, a case study is presented where the PEF is applied to a set of representative RPA policies. The case study reveals that the modularity of the PEF allows tailoring the framework to evaluate any specific RPA policy, which indicates that RPA policies can be implemented in practice. But it also reveals that the problem of assessing diverse RPA policies in fair conditions implies facing and solving conflicting demands by even taking decisions that may not favor equal all policies under evaluation. Nevertheless, the comparative analysis permits identifying potential benefits and drawbacks of each policy, as well as extracting design guidelines for future real-time embedded control systems theory and practice. ©Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012.

  • Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

     Broquetas Ibars, Antoni; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Gelonch Bosch, Antoni; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Castro, Jose Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel Angel; Pulido, Jose Antonio
    Sensors
    Date of publication: 2012-11-23
    Journal article

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    Designing a practical course in networked control systems  Open access

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza, Jordi; Mares Marti, Pere; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez, J.; Torres, Gina; Perelló, Miquel
    Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation's date: 2012-02-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a hands-on course in networked control systems (NCS) to be integrated in the education of embedded control systems engineers. The course activities have a strong practical component and most of them are applied exercises to be implemented in a NCS setup. The paper describes the experimental setup and then proposes several activities that can be shaped into a course program according to the needs and diverse background of the targeted audience.

  • Hands-on course in networked control systems

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Mares Marti, Pere; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez, J.; Torres Guerrero, Gina; Perello, M.
    Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In many industrial robotic applications there is a need to track periodic reference signals and/or reject periodic disturbances. This paper presents a novel repetitive control design for systems with constant time-delays in both forward and feedback control channels. An additional delay is introduced together with plant delays to construct an internal model for periodic signals, and a simple proportional control is utilized to stabilize the closed-loop system. Sufficient stability conditions of the closed-loop system and the robustness analysis under modeling uncertainties are studied. Experimental results are included to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  • Performance evaluation framework (PEF) for real-time embedded control systems

     Lozoya Gámez, Rafael Camilo; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Date: 2012-03-14
    Report

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    This report presents a performance evaluation framework (PEF) designed to simulate and implement diverse theoretical results on control and resource performance optimization that has recently appeared in the literature

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    Design of a hands-on course in networked control systems  Open access

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza, Jordi; Mares Marti, Pere; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez, J.; Torres Guerrero, Gina
    Date: 2012-01-17
    Report

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    This report presents a hands-on course in networked control systems (NCS) to be integrated in the education of embedded control systems engineers. The course activities have a strong practical component and most of them are ap- plied exercises to be implemented in a NCS setup. The report containts four parts: a) a report that describes the experimental setup, proposing several activities that can be shaped into a course program according to the needs and diverse background of the targeted audience, b) a tentative program ex- ample for master students, c) a user manual to help setting up the hardware and software from a Live CD, and d) a quick guide to start working with the programming environment.

  • Network-based control

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Chow, Mo-Yuen; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Gupta, Rachana; Ayza Graells, Jordi
    Date of publication: 2011-02-28
    Book chapter

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  • Qualitative analysis of a one-step finite-horizon boundary for event-driven controllers

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Ruiz Vegas, Francisco Javier; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Bini, Enrico
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Performance optimization for networked and embedded control systems refers to the ability of minimizing controllers’ resource utilization and/or improving control performance. Event-driven control has been shown to be a promising technique for minimizing controllers’ computational demands. However, optimization of control performance for event-driven control has not been fully addressed. For LTI plants, this paper presents a boundary for event-driven controllers that determines at each job execution when the next job execution should occur in order to minimize a continuous-time quadratic cost function while minimizing controllers’ computational demand. Simulation results illustrate the qualitative shape of this boundary.

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    One-step finite horizon boundary with varying control gain for event-driven networked control systems  Open access

     Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Martin Rull, Enric Xavier; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Recent research has shown that event-driven control requires less samples than time-driven (periodic) control. Consequently, event-driven control applied to Networked Control Systems (NCS) is a good approach for alleviating controllers bandwidth demands and reducing overall network traffic. Following this trend, this paper presents an execution rule for event-driven networked controllers that at each job execution aims at postponing the next job execution while applying an appropriated controller gain considering each varying sampling interval that applies at run time. This method permits to dynamically lower the generated traffic for each networked control loop while ensuring the same or better control performance than the achieved by the periodic case. In addition, an implementation strategy capable of dealing with network induced time delays is also presented. Simulation results illustrate the operation and benefits of the presented approach.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Networked sliding mode control of the double integrator system using the event-driven self-triggered approach

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Martin Rull, Enric Xavier; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Sliding mode control (SMC) methods rely on applying a high-frequency switching control. In networked control systems (NCS), high-frequency operations/transactions are not desirable because communication bandwidth consumption increases dramatically. This paper studies the application of event-driven self-triggered techniques to sliding mode control over networks as a means for reducing the bandwidth utilization. To this end, sliding mode control with hysteresis is adopted and control updates are forced to only occur at the hysteresis band boundary. This paper elaborates on the conditions that must be fulfilled in order to ensure such operation for the case of the double integrator system. Simulation results illustrate the presented concepts.

  • Lab Proposal for Integrated Real-Time and Control

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Mares Marti, Pere; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Camacho, Antonio
    Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sistemas de control empotrados y en red guiados por eventos

     Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Griful Ponsati, Eulalia; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Lozoya, Camilo; Guardia Oliveras, Josep; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Design of an embedded control system laboratory experiment  Open access

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Buttazzo, Giorgio
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2010-02-08
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a prototype laboratory experiment to be integrated in the education of embedded control system engineers. The experiment, a real-time control of a dynamical system, is designed to drive students to a deeper understanding and integration of the diverse theoretical concepts that often come from different disciplines such as real-time systems and control systems. Rather than proposing the experiment for a particular course within an embedded system engineering curriculum, this paper describes how the experiment can be tailored to the needs and diverse background of both undergraduate and graduate students education.

  • Design of an embedded control system laboratory experiment

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Buttazzo, Giorgio
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2010-10-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a prototype laboratory experiment to be integrated in the education of embedded control system engineers. The experiment, a real-time control of a dynamical system, is designed to drive students to a deeper understanding and integration of the diverse theoretical concepts that often come from different disciplines such as real-time systems and control systems. Rather than proposing the experiment for a particular course within an embedded system engineering curriculum, this paper describes how the experiment can be tailored to the needs and diverse background of both undergraduate and graduate students education.

  • Simulation study of a remote wireless path tracking control with delay estimation for an autonomous guided vehicle

     Lozoya, Camilo; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Martin Rull, Enric Xavier
    International journal of advanced manufacturing technology
    Date of publication: 2010-06-05
    Journal article

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    Industrial applications involving mobile systems can benefit from the use of wireless technology. However, wireless communication has not been widely accepted on the factory floor due to its difficulty in achieving the timely and reliable transmission of messages over error-prone wireless channels. This paper presents an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV) path tracking wireless control system where an accurate delay estimation scheme is shown to be the key for successful operation. The control architecture consists on an AGV connected through a wireless network to a controller. To mitigate the negative effects that varying time delays in data transfer have in the networked control loop, the controller performs two tasks at each loop operation. First, it uses a Kalman filter to produce an optimal delay estimate considering a simple stochastic model of the wireless delay dynamics. Second, each delay estimate is employed to infer the real AGV position which permits to compute the appropriate control commands. Results show that the proposed technique provides more efficient and effective operation for path tracking control compared to similar previously proposed solutions.

  • Experimental evaluation of slack management in real-time control systems: Coordinated vs. self-triggered approach

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Lozoya Gámez, Rafael Camilo; Brandt, S A
    Journal of systems architecture
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Journal article

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    Embedding Kalman techniques in the one-shot task model when non-uniform samples are corrupted by noise  Open access

     Lozoya, Camilo; Romero, Julio; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The performance of several closed-loop systems whose controllers concurrently execute in a multitasking realtime system may be deteriorated due to timing uncertainties in tasks´executions, problem known as scheduling jitters. Recently, the one-shot task model, that combines irregular sampling, a predictor observer, and strictly periodic actuation, was presented in order to remove the negative effects of jitters. However, its successful application required noise-free samples. In this paper we extend the one-shot task model to the case of noisy measurements. In particular, we embed a Kalman filter into the model taking into account that the available measurements are not periodic. This poses the problem of adapting the standard discrete-time Kalman filter to the case under study, and decide when to apply the prediction and the correction phase. Two different strategies are presented, and their control performance and computation demand are analyzed through real experiments.

  • Synchronizing sampling and actuation in the absence of global time in networked control systems

     Marti Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Mares Marti, Pere; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The successful operation of Networked Control Sys- tems (NCS) requires employing appropriate approaches for dealing with network induced time delays, i.e. time intervals elapsed from consecutive sampling and actua- tion operations. Effective approaches often require to im- pose periodic execution for the sampling and/or actuation operations, enforcing synchronized constant time delays. And considering that sampling and actuation is performed in different nodes, global time between nodes achieved by clock synchronization is the standard assumption or strat- egy that enables such synchronized operations. This pa- per presents a technique that permits to implement these synchronized operations in NCS in the absence of global time. Experimental results corroborate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  • SimpleRTK: Minimal Real-Time Kernel for Time/Event-Driven Control Applications

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Lozoya, Camilo; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; García, Daniel
    Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation's date: 2010-02-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Desarrollo de Nuevos Materiales para la Docencia de Comunicaciones Industriales

     Castro, M.; Oliva, N; Díaz, G; Mur, F; San Cristóbal, E; Sempere Payá, Víctor M.; Silvestre, J; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Mariño, P; Domínguez, M. P; Mayó, R
    Tecnologías Aplicadas a la Enseñanza de la Electrónica -
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Self-triggered networked control systems: an experimental case study  Open access

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Lozoya, Camilo; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Griful Ponsati, Eulalia
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A self-triggered controller is characterized, in general, by a non-periodic sequence of job activations. And each job execution, apart from performing sampling, control algorithm computation and actuation, calculates the next job activation time as a function of the plant state. This paper describes the implementation of self-triggered controllers in networked control systems (NCS). The implementation corroborates that self-triggered control can be used for minimizing bandwidth utilization while providing similar control performance than periodic controllers.

  • Achieving periodic execution of networked control systems in the absence of global time

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Lozoya, Camilo; Griful Ponsati, Eulalia
    Simposio en Ingeniería de Sistemas y Automática en Bioingeniería
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Draco: Efficient Resource Management for Resource-Constrained Control Tasks

     Marti Colom, Pau; Caixue, L; Brandt, Sa; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE transactions on computers
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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  • Sistemas de control en red basados en eventos: estudio preliminar al muestreo disparado por funciones de Lyapunov

     Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Jornadas de Automática
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sistemas de control en red dirigidos por eventos. Contribuciones del grupo DCS de la UPC

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Jornadas de Ingeniería de Control
    Presentation's date: 2009-04-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    An algorithm to design prescribed length codes for single-tracked shaft encoders  Open access

     De Balle Pigem, Borja; Ventura Capell, Enric; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics
    Presentation's date: 2009-04-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Abstract-Maximal-length binary shift register sequences have been known for a long time. They have many interesting properties, one of them is that when taken in blocks of n consecutive positions they form 2n - 1 different codes in a closed circular sequence. This property can be used for measuring absolute angular positions as the circle can be divided in as many parts as different codes can be retrieved. This paper describes how a closed binary sequence with arbitrary length can be effectively designed with the minimal possible block-length, using linear feedback shift registers (LFSR). Such sequences can be used for measuring a specified exact number of angular positions, using the minimal possible number of detectors allowed by linear methods.

  • Implementation of event-driven control systems: a real-time systems engineering approach

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Lozoya, Camilo; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Schedulability analysis for CAN-based networked control systems with dynamic bandwidth management

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents the schedulability analysis for control messages when networked control loops, built on top of the controller area network (CAN), are dynamically allocating bandwidth in terms of their controlled plants' dynamics. The bandwidth allocation policy is theoretically described by an optimization problem and practically solved by the distributed bitwise arbitration of CAN messages when message identifiers, i.e., priorities, reflect control applications demands. This poses the problem of assessing whether the set of real-time messages will meet their deadlines regardless of run-time priority changes. This is solved by a schedulability analysis based on recent results on worst-case response time techniques for real-time CAN applications. The analysis ends up with the schedulability test for this type of applications.

  • Access to the full text
    Preliminary approach to Lyapunov sampling in CAN-based networked control systems  Open access

     Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Lozoya, Camilo; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a preliminary approach to networked control systems (NCS) that relies on an event-driven control method based on Lyapunov sampling. The goal is to study and develop approaches for NCS capable of offering controllers with low bandwidth demands. The paper starts by presenting the theoretical framework required for applying Lyapunov sampling to a set of closed-loop systems that share a serial bus line. The discussion permits identifying which requirements must be fulfilled in order to guarantee overall stability. In addition, the feasibility of the theoretical framework in terms of implementation requires to address problems caused by the implicit distributed architecture of the NCS. In particular, an efficient implementation approach is described for the CAN network. Simulation results illustrate the operation and benefits of the presented approach.

  • BLOCKSAT-2: GUIADO Y POSICIONAMIENTO DE TRÁFICO FERROVIARIO CON SEGURIDAD INTRÍNSECA: SISTEMA DE BLOQUEO BASADO EN NAVEGACIÓN X SATÉ

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Gelonch Bosch, Antoni; Jofre Roca, Luis; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Cabestany Moncusi, Joan; Broquetas Ibars, Antoni
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • IEEE transactions on industrial electronics

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Absolute-type shaft encoding using LFSR sequences with a prescribed length

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; De Balle Pigem, Borja; Ventura Capell, Enric
    IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement
    Date of publication: 2008-03-31
    Journal article

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  • Convertidores A/D y D/A.

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Date of publication: 2008-05
    Book chapter

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    Performing flexible control on low cost microcontrollers using a minimal real-time kernel  Open access

     Marau, Ricardo; Leite, Paulo; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Almeida, Luis; Pedreiras, Paulo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    IEEE transactions on industrial informatics
    Date of publication: 2008-05-01
    Journal article

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    In recent years, approaches to control performance and resource optimization for embedded control systems have been receiving increased attention. Most of them focus on theory, whereas practical aspects are omitted. Theoretical advances demand flexible real-time kernel support for multitasking and preemption, thus requiring more sophisticated and expensive software/ hardware solutions. On the other hand, embedded control systems often have cost constraints related with mass production and strong industrial competition, thus demanding low-cost solutions. In this paper, it is shown that these conflicting demands can be softened and that a compromise solution can be reached. We advocate that recent research results on optimal resource management for control tasks can be implemented on simple multitasking preemptive real-time kernels targeting low-cost microprocessors, which can be easily built in-house and tailored to actual application needs. The experimental evaluation shows that significant control performance improvement can be achieved without increasing hardware costs.

  • Tecnologia, Societat i Acadèmia

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Barraco Serra, Marc; Tomà, Estanislau
    Congrés d'Enginyeria i Cultura Catalana
    Presentation's date: 2008-12-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Proposal for an embedded control systems laboratory activity

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Lozoya, C; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Jornadas de Automática
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Clock Synchronization for Networked Control Systems Using Low-Cost Microcontrollers

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Date: 2008-04
    Report

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  • Schedulability Analysis for CAN-based Control Applications with Dynamic Bandwidth Management

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Date: 2008-11
    Report

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  • Taxonomy on Prior Work on Sampling Period Selection for Resource-Constrained Real-Time Control Systems

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    XI Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation's date: 2008-02-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Control Performance Evaluation of Selected Methods of Feedback Scheduling of Real-time Control Tasks

     Camilo, Lozoya; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A Taxonomy on Prior Work on Sampling Period Selection for Resource-Constrained Real-Time Control Systems

     Camilo, Lozoya; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio; Frederic, Pérez; Guàrdia, Josep; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    XI Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Analysis and Design of Networked Control Loops with Synchronization at the Actuation Instants

     Lozoya Gámez, Rafael Camilo; Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Taxonomy on Prior Work on Sampling Period Selection for Resource-Constrained Real-Time Control Systems

     Camilo, Lozoya; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Yépez, José; Frederic, Pérez; Guàrdia, Josep; Ayza Graells, Jordi; Villa Millaruelo, Ricardo; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    XI Jornadas de Tiempo Real
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Optimization of fuzzy partitions for inductive reasoning using genetic algorithms

     Acosta, J; Nebot Castells, Maria Angela; Villar, P; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    International journal of systems science
    Date of publication: 2007-12
    Journal article

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  • Learning fuzzy partitions in FIR methodology

     Acosta, Jesus; Nebot Castells, Maria Angela; Villar, Pedro; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª
    International journal of general systems
    Date of publication: 2007-12
    Journal article

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  • COMUNICACIONES INDUSTRIALES: SISTEMAS DISTRIBUIDOS Y APLICACIONES

     Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Marti Colom, Pau; Yepez Castillo, Jose Gregorio
    Date of publication: 2007-03
    Book

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