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  • Ordering kinetics evaluation of FeAl powders

     Cinca Luis, Nuria; Concustell, Amadeu; Cano, Irene G.; Guilemany, Jose Maria; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Congreso Nacional de Materiales
    p. 95
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Se trata la cinética del ordenamiento del intermetalico FeAl por medio de difraccion de R-X a diversas temperaturas, en función del tiempo, con difractogramas resueltos temporalmente en el sincrotron ALBA

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    Urban fabric performance in Mediterranean city : a typology based mass-energy analysis  Open access

     Morganti, Michele; Pages Ramon, Anna; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Cecere, Carlo; Coch Roura, Helena
    CISBAT International Conference Cycle
    p. 581-586
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in European compact city where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. Moreover, it is now widely accepted that urban scale has a first rate importance in the building design process and its correlated energy performance. It has been observed that scaling laws are useful in describing the complex structure of urban systems: modern cities have a ¿metabòlic rate¿ that approximately follows the living organism scaling laws. Nevertheless, it has not been entirely verified that this connection remains the same while studying the phenomena at the urban and building scale and what kind of relationship between mass and power exists (i.e. energy) depending on typologies and urban form. This study suggests an approach for using mass parameter - representative of built-form - as energy performance evaluation tools on a homogeneous urban texture. Mass is connected to both built-form and technology and these determine, to a great extent, the energy use. In Mediterranean climate, it has been observed that mass has strong relevance on energy demand playing an important role in reducing heating and cooling consumptions. Our work aims at validating this relationship, focusing on widespread urban fabrics of the Mediterranean compact city. Tests on diferent case studies from Barcelona and Rome (analyzed independently in terms of their energy demands and their masses) are carried out. Mass evaluation is based on calculation of effective mass of built elements. Building energy demand is assessed by modelling on multi space dynamic thermal analysis tool. Results presented and discussed point out that heating and cooling energy demand are related to urban fabrics mass and, starting from typological based analysis, it¿s possible to estimate it. This work is a broader treatment of a research study about one possible way to comprehend ¿metabolic rate¿ scaling law concerning urban fabric. Such knowledge-base could giving hints to conscious and effective built environament transformations towards more efficient conditions.

    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in European compact city where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. Moreover, it is now widely accepted that urban scale has a first rate importance in the building design process and its correlated energy performance. It has been observed that scaling laws are useful in describing the complex structure of urban systems: modern cities have a “metabòlic rate” that approximately follows the living organism scaling laws. Nevertheless, it has not been entirely verified that this connection remains the same while studying the phenomena at the urban and building scale and what kind of relationship between mass and power exists (i.e. energy) depending on typologies and urban form. This study suggests an approach for using mass parameter - representative of built-form - as energy performance evaluation tools on a homogeneous urban texture. Mass is connected to both built-form and technology and these determine, to a great extent, the energy use. In Mediterranean climate, it has been observed that mass has strong relevance on energy demand playing an important role in reducing heating and cooling consumptions. Our work aims at validating this relationship, focusing on widespread urban fabrics of the Mediterranean compact city. Tests on diferent case studies from Barcelona and Rome (analyzed independently in terms of their energy demands and their masses) are carried out. Mass evaluation is based on calculation of effective mass of built elements. Building energy demand is assessed by modelling on multi space dynamic thermal analysis tool. Results presented and discussed point out that heating and cooling energy demand are related to urban fabrics mass and, starting from typological based analysis, it’s possible to estimate it. This work is a broader treatment of a research study about one possible way to comprehend “metabolic rate” scaling law concerning urban fabric. Such knowledge-base could giving hints to conscious and effective built environament transformations towards more efficient conditions.

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    The Perception of light affected by colour surfaces in indoor spaces  Open access

     López Besora, Judit; Coch Roura, Helena; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Aguilar Sanchez, Alexis
    CISBAT International Conference Cycle
    p. 469-474
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Visual comfort in indoor spaces depends on the amount and quality of light available and also on space characteristics. One of the most influential aspects is the colour of surfaces definint a space. Each colour has a reflectance coefficient resulting from how much light is reflected back from the coloured surface. However, from the observer¿s point of view, there are other factors that may affect visual perception of a space painted with colours. Some of them are psychological and depend on the background of the observer while other factors are physiological and are strongly connected to the sense of sight. According to this theory, architectural spaces could take advantage of the benefits of colour to improve visual responses for users. In this paper, we present a case study in which three coloured spaces with different lighting conditions were assessed by a sample of observers. At the same time, luminance and illuminance measurements were taken so as to compare these values with light perceived in the spaces. The results of this field work show the influence that colour has on the perception of light in three-dimensional spaces and contribute to the study of colour in architecture.

    Visual comfort in indoor spaces depends on the amount and quality of light available and also on space characteristics. One of the most influential aspects is the colour of surfaces definint a space. Each colour has a reflectance coefficient resulting from how much light is reflected back from the coloured surface. However, from the observer’s point of view, there are other factors that may affect visual perception of a space painted with colours. Some of them are psychological and depend on the background of the observer while other factors are physiological and are strongly connected to the sense of sight. According to this theory, architectural spaces could take advantage of the benefits of colour to improve visual responses for users. In this paper, we present a case study in which three coloured spaces with different lighting conditions were assessed by a sample of observers. At the same time, luminance and illuminance measurements were taken so as to compare these values with light perceived in the spaces. The results of this field work show the influence that colour has on the perception of light in three-dimensional spaces and contribute to the study of colour in architecture.

  • Visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Palme, Massimo
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    p. 503-506
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-28
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    This paper deals with both physical and psychological dimensions of visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture. Studies revealed that thermal comfort at one point in a transitional space is determined by the relative temperature at the location compared to the average temperatures the subjects had previously been exposed to. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these results can be extrapolated to visual and acoustic perception. The proposed methodology is based on observing individual behaviour with a sequenced exposure to different controlled visual and acoustic conditions. The results, which will be discussed, can be applied not only to general change in environmental conditions but also while walking through transitional spaces, where a weII-designed gradient of environmental conditions could imply energy savings.

  • Visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture : effects of level change in users' sensation

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Palme, Massimo
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The NiTi thermal spray splats morphology on different substrats

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cano, Irene Garcia; Guilemany, Josep Maria; Sampath, Sanjay
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    p. 261-262
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-20
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  • The behavior of NiTi wires and actuators in extreme conditions

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Grau Mur, Ramon; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    p. 452-453
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-22
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  • NiTi thermal spray splats morphology on different substrates

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cano, Irene G; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    p. 78
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-22
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    The rationalization of results is best achieved using the thermal effusivity. The use of thermal effusivity as reference might enable faster improvement of coating quality and adhesion.

  • Behaviour of NiTi wires for dampers and actuators in extreme conditions

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Grau Mur, Ramon; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    p. 89
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-24
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    Overstraining the wires changes strongly behavior in stress-strain

  • Re-roofing the cities : assessment of the improvements in the thermal comfort of buildings with a cool roof in the area of Barcelona

     Muntane Raich, Oriol; Zamora i Mestre, Joan Lluís; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Energy Forum on Solar Building Skins
    p. 181
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-06
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    Built-form, mass and energy : urban fabric performance  Open access

     Morganti, Michele; Pages Ramon, Anna; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Cecere, Carlo
    International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-07
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    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in the European compact city, where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. This paper explores the existence of a relation between built mass and energy demand depending on urban form. Focusing on the compact city of Mediterranean climate, tests on different case studies simulations are carried out. Results presented and discussed, point out that mass has strong relevance on energy demand and plays an important role in reducing energy consumptions. This paper is a preliminary report of an ongoing research study about one possible way to comprehend ¿metabolic rate¿ scaling law - the relationship between power and mass of a complex system in its process - concerning urban fabric. This knowledge-base could help verify the accordance with this rule on urban scale and give hints to conscious and effective built environment transformations towards more efficient conditions.

    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in the European compact city, where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. This paper explores the existence of a relation between built mass and energy demand depending on urban form. Focusing on the compact city of Mediterranean climate, tests on different case studies simulations are carried out. Results presented and discussed, point out that mass has strong relevance on energy demand and plays an important role in reducing energy consumptions. This paper is a preliminary report of an ongoing research study about one possible way to comprehend “metabolic rate” scaling law - the relationship between power and mass of a complex system in its process - concerning urban fabric. This knowledge-base could help verify the accordance with this rule on urban scale and give hints to conscious and effective built environment transformations towards more efficient conditions.

  • NiTi splat features during vacuum thermal spraying onto several substrates  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Sampath, Sanjay
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 90
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-05
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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Criterios para prácticas de evaluación de calidad. Una propuesta de GRAPA-RIMA.

     Cadenato Matia, Ana Maria; Martinez, Maria; Amante García, Beatriz; Gallego Fernandez, M. Isabel; Jordana Barnils, Josep; Robert i Sanxis, Francesc Josep; Farrerons Vidal, Oscar; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fabregat Fillet, Jaime
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-04
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  • SMA passive elements for damping in stayed cables: experimental results and simulation

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Casciati, Fabio; Casciat, Sara; Terriault, Patrick
    European Conference on Structural Control
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-19
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    The use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as passive elements for damping the vibrations of stayed cables requires that the essential conditions of SMA necessary for the application are well established. The specific conditions of the cable define the appropriate characteristics of the damper, such as the length and the number of the NiTi SMA wires. As the stayed cables in bridges remain under forces near 1 MN, the main study is focused on SMA wires of diameter 2.46 mm that produces forces of about 2 kN. With these forces the use of one or several wires only induces minor changes in the stress distribution within the structure. In this work, the requirements for the SMA wires including, for instance, the fracture level, the thermal actions and the convection, are evaluated. Furthermore, several examples of the application of SMA in laboratory facilities and the simulation of the SMA actions in realistic cables are included. The non-linearities of the SMA dampers are visualized by windowed Fourier transform and Morlet wavelets analysis of the oscillating behavior. There is a change of the cable natural frequency during the damping process, the frequency increases as amplitude decreases. From the experimental results obtained in ELSA, JRC, Ispra, Italy, IFSTTAR, Nantes, France, and in the Pavia University, Italy, the general rules for the preparation of the SMA dampers are also outlined.

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    Luminances and vision related to daylighting  Open access

     Aguilar Sanchez, Alexis; Uriarte, Urtza; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    World Renewable Energy Congress
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-15
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    Daylighting has an excellent color rendering, as human eyes have been developed under the sun¿s rays, and it yields very proactive elements to human behavior. In the field of luminance contrast, it has been noted that the probability of excessive contrast is lower when considering daylighting in relation to artificial lighting. As a result, in activities which require more demanding visual accuracy, daylighting can offer more and better conditions for light and space variations considering the wide range of the field of vision. This paper proposes a new approach to the methodology of calculating luminance balances considering the surface position in space and its relative weight in the final mean luminance value. This is based on ergonomic field of vision distribution, which confers major importance on what is in the solid angle analyzed by the cones area of the eye. The starting point when constructing numerical models of lighting comfort is the human eye¿s sensitivity to light. Assessing interior architectural visual comfort conditions is the ultimate purpose of this work, along with the possibility of taking advantage of photography-related software programs that could be useful tools for architects and interior designers. Avoiding uncomfortable visual situations is an environmentally efficient approach because the end effect of poor visual conditions is a higher demand for artificial lighting, leading to energy consumption that could be saved with lighting conditions adapted to human comfort.

    Daylighting has an excellent color rendering, as human eyes have been developed under the sun’s rays, and it yields very proactive elements to human behavior. In the field of luminance contrast, it has been noted that the probability of excessive contrast is lower when considering daylighting in relation to artificial lighting. As a result, in activities which require more demanding visual accuracy, daylighting can offer more and better conditions for light and space variations considering the wide range of the field of vision. This paper proposes a new approach to the methodology of calculating luminance balances considering the surface position in space and its relative weight in the final mean luminance value. This is based on ergonomic field of vision distribution, which confers major importance on what is in the solid angle analyzed by the cones area of the eye. The starting point when constructing numerical models of lighting comfort is the human eye’s sensitivity to light. Assessing interior architectural visual comfort conditions is the ultimate purpose of this work, along with the possibility of taking advantage of photography-related software programs that could be useful tools for architects and interior designers. Avoiding uncomfortable visual situations is an environmentally efficient approach because the end effect of poor visual conditions is a higher demand for artificial lighting, leading to energy consumption that could be saved with lighting conditions adapted to human comfort.

  • Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of NiTi wires

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
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  • The SMA, an effective damper in civil engineering that smoothes oscillations  Open access

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem
    Jornada de Recerca i Innovació a l'Escola de Camins
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The properties of SMA (Shape Memory Alloys, that are smart materials) are associated to a first order phase transition named martensitic transformation that occurs between metastable phases: austenite and martensite. At upper temperature or at lower stress the austenite is the metastable phase. The martensite appears at lower temperature or higher stresses. The hysteresis of the transformation permits different levels of applications, i.e., in their use as a damper. Two types of applications can be considered in damping of structures in Civil Engineering. The first one is related to diminishing the damage induced by earthquakes. The second one is a reduction of oscillation amplitude associate to an increase of the lifetime for the stayed cables in bridges.

  • Conceptos Físicos para modelizar la envolvente

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Jornadas de Arquitectura Sostenible en Climas Cálidos y Certificación Energética
    p. 9
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-14
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    Potential for energy saving in transitional spaces in commercial buildings  Open access

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Aguilar Sanchez, Alexis; Coch Roura, Helena; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    International Conference CleanTech for Sustainable Building
    p. 547-552
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-15
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    As it is known, the energy consumption of buildings is directly linked to their energy demand.Therefore, the most direct strategy to reduce the energy consumption of a building is to minimise its energy demand. This can be done in two ways. On the one hand, the energy demand can be reduced by minimising the size of some energy consuming spaces in the building. It can also be reduced by minimising the requirements of their comfort conditions. This second strategy is especially effective in transitional spaces, where the comfort requirements have wider limits than in normally occupied zones so energy savings are possible by allowing for a modest relaxation of the comfort standards. This paper reports on an analytical study into the energy-saving potential associated with modifications in thermal comfort limits in transitional spaces in commercial buildings. Such transitional spaces may not require the same high level and close control as more fully indoor or fully occupied areas, and thus a wider variation in conditions and interpretation of thermal comfort may be permitted. They also take up a significant fraction of the total volume of these kinds of buildings and give rise to significant energy use to provide comfort by means of heating or cooling systems. Initial trial calculations have been conducted using standardised commercial building layouts in order to determine the potential for energy savings. Commercial buildings have been chosen not only due to the extensive presence of this kind of building in almost all cities, but also because of the considerable percentage of transitional spaces that these buildings have in a standard floor plan. The relationship between these transition al spaces and the indoor areas will also be considered in this study. Estimates are made of the energy-saving potential based on different commercial buildings located in the climate of the Barcelona area in Spain.

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    Mechanical and nanoindentation behavior of NiTi and NiTi-TiC coatings obtained by thermal spray  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Villa, Maria; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    European and Exhibition Congress on Advanced Materials and Processes
    p. 1523/1-1523/2
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-14
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  • Nanoindentation behaviour of thermally sprayed NiTi films

     Villa, Maria; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 136
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-05
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  • The SMA was a tool for damping the induced oscillations in civil structures. Application to earthquake mitigation in family homes and to stayed cables for bridges

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 78
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-09
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    SMA (cu-based, niti) for use in damping: the implications of reliability for long time applications and aging behavior  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    European and Exhibition Congress on Advanced Materials and Processes
    p. 1911/1-1911/2
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-14
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  • SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: damping actions in stayed cables

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick; Dieng, Lamine
    Performance, Protection end Strengthtening of Structures under Extreme Loading
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-01
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  • Nanoindentation of NiTi-TiC thermal spray coatings

     Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Villa, Maria; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Dosta, Sergi; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 177
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-07
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  • SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: study of their application in a realistic steel portico

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Fabio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    Performance, Protection end Strengthtening of Structures under Extreme Loading
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-30
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  • Re-roofing the cities = Prevenir el cambio climático re-construyendo

     Muntane Raich, Oriol; Zamora i Mestre, Joan Lluís; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    European Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Architecture and Planning
    p. 351-352
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
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  • Effects on the histeresis in martensitic transformations

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem
    Congreso de Física Estadística
    p. 68
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-02
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  • SMA(NiTi): the coupling between time, temperature and cycling frequency

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    International Materials Symposium
    p. 853-858
    DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.730-732.853
    Presentation's date: 2011-04
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    The main interest focuses in the necessary tools for accurate simulation of the damper behavior in their application. It¿s essential a well determined knowledge of the dissipated energy and of the hysteresis cycle shape for a correct simulation. The self-heating effects and the coupling between hysteresis and the relevant temperature effects associated to continuous cycling were studied. In particular, the experimental analysis concentrates in the action of cycling frequency on the hysteresis width and on the dissipated energy. The external and the self-heating temperature effects were studied. In particular, the convective actions of cooling in the conditioned air were visualized. The study of self-heating actions at extremely slow cycles, built by strain steps, shows minor latent heat dissipations in the entire sample. For trained samples, the temperature measurements establish that the transformation is ¿distributed¿ not ¿localized¿ in the complete sample.

  • SMA(NiTi): the coupling between time, temperature and cycling frequency

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    International Materials Symposium
    p. 209
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-19
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  • The Possible impact of climatic change on the built environment : the importance of flexibility and energy robustness of the architecture

     Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    World Renewable Energy Congress
    p. 544-549
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-25
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    Relevant factors in Spanish buildings energy certification process  Open access

     Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-29
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    European directive EPBD (2003) and Kyoto protocol (1997) obligated the signer countries to implement an energy certification process of buildings in their laws. In Spain, the government established (RD 47/2007) two certification options: a simplified certification (that does not permit to obtain the best certification results) or a simulation process based on the Lider and Calener tools (DOE-II based simulators adapted to Spanish norms). In this work we report the results of a large number of residential building simulation and certification processes, obtained during years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Architectural factors that may improve or affect the certification result are identified and discussed by comparative analysis. Residential buildings investigated are grouped in tree typologies: familiar house, little dwellings block (minus than 10 dwellings) and medium dwellings block (between 10 and 30 dwellings). For each group the more relevant architectural factors are discussed. All the buildings locate in the Autonomic Community of Catalonia, in a Mediterranean climate. At the end of the work a discussion between the different groups is conducted. Finally, certification process is critical discussed, especially thinking in the repeatability of the results and in the capacity of the analysed tools to express an architectonic result, in terms of geometrical distribution, form, magnitude of the buildings. Alternatives to the actual Lider and Calener simulation process are also critically discussed.

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    A Daytime passive cooling radiation system  Open access

     Marin Herrera, Juan Antonio; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Roset Calzada, Jaime; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-29
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  • Estrategias y criterios de Evaluación de Fundamentos Físicos en la Facultat de Nautica de Barcelona (FNB-UPC)

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Dominguez Sevilla, Jose Francisco
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
    p. 83
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Energy consumption and robustness of buildings

     Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    p. 331-334
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Urban canyon effects on Valparaiso

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carrasco Aldunate, Claudio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    p. 479-482
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMA smart materials (CuAlBe and NiTi) for use in damping: the implications of reliability for long time applications and aging behaviour

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Carreras, G.; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    School and Symposium on Smart Structural Systems Technologies
    p. 471-481
    Presentation's date: 2010-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Self-heating effects on the hysteresis width of SMA

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    School and Symposium on Smart Structural Systems Technologies
    p. 483-495
    Presentation's date: 2010-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Self-heating effects on the hysteresis width of SMA

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, G.; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Date of publication: 2010-04-05
    Book chapter

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  • La sensibilidad energética de los edificios  Open access

     Palme, Massimo
    Department of Architectural Technology I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El propósito de esta Tesis Doctoral es evaluar la sensibilidad de los consumos energéticos de los edificios y de las condiciones de confort establecidas en su interior, frente a variaciones en los parámetros que intervienen en las dinámicas energéticas de intercambio que tienen lugar entre edificio y ambiente. La origen de la investigación es una interrogación sobre la importancia (sospechada) de las acciones de los usuarios sobre los consumos y sobre el mismo confort. La Tesis es constituida por cinco capítulos más una introducción, unas conclusiones, la bibliografía y los anexos. Los capítulos tratan en el orden: análisis del estado del arte, presentación de objetivos y metodología, descripción de los edificios evaluados, presentación de los resultados, discusión crítica de los resultados. La metodología elegida para el estudio es coherente con el análisis del estado del arte previo; a saber, actualmente se investigan las dinámicas energéticas de los edificios de tres maneras: evaluaciones teóricas, simulaciones por ordenador y monitorizaciones de edificios existentes. En esta Tesis se seleccionan cuatro edificios, representativos del entorno construido de la Comunidad de Cataluña dentro del Reino de España, y se les aplica en el orden: una evaluación básica teórica, cuatro procesos de simulación a través de cuatro diferentes simuladores, un análisis de sensibilidad de los resultados de las evaluaciones teóricas, y finalmente un análisis de sensibilidad comparativo de los procesos de simulación. De uno de los cuatro edificios también se presentan datos reales recogidos durante los años 2006 y 2007. Los proyectos y edificios estudiados son: el bloque de 14 viviendas para jóvenes de Les Franqueses del Valles (proyecto ejecutivo); el Centro de Naturaleza de Les Planes de Son (construido); la rehabilitación de la antigua Masía de Vallforners (proyecto de rehabilitación de edificio existente); el prototipo de escuela secundaria Protoceip (proyecto). La metodología de evaluación básica es la propuesta por R. Serra y A. Isalgué y utiliza ecuaciones de balance y variaciones discretas de las mismas. Los programas utilizados para las simulaciones dinámicas son Lider-Calener, Ecotect, Trnsys y Archisun. Todos los pasos descritos se centran en la evaluación del comportamiento térmico de los edificios, que resulta ser preponderante en magnitud de consumo sobre las demás formas de energía que intercambian edificio y ambiente. Los estudios de sensibilidad de las evaluaciones teóricas se conducen sobre los parámetros de las ecuaciones de balance utilizadas: el coeficiente de pérdidas por ventilación, el coeficiente de ganancias por radiación solar directa y el coeficiente de aportaciones en el interior del edificio. Los estudios de sensibilidad de las simulaciones se conducen sobre una selección racional de los numerosos parámetros que permite editar cada simulador, expuesta e justificada en la metodología. Los resultados muestran que un simulador (Archisun) y una tipología arquitectónica (Masía de Vallforners) resultan menos sensibles a las variaciones evaluadas. Por lo tanto, en la discusión y en las conclusiones se discuten la utilidad real de los simuladores y la filosofía que parece mejor utilizar en su desarrollo; también se discuten las diferencias evidentes entre tipologías arquitectónicas frente a la sensibilidad energética y se proponen los conceptos de robustez energética y de efusividad térmica global, como nuevas herramientas de calificación y certificación del correcto funcionamiento energético de los edificios. Finalmente, se discute sobre el concepto de confort en condiciones dinámicas, proponiendo futuras líneas de desarrollo e investigación.

    The general proposal of this PhD Thesis is the evaluation of the sensitivity of buildings in the energy consumption and comfort sensation, depending on variations in the parameters that appear in the energy interchange dynamics between building and environment. The origin is a question over the relevance (supposed) of the user's actions on the energy consumption and comfort sensation. The Thesis has five chapters, an introduction, some conclusions, the bibliography and the annexes. The chapters treat, on order, the following arguments: state of art, objectives and methodology definition, case studies description, results presentation, critical discussion of the results. Selected methodology for the study is coherent with the previous state of art analysis; nowadays, in fact, there are tree ways to investigate the energy dynamics of buildings: heuristic evaluation, dynamic simulation by software and constructed building monitoring. In this work we select four buildings, representative of the built environment of Catalan Community in the Spain Kingdom, and apply to its in order: a basic evaluation, four simulation processes with four different simulators, a sensitivity analysis of the evaluation results, and finally a comparative sensitivity analysis of the simulation results. In one case, results present real assessment during years 2006 and 2007 too. Projects and buildings studied are: the block of 14 flat for young people located in Les Franqueses del Valles (executive project); the Nature Centre of the Planes de Son (constructed); the retrofit of the old Masía of Vallforners (retrofit of existing building); the prototype of the secondary school Protoceip (project). The heuristic evaluation methodology is proposed by R. Serra and A. Isalgué and use steadystate equations and its discrete variations. The software used for the simulations are Lider-Calener, Ecotect, Trnsys and Archisun. All the described evaluations, simulations and sensitivity analysis focalise the thermal behaviour of buildings that appears to be more relevant respect to the others forms of energy interchanges between building and environment. The sensitivity studies of the evaluations are conducted over the parameters that appear in the equations: the loss ventilation coefficient, the direct solar radiation gain coefficient and the internal gain coefficient. The sensitivity studies of the simulations are conducted over a selection of parameters that the software permit to edit, presented and justified in the methodology. Results show that one software (Archisun) and one architectural typology (old Masía of Vallforners) have a lower sensitivity to the considered variations. For this, in the discussion and conclusions we discuss the real usability of the software and the philosophy that seems to be better to use in its development; at the other hand, we discuss the difference between architectural typologies under the energy sensitivity point of view and propose the concepts of robust design and global thermal effusive, as new strategies of qualification and certification of the correct building performance. Finally, we discuss the concept of comfort in dynamical conditions, opening future lines of investigation and development.

  • CAMBIO DE FORMA MEDIANTE UN ACTUADOR DE AMF (ALEACION CON MEMORIA DE FORMA): CONFIABILIDAD

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Competitive project

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  • Morfología y microclima urbano análisis de la forma espacial y materiales como modeladores del microclima de tejidos urbanos mediterráneos costeros. El caso de la ciudad de Valparaíso  Open access

     Carrasco Aldunate, Claudio
    Department of Architectural Technology I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The city morphology is the greater evidence of human habitation and intervention on the natural landscape aimed both at individual protection and community living. It is an intervention that modifies not only the landscape but also one that determines the new created environment and climate. Throughout history we have seen that from their formation these settlements have sought to give shape to a dwelling place which should protect its dwellers from the hazards and dangers of nature, those of climate included. To this end they give shape to the built spaces using various natural elements and displaying the built space in such a way so as to create a micro-climate adjustable to their needs. Layouts which are recorded in the foundation projects for new cities are testimonies of this search. Nowadays, above the climate comfort need in urban spaces are economic, esthetic and plastic valuations without considerering that the space shape of the street is a determinant element of quality and city habitation. In this respect, this research analyzes the relationship between urban morphology (as a street design element) and the micro-climate of the urban space so as to propose design suggestions for the city aiming at better climate quality and energetic efficiency on the city in a coastal Mediterranean climate. Our dissertation report offers a quantitative and qualitative assessment model to improve decision making concerning location and space design of new sites of these Mediterranean traits, identifying design tools to enhance the evaluation of the relationship between these spatial elements. As a matter of fact, the assessment of this relationship in the study cases of our research has revealed factors of the space morphology and topography which appear to have a significant influence on the urban climate and city micro-climates. Finally, it is believed that this research contributes to the best understanding of how shapes and materials of the urban space take part in the determination of existing coastal Mediterranean micro–climate urban nets.

    La morfología de la ciudad es la mayor certeza de la intervención del hombre en el paisaje con el fin de dar lugar a un habitar resguardado y comunitario. No sólo por la forma en si, tan distinta de la de la naturaleza, sino también como un elemento determinante en el nuevo ambiente y en el nuevo clima creados. Vemos en la historia, que en los inicios los asentamientos buscan dar forma a un hábitat que resguarde de los peligros, pero que también proteja del clima adverso que pudiese encontrar en el lugar de emplazamiento. Para ello da forma a los espacios construidos usando diversos elementos naturales y disponiendo las edificaciones de tal forma de crear un microclima que se ajuste más a sus necesidades. Lineamientos que incluso se plasma en tratados fundacionales para nuevas ciudades. En la actualidad, por sobre la necesidad del confort climático en el espacio urbano, están la valoración económica, práctica, estética, etc. sin considerar que la forma del espacio de la calle es un elemento determinante de la calidad y habitabilidad de la ciudad. En este sentido este trabajo analiza la relación entre la morfología urbana (como un elemento de diseño de la calle) y el microclima urbano del espacio conformado, con la finalidad de proponer sugerencias de diseño para la ciudad, que apunten a una mayor calidad climática y eficiencia energética de los tejidos urbanos de la ciudad de clima mediterráneo costero. Se define un modelo de evaluación cualitativa y cuantitativa que aporta a las decisiones de emplazamiento y diseño de espacio de nuevos trozos y desarrollo urbano de la cuidad de estas características mediterráneas, determinando herramientas de diseño que arquitectónicamente permiten informar y evaluar la relación entre estos elementos espaciales: Se estima que a partir de la evaluación de los casos de estudio, se han identificado elementos de la morfología urbana y la topografía, que son incidentes, como factores, en el clima urbano y microclimas de ciudad. Finalmente se piensa que con este trabajo se logra contribuir al mejor entendimiento de cómo las formas y materiales del espacio urbano participan en la determinación de los microclimas existentes en tejidos urbanos de clima mediterráneo costero.

  • Access to the full text
    The SMA properties in civil engineering applications. The SMARTeR project: use of SMA in damping of stayed cables for bridges  Open access

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, G.; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Soul, H.; Terriault, Patrick; Zapico, B.
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Abstract. One of the classical applications of the SMA is based on the used of the hysteresis cycle associated to the martensitic transformation (classically, described as a first order phase transition) for damping devices. For each application a detailed knowledge of the conditions to be accomplished by the material is absolutely necessary. For the stayed cables in bridges of the Iroise bridge, the oscillation frequencies are 1 and 3 Hz; and the peak to peak oscillation amplitude is close to 10 cm and, also, the SMA works in close contact with the external ambient temperature. In fact, the bridge is a 2*2 lanes free highway situated between Brest and Plougastel (France). The main requirement is related to several days of intense winds or rain associated to strong storms. The conditions imposed to the samples suggest appropriate behavior for, at least, 500000 cycles of working. The experimental analysis, centered in NiTi, is focused in 1) the fatigue life of the samples, 2) the evaluation of the Clausius-Clapeyron coefficient, 3) assuring that the degradation of the material properties remains below a safety limit in the expected time scale of application, 4) modeling the cable behavior to show the positive damping capacity of SMA and 5) studying the applications in semi-realistic scale in the ELSA-JRC (a civil engineering facility in Ispra, Italy) demonstrating the positive effect of the SMA.

  • SMA dampers in structures by smart systems

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    International Conference on Construction and Building Research
    p. 92
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMA dampers in structures by smart systems

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    Date of publication: 2009-06-24
    Book chapter

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  • The importance of the improvements on the maritime transport in the global trade

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Maritime Transport IV
    Presentation's date: 2009-04-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Choice of SMAs for damping applications in Civil Engineering: simulations and realistic experiments

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Soul, H.; Terriault, Patrick; Tirelli, D.; Zapico, B.
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
    p. 1-5
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The importance of the improvements on the maritime transport in the global trade  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Martinez De Osés, Francisco Javier; Castells Sanabra, Marcel·la
    Maritime Transport IV
    p. 683-695
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Scaling laws and maritime transport

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    International Congress on Maritime Technological Innovations and Research
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Pre-stressed NiTi: effects of the thermodynamic forces and time

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Pelegrí Llopart, José Luis; Terriault, Patrick
    DOI: 10.1361/cp2007/smst055
    Date of publication: 2008-11-30
    Book chapter

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    The use of NiTi in damping devices for Civil Engineering requires stable behavior of the stress-strain curves with time and cycling. In particular, the use of pre-stressed samples improves the damping efficiency. Since earthquakes can appear after several years (or decades) of calmness, it is required that the alloy maintains their properties unchanged even after long time in the pre-stressed situation. The static experimental analysis in parent phase, in phase coexistence and in martensite shows minor changes after one month at the pre-stressed condition. These changes increase when the room temperature is increased from 293 to 303 K. The study of aging at 373 K by calorimetric measurements shows relevant changes of both the R-phase and the martensitic transformation temperatures, with time constants near 70 days, in agreement with X-ray diffraction analysis. Preliminary observations associated to dynamic actions (cycling and pauses) shows that the accumulated deformation partially recovers in the pauses.