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  • Built in dampers for stayed cables in bridges via SMA. The SMARTeR-ESF project: a mesoscopic and macroscopic experimental analysis with numerical simulations

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Terriault, Patrick; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are good candidates for solid-state dampers appropriate for the oscillations of bridge stay cables because of their large recoverable strain, hysteresis and reasonable fatigue-life. This work experimentally analyzes the relevant properties of NiTi SMA and conducts facility measurements, frequency analyzes and simulations of the effects of SMA on stay cables. Appropriate phenomenological SMA models were developed and included in a Finite Element (FE) simulation environment. A complete damping solution for bridge stay cables was developed from these experimental analyzes. This paper detail the required properties for a NiTi SMA and analyzes their performance. For instance, the fatigue-life and several of the thermo-mechanical effects influencing the application of NiTi SMAs are outlined. The damping effect of the SMA was studied in two facilities. The first series of measurements was performed using cable 1 of the ELSA facility (JRC-EU, Ispra, Italy). The second was completed in two campaigns at IFSTTAR (Bouguenais, near Nantes in France). The numeric analyzes and simulated results were completely coherent with these experiments: the SMA dampers also drastically reduce the maximum oscillation amplitude induced by the simulated action. The frequency evolution of the damped cable was studied using direct calculations on the signals, the windowed Fourier transform and Morlet wavelets.

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    Avoiding the possible impact of climate change on the built environment: the importance of the building's energy robustness  Open access

     Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena
    Buildings
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today¿s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user¿s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change future (2040 and 2070) on the energy consumption of residential buildings recently constructed, under three possible scenarios. The scenarios are created considering a low, medium or strong effect of global warming. Two types of buildings, with comparable consumption results of today, are investigated in three different cities around the world with a multi-zone type 56 of Trnsys simulation tool. At the end of the work, the concepts of energy robustness and global thermal effusivity of buildings are discussed as important strategies to reduce the possible impact of climate change on the built environment. The use of simulation tools to estimate the sensitivity of buildings is also analyzed, taking into consideration the recent goals of applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to building performance simulation science.

    Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today’s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user’s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change future (2040 and 2070) on the energy consumption of residential buildings recently constructed, under three possible scenarios. The scenarios are created considering a low, medium or strong effect of global warming. Two types of buildings, with comparable consumption results of today, are investigated in three different cities around the world with a multi-zone type 56 of Trnsys simulation tool. At the end of the work, the concepts of energy robustness and global thermal effusivity of buildings are discussed as important strategies to reduce the possible impact of climate change on the built environment. The use of simulation tools to estimate the sensitivity of buildings is also analyzed, taking into consideration the recent goals of applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to building performance simulation science.

  • SMA (NiTi): the coupling between time, temperature and cycling frequency

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    Materials science forum
    Date of publication: 2013-06-01
    Journal article

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    The main interest focuses in the necessary tools for accurate simulation of the damper behavior in their application. It’s essential a well determined knowledge of the dissipated energy and of the hysteresis cycle shape for a correct simulation. The self-heating effects and the coupling between hysteresis and the relevant temperature effects associated to continuous cycling were studied. In particular, the experimental analysis concentrates in the action of cycling frequency on the hysteresis width and on the dissipated energy. The external and the self-heating temperature effects were studied. In particular, the convective actions of cooling in the conditioned air were visualized. The study of self-heating actions at extremely slow cycles, built by strain steps, shows minor latent heat dissipations in the entire sample. For trained samples, the temperature measurements establish that the transformation is “distributed” not “localized” in the complete sample.

  • SMA dampers for cable vibration: an available solution for oscillation of stayed cables in bridges

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Casciati, Fabio; Casciati, Sara; Terriault, Patrick
    Advances in science and technology
    Date of publication: 2013-01-06
    Journal article

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  • Mechanicaland nanoindentation behavior of TiC-NiTi thermal spray coatings

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Villa, Maria; Guilemany Casademont, Josep Maria
    Journal of alloys and compounds
    Date of publication: 2013-11-15
    Journal article

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    The nanoindentation behavior of wear resistant coatings containing TiC¿NiTi is studied. The raw material contained 60%weight of TiC and 40%weight of near equiatomic NiTi. The powder was sprayed by plasma and HVOF techniques. Higher temperatures in the plasma spraying produced better matrix melting but also more cracks on cooling. The presence of some amorphous or nanocrystalline phase occurs, at least in some coatings, being this related to the good wear behavior. The projection conditions play an important role on the partial transformation because ofthe decomposition and oxidation ofthe NiTi as a consequence of the temperatures involved during the spray deposition. The nanoindentation measures suggest that, even with the presence of hard TiC particles, partial oxidation and dissociation of NiTi, there is some pseudoelasticity.

  • Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of NiTi wires

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Cano, Irene G; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Grau Mur, Ramon; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia
    Materials science forum
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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  • NiTi splat features during vacuum thermal spraying onto several substrates

     Cinca Luis, Nuria; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Sampath, Sanjay
    Materials science forum
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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  • Damping in civil engineering using SMA part 2 - Particular properties of NiTi for damping of stayed cables in bridges

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    Canadian metallurgical quarterly
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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  • The NiTi thermal spray splats morphology on different substrats

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cano, Irene Garcia; Guilemany, Josep Maria; Sampath, Sanjay
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Palme, Massimo
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper deals with both physical and psychological dimensions of visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture. Studies revealed that thermal comfort at one point in a transitional space is determined by the relative temperature at the location compared to the average temperatures the subjects had previously been exposed to. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these results can be extrapolated to visual and acoustic perception. The proposed methodology is based on observing individual behaviour with a sequenced exposure to different controlled visual and acoustic conditions. The results, which will be discussed, can be applied not only to general change in environmental conditions but also while walking through transitional spaces, where a weII-designed gradient of environmental conditions could imply energy savings.

    This paper deals with both physical and psychological dimensions of visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture. Studies revealed that thermal comfort at one point in a transitional space is determined by the relative temperature at the location compared to the average temperatures the subjects had previously been exposed to. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these results can be extrapolated to visual and acoustic perception. The proposed methodology is based on observing individual behaviour with a sequenced exposure to different controlled visual and acoustic conditions. The results, which will be discussed, can be applied not only to general change in environmental conditions but also while walking through transitional spaces, where a weII-designed gradient of environmental conditions could imply energy savings.

  • The behavior of NiTi wires and actuators in extreme conditions

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Grau Mur, Ramon; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Behaviour of NiTi wires for dampers and actuators in extreme conditions

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Grau Mur, Ramon; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Overstraining the wires changes strongly behavior in stress-strain

  • NiTi thermal spray splats morphology on different substrates

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cano, Irene G; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The rationalization of results is best achieved using the thermal effusivity. The use of thermal effusivity as reference might enable faster improvement of coating quality and adhesion.

  • Visual and acoustic adaptability in architecture : effects of level change in users' sensation

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Palme, Massimo
    Central Europe towards Sustainable Building
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sma (Cu-based, niti) for use in damping: the implications of reliability for long time applications and aging behavior

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Functional materials letters
    Date of publication: 2012-03
    Journal article

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  • Metastable effects on martensitic transformation in SMA. Part IX: static aging for morphing by temperature and stress

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Carreras, Guillem
    Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry
    Date of publication: 2012-09-06
    Journal article

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    Built-form, mass and energy : urban fabric performance  Open access

     Morganti, Michele; Pages Ramon, Anna; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Cecere, Carlo
    International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in the European compact city, where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. This paper explores the existence of a relation between built mass and energy demand depending on urban form. Focusing on the compact city of Mediterranean climate, tests on different case studies simulations are carried out. Results presented and discussed, point out that mass has strong relevance on energy demand and plays an important role in reducing energy consumptions. This paper is a preliminary report of an ongoing research study about one possible way to comprehend ¿metabolic rate¿ scaling law - the relationship between power and mass of a complex system in its process - concerning urban fabric. This knowledge-base could help verify the accordance with this rule on urban scale and give hints to conscious and effective built environment transformations towards more efficient conditions.

    The link between urban form and building energy demand is a complex balance of morphological, constructive, utilization and climatic factor. Especially in the European compact city, where existing areas prevail on much more energy-efficient new settlements, it is evident that operative ways to transform efficiently the building stock have to be found. This paper explores the existence of a relation between built mass and energy demand depending on urban form. Focusing on the compact city of Mediterranean climate, tests on different case studies simulations are carried out. Results presented and discussed, point out that mass has strong relevance on energy demand and plays an important role in reducing energy consumptions. This paper is a preliminary report of an ongoing research study about one possible way to comprehend “metabolic rate” scaling law - the relationship between power and mass of a complex system in its process - concerning urban fabric. This knowledge-base could help verify the accordance with this rule on urban scale and give hints to conscious and effective built environment transformations towards more efficient conditions.

  • Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of NiTi wires

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • NiTi splat features during vacuum thermal spraying onto several substrates  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Sampath, Sanjay
    European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • SMA passive elements for damping in stayed cables: experimental results and simulation

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Casciati, Fabio; Casciat, Sara; Terriault, Patrick
    European Conference on Structural Control
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as passive elements for damping the vibrations of stayed cables requires that the essential conditions of SMA necessary for the application are well established. The specific conditions of the cable define the appropriate characteristics of the damper, such as the length and the number of the NiTi SMA wires. As the stayed cables in bridges remain under forces near 1 MN, the main study is focused on SMA wires of diameter 2.46 mm that produces forces of about 2 kN. With these forces the use of one or several wires only induces minor changes in the stress distribution within the structure. In this work, the requirements for the SMA wires including, for instance, the fracture level, the thermal actions and the convection, are evaluated. Furthermore, several examples of the application of SMA in laboratory facilities and the simulation of the SMA actions in realistic cables are included. The non-linearities of the SMA dampers are visualized by windowed Fourier transform and Morlet wavelets analysis of the oscillating behavior. There is a change of the cable natural frequency during the damping process, the frequency increases as amplitude decreases. From the experimental results obtained in ELSA, JRC, Ispra, Italy, IFSTTAR, Nantes, France, and in the Pavia University, Italy, the general rules for the preparation of the SMA dampers are also outlined.

  • Re-roofing the cities : assessment of the improvements in the thermal comfort of buildings with a cool roof in the area of Barcelona

     Muntane Raich, Oriol; Zamora i Mestre, Joan Lluís; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Energy Forum on Solar Building Skins
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Luminances and vision related to daylighting  Open access

     Aguilar Sanchez, Alexis; Uriarte, Urtza; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    World Renewable Energy Congress
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Daylighting has an excellent color rendering, as human eyes have been developed under the sun¿s rays, and it yields very proactive elements to human behavior. In the field of luminance contrast, it has been noted that the probability of excessive contrast is lower when considering daylighting in relation to artificial lighting. As a result, in activities which require more demanding visual accuracy, daylighting can offer more and better conditions for light and space variations considering the wide range of the field of vision. This paper proposes a new approach to the methodology of calculating luminance balances considering the surface position in space and its relative weight in the final mean luminance value. This is based on ergonomic field of vision distribution, which confers major importance on what is in the solid angle analyzed by the cones area of the eye. The starting point when constructing numerical models of lighting comfort is the human eye¿s sensitivity to light. Assessing interior architectural visual comfort conditions is the ultimate purpose of this work, along with the possibility of taking advantage of photography-related software programs that could be useful tools for architects and interior designers. Avoiding uncomfortable visual situations is an environmentally efficient approach because the end effect of poor visual conditions is a higher demand for artificial lighting, leading to energy consumption that could be saved with lighting conditions adapted to human comfort.

    Daylighting has an excellent color rendering, as human eyes have been developed under the sun’s rays, and it yields very proactive elements to human behavior. In the field of luminance contrast, it has been noted that the probability of excessive contrast is lower when considering daylighting in relation to artificial lighting. As a result, in activities which require more demanding visual accuracy, daylighting can offer more and better conditions for light and space variations considering the wide range of the field of vision. This paper proposes a new approach to the methodology of calculating luminance balances considering the surface position in space and its relative weight in the final mean luminance value. This is based on ergonomic field of vision distribution, which confers major importance on what is in the solid angle analyzed by the cones area of the eye. The starting point when constructing numerical models of lighting comfort is the human eye’s sensitivity to light. Assessing interior architectural visual comfort conditions is the ultimate purpose of this work, along with the possibility of taking advantage of photography-related software programs that could be useful tools for architects and interior designers. Avoiding uncomfortable visual situations is an environmentally efficient approach because the end effect of poor visual conditions is a higher demand for artificial lighting, leading to energy consumption that could be saved with lighting conditions adapted to human comfort.

  • Criterios para prácticas de evaluación de calidad. Una propuesta de GRAPA-RIMA.

     Cadenato Matia, Ana Maria; Martinez, Maria; Amante García, Beatriz; Gallego Fernandez, M. Isabel; Jordana Barnils, Josep; Robert i Sanxis, Francesc Josep; Farrerons Vidal, Oscar; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fabregat Fillet, Jaime
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: damping actions in stayed cables  Open access

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick; Dieng, Lamine
    Applied mechanics and materials
    Date of publication: 2011-10-27
    Journal article

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    Guaranteeing the use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) in mitigation of extreme load effects requires a deep study of the SMA behavior according to the specific requirements of the application. In particular, for a storm is necessary more than one million of working cycles. It is applied to two realistic cables in ELSA (JRC-Ispra, Italy) and in IFSTTAR (old LCPC in Nantes, France). The measurements establish that the SMA reduces drastically the oscillation amplitude. Technical suggestions for the preparation of the dampers are included. For instance, about the two available parameters in the SMA dampers: length () and number (N) of SMA wires. Moreover, a suitable simulation by proprietary SMA routine inside ANSYS is included.

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    SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: study of their application in a realistic steel portico  Open access

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Fabio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terrieault, Patrick
    Applied mechanics and materials
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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    Guaranteeing the use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) in mitigation of extreme load effects requires a deep study of the SMA behavior according to the specific requirements of the applications in damping. The damper was defined according the expected requirements (length of SMA and number of SMA wires). It is applied to two types of alloys (CuAlBe and NiTi) in the diagonals of a realistic steel portico (2.47 m x 4.10 m). The measurements establish that the used SMA reduces the oscillation amplitude to a less than a half.

  • Fatigue laboratory tests toward the design of SMA portico-braces

     Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Sara; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Marzi, A.; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Smart structures and systems
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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  • Effects on the histeresis in martensitic transformations

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem
    Congreso de Física Estadística
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Potential for energy saving in transitional spaces in commercial buildings  Open access

     Alonso Montolio, Carlos; Aguilar Sanchez, Alexis; Coch Roura, Helena; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    International Conference CleanTech for Sustainable Building
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    As it is known, the energy consumption of buildings is directly linked to their energy demand.Therefore, the most direct strategy to reduce the energy consumption of a building is to minimise its energy demand. This can be done in two ways. On the one hand, the energy demand can be reduced by minimising the size of some energy consuming spaces in the building. It can also be reduced by minimising the requirements of their comfort conditions. This second strategy is especially effective in transitional spaces, where the comfort requirements have wider limits than in normally occupied zones so energy savings are possible by allowing for a modest relaxation of the comfort standards. This paper reports on an analytical study into the energy-saving potential associated with modifications in thermal comfort limits in transitional spaces in commercial buildings. Such transitional spaces may not require the same high level and close control as more fully indoor or fully occupied areas, and thus a wider variation in conditions and interpretation of thermal comfort may be permitted. They also take up a significant fraction of the total volume of these kinds of buildings and give rise to significant energy use to provide comfort by means of heating or cooling systems. Initial trial calculations have been conducted using standardised commercial building layouts in order to determine the potential for energy savings. Commercial buildings have been chosen not only due to the extensive presence of this kind of building in almost all cities, but also because of the considerable percentage of transitional spaces that these buildings have in a standard floor plan. The relationship between these transition al spaces and the indoor areas will also be considered in this study. Estimates are made of the energy-saving potential based on different commercial buildings located in the climate of the Barcelona area in Spain.

    As it is known, the energy consumption of buildings is directly linked to their energy demand.Therefore, the most direct strategy to reduce the energy consumption of a building is to minimise its energy demand. This can be done in two ways. On the one hand, the energy demand can be reduced by minimising the size of some energy consuming spaces in the building. It can also be reduced by minimising the requirements of their comfort conditions. This second strategy is especially effective in transitional spaces, where the comfort requirements have wider limits than in normally occupied zones so energy savings are possible by allowing for a modest relaxation of the comfort standards. This paper reports on an analytical study into the energy-saving potential associated with modifications in thermal comfort limits in transitional spaces in commercial buildings. Such transitional spaces may not require the same high level and close control as more fully indoor or fully occupied areas, and thus a wider variation in conditions and interpretation of thermal comfort may be permitted. They also take up a significant fraction of the total volume of these kinds of buildings and give rise to significant energy use to provide comfort by means of heating or cooling systems. Initial trial calculations have been conducted using standardised commercial building layouts in order to determine the potential for energy savings. Commercial buildings have been chosen not only due to the extensive presence of this kind of building in almost all cities, but also because of the considerable percentage of transitional spaces that these buildings have in a standard floor plan. The relationship between these transition al spaces and the indoor areas will also be considered in this study. Estimates are made of the energy-saving potential based on different commercial buildings located in the climate of the Barcelona area in Spain.

  • SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: study of their application in a realistic steel portico

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Fabio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    Performance, Protection end Strengthtening of Structures under Extreme Loading
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The SMA was a tool for damping the induced oscillations in civil structures. Application to earthquake mitigation in family homes and to stayed cables for bridges

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Nanoindentation of NiTi-TiC thermal spray coatings

     Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Villa, Maria; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Dosta, Sergi; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Re-roofing the cities = Prevenir el cambio climático re-construyendo

     Muntane Raich, Oriol; Zamora i Mestre, Joan Lluís; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    European Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Architecture and Planning
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    SMA (cu-based, niti) for use in damping: the implications of reliability for long time applications and aging behavior  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    European and Exhibition Congress on Advanced Materials and Processes
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMA(NiTi): the coupling between time, temperature and cycling frequency

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    International Materials Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMA in mitigation of extreme loads in civil engineering: damping actions in stayed cables

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick; Dieng, Lamine
    Performance, Protection end Strengthtening of Structures under Extreme Loading
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The SMA, an effective damper in civil engineering that smoothes oscillations  Open access

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, Guillem
    Jornada de Recerca i Innovació a l'Escola de Camins
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The properties of SMA (Shape Memory Alloys, that are smart materials) are associated to a first order phase transition named martensitic transformation that occurs between metastable phases: austenite and martensite. At upper temperature or at lower stress the austenite is the metastable phase. The martensite appears at lower temperature or higher stresses. The hysteresis of the transformation permits different levels of applications, i.e., in their use as a damper. Two types of applications can be considered in damping of structures in Civil Engineering. The first one is related to diminishing the damage induced by earthquakes. The second one is a reduction of oscillation amplitude associate to an increase of the lifetime for the stayed cables in bridges.

  • Conceptos Físicos para modelizar la envolvente

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio
    Jornadas de Arquitectura Sostenible en Climas Cálidos y Certificación Energética
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Mechanical and nanoindentation behavior of NiTi and NiTi-TiC coatings obtained by thermal spray  Open access

     Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Villa, Maria; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    European and Exhibition Congress on Advanced Materials and Processes
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Nanoindentation behaviour of thermally sprayed NiTi films

     Villa, Maria; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Cinca Luis, Nuria; Fernandez Gonzalez, Javier; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    International Conference on Martensitic Transformations
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • SMA(NiTi): the coupling between time, temperature and cycling frequency

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    International Materials Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2011-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The main interest focuses in the necessary tools for accurate simulation of the damper behavior in their application. It¿s essential a well determined knowledge of the dissipated energy and of the hysteresis cycle shape for a correct simulation. The self-heating effects and the coupling between hysteresis and the relevant temperature effects associated to continuous cycling were studied. In particular, the experimental analysis concentrates in the action of cycling frequency on the hysteresis width and on the dissipated energy. The external and the self-heating temperature effects were studied. In particular, the convective actions of cooling in the conditioned air were visualized. The study of self-heating actions at extremely slow cycles, built by strain steps, shows minor latent heat dissipations in the entire sample. For trained samples, the temperature measurements establish that the transformation is ¿distributed¿ not ¿localized¿ in the complete sample.

  • Experimental study of damping in civil engineering structures using smart materials (NiTi - SMA): application to stayed cables for bridges

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Carreras, Guillem; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Soul, H.; Terriault, Patrick; Dieng, Lamine
    International review of mechanical engineering
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    Experimental study of damping in civil engineering structures was done using smart materials (NiTi SMA). The study is focused on the stayed cables for bridges. The cable oscillations are induced by wind, rain or traffic. The SMA and their solid-solid phase transformation permits effective damping via the hysteresis cycle and the conversion of mechanical work in heat. The analysis of SMA behavior needs to be strictly coherent with the requirements associated to the application. In particular, the high requirement on working cycles induced by a strong storm of 3 or 4 days, the temperature – stress dependence of the phase transformation (via Clausius-Clapeyron equation), the self-heating effects, the SMA creep and the eventual effects of aging (temperature and time) on the transformation temperatures (i.e., atomic order and/or other effects) were studied. The SMA was applied to mitigate the oscillations induced in realistic cables in ELSA (45 m length) with positive results, and in the LCPC facility (50 m length), always with equivalent simulation tests. The experimental examples suggest that the SMA permit an effective reduction of the oscillation amplitudes better than a half. The work is realized in the frame of SMARTeR, one S3T-ESF project their goal is the damping in stayed cables of bridges. For instance, the Iroise bridge in the highway between Brest and Plougastel, France, or eventually in the St. Nazaire bridge in the “Loire Atlantique” near Nantes or other bridges (i.e. the “Viaducs du Boulonnais” in the A16 highway, France).

  • Damping in civil engineering using SMA. Part I: particular properties of CuAlBe for damping of family houses

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Martorell Cid, Ferran; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Terriault, Patrick
    Canadian metallurgical quarterly
    Date of publication: 2010-05
    Journal article

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  • Experimental study of damping in civil engineering structures using smart materials (CuAlBe - SMA): an application to a steel portico

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Carreras, Guillem; Casciati, Fabio; Soul, H.
    International review of mechanical engineering
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    The target of the paper focuses in the required properties for successful behavior of the CuAlBe Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) in damping of steel structures under the action of earthquakes. The appropriate fracture – life, the long time of aging, the minor creep effects on cycling, the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and the self-heating effects are also, evaluated. Analysis via simulation using a proprietary model of the SMA behavior furnishes satisfactory results. Our main interest is focused in the experimental results produced by tests in one loaded steel portico (beam: HEB-120 of 4.10 m, pillars: HEB-100 of 2.47 m) free and with SMA dampers in the diagonals. The dampers are built with two trained wires of CuAlBe or two wires of NiTi. The experimental results without and with the dampers are, mainly analyzed using one excitation induced by a hydraulic device at 1 Hz. The portico is mounted over a chariot with wheels protected by supplementary reinforced walls to avoid “out-of-plane” oscillations.

  • La sensibilidad energética de los edificios  Open access

     Palme, Massimo
    Defense's date: 2010-03-26
    Department of Architectural Technology I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El propósito de esta Tesis Doctoral es evaluar la sensibilidad de los consumos energéticos de los edificios y de las condiciones de confort establecidas en su interior, frente a variaciones en los parámetros que intervienen en las dinámicas energéticas de intercambio que tienen lugar entre edificio y ambiente. La origen de la investigación es una interrogación sobre la importancia (sospechada) de las acciones de los usuarios sobre los consumos y sobre el mismo confort. La Tesis es constituida por cinco capítulos más una introducción, unas conclusiones, la bibliografía y los anexos. Los capítulos tratan en el orden: análisis del estado del arte, presentación de objetivos y metodología, descripción de los edificios evaluados, presentación de los resultados, discusión crítica de los resultados. La metodología elegida para el estudio es coherente con el análisis del estado del arte previo; a saber, actualmente se investigan las dinámicas energéticas de los edificios de tres maneras: evaluaciones teóricas, simulaciones por ordenador y monitorizaciones de edificios existentes. En esta Tesis se seleccionan cuatro edificios, representativos del entorno construido de la Comunidad de Cataluña dentro del Reino de España, y se les aplica en el orden: una evaluación básica teórica, cuatro procesos de simulación a través de cuatro diferentes simuladores, un análisis de sensibilidad de los resultados de las evaluaciones teóricas, y finalmente un análisis de sensibilidad comparativo de los procesos de simulación. De uno de los cuatro edificios también se presentan datos reales recogidos durante los años 2006 y 2007. Los proyectos y edificios estudiados son: el bloque de 14 viviendas para jóvenes de Les Franqueses del Valles (proyecto ejecutivo); el Centro de Naturaleza de Les Planes de Son (construido); la rehabilitación de la antigua Masía de Vallforners (proyecto de rehabilitación de edificio existente); el prototipo de escuela secundaria Protoceip (proyecto). La metodología de evaluación básica es la propuesta por R. Serra y A. Isalgué y utiliza ecuaciones de balance y variaciones discretas de las mismas. Los programas utilizados para las simulaciones dinámicas son Lider-Calener, Ecotect, Trnsys y Archisun. Todos los pasos descritos se centran en la evaluación del comportamiento térmico de los edificios, que resulta ser preponderante en magnitud de consumo sobre las demás formas de energía que intercambian edificio y ambiente. Los estudios de sensibilidad de las evaluaciones teóricas se conducen sobre los parámetros de las ecuaciones de balance utilizadas: el coeficiente de pérdidas por ventilación, el coeficiente de ganancias por radiación solar directa y el coeficiente de aportaciones en el interior del edificio. Los estudios de sensibilidad de las simulaciones se conducen sobre una selección racional de los numerosos parámetros que permite editar cada simulador, expuesta e justificada en la metodología. Los resultados muestran que un simulador (Archisun) y una tipología arquitectónica (Masía de Vallforners) resultan menos sensibles a las variaciones evaluadas. Por lo tanto, en la discusión y en las conclusiones se discuten la utilidad real de los simuladores y la filosofía que parece mejor utilizar en su desarrollo; también se discuten las diferencias evidentes entre tipologías arquitectónicas frente a la sensibilidad energética y se proponen los conceptos de robustez energética y de efusividad térmica global, como nuevas herramientas de calificación y certificación del correcto funcionamiento energético de los edificios. Finalmente, se discute sobre el concepto de confort en condiciones dinámicas, proponiendo futuras líneas de desarrollo e investigación.

    The general proposal of this PhD Thesis is the evaluation of the sensitivity of buildings in the energy consumption and comfort sensation, depending on variations in the parameters that appear in the energy interchange dynamics between building and environment. The origin is a question over the relevance (supposed) of the user's actions on the energy consumption and comfort sensation. The Thesis has five chapters, an introduction, some conclusions, the bibliography and the annexes. The chapters treat, on order, the following arguments: state of art, objectives and methodology definition, case studies description, results presentation, critical discussion of the results. Selected methodology for the study is coherent with the previous state of art analysis; nowadays, in fact, there are tree ways to investigate the energy dynamics of buildings: heuristic evaluation, dynamic simulation by software and constructed building monitoring. In this work we select four buildings, representative of the built environment of Catalan Community in the Spain Kingdom, and apply to its in order: a basic evaluation, four simulation processes with four different simulators, a sensitivity analysis of the evaluation results, and finally a comparative sensitivity analysis of the simulation results. In one case, results present real assessment during years 2006 and 2007 too. Projects and buildings studied are: the block of 14 flat for young people located in Les Franqueses del Valles (executive project); the Nature Centre of the Planes de Son (constructed); the retrofit of the old Masía of Vallforners (retrofit of existing building); the prototype of the secondary school Protoceip (project). The heuristic evaluation methodology is proposed by R. Serra and A. Isalgué and use steadystate equations and its discrete variations. The software used for the simulations are Lider-Calener, Ecotect, Trnsys and Archisun. All the described evaluations, simulations and sensitivity analysis focalise the thermal behaviour of buildings that appears to be more relevant respect to the others forms of energy interchanges between building and environment. The sensitivity studies of the evaluations are conducted over the parameters that appear in the equations: the loss ventilation coefficient, the direct solar radiation gain coefficient and the internal gain coefficient. The sensitivity studies of the simulations are conducted over a selection of parameters that the software permit to edit, presented and justified in the methodology. Results show that one software (Archisun) and one architectural typology (old Masía of Vallforners) have a lower sensitivity to the considered variations. For this, in the discussion and conclusions we discuss the real usability of the software and the philosophy that seems to be better to use in its development; at the other hand, we discuss the difference between architectural typologies under the energy sensitivity point of view and propose the concepts of robust design and global thermal effusive, as new strategies of qualification and certification of the correct building performance. Finally, we discuss the concept of comfort in dynamical conditions, opening future lines of investigation and development.

  • Metastable effects on martensitic transformation in SMA

     Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Lovey, Francisco Carlos; Sepúlveda Escribano, Antonio; Soul, H.
    Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry
    Date of publication: 2010-11
    Journal article

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  • Structure characterization and wear performance of NiTi thermal sprayed coatings

     Cinca Luis, Nuria; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, Josep Maria
    Smart materials and structures
    Date of publication: 2010-07-06
    Journal article

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  • Pseudoelastic fatigue of NiTi wires: frequency and size effects on damping capacity

     Soul, H.; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Yawny, A.; Torra Ferre, Vicenç; Lovey, Francisco Carlos
    Smart materials and structures
    Date of publication: 2010-06-24
    Journal article

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  • CAMBIO DE FORMA MEDIANTE UN ACTUADOR DE AMF (ALEACION CON MEMORIA DE FORMA): CONFIABILIDAD

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • The Possible impact of climatic change on the built environment : the importance of flexibility and energy robustness of the architecture

     Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael
    World Renewable Energy Congress
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Self-heating effects on the hysteresis width of SMA

     Auguet Sangra, Carlota Eugenia; Carreras, G.; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Torra Ferre, Vicenç
    Date of publication: 2010-04-05
    Book chapter

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