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  • Light consulting after design of experiments training: Lessons from a case study

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Quality and reliability engineering international
    Date of publication: 2014-04
    Journal article

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    We present a case study to show some positive and some problematic points regarding light consulting¿when none of the parts is fully committed¿on Design of Experiments (DOE). The situation is not unusual and frequently occurs after a DOE training course. In fact, the case used as an illustration occurred when advising a team of engineers from an aeronautical industrial company some months after giving them a 32-h DOE seminar. A key point is that, in spite of all the inconveniences and pitfalls, it may be a good alternative for the two parts, especially nowadays with all the internet facilities. The case study included in the paper serves as an excuse to give a set of recommendations on how to develop this light consulting approach the best possible way.

  • Reducción de la variabilidad mediante técnicas de control adaptativo de procesos

     Grima Cintas, Pedro; Puig Oriol, Xavier; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Dyna
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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    Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos mediante dos estrategias para eliminar fluctuaciones en el valor de una cota crítica en un componente del sistema de frenado del automóvil. Conseguir las prestaciones y los niveles de calidad requeridos en este producto exige una gran precisión en algunas cotas y, debido a las peculiaridades de su proceso de fabricación, esto solo se consigue realizando ajustes unidad a unidad. Estos ajustes se ejecutan de forma automática en función de las medidas exactas de los componentes pero se observan fluctuaciones en el valor de una de las cotas críticas. Como se desconocen las causas que provocan esas fluctuaciones se decidió abordar el problema desde un punto de vista estadístico, introduciendo en el algoritmo que regula los ajustes una nueva corrección en función de los valores que se van obteniendo. La primera estrategia es la más clásica y consiste en introducir ajustes en función de la diferencia entre la media móvil y el valor objetivo, la segunda consiste en introducir ajustes en función de la desviación de la última pieza fabricada respecto al valor objetivo. Tras definir una serie de parámetros para cada estrategia y de seleccionar sus valores óptimos se ha simulado el comportamiento de ambas con los valores de tres lotes representativos de la producción general. Las dos estrategias ofrecen buenos resultados, pero con la segunda son ligeramente mejores y es más fácil de implementar siendo esta la que se decidió incorporar.

  • An approach to disaggregating total household water consumption into major end-uses

     Fontdecaba Rigat, Sara; Sanchez Espigares, Jose Antonio; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Cabrespina, Francesc; Zubelzu, Jordi
    Water resources management
    Date of publication: 2013-01-27
    Journal article

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    The aim of this project is to assign domestic water consumption to different devices based on the information provided by the water meter. We monitored a sample of Barcelona and Murcia with flow switches that recorded when a particular device was in use. In addition, the water meter readings were recorded every 5 and 1 s, respectively, in Barcelona and Murcia. The initial work used Barcelona data, and the method was later verified and adjusted with the Murcia data. The proposed method employs an algorithm that characterizes the water consumption of each device, using Barcelona to establish the initial parameters which, afterwards, provide information for adjusting the parameters of each household studied. Once the parameters have been adjusted, the algorithm assigns the consumption to each device. The efficacy of the assignation process is summarized in terms of: sensitivity and specificity. The algorithm provides a correct identification rate of between 70 % and 80 %; sometimes even higher, depending on how well the chosen parameters reflect household consumption patterns. Considering the high variability of the patterns and the fact that use is characterized by only the aggregate consumption that the water meter provides, the results are quite satisfactory.

  • An efficient iterated local search algorithm for the total tardiness blocking flow shop problem

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    International Journal of Production Research
    Date of publication: 2013-04-27
    Journal article

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    This paper deals with the blocking flow shop problem and proposes an Iterated Local Search (ILS) procedure combined with a variable neighbourhood search (VNS) for the total tardiness minimisation. The proposed ILS makes use of a NEHbased procedure to generate the initial solution, and uses a local search to intensify the exploration that combines the insertion and swap neighbourhood and uses a perturbation mechanism consisting of three neighbourhood operators to diversify the search. The computational evaluation has shown the effectiveness of combining the insertion and swap neighbourhood during the search despite the insertion neighbourhood being more effective than the swap neighbourhood for this problem. Finally, the computation of this algorithm when evaluated against two other algorithms from the literature shows good performance.

    This paper deals with the blocking flow shop problem and proposes an Iterated Local Search (ILS) procedure combined with a variable neighbourhood search (VNS) for the total tardiness minimisation. The proposed ILS makes use of a NEH-based procedure to generate the initial solution, and uses a local search to intensify the exploration that combines the insertion and swap neighbourhood and uses a perturbation mechanism consisting of three neighbourhood operators to diversify the search. The computational evaluation has shown the effectiveness of combining the insertion and swap neighbourhood during the search despite the insertion neighbourhood being more effective than the swap neighbourhood for this problem. Finally, the computation of this algorithm when evaluated against two other algorithms from the literature shows good performance.

  • A competitive variable neighbourhood search algorithm for the blocking flow shop problem

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    European journal of industrial engineering
    Date of publication: 2013-12-23
    Journal article

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  • The level of adoption of analytical tools

     Barahona Torres, Jesus Igor Heberto
    Defense's date: 2013-07-26
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Improving an Electron Beam Soldering Process by Design of Experiments

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Sarachaga, Miguel
    European Network for Business and Industrial Statistics
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    PRESTON: Juego competitivo online para el aprendizaje de la estadística  Open access

     Camps Lorente, Oriol; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes; Sanchez Espigares, Jose Antonio; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Puig Oriol, Xavier; Riba Civil, Alexandre
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Presentamos un caso de rediseño de las prácticas de una asignatura de estadística. Tras realizar un diagnóstico del diseño previo (teniendo en cuenta la introducción del EEES), se propuso un juego competitivo on-line de toma de decisiones basada en la estadística. Éste utiliza datos simulados y una web en la que los estudiantes (1) adquieren datos consumiendo un presupuesto, (2) introducen las decisiones que toman, y (3) hacen el seguimiento de su posición en el juego. El formato on-line permite flexibilidad y posibilidades de auto-aprendizaje por parte de los estudiantes. El resultado final (PRESTON, PRácticas de ESTadística ON-line) ha sido ya probado con grupos de estudiantes.

  • ¿Porqué seis sigma triunfa donde otros programas fracasaron?

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro
    Congreso Six Sigma Day
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Statistical methods in Kansei engineering: a case of statistical engineering

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Quality and reliability engineering international
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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    Kansei engineering (KE) is a methodology used to incorporate emotions in products and services design. Its basic purpose is discovering in which way some properties of a product or a service convey certain emotions in its users. Data are typically collected using questionnaires. KE studies follow a model with three main steps: (i) defining the elicited emotions (semantic space); (ii) deciding on the factors that might affect the responses (space of properties); and (iii) modeling how each factor affects each response (synthesis phase). The procedure resembles that of an experimental design in an industrial context. However, practitioners of KE are hardly ever statisticians. Statistical techniques in KE are sometimes misused, and the discipline could benefit from a more extensive use of statistical methods. KE is thus a good area of application of statistical engineering: focusing not in advancement of statistics but on how current techniques can be best used in a new area. The aim of this paper is twofold: (i) to present the fundamentals of KE while giving an easy to understand example to illustrate the procedure; and (ii) to explain why KE is a good example of statistical engineering by proposing improvements that emanate from the adequate use of statistical techniques.

  • Experimentation order in factorial designs: new findings

     Correa Vila, Alejandro; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Journal of Applied Statistics
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • A Methodology to Model Water Demand based on the Identification of Homogenous Client Segments. Application to the City of Barcelona

     Fontdecaba Rigat, Sara; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes; Sanchez Espigares, Jose Antonio; Sole Vidal, Ignacio; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Demessence, Dominique; de Pablo, V.M.; Zubelzu, Jordi
    Water resources management
    Date of publication: 2012-01
    Journal article

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  • Decisions that Make Things Work Better. An Analysis of the Quality Concept.  Open access

     Camps Lorente, Oriol
    Defense's date: 2012-07-06
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The present thesis is aimed at analyzing the concept of quality and at dis-cussing, in a unified manner, its role not only in operations management but also in strategic thinking. It criticizes the widespread view that quality is meeting the client’s needs and expectations in such a way that the gap between perceptions and expectations is minimized. Essentially it develops a systematic proposal in order to understand the concept on the intui-tive basis that quality is tantamount to how well something works for a given purpose. The analysis is based on the fact that anytime that the quality concept is used there are actors that carry out an action with the help of a means—thus quality is a particular sort of means-ends fitness. Roughly speaking, the quality of a means is its capability to improve the expected conse-quences of the action. The analysis shows under which conditions this conclusion can be understood in terms of multi-attribute preference orderings under uncertainty—some ideas from decision theory, which are required in order to do that, are presented. In short, whether the expected consequences improve or not depends on an assumed preference ordering that has to be correct given the actors’ circumstances and purposes—but it may be distinct from the actual preferences of many individual actors. Quality is neither subjective (it does not change depending on the psychological processes of any particular individual) nor objective (in a sense, it depends on action and cognition), but it is relative to a given set of reference preferences. Some conditions apply to what it counts as a means, how it relates to an end, which attributes are relevant to assess consequences, or which reference preferences are well-formed. In particular, I discuss to which kind of means the concept is properly applied. As a complement, a basic model of means-ends relationships (built on several properties of Boolean functions) is presented. At a slightly more technical level, it shows relevant insights, but strictly speaking it is not required in order to understand the rest of the thesis. Quality appears in management under two interrelated forms: (a) or-ganizations’ interventions in the quality of what they use and provide and (b) organizations’ initiatives to compete through quality. (a) The basic structure behind quality management is examined under the lens of the quality concept’s analysis. The following issues are dis-cussed: setting quality criteria, product design, process design, onsite planning, onsite control, standardization, product improvement, process improvement and rethinking reference preferences. (b) The role of quality on competitive advantage and sustainable profit-ability depends on how quality relates to entry barriers. I show different ways in which quality can interact (if it does) with product differentiation, experience effects, scope economies, reputation, capital requirements, access to distribution channels, switching costs, legal barriers or scale economies. The strength of quality as a driver of profitability is dis-cussed—the conclusion is that it is not easy to build sustainable competitive advantages on the basis of quality alone and that its complementary role in competition has several aspects that are needed to be taken into account. Finally, the particular example of how the quality concept works in re-lation to information flows is treated in some detail. Information flows are processes that move information from the firm’s inner or outer environ-ment to actions. Decisive factors of its quality (basically, information asymmetries and coherence) are discussed. Two actual case studies are presented. The example of information flows is aimed at showing the mo-tivation for a general analysis of the quality concept beyond sloganlike statements about clients, products, perceptions and expectations.

    La tesis tiene como objetivo analizar el concepto de calidad y discutir de forma unificada su papel tanto en la dirección de operaciones como en el pensamiento estratégico. El trabajo argumenta en contra de la opinión generalizada de que la calidad es satisfacer las necesidades y expectativas del cliente de tal manera que la diferencia entre percepciones y expectativas se reduzca. Se desarrolla una propuesta sistemática con el fin de entender el concepto sobre la base intuitiva de que la calidad se relaciona con lo bien que funcionan las cosas para un fin determinado. El análisis se basa en el hecho de que cualquier uso del concepto de calidad supone que hay actores que realizan una acción con la ayuda de un medio. En consecuencia, la calidad es un tipo particular de relación entre medios y fines. En términos generales, la calidad de un medio es su capacidad para mejorar las consecuencias esperadas de la acción. El análisis muestra cómo ésta conclusión puede entenderse en términos de preferencias multiatributo bajo condiciones de incertidumbre. Que las consecuencias sean mejores o no depende de suponer una relación de preferencias que debe ser correcta dados los propósitos y circunstancias de los actores, pero que puede ser distinta de las preferencias reales de muchos actores individuales. La calidad no es subjetiva (no cambia en función de los procesos psicológicos de un individuo en particular) ni objetiva (en cierto sentido, depende de la acción y la cognición), sino que es relativa a ciertas preferencias de referencia. En la tesis se estudia qué se considera un medio, cómo se relaciona con un fin, qué atributos son relevantes, cuándo las preferencias de referencia están bien formadas, y a qué tipo de medios tiene sentido aplicar el concepto. Como complemento, se presenta un modelo simple (construido a partir de propiedades de las funciones booleanas) sobre relaciones medios-fines. El concepto de calidad aparece en la gestión bajo dos formas interrelacionadas: (a) las actividades de las organizaciones para intervenir en la calidad de lo que utilizan y proporcionan, y (b) las iniciativas para competir a través de la calidad. (a) Las actividades básicas de la gestión de la calidad se examinan bajo la perspectiva del análisis del concepto: definición de criterios de calidad, diseño de productos, diseño de procesos, planificación operativa, control, estandarización, mejora del producto, mejora de procesos, y redefinición de las preferencias de referencia. (b) El papel de la calidad en la rentabilidad y la ventaja competitiva sostenibles depende de cómo la calidad se relaciona con las barreras de entrada. El trabajo trata diferentes formas en que la calidad puede interactuar con la diferenciación del producto, los efectos de aprendizaje, las economías de alcance, la reputación, los requisitos de capital, el acceso a canales de distribución, los efectos red, las barreras legales o las economías de escala. Se argumenta que no es fácil de construir ventajas competitivas sostenibles solamente sobre la base de la calidad; su papel complementario en otras estrategias competitivas tiene varios aspectos a considerar. Por último, se trata el ejemplo concreto de la calidad de los flujos de información (procesos que mueven información desde el entorno hasta las decisiones para modificarlo). Se estudian, y se ilustran mediante dos casos reales, los factores decisivos de su calidad: la coherencia y las asimetrías en la información. El ejemplo de la información tiene por objetivo mostrar la necesidad de un análisis del concepto de calidad más allá de exhortaciones sobre clientes, productos, percepciones y expectativas.

    L’objectiu de la tesi és analitzar el concepte de qualitat i discutir de forma unificada el seu paper tant en la direcció d'operacions com en el pensament estratègic. El treball argumenta en contra de l'opinió generalitzada de que la qualitat consisteix en satisfer les necessitats i expectatives del client de manera que la diferència entre percepcions i expectatives es redueixi. Es desenvolupa una proposta sistemàtica per tal d'entendre el concepte sobre la base intuïtiva de que la qualitat es relaciona amb com de bé funcionen les coses per una finalitat determinada. L'anàlisi es basa en el fet que qualsevol ús del concepte de qualitat suposa que hi ha actors que realitzen una acció amb l'ajuda d'un mitjà. En conseqüència, la qualitat és un tipus particular de relació entre mitjans i fins. En termes generals, la qualitat d'un mitjà és la seva capacitat per millorar les conseqüències esperades de l'acció. L'anàlisi mostra com aquesta conclusió es pot entendre en termes de preferències multiatribut sota condicions d'incertesa. Que les conseqüències siguin millors o no depèn de suposar una relació de preferències que ha de ser correcta donats els propòsits i circumstàncies dels actors, però que pot ser diferent de les preferències reals de molts actors individuals. La qualitat no és subjectiva (no canvia en funció dels processos psicològics d'un individu en particular) ni objectiva (en certa manera, depèn de l'acció i la cognició), sinó que és relativa a certes preferències de referència. En la tesi s'estudia què es considera un mitjà, com es relaciona amb un fi, quins atributs són rellevants, quan les preferències de referència estan ben formades, i a quin tipus de mitjans té sentit aplicar el concepte. Com a complement, es presenta un model simple (construït a partir de propietats de les funcions booleanes) sobre les relacions entre mitjans i fins. El concepte de qualitat apareix en la gestió sota dues formes interrelacionades: (a) les activitats de les organitzacions per intervenir en la qualitat d’allò que fan servir i proporcionen, i (b) les iniciatives per competir a través de la qualitat. (a) Les activitats bàsiques de la gestió de la qualitat s'examinen sota la perspectiva de l'anàlisi del concepte: definició de criteris de qualitat, disseny de productes, disseny de processos, planificació operativa, control, estandardització, millora del producte, millora de processos , i redefinició de les preferències de referència. (b) El paper de la qualitat en la rendibilitat i l'avantatge competitiu sostenibles depèn de com la qualitat es relaciona amb les barreres d'entrada. El treball tracta diferents formes en les que la qualitat pot interactuar amb la diferenciació del producte, els efectes d'aprenentatge, les economies d'abast, la reputació, els requisits de capital, l'accés a canals de distribució, els efectes xarxa, les barreres legals o les economies d'escala. S'argumenta que no és fàcil construir avantatges competitius sostenibles només sobre la base de la qualitat; el seu paper complementari en altres estratègies competitives té diversos aspectes a considerar. Finalment, es tracta l'exemple concret de la qualitat dels fluxos d'informació (processos que mouen informació des de l'entorn fins a les decisions per modificar). S'estudien, i s'il•lustren mitjançant dos casos reals, els factors decisius de la seva qualitat: la coherència i les asimetries en la informació. L'exemple de la informació té per objectiu mostrar la necessitat d'una anàlisi del concepte de qualitat més enllà d’exhortacions sobre clients, productes, percepcions i expectatives.

  • Industrial statistics with minitab

     Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Date of publication: 2012-10
    Book

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    An efficient hybrid iterated local search algorithm for the total tardiness blocking flow shop problem  Open access

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Date: 2012-09-04
    Report

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    This paper deals with the blocking flow shop problem and proposes an Iterated Local Search (ILS) procedure combined with a variable neighbourhood search (VNS) for the total tardiness minimization. The proposed ILS makes use of a NEH-based procedure to generate the initial solution, uses a local search to intensify the exploration which combines the insertion and swap neighbourhood and uses a perturbation mechanism that applies, d times, three neighbourhood operators to the current solution to diversify the search. The computational evaluation has shown that the insertion neighbourhood is more effective than the swap one, but it also has shown that the combination of both is a good strategy to improve the obtained solutions. Finally, the comparison of the ILS with an Iterated greedy algorithm and with a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure has revealed its good performance.

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    Hybrid metaheuristics for the tardines blocking flow shop problem  Open access

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Date: 2012-09-04
    Report

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    This paper proposes an Iterated Local Search (ILS) procedure and an Iterated Greedy (IG) algorithm, which are both combined with a variable neighbourhood search (VNS), for dealing with the flow shop problem with blocking, in order to minimize the total tardiness of jobs. The structure of both algorithms is very similar, but they differ in the way that the search is diversified in the space of solutions. In the ILS algorithm, the diversification is performed by a perturbation mechanism that takes into account some characteristics of the problem; whereas the perturbation in the IG is performed through a deconstruction and construction phase proposed in the literature that has been proven to be very effective in dealing also with the makespan criterion. Moreover, the algorithms have been tested with three initial solution procedures. The computation of these algorithms when evaluated against an algorithm from the literature has shown their good performance.

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    Statistical methods in kansei engineering: a case of statistical engineering  Open access

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    ENBIS Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Kansei Engineering (KE) is a technique used to incorporate emotions in the product design process. Its basic purpose is discovering in which way some properties of a product convey certain emotions in its users. It is a quantitative method, and data is typically collected using questionnaires. Japanese researcher Mitsuo Nagamachi is the founder of Kansei Engineering. Products where KE has been successfully applied include cars, phones, packaging, house appliances, clothes or websites, among others. Kansei Engineering studies typically follow a model with three main steps: (1) spanning the semantic space: defining the responses, those emotions that will be studied; (2) spanning the space of properties: deciding on the technical properties of the products that can be freely changed and that might affect the responses (factors in a factorial design) and (3) the synthesis phase, where both spaces are linked (that is, how each factor affects each response is discovered). The procedure resembles that of an experimental design in an industrial context. However, practitioners of KE are hardly ever statisticians. Many well-known statistical methods are commonly used in KE, such as principal component analysis and regression analysis, but the techniques are sometimes misused. Furthermore, the discipline could benefit from a more extensive use of statistical methods (some of them of higher complexity, but easily implemented with existing statistical software). Statistics is thus essential in Kansei Engineering. But if statisticians do not enter into this arena, others will do, as there is a real need and interest in the topic. Kansei Engineering is a good area of application of what Roger W. Hoerl and Ron Snee call statistical engineering: focusing not in advancement of statistics – developing new techniques, fine tuning existing ones – but on how current techniques can be best used in a new area. The aim of this paper is presenting the fundamentals of Kansei Engineering while giving a practical example of statistical engineering in a promising field.

  • Selecting control factor values in a robust design using a scatter plot

     Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Quality and reliability engineering international
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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  • Comparison of normal probability plots and dot plots in judging the significance of effects in two level factorial designs

     de León Adams, Guillermo; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Journal of Applied Statistics
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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  • Statistical Methods in Kansei Engineering Studies  Open access

     Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Defense's date: 2011-12-15
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Aquesta tesi doctoral tracta sobre Enginyeria Kansei (EK), una tècnica per traslladar emocions transmeses per productes en paràmetres tècnics, i sobre mètodes estadístics que poden beneficiar la disciplina. El propòsit bàsic de l'EK és descobrir de quina manera algunes propietats d'un producte transmeten certes emocions als seus usuaris. És un mètode quantitatiu, i les dades es recullen típicament fent servir qüestionaris. S'extreuen conclusions en analitzar les dades recollides, normalment usant algun tipus d'anàlisi de regressió. L'EK es pot situar en l'àrea de recerca del disseny emocional. La tesi comença justificant la importància del disseny emocional. Com que el rang de tècniques usades sota el nom d'EK és extens i no massa clar, la tesi proposa una definició d'EK que serveix per delimitar el seu abast. A continuació, es suggereix un model per desenvolupar estudis d'EK. El model inclou el desenvolupament de l'espai semàntic – el rang d'emocions que el producte pot transmetre – i l'espai de propietats – les variables tècniques que es poden modificar en la fase de disseny. Després de la recollida de dades, l'etapa de síntesi enllaça ambdós espais (descobreix com diferents propietats del producte transmeten certes emocions). Cada pas del model s'explica detalladament usant un estudi d'EK realitzat per aquesta tesi: l'experiment dels sucs de fruites. El model inicial es va millorant progressivament durant la tesi i les dades de l'experiment es van reanalitzant usant noves propostes.Moltes inquietuds pràctiques apareixen quan s'estudia el model per a estudis d'EK esmentat anteriorment (entre d'altres, quants participants són necessaris i com es desenvolupa la sessió de recollida de dades). S'ha realitzat una extensa revisió bibliogràfica amb l'objectiu de respondre aquestes i altres preguntes. Es descriuen també les aplicacions d'EK més habituals, juntament amb comentaris sobre idees particularment interessants de diferents articles. La revisió bibliogràfica serveix també per llistar quines són les eines més comunament utilitzades en la fase de síntesi.La part central de la tesi se centra precisament en les eines per a la fase de síntesi. Eines estadístiques com la teoria de quantificació tipus I o la regressió logística ordinal s'estudien amb detall, i es proposen diverses millores. En particular, es proposa una nova forma gràfica de representar els resultats d'una regressió logística ordinal. S'introdueix una tècnica d'aprenentatge automàtic, els conjunts difusos (rough sets), i s'inclou una discussió sobre la seva idoneïtat per a estudis d'EK. S'usen conjunts de dades simulades per avaluar el comportament de les eines estadístiques suggerides, la qual cosa dóna peu a proposar algunes recomanacions.Independentment de les eines d'anàlisi utilitzades en la fase de síntesi, les conclusions seran probablement errònies quan la matriu del disseny no és adequada. Es proposa un mètode per avaluar la idoneïtat de matrius de disseny basat en l'ús de dos nous indicadors: un índex d'ortogonalitat i un índex de confusió. S'estudia l'habitualment oblidat rol de les interaccions en els estudis d'EK i es proposa un mètode per incloure una interacció, juntament amb una forma gràfica de representar-la. Finalment, l'última part de la tesi es dedica a l'escassament tractat tema de la variabilitat en els estudis d'EK. Es proposen un mètode (basat en l'anàlisi clúster) per segmentar els participants segons les seves respostes emocionals i una forma d'ordenar els participants segons la seva coherència en valorar els productes (usant un coeficient de correlació intraclasse). Com que molts usuaris d'EK no són especialistes en la interpretació de sortides numèriques, s'inclouen representacions visuals per a aquests dos nous mètodes que faciliten el processament de les conclusions.

    Esta tesis doctoral trata sobre Ingeniería Kansei (IK), una técnica para trasladar emociones transmitidas por productos en parámetros técnicos, y sobre métodos estadísticos que pueden beneficiar la disciplina. El propósito básico de la IK es descubrir de qué manera algunas propiedades de un producto transmiten ciertas emociones a sus usuarios. Es un método cuantitativo, y los datos se recogen típicamente usando cuestionarios. Se extraen conclusiones al analizar los datos recogidos, normalmente usando algún tipo de análisis de regresión.La IK se puede situar en el área de investigación del diseño emocional. La tesis empieza justificando la importancia del diseño emocional. Como que el rango de técnicas usadas bajo el nombre de IK es extenso y no demasiado claro, la tesis propone una definición de IK que sirve para delimitar su alcance. A continuación, se sugiere un modelo para desarrollar estudios de IK. El modelo incluye el desarrollo del espacio semántico – el rango de emociones que el producto puede transmitir – y el espacio de propiedades – las variables técnicas que se pueden modificar en la fase de diseño. Después de la recogida de datos, la etapa de síntesis enlaza ambos espacios (descubre cómo distintas propiedades del producto transmiten ciertas emociones). Cada paso del modelo se explica detalladamente usando un estudio de IK realizado para esta tesis: el experimento de los zumos de frutas. El modelo inicial se va mejorando progresivamente durante la tesis y los datos del experimento se reanalizan usando nuevas propuestas. Muchas inquietudes prácticas aparecen cuando se estudia el modelo para estudios de IK mencionado anteriormente (entre otras, cuántos participantes son necesarios y cómo se desarrolla la sesión de recogida de datos). Se ha realizado una extensa revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de responder éstas y otras preguntas. Se describen también las aplicaciones de IK más habituales, junto con comentarios sobre ideas particularmente interesantes de distintos artículos. La revisión bibliográfica sirve también para listar cuáles son las herramientas más comúnmente utilizadas en la fase de síntesis. La parte central de la tesis se centra precisamente en las herramientas para la fase de síntesis. Herramientas estadísticas como la teoría de cuantificación tipo I o la regresión logística ordinal se estudian con detalle, y se proponen varias mejoras. En particular, se propone una nueva forma gráfica de representar los resultados de una regresión logística ordinal. Se introduce una técnica de aprendizaje automático, los conjuntos difusos (rough sets), y se incluye una discusión sobre su idoneidad para estudios de IK. Se usan conjuntos de datos simulados para evaluar el comportamiento de las herramientas estadísticas sugeridas, lo que da pie a proponer algunas recomendaciones. Independientemente de las herramientas de análisis utilizadas en la fase de síntesis, las conclusiones serán probablemente erróneas cuando la matriz del diseño no es adecuada. Se propone un método para evaluar la idoneidad de matrices de diseño basado en el uso de dos nuevos indicadores: un índice de ortogonalidad y un índice de confusión. Se estudia el habitualmente olvidado rol de las interacciones en los estudios de IK y se propone un método para incluir una interacción, juntamente con una forma gráfica de representarla. Finalmente, la última parte de la tesis se dedica al escasamente tratado tema de la variabilidad en los estudios de IK. Se proponen un método (basado en el análisis clúster) para segmentar los participantes según sus respuestas emocionales y una forma de ordenar los participantes según su coherencia al valorar los productos (usando un coeficiente de correlación intraclase). Puesto que muchos usuarios de IK no son especialistas en la interpretación de salidas numéricas, se incluyen representaciones visuales para estos dos nuevos métodos que facilitan el procesamiento de las conclusiones.

    This PhD thesis deals with Kansei Engineering (KE), a technique for translating emotions elicited by products into technical parameters, and statistical methods that can benefit the discipline. The basic purpose of KE is discovering in which way some properties of a product convey certain emotions in its users. It is a quantitative method, and data are typically collected using questionnaires. Conclusions are reached when analyzing the collected data, normally using some kind of regression analysis. Kansei Engineering can be placed under the more general area of research of emotional design. The thesis starts justifying the importance of emotional design. As the range of techniques used under the name of Kansei Engineering is rather vast and not very clear, the thesis develops a detailed definition of KE that serves the purpose of delimiting its scope. A model for conducting KE studies is then suggested. The model includes spanning the semantic space – the whole range of emotions the product can elicit – and the space of properties – the technical variables that can be modified in the design phase. After the data collection, the synthesis phase links both spaces; that is, discovers how several properties of the product elicit certain emotions. Each step of the model is explained in detail using a KE study specially performed for this thesis: the fruit juice experiment. The initial model is progressively improved during the thesis and data from the experiment are reanalyzed using the new proposals. Many practical concerns arise when looking at the above mentioned model for KE studies (among many others, how many participants are used and how the data collection session is conducted). An extensive literature review is done with the aim of answering these and other questions. The most common applications of KE are also depicted, together with comments on particular interesting ideas from several papers. The literature review also serves to list which are the most common tools used in the synthesis phase. The central part of the thesis focuses precisely in tools for the synthesis phase. Statistical tools such as quantification theory type I and ordinal logistic regression are studied in detail, and several improvements are suggested. In particular, a new graphical way to represent results from an ordinal logistic regression is proposed. An automatic learning technique, rough sets, is introduced and a discussion is included on its adequacy for KE studies. Several sets of simulated data are used to assess the behavior of the suggested statistical techniques, leading to some useful recommendations. No matter the analysis tools used in the synthesis phase, conclusions are likely to be flawed when the design matrix is not appropriate. A method to evaluate the suitability of design matrices used in KE studies is proposed, based on the use of two new indicators: an orthogonality index and a confusion index. The commonly forgotten role of interactions in KE studies is studied and a method to include an interaction in KE studies is suggested, together with a way to represent it graphically. Finally, the untreated topic of variability in KE studies is tackled in the last part of the thesis. A method (based in cluster analysis) for finding segments among subjects according to their emotional responses and a way to rank subjects based on their coherence when rating products (using an intraclass correlation coefficient) are proposed. As many users of Kansei Engineering are not specialists in the interpretation of the numerical output from statistical techniques, visual representations for these two new proposals are included to aid understanding.

  • An iterated greedy algorithm for the flowshop scheduling problem with blocking

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Omega: the international journal of management science
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Management by facts: the common ground between total quality management and evidence-based management

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Total quality management and business excellence
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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  • Comparing three-step heuristics for the permutation flow shop problem

     Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Computers & operations research
    Date of publication: 2010-03-03
    Journal article

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    In this paper a three steps heuristic for the permutation flow shop problem is proposed. The objective is to minimize the maximum time for completing the jobs, or the makespan. The first two steps are inspired by the NEH heuristic, to which a new tie breaking strategy has been incorporated in the insertion phase. Furthermore, the reversibility property of the problem dealt with is taken as a tool for improving the obtained solution. The third step consists of an iterated local search procedure with an embedded local search which is a variant of the non exhaustive descent algorithm. The statistical analysis of the results shows the effectiveness of the proposed procedures.

  • Medida de la información en un experimento de la familia exponencial

     Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes
    Defense's date: 2010-06-25
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Estadística con Minitab

     Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Date of publication: 2010
    Book

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  • Factories del futur pel sector manufacturer a Catalunya (manucat)

     Casado Lopez, Ramon; Rodriguez Sendra, Rosa Maria; Buj Corral, Irene; Gomà Ayats, Joan Ramon; Fenollosa Artes, Felip; Napoles Alberro, Amelia Emelina; Martinez Miralles, Jordi Ramon; Fruitos Bickham, Oscar Alejandro; Travieso Rodríguez, José Antonio; Maspoch Ruldua, Maria Lluïsa; Martinez Velasco, Antonio Benito; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Vivancos Calvet, Joan; Roure Fernandez, Francisco; Puigjaner Corbella, Luis; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Thomas Arroyo, Federico; Pastor Artigues, M. Magdalena; Minguella Canela, Joaquim
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Experimentation order with good properties for 2k factorial designs

     Correa, AA; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Journal of Applied Statistics
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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  • Elaboració de material docent per a assignatures d'estadística industrial

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Sanchez Espigares, Jose Antonio; Sole Vidal, Ignacio; Valls Colom, Moises; Fontdecaba Rigat, Sara; Corredoira González, Laura; Clot Razquin, Guillem
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2009-02-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Comparación de dos estrategias para eliminar fluctuaciones en la media de un proceso

     Grima Cintas, Pedro; Puig Oriol, Xavier; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Source of Confusion

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Six Sigma Forum Magazine
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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  • Análisis de valoraciones atípicas en los estudios de ingeniería Kansei: Consideraciones estadística y prácticas

     Alvarez Laverde, Hector Rene
    Defense's date: 2009-11-27
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Anàlisi de dades discretes: freqüència de freqüències i dades multinomials

     Puig Oriol, Xavier
    Defense's date: 2009-12-18
    Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Continous process improvement in Spanish local government: conclusions and recommendations

     Suárez Barraza, Manuel F.; Ramis Pujol, Joan; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    International journal of quality and service sciences
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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  • Mejorar los resultados económicos de la empresa a través de 6 Sigma

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Calidad
    Date of publication: 2008-12
    Journal article

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  • A Methodology for the Detection of Segments of Clients with Homogenous Water Consumption Habits. Application to the City of Barcelona

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Fontdecaba Rigat, Sara; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Martínez de Pablo, Víctor; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes; Sanchez Espigares, Jose Antonio; Sole Vidal, Ignacio; Zubelzu, Jordi; Demessence, Dominique
    Eigth International ENBIS Conference
    Presentation's date: 2008-09-21
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  • Sustainable Improvement: Six Sigma - Lessons Learned after Five Years of Training and Consulting

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Date of publication: 2008-06
    Book chapter

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  • The statistical efficiency conjecture

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Kennet, Ron S; Frenne, Anne de
    Date of publication: 2008-04
    Book chapter

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  • EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Camps Lorente, Oriol; Grima Cintas, Pedro
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • WD0807 Validated Complete Methodology, User's Guide and Handbook

     Sole Vidal, Ignacio; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Fontdecaba Rigat, Sara; Marco Almagro, Lluis; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes
    Date: 2008-10
    Report

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  • Identifying dispersion effects in robust design experiments - Issues and improvements

     Pozueta Fernandez, Lourdes; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Journal of Applied Statistics
    Date of publication: 2007-06
    Journal article

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  • Fitting a Model for Predicting Remaining Lifetime in Pipes for a Water Supplying Company

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Rodero De Lamo, Lourdes; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Jordan, Lluís; Molina, Jordi; Ariño, Ramón
    Seventh International ENBIS Conference
    Presentation's date: 2007-09-26
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  • Dispersion Effects

     Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Marco Almagro, Lluis
    Date of publication: 2007-11
    Book chapter

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  • The Statistical Efficiency Conjecture

     Kenett, Ron; Frenne, A De; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; McCollin, C
    Seventh International ENBIS Conference
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Programación de operaciones multicriterio con máquinas paralelas, en varias etapas, sin interrupciones ni almacenajes

     Mateo Doll, Manuel; Salamero Salas, Antonio; Companys Pascual, Ramon; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Santos Lopez, M. Antonia de Los; Ribas Vila, Immaculada; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
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  • Methods for Linking the Semantic Space and the Space of Properties in Kansei Engineering: a Comparison

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; García Subirats, Irene; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    First European Conference on Affective Design and Kansei Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2007-06-19
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  • Selecting Significant Effects in Factorial Designs Taking Type II Errors into Account

     Guillermo, De León; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    Quality and reliability engineering international
    Date of publication: 2006-11
    Journal article

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  • A study on the profitability of improvement teams

     Robert Gadea, Antoni; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier
    International Congress on Innovative Solutions for the Advancement of the Transport Industry
    Presentation's date: 2006-10-03
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  • Lessons from Six Sigma. Implementation in Financial Services

     Marco Almagro, Lluis; Tort-Martorell Llabres, Javier; Grima Cintas, Pedro; Ballesteros, Juan M
    QMOD - 9th International Conference on Quality Management and Organizational Development: Creativity, Governance and Transformation; the Building Blocks for Excellence
    Presentation's date: 2006-08-10
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  • Calidad e Indicadores. Una aportación a la implementación de Sistemas de Indicadores.

     Heras Forcada, Angel
    Defense's date: 2005-09-29
    ESADE (Escuela Superior de Administración y Dirección de Empresas)
    Theses

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