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  • Global MPPT scheme for photovoltaic string inverters based on restricted voltage window search algorithm

     Boztepe, Mutlu; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Silvestre Berges, Santiago; Chouder, Aissa; Karatepe, Engin
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2014-07-01
    Journal article

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    String inverter photovoltaic (PV) systems with bypass diodes require improved global maximum power point tracking (GMPPT) algorithms to effectively reach the absolute maximum power operating point. Several GMPPT algorithms have been proposed to deal with this problem, but most of them require scanning wide voltage ranges of the PV array from nearly zero voltage to open-circuit voltage that increases the scanning time and, in turn, causes energy loss. This paper presents a novel GMPPT method which significantly restricts the voltage window search range and tracks the global power peak rapidly in all shading conditions. Simulation tests and experimental comparisons with another GMPPT algorithm are presented to highlight the features of the presented approach.

  • Energy-balance control of PV cascaded multilevel grid-connected inverters for phase-shifted and level-shifted pulse-width modulations

     Chavarria Roe, Javier; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Meza Benavides, Carlos; Negroni Vera, Juan José
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents an energy-balance control strategy for a cascaded single-phase grid-connected H-bridge multilevel inverter linking n independent photovoltaic (PV) arrays to the grid. The control scheme is based on an energy-sampled data model of the PV system and enables the design of a voltage loop linear discrete controller for each array, ensuring the stability of the system for the whole range of PV array operating conditions. The control design is adapted to phase-shifted and level-shifted carrier pulsewidth modulations to share the control action among the cascade-connected bridges in order to concurrently synthesize a multilevel waveform and to keep each of the PV arrays at its maximum power operating point. Experimental results carried out on a seven-level inverter are included to validate the proposed approach.

    This paper presents an energy-balance control strategy for a cascaded single-phase grid-connected H-bridge multilevel inverter linking n independent PV arrays to the grid. The control scheme is based on an energy-sampled data model of the PV system and enables the design of a voltage loop linear discrete controller for each array ensuring the stability of the system for the whole range of PV arrays operating conditions. The control design is adapted to Phase-Shifted and Level-Shifted Carrier PWM to share the control action among the cascadeconnected bridges in order to concurrently synthesize a multilevel waveform and to keep each of the PV arrays at its maximum power operating point. Experimental results carried out on a 7-level inverter are included to validate the proposed approach.

  • A study on multi-level PWM and asynchronous Sigma Delta modulations for enhanced bandlimited signal tracking in switching power amplifiers

     Garcia Tormo, Albert; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE transactions on circuits and systems I: regular papers
    Date of publication: 2013-06
    Journal article

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    This work deals with multi-level switching amplifiers, in the context of high-efficiency power amplification for signal tracking applications. In particular, this paper evaluates the reduction in the error signal's power due to multi-level power amplification (compared to conventional two-level amplifiers) and compares the performance of two multi-level pulse modulations: PWM and Asynchronous Modulation. First the intrinsic bandwidth limits of multi-level switching amplifiers are inferred, to clearly state the advantages and limitations of multi-level power amplification. From the existing analyses of Pulse Width Modulation already reported in the literature, PWM is herein extended to multiple levels based on an equivalent representation, which allows to derive a closed expression for the power spectrum of multi-level PWM in bandlimited signal tracking. The Asynchronous Modulation is extended to multiple levels and the resulting multi-level encoding algorithm is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. The performance of both modulations is characterized and compared at different operating frequencies and using different number of levels. The main outcomes of this in-depth characterization show that, if the switching frequency is high enough, the tracking error is independent of the modulation and the switching frequency, i.e., it only depends upon the number of levels, which points out the suitability of asynchronous modulations for relatively low switching frequencies (compared to the number of levels).

    This work deals with multi-level switching amplifiers, in the context of high-efficiency power amplification for signal tracking applications. In particular, this paper evaluates the reduction in the error signal's power due to multi-level power amplification (compared to conventional two-level amplifiers) and compares the performance of two multi-level pulse modulations: PWM and Asynchronous ${{Sigma}} {{Delta}}$ Modulation. First the intrinsic bandwidth limits of multi-level switching amplifiers are inferred, to clearly state the advantages and limitations of multi-level power amplification. From the existing analyses of Pulse Width Modulation already reported in the literature, PWM is herein extended to multiple levels based on an equivalent representation, which allows to derive a closed expression for the power spectrum of multi-level PWM in bandlimited signal tracking. The Asynchronous ${{Sigma}} {{Delta}}$ Modulation is extended to multiple levels and the resulting multi-level encoding algorithm is analyzed in both time and frequency domains. The performance of both modulations is characterized and compared at different operating frequencies and using different number of levels. The main outcomes of this in-depth characterization show that, if the switching frequency is high enough, the tracking error is independent of the modulation and the switching frequency, i.e., it only depends upon the number of levels, which points out the suitability of asynchronous modulations for relatively low switching frequencies (compared to the number of levels).

  • SiC Power JFET Electrothermal Macromodel

     Massana, Francisco; Chavarria Roe, Javier; Biel Sole, Domingo; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The Machreck Energy Development - Solar project MED-Solar

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert; Roman Lumbreras, Manuel; Vallvé, Xavier; Tarragó, J.; Bugatti, N.
    International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this communication is to introduce the project MED-Solar, acronym of Machrek Energy Development. This project is part of the new European Neighborhood Policy (ENP), policy that seeks to reinforce relations with neighboring countries to the east and south in order to promote prosperity, stability and security at its borders. The main objective of this project is the promotion and implementation of innovative technologies and know-how transfer in the field of solar energy, including that stemming from private sector, and that may be implemented in particular or public facilities through public procurement processes.

  • Introduction to the special section on smart devices for renewable energy systems

     Cecati, Carlo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Siano, Pierluig; Spagnuolo, Giovanni
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    The papers in this special section focus on the topics of smart devices and applications for renewable energy systems.

    The papers in this special section focus on the topics of smart devices and applications for renewable energy systems.

  • Power adaptor device for domestic DC microgrids based on commercial MPPT inverters

     Valderrama Blavi, H.; Bosque, J.M.; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Marroyo, L.; Martínez Salamero, Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a power adaptor device, referred to as smart panel device, allowing the connection of additional energy sources and storage elements to a domestic photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected system. The adaptor output port is designed to behave as a power source/sink, thus enabling its hot-swap parallel connection to renewable power sources without modifying their maximum power point (MPP). Moreover, the adaptor device features a power characteristic with a single controllable MPP and allows the control of the injected power within the operating range of the dc¿ac grid-connected inverter. The work presents the design principles of such device by describing the operation of a sliding- mode controlled quadratic-boost converter. The proper operation of the device is experimentally verified for several scenarios in a small PV-based microgrid system including a fuel-cell stack, a 1-kW three-phase wind turbine, a battery charger¿discharger, and commercial grid-connected PV inverters

    This paper presents a power adaptor device, referred to as smart panel device, allowing the connection of additional energy sources and storage elements to a domestic photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected system. The adaptor output port is designed to behave as a power source/sink, thus enabling its hot-swap parallel connection to renewable power sources without modifying their maximum power point (MPP). Moreover, the adaptor device features a power characteristic with a single controllable MPP and allows the control of the injected power within the operating range of the dc–ac grid-connected inverter. The work presents the design principles of such device by describing the operation of a sliding- mode controlled quadratic-boost converter. The proper operation of the device is experimentally verified for several scenarios in a small PV-based microgrid system including a fuel-cell stack, a 1-kW three-phase wind turbine, a battery charger–discharger, and commercial grid-connected PV inverters

  • El concepto de Smart Metering en el nuevo escenario de distribución eléctrica

     Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Electro noticias
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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  • 4H-SiC Integrated Circuits for High Temperature and Harsh Environment Applications  Open access

     Alexandru, Mihaela
    Defense's date: 2013-09-10
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Silicon Carbide (SiC) has received a special attention in the last decades thanks to its superior electrical, mechanical and chemical proprieties. SiC is mostly used for applications where Silicon is limited, becoming a proper material for both unipolar and bipolar power device able to work under high power, high frequency and high temperature conditions. Aside from the outstanding theoretical and practical advantages still to be proved in SiC devices, the need for more accurate models for the design and optimization of these devices, along with the development of integrated circuits (ICs) on SiC is indispensable for the further success of modern power electronics. The design and development of SiC ICs has become a necessity since the high temperature operation of ICs is expected to enable important improvements in aerospace, automotive, energy production and other industrial systems. Due to the last impressive progresses in the manufacturing of high quality SiC substrates, the possibility of developing ICs applications is now feasible. SiC unipolar transistors, such as JFETs and MESFETs show a promising potential for digital ICs operating at high temperature and in harsh environments. The reported ICs on SiC have been realized so far with either a small number of elements, or with a low integration density. Therefore, this work demonstrates that by means of our SiC MESFET technology, multi-stage digital ICs fabrication containing a large number of 4H-SiC devices is feasible, accomplishing some of the most important ICs requirements. The ultimate objective is the development of SiC digital building blocks by transferring the Si CMOS topologies, hence demonstrating that the ICs SiC technology can be an important competitor of the Si ICs technology especially in application fields in which high temperature, high switching speed and harsh environment operations are required. The study starts with the current normally-on SiC MESFET CNM complete analysis of an already fabricated MESFET. It continues with the modeling and fabrication of a new planar-MESFET structure together with new epitaxial resistors specially suited for high temperature and high integration density. A novel device isolation technique never used on SiC before is approached. A fabrication process flow with three metal levels fully compatible with the CMOS technology is defined. An exhaustive experimental characterization at room and high temperature (300ºC) and Spice parameter extractions for both structures are performed. In order to design digital ICs on SiC with the previously developed devices, the current available topologies for normally-on transistors are discussed. The circuits design using Spice modeling, the process technology, the fabrication and the testing of the 4H-SiC MESFET elementary logic gates library at high temperature and high frequencies are performed. The MESFET logic gates behavior up to 300ºC is analyzed. Finally, this library has allowed us implementing complex multi-stage logic circuits with three metal levels and a process flow fully compatible with a CMOS technology. This study demonstrates that the development of important SiC digital blocks by transferring CMOS topologies (such as Master Slave Data Flip-Flop and Data-Reset Flip-Flop) is successfully achieved. Hence, demonstrating that our 4H-SiC MESFET technology enables the fabrication of mixed signal ICs capable to operate at high temperature (300ºC) and high frequencies (300kHz). We consider this study an important step ahead regarding the future ICs developments on SiC. Finally, experimental irradiations were performed on W-Schotthy diodes and mesa-MESFET devices (with the same Schottky gate than the planar SiC MESFET) in order to study their radiation hardness stability. The good radiation endurance of SiC Schottky-gate devices is proven. It is expected that the new developed devices with the same W-Schottky gate, to have a similar behavior in radiation rich environments.

  • MACHREK ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

     Martínez García, Herminio; Pique Lopez, Robert; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Battery management fuzzy control for a grid-tied microgrid with renewable generation

     Arcos Aviles, Diego Gustavo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Barricarte, J.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchís, P; Valderrama Blavi, H.
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2012-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A fuzzy logic controller design for the battery management of a grid-tied real domestic microgrid including 6 kWp of PV and 6kW wind power renewable generators is presented. The fuzzy controller parameters design is undertaken on the basis of the minimization of a set of quality indices such as the battery dynamic range and the power variation range exchanged with the grid. The features of the proposed approach are highlighted with yearly real data by numerical simulations of the power profile injected into the grid and the battery state of charge.

  • Ripple-based prediction of fast-scale instabilities in current mode controlled switching converters

     Rodríguez Rodríguez, Enric; Martínez García, Herminio; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; El Aroudi, Abdelali; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A design-oriented optimization framework for envelope trackers: Application to a sliding-mode control buck converter for EDGE

     Marco Platón, Lázaro; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Maksimovic, Dragan; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose
    International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Mathematical model of total cross-tied photovoltaic arrays in mismatching conditions

     Ramos Paja, Carlos Andres; Bastidas, Juan David; Saavedra Montes, Andres Julian; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Goez, M.
    Colombian Workshop on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a mathematical procedure for modeling rectangular (N rows with M modules each) and non-rectangular photovoltaic (PV) arrays in Total Cross-Tied (TCT) configuration operating in uniform and mismatching conditions. The proposed model uses the simple single diode representation for each PV module; then each row of the TCT array is represented as an equivalent non-linear PV circuit with a bypass diode, which allows to represent the TCT array as one string of equivalent PV circuits. The inflection voltages (array voltages that turn off the bypass diodes) of the string are calculated in order to solve only the non-linear equation system related to the active equivalent PV circuits for calculating the array current for a given voltage. Such a strategy reduces the computational burden and improves calculation speed. A TCT array of 4×2 with deep mismatching conditions was implemented in PSIM software to validate the proposed model, obtaining a correlation between model predicted data and the circuital simulation. The accuracy and improved calculation speed of the proposed model allow its use altogether with reconfiguration techniques as well as to reduce the time of energetic evaluations of TCT arrays for PV planning.

  • Influencia de los parámetros de diseño de un inversor fotovoltaico en la estabilidad de una microred

     Rodríguez Villarreal, José Raúl; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El incremento de la generación de energía distribuida en la red eléctrica ha despertado inquietudes respecto a la estabilidad de la misma. Los generadores fotovoltaicos conectados a la red eléctrica tienen que lidiar con variaciones en el consumo y la generación en la red, esto puede afectar el desempeño y la estabilidad de los generadores y de la red. Este documento presenta el efecto de los par´ametros de un generador fotovoltaico y la relación generación/consumo en la estabilidad de una microred. Además, se ajusta la ganancia del controlador de corriente del generador en función del consumo con el fin mantener la estabilidad de la microred para diferentes escenarios de generación/consumo.

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    Banco de ensayos para la caracterización del rendimiento energético y del rendimiento del MPPT en convertidores fotovoltaicos  Open access

     Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Pique Lopez, Robert; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En este trabajo se presenta una propuesta de ensayo para caracterizar el comportamiento del algoritmo de seguimiento de punto de máxima potencia (MPPT: Maximum Power Point Tracking) programado en los convertidores fotovoltaicos (PV: Photo-Voltaic). Este ensayo también permite estimar el rendimiento energético de dichos convertidores. Para los ensayos propuestos se utiliza un simulador de generador fotovoltaico (SAS: Solar Array Simulator) junto con un equipo para la medida y registro de potencia instantánea. Los convertidores ensayados (DUT: Device Under Test) para verificar el banco de pruebas utilizado son: un inversor con inyección a red y un convertidor DC/DC para carga de baterías. Para la evaluación del sistema se han realizado dos tipos de ensayos, uno denominado estático, para evaluar las fluctuaciones del algoritmo MPPT alrededor del punto de máxima potencia (MPP: Maximum Power Point) del generador PV y otro ensayo, denominado dinámico, para evaluar el comportamiento del MPPT cuando se produce un cambio en el valor de los parámetros que determinan el MPP del generador PV. Finalmente se presentan los resultados obtenidos tras los ensayos realizados y se valora el comportamiento de los DUT.

  • Estudio e implementación de nuevas técnicas de modulación para la reducción de perturbaciones EMI en convertidores matriciales  Open access

     Espina Masramon, Jorge
    Defense's date: 2012-11-07
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El procesamiento de la energía mediante convertidores electrónicos conmutados ha tomado una relevancia notable durante la última década, y presumiblemente será uno de los campos de la ingeniería con mayor proyección industrial en el futuro. La evolución continua en el campo de la electrónica de potencia ha hecho posible la fabricación de convertidores conmutados cada vez más compactos, capaces de manejar valores de tensión y corriente mayores, conmutando a frecuencias más elevadas. Estas mejoras provocan, a su vez, la generación de perturbaciones electromagnéticas (EMI) fuera del rango permitido por la legislación vigente. Por otro lado, el diseño convertidores con nuevas topologías y una legislación cada vez más restrictiva en cuanto a emisiones EMI se refiere, hace imprescindible la elaboración de nuevas herramientas capaces de analizar los efectos que de las EMI generadas se puedan derivar. Uno de los convertidores de potencia emergentes y que actualmente está adquiriendo especial relevancia es el Convertidor Matricial (MC). El auge del interés por esta topología durante los últimos años ha sido motivado gracias a prestaciones como la conversión directa AC/AC, su gran densidad de potencia y la ausencia de grandes componentes reactivos para el almacenaje de energía. El trabajo que se presenta en este documento trata de dar cobertura al estudio y la reducción de las EMI generadas por los MC. Esta tesis doctoral se ha dividido en dos líneas de investigación: Estudio de las perturbaciones EMI producidas por los MC y prevención de efectos adversos producidos por dichas EMI. La primera línea de investigación ha tenido como objetivo principal el estudio de las EMIs generadas por los MC de topología directa. En dicho estudio se ha desarrollado un modelo EMI para poder predecir las perturbaciones conducidas generadas por dichos convertidores. Uno de los objetivos principales de dicho modelo es proporcionar aproximaciones suficientemente válidas en un tiempo reducido. La estrategia utilizada ha sido el cálculo de las perturbaciones conducidas clasificando estas en modo común (CM) y modo diferencial (DM). El método utilizado se basa en la extracción de circuitos de impedancias equivalentes que proporcionen una representación fidedigna de la generación y propagación de las perturbaciones sin necesidad de complejos sistemas de cálculo. La segunda línea de investigación ha tenido como objetivo reducir el número de descargas eléctricas que se producen en los cojinetes del motor, las cuales son una de las causas principales de la reducción de su vida útil. Estas descargas son debidas a los niveles de la tensión en modo común (CMV) y sus rápidas variaciones en el tiempo (dv/dt). Para reducir los niveles de la CMV se ha desarrollado una modulación basada en la tradicional Space Vector Modulation (SVM) donde se remplazan los vectores cero, utilizados convencionalmente, por vectores rotativos. Este intercambio de vectores ha demostrado que permite reducir de manera significativa la amplitud del CMV y con ello reducir la probabilidad en la aparición de descargas eléctricas en los cojinetes. Además, en el estudio se analiza la utilización de vectores activos de diferentes amplitudes con el objetivo de mejorar la modulación presentada cuando se utilizan índices de modulación pequeños.

    The energy processing using power converters has taken a remarkable importance in the last decade, and in the future it might become one of the engineering fields with greater projection. The continuous evolution in the field of power electronics has made possible to manufacture more compact switched converters, capable of managing higher voltage and currents levels switching at higher frequency. These improvements, however, lead to the generation of electromagnetic perturbations (EMI) which fail the electromagnetic regulations. On the other hand, the converter design using new layout topologies and a regulation law that is becoming more restrictive about EMI emissions makes essential to develop new tools capable to analyze the effects of the EMI generated. One of the emerging power converters which is currently acquiring special relevance is the matrix converter (MC). The rise of interest on this topology in recent years has been determined by different aspects, such as direct AC/AC conversion, its high power density and the absence of large reactive components for energy storage. The work presented in this document tries to cover the study and the reduction of EMI generated by the MC. This Phd thesis has divided in two research lines: The study of the EMI produced by MC and the prevention of the adverse effects produced by EMI. The first research line has mainly focused on the study of EMI generated by MC of direct topology. In this study, a model to predict the conducted EMI has been developed. One of the main objectives of this model is to deliver good approximation results in short time. The strategy used has been the conducted perturbation calculation using the classification of the EMI as common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM). The method used is based on extraction of the equivalent impedance circuit. This equivalent circuit provides a true representation of the generation and propagation of EMI without the need of complex mathematical methods. The second research line has mainly focused on the reduction of electric discharges which is produced inside of the motor bearings, which are the main cause of motor life time reduction. These electrical discharges are produced by the common mode voltage (CMV) levels and its fast time transitions (dv/dt). In order to reduce those levels, a new modulation based on the traditional Space Vector modulation (SVM) has been developed replacing the zero vectors, normally used, for the rotating ones. This vector exchange has shown a significant reduction of the CMV amplitude, and therefore the probability of electrical discharge appearing inside the motor drops considerably. Furthermore, the study analyzes the use of the active vectors with smaller amplitude to improve the modulation when small modulation index is used.

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    Análisis de la estabilidad de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a red mediante la respuesta frecuencial de la impedancia  Open access

     RODRIGUEZ VILLAREAL, José Raúl; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El incremento de la generación de energía distribuida en la red eléctrica ha despertado inquietudes respecto a la estabilidad de la misma. Los generadores fotovoltaicos conectados a la red eléctrica tienen que lidiar con variaciones en el consumo y la generación en la red, esto puede afectar el desempeño y la estabilidad de los generadores y de la red. Este documento presenta un método analítico que permite mantener la estabilidad de la red eléctrica ajustando los parámetros del sistema de control del generador basado en la respuesta frecuencial de la impedancia vista desde el punto de conexión.

  • A grounded-output 5-switch bipolar buck-boost converter topology for switching power amplifiers

     Garcia Tormo, Albert; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents a switching converter topology which can boost and step down the supply voltage and can deliver both positive and negative voltages to a grounded load (bipolar converter topology with non-floating output). This topology, which uses five switches to perform the power conversion, is mostly intended for switching amplifiers, especially for applications which require both boosting and inverting the supply voltage (to supply bipolar voltage signals), and/or EMI-sensitive applications. Using a single-stage switching amplifier based on this 5-switch topology, it is feasible to supply a grounded load with a symmetrical bipolar voltage signal whose magnitude extends up to several times the magnitude of the supply voltage.

  • Angle estimation using high frequency injection for sliding mode controlled permanent magnet synchronous machines drives

     Repecho Del Corral, Victor; Biel Sole, Domingo; Arias Pujol, Antoni; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    International Conference-Workshop on Compatibility and Power Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, high frequency injection (HF) technique for rotor position estimation using Sliding Mode Control (SMC) in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) is presented. The novelty of this paper is the fact that the SMC is used instead of the conventional Field Oriented Control (FOC) and therefore the injected HF test signals for tracking the machine’ saliency (difference between Ld and Lq) is naturally eliminated by the SMC. Such suppression is tackled when using the SMC and the position signals are calculated to properly estimate the permanent magnet (PM) position. Finally, some simulation results are presented, confirming the proper angle estimation at low speed reversal and load impact at zero speed.

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    Estimación de posición en un motor síncrono de imanes permanentes mediante técnicas de inyección de alta frecuencia con control deslizante  Open access

     Repecho Del Corral, Victor; Arias Pujol, Antoni; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En el presente documento, se muestra el estudio para la estimación de la posición del rotor de un Motor de Imanes Permanentes (PMSM), mediante inyección de señal de alta frecuencia (HF) bajo un control en modo deslizante (SMC). Las técnicas de inyección de alta frecuencia han sido utilizadas con éxito en sistemas de control de campo orientado (FOC), pero no dan buenos resultados en controles no lineales como el control directo de torque (DTC), por su mayor ancho de banda. Estas técnicas se basan en la medición indirecta de las inductancias de estátor, las cuales dependen del valor de la posición de rotor. En el presente estudio se muestra una técnica que permite utilizar técnicas de inyección bajo un control en modo deslizamiento. Para concluir se muestran simulaciones del sistema con los algoritmos de estimación propuestos, confirmando la utilidad del sistema propuesto.

  • Stability analysis of grid-connected PV systems based on impedance frequency response

     RODRIGUEZ VILLAREAL, José Raúl; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The increase of distributed generation on electric networks has raised the concern of grid stability, among other issues. The PV generators connected to the grid have to deal with varying consumption and generation scenarios, however, this may affect the performance and stability of the generators themselves, as well as the grid. This document presents an analytical stability method to maintain the grid stability by adjusting the generator control parameters based on the impedance frequency response measured at the point of connection.

  • Simulation-based criteria for the power sizing of grid-connected PV systems

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert; Roman Lumbreras, Manuel; Conesa Roca, Alfons
    International Review on Modelling and Simulations
    Date of publication: 2011-10-01
    Journal article

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  • SiC oxidation processing technology for MOSFET devices fabrication

     Constant, Aurore
    Defense's date: 2011-07-25
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Design-oriented model for predicting and controlling fast-scale instabilities in switching converters. Application to advanced power management integrated circuits

     Rodriguez Vilamitjana, Enric
    Defense's date: 2011-02-28
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Bandwidth extension techniques for high-efficiency power amplifiers  Open access

     Garcia Tormo, Albert
    Defense's date: 2011-04-14
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Aquesta tesi tracta sobre amplificació de potència d'alt rendiment de senyals variables en el temps; concretament, tracta sobre conversió de potència eficient (amb mínimes pèrdues) de tensions DC continues en senyals de tensió no constants. Aquest tipus de conversió de potència està present en la majoria de dispositius electrònics d'ús quotidià, com ara telèfons mòbils i reproductors de música portàtils, així com també en dispositius d'alta potència com amplificadors d'àudio i estacions base de telefonia mòbil. Generalment l'energia està disponible en forma de tensió DC contínua (d'una bateria o d'una font d'alimentació). D'acord amb la informació a transmetre, aquesta energia s'ha de processar o transformar en un senyal variable en el temps de manera que, per exemple, es pugui convertir en àudio per un altaveu . La tendència de mercat és a reduir la mida i el pes dels dispositius electrònics i a oferir noves funcionalitats, incloent una llarga autonomia en dispositius alimentats per bateries. Millorar l'eficiència dels amplificadors de potència no només n'estendria l'autonomia, sinó que també permetria utilitzar dissipadors més petits i lleugers. Altres aplicacions com les d'alta potència o integrades també es beneficiarien de millores en l'eficiència dels amplificadors de potència. Els dispositius electrònics de processament de potència més eficients són els amplificadors commutats. Aquests utilitzen components reactius (bàsicament bobines i condensadors) per dur a terme un processament de potència idealment sense pèrdues, així com dispositius actius (transistors) controlats com interruptors (o bé tancats o bé oberts), per tal de controlar aquest procés. Tot i que es poden assolir eficiències molt altes amb amplificadors commutats, la precisió de seguiment pot no ser gaire bona. Es pot millorar la precisió de seguiment senzillament incrementant la freqüència de commutació (la freqüència a la qual es fan commutar els interruptors), tot i que, com que es requereix una certa quantitat d'energia per fer commutar cada interruptor (pèrdues de commutació), aquesta tècnica també deteriora l'eficiència de l'amplificador. Existeix doncs un comprimís entre la freqüència de commutació i la precisió de seguiment en els amplificadors commutats (compromís eficiència-distorsió). Els amplificadors commutats habitualment es dissenyen per treballar a una freqüència de commutació alta comparada amb l'amplada de banda que han de seguir. Mentre que amb aquesta estratègia de disseny (i tecnologia actual) es poden dissenyar amplificadors per seguir senyals de l'ordre de kHz, si s'aplica per seguir senyals de l'ordre de MHz, els amplificadors haurien de treballar a freqüències de commutació massa altes, inviables des del punt de vista de les pèrdues de commutació. Amb l'objectiu d'abordar el compromís entre distorsió i eficiència dels amplificadors commutats, aquesta tesi explora diferents tècniques per estendre l'amplada de banda relativa dels amplificadors commutats, és a dir, tècniques per reduir la relació entre la freqüència de commutació de l'amplificador i la seva amplada de banda de seguiment. Basant-se en una interpretació alternativa dels amplificadors commutats, com a procés de codificació i reconstrucció, les diferents tècniques d'extensió de banda que aquí s'exploren contemplen utilitzar modulacions alternatives, amplificació de potència multi-nivell, filtrat d'ordre elevat i polítiques de commutació millorades en els convertidors commutats. La caracterització de les prestacions en termes de freqüència de commutació, error de seguiment i robustesa davant no idealitats (incloent compatibilitat electromagnètica i acoblament entre canals) apunta la idoneïtat de l'amplificació de potència multi-nivell basada en moduladors asíncrons per dissenys que treballin a freqüències de commutació relativament baixes, és a dir, a freqüències de commutació comparables a l'amplada de banda del senyal a seguir i amplificar.

    This thesis is about power amplification of time-varying signals; more precisely, it is about efficient power conversion, i.e. with minimum losses, of DC constant voltages into non-constant voltage signals. This kind of power conversion is quite common in power-management circuits and electronics in general. It is present in most everyday use electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable audio players and routers, as well as in high-power devices such as audio amplifiers and wireless base stations. In most electronic devices, whether portable or not, the energy is available as DC constant voltage (typically from a battery or a power supply). According to the information to transmit, this energy must be processed or transformed into a time-varying analogue signal so that, for instance, it can be directly converted into audio by a speaker or radiated by an antenna. The market trend is to reduce the size and weight of electronic devices whilst offering new or enhanced functionalities, including long autonomy in battery-powered devices (mainly portable). Improving the efficiency of power amplifiers not only extends the autonomy, but also allows using smaller and lighter heatsinks. Other applications such as high-power or embedded would also benefit from efficiency improvements of switching amplifiers. The most efficient power-processing electronic devices are switching amplifiers. Switching amplifiers use reactive components (mainly inductors and capacitors) to perform an ideally lossless power processing, and active devices (transistors) driven as switches, either ON or OFF, to control this process. Whilst very high efficiencies can be achieved with switching amplifiers, their tracking fidelity may not be very high. The tracking fidelity can be improved by simply increasing the switching frequency (i.e. the frequency at which the active devices are driven), although, provided that a certain amount of energy is required to switch the state of each active device (switching losses), this technique also degrades the efficiency of the amplifiers. Therefore, there exists a trade-off between switching frequency and tracking fidelity in switching amplifiers (efficiency-distortion trade-off). Switching amplifiers are typically designed using a high switching frequency compared to the amplifier's tracking bandwidth. Whilst this design strategy leads to feasible designs for kHz-bandwidth applications (using state-of-the-art technology), when applied to MHz-bandwidth applications, it leads to designs operating at very high switching frequencies, unfeasible with regard to switching losses. With the scope of addressing the efficiency-distortion trade-off of switching amplifiers, this thesis explores different techniques to extend the relative bandwidth of switching amplifiers, i.e. techniques to reduce the ratio of the amplifier's switching frequency to the amplifier's tracking bandwidth. Based on an alternative interpretation of switching amplifiers, as an encoding-reconstruction process, the different bandwidth extension techniques consider using alternative modulations, multi-level power amplification, high-order filtering and enhanced switching policies in the switching converter. The performance characterisations in terms of switching frequency, tracking error and robustness against non-idealities (including electromagnetic compatibility and crosstalk) points out the suitability of multi-level power amplification based on asynchronous modulators for designs operating at relatively low switching frequencies, i.e. at switching frequencies in the same range than the bandwidth of the signal to track and power amplify.

  • Fundamental modulation limits for minimum switching frequency inband-error-free high-efficiency power amplifiers

     Garcia Tormo, Albert; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE transactions on circuits and systems I: regular papers
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • A ripple-based design-oriented approach for predicting fast-scale instability in DC¿DC switching power supplies

     Rodriguez Vilamitjana, Enric; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; El Aroudi, Abdelali
    IEEE transactions on circuits and systems I: regular papers
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a design-oriented analytical approach for predicting fast-scale instability in power electronics converters under voltage-mode control strategy. This approach is based on the use of the ripple amplitude of the feedback control voltage as an index for predicting subharmonic oscillations in these systems. First, the work revisits the stability analysis technique based on the nonlinear discrete-time model, demonstrating that the ripple amplitude can be included within the expression of the Jacobian matrix of this model, hence giving a mathematical support to extend the ripple index to more complex topologies. A simple but representative buck converter under voltage-mode control is used to illustrate the approach. Using the ripple-based index, closed-form expressions of stability boundaries are derived. Unlike other available results obtained from existing methods, the stability boundary, in this work is expressed analytically in terms of both power stage and controller design parameters. Moreover, one can determine how these parameters are involved in the closed form expressions and, furthermore, how each parameter affects the stability of the system. The approach is validated by numerical simulations from the state equations and also experimentally within a wide range of the design parameter space.

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    El concepto de Smart Metering en el nuevo escenario de distribución eléctrica  Open access

     Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La medición inteligente se ha convertido en un tema de la máxima actualidad y de importancia creciente; ya se aplica la normativa para su despliegue, se desarrollan proyectos piloto y han llegado al mercado nuevos dispositivos. En este trabajo se recogen propuestas y tendencias de los contadores actuales de energía eléctrica. El contador se representa como la interfaz entre el sistema del usuario, que es el consumidorproductor distribuido de energía, y la red eléctrica. A partir de esta relación y con la tecnología electrónica actual aparece el concepto denominado “smart metering”. El documento describe las funciones de los contadores de energía eléctrica desde el inicio, con el contador electromecánico hace 120 años, hasta los dispositivos actuales. Se incluyen las características genéricas de medida, las tecnologías de estos equipos y referencias normativas que utilizan estos sistemas de medida de energía eléctrica. Se concluye con las tendencias previsibles en un futuro inmediato.

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    Simulation and analysis of distributed PV generation in a LV network using MATLAB-Simulink  Open access

     RODRIGUEZ VILLAREAL, José Raúl; RUIZ ALLENDE, Felipe; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Power quality of electric networks with high penetration of photovoltaic systems has been analyzed in different publications. It has been noted that inverters may increase their harmonic emissions when connected to weak networks, this harmonics may affect other equipments connected to the network and decreasing their performance. This document shows the effects of connecting multiple photovoltaic generators in a network through simulations using MATLAB-Simulink SimPowerSystems.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Power sizing factor design of central inverter PV grid-connected systems: a simulation approach.  Open access

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Pique Lopez, Robert; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi
    International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a simulation approach which can help in the preliminary power sizing design of a gridconnected PV system based on a single inverter configuration. Given a nominal peak power of the PV array, this simulation procedure leads to the PV inverter maximum rated power which maximizes the yearly injected energy to the grid.

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    Bandwidth-Enhancement gm-C Filter with independent ¿o and Q Tuning Mechanisms in Both Topology and Control Loops  Open access

     Martínez García, Herminio; Vidal Lopez, Eva Maria; Cantó, Andrea; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper deals with the proposal of a new topology for a gm-C continuous time filter which allows the adjustment and tuning of its characteristic parameters (ωO and Q) in an independent way (without cross-tuning), thereby extending the Q range of the filter for a particular ωO value. Additionally a comparison of three different Q-tuning algorithms is presented. It is shown that an LMS-based Q-control strategy allows to overcome the intrinsic dependence between the Q and ωO tuning loops. The combination of both the proposed filter topology and the selected control loop algorithms results in an enhanced transient performance as well as an improvement in terms of cross-detuning.

  • Power sizing factor design of central inverter PV grid-connected systems: a simulation approach

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Pique Lopez, Robert; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi
    Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Multi-level asynchronous Sigma Delta modulators for wideband switching power amplifiers

     Garcia Tormo, Albert; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE Workshop on Computers in Power Electronics
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work extends the Asynchronous ΣΔ Modulator and its Adaptive version to multi-level modulators, targeting wideband high-efficiency switching power amplifiers. The performance of these modulators is compared with the multi-level Pulse Width Modulator, the most common modulator in multilevel switching power amplifiers. Behavioural model simulation results show that, unlike the multi-level PWM (which can only be used at high switching frequencies), the Asynchronous ΣΔ Modulators can also be used at average switching frequencies close to the signal bandwidth. At high switching frequencies, the performance of all the modulators is similar. The Asynchronous ΣΔ Modulators have further and more important advantages, such as high PSRR (even at the input signal frequency), the ability of handling non-regular distributed voltage levels, or a low ratio between the average switching frequency and the maximum instantaneous switching frequency.

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    Energy-balance and sliding mode control strategies of a cascade H-bridge multilevel converter for grid-connected PV systems  Open access

     Negroni Vera, Juan Jose; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Meza Benavides, Carlos
    International Conference on Industrial Technology
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents the design of a sliding-mode based current controller for a Cascade Full Bridge Multilevel Inverter grid connected PV system. The design also includes a modulation strategy to share the control action among the cascade-connected bridges in order to concurrently synthesize a multilevel waveform and to keep each of the PVG at its maximum operating point. Experimental results are included to validate the proposed approach.

  • Energy Power sizing factor design of central inverter PV grid-connected systems: a simulation approach

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Pique Lopez, Robert; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi
    International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Takagi-sugeno fuzzy model to approximate mosfet capacitance for VRM applications

     López, Toni; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Poveda Lopez, Alberto
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Bandwidth-enhancement g(m)-C filter with independent omega(O) and Q tuning mechanisms in both topology and control loops

     Martínez García, Herminio; Vidal Lopez, Eva Maria; Cantó, Andrea; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper deals with the proposal of a new topology for a gm-C continuous time filter which allows the adjustment and tuning of its characteristic parameters (ωO and Q) in an independent way (without cross-tuning), thereby extending the Q range of the filter for a particular ωO value. Additionally a comparison of three different Q-tuning algorithms is presented. It is shown that an LMS-based Q-control strategy allows to overcome the intrinsic dependence between the Q and ωO tuning oops. The combination of both the proposed filter topology and the selected control loop algorithms results in an enhanced ransient performance as well as an improvement in terms of cross-detuning.

  • ARQUITECTURAS ELECTRONICAS DE POTENCIA PARA GENERACIÓN DISTRIBUIDA. ARQUITECTURA AC

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Pique Lopez, Robert; Casellas Beneyto, Francisco; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Electrical PV array reconfiguration strategy for energy extraction improvement in grid-connected PV systems  Open access

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert; Roman Lumbreras, Manuel; Alfonso, Conesa
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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    This paper applies a dynamical electrical array reconfiguration (EAR) strategy on the photovoltaic (PV) generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration, in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different. The EAR strategy is carried out by inserting a controllable switching matrix between the PV generator and the central inverter, which allows the electrical reconnection of the available PV modules. As a result, the PV system exhibits a self-capacity for real-time adaptation to the PV generator external operating conditions and improves the energy extraction of the system. Experimental results are provided to validate the proposed approach.

  • Sliding-mode control design applied to parallel-connected modular inverters through FPGA-based implementation

     Ramos Lara, Rafael Ramon; Biel Sole, Domingo; Fossas Colet, Enric; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    IET control theory and applications
    Date of publication: 2009-12
    Journal article

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  • Advanced Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Devices for Rational Use of Energy (RUE)

     Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Fernandez Martinez, Daniel; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Garcia Tormo, Albert; Masana Nadal, Francisco; Poveda Lopez, Alberto
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Análisis orientado a la estimación de la eficiencia energética de los sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a red basados en configuraciones dinámicas

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo
    Defense's date: 2008-07-08
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Modelado de balance energético y control discreto de un inversor monofásico para aplicaciones fotovoltaicas conectadas a red

     Meza Benavides, Carlos; Negroni Vera, Juan Jose; Biel Sole, Domingo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Characterizing fast-scale instability in a buck-based switching amplifier for wideband tracking

     Rodriguez Vilamitjana, Enric; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Poveda Lopez, Alberto; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; El-Aroudi, A
    IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Interleaving Quasi-Sliding Mode Control of Parallel-Connected Buck-based Inverters

     Biel Sole, Domingo; Fossas Colet, Enric; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Ramos Lara, Rafael Ramon
    10th Workshop on Variable Structure Systems
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Energy Efficiency Improvement in Reconfigurable Grid-Connected PV Systems with Adjustable Sizing Factor strategy

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert
    23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (23rd EU PVSEC)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Grid-connected PV systems energy extraction improvement by means of an Electric Array Reconfiguration (EAR) strategy: Operating principle and experimental results

     Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Guinjoan Gispert, Francisco; Pique Lopez, Robert
    39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. PESC 2008
    Presentation of work at congresses

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