Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
Total activity: 757
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University professor
Doctoral courses
Doctor Ingeniero
Doctor Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos
University degree
Ingeniero Civil
Ingeniero de Caminos Canales y Puertos
Research group
(MC)2 - Group of Computational Mechanics on Continuous Medium
Department
Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering
School
Barcelona School of Civil Engineering (ETSECCPB)
Associated research bodies
CIMNE. Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria Open in new window
E-mail
alex.barbatupc.edu
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0000-0002-3649-8053 Open in new window
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1 to 50 of 757 results
  • Comparing a sumulated loss scenario with the observed earthquake damage: the Lorca 2011 case study

     Salgado Galvez, Mario A.; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario
    European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2014-08-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A loss assessment was performed for the buildings of Lorca, Spain, considering an earthquake hazard scenario with similar characteristics to those of a real event which occurred on May 11th 2011, in terms of epicentre, depth and magnitude. This low-to moderate earthquake caused severe damage and disruption in the region and especially on the city. A building by building resolution database was developed and used for damage and loss assessment. The portfolio of buildings was characterized by means of relevant indexes capturing information from a structural point of view such as age, main construction materials, number of stories, and building class. A replacement cost approach was selected for the analysis in order to calculate the direct losses incurred by the event. Hazard and vulnerability were modeled in a probabilistic way, considering their inherent uncertainties which were also taken into account in the damage and loss calculation process. Losses have been expressed in terms of the mean damage ratio of each dwelling and since the analysis has been performed on a geographical information system platform, the distribution of the damage and its categories was mapped for the entire urban centre. The simulated damage was compared with the observed damage reported by the local authorities that inspected the city after the event.

  • A holistic seismic risk scheme using fuzzy sets

     González, Rubén; Nebot Castells, Maria Angela; Mugica Alvarez, Francisco José; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications
    p. 828-835
    Presentation's date: 2014-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Hazard related Risk is a strange concept since its represents something that has not happened yet, something which is blur and randomness related. Along its estimation, social vulnerability aspects come to arise. Such aspects are even more difficult to define in part because there is still missing a robust way to quantify them and, therefore, to establish a clear analytic framework useful to understand inherent complexities of a human society. In this paper, we build a social aggravation coefficient fuzzy model considering Cardona-Carreño aggravation descriptors. By reducing the number of aggravation descriptors and establishing fuzzy logic rules between them, we found similar results in tendency and spatial distribution for seismic resilience and fragility at Barcelona, Spain. We used a classical Mamdani fuzzy approach, supported by well established fuzzy theory, which is characterized by a high expressive power and an intuitive human-like manner. We believe that in this way, a more clear analyses of the resilience and fragility bond can be done exploiting in a more suitable way fuzzy logic capabilities, because the inference process to obtain an aggravation coefficient is based precisely on the establishment of rules (if-then type) directly over the involved variables in social vulnerability formation which allows a smooth application of risk management knowledge, encouraging debate over the used rules, besides the discussion among the employed membership functions.

  • Hybrid loss assessment curve for Colombia: a prospective and a retrospective approach

     Velasquez, Cesar A.; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Mora Cuevas, Miguel; Yamín Lacouture, Luis Eduardo; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2014-08-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Countries prone to seismic hazard need to assess the expected risk as a permanent activity in their financial plan; otherwise, they will experience a lack in the information required for the application of disaster risk reduction policies. In this article, a risk assessment methodology is proposed that uses, on the one hand, empiric estimations of loss, based on information available in local disaster data bases, allowing to estimate losses due to small events; on the other hand, it uses probabilistic evaluations to estimate loss for greater or even catastrophic events for which information is not available due the lack of historical data. A ¿hybrid¿ loss exceedance curve, which represents the disaster risk in a proper and complete way, is thus determined. This curve merges two components: the corresponding to small and moderate losses, calculated by using an inductive and retrospective analysis, and the corresponding to extreme losses, calculated by using a deductive and prospective analysis.

    Countries prone to seismic hazard need to assess the expected risk as a permanent activity in their financial plan; otherwise, they will experience a lack in the information required for the application of disaster risk reduction policies. In this article, a risk assessment methodology is proposed that uses, on the one hand, empiric estimations of loss, based on information available in local disaster data bases, allowing to estimate losses due to small events; on the other hand, it uses probabilistic evaluations to estimate loss for greater or even catastrophic events for which information is not available due the lack of historical data. A “hybrid” loss exceedance curve, which represents the disaster risk in a proper and complete way, is thus determined. This curve merges two components: the corresponding to small and moderate losses, calculated by using an inductive and retrospective analysis, and the corresponding to extreme losses, calculated by using a deductive and prospective analysis.

  • Holistic seismic risk assessment of port of Spain: an integrated evaluation and tool in the framework of CAPRA

     Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Velasquez, Cesar A.; Salgado Galvez, Mario A.
    European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
    p. 1-3
    Presentation's date: 2014-08-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In recent years disaster risk has been defined, for management purposes, as the potential economic, social and environmental consequences of hazardous events that may occur in a given period of time. However, in many cases, the concept of risk has been defined in a fragmentary way according to each scientific discipline involved in its estimation. In order to evaluate risk according to the above stated definition, a multidisciplinary evaluation is necessary. This evaluation should take into account not only the expected physical damage, the number and type of casualties or economic losses, but also the conditions related to social fragility and lack of resilience which favour the second order effects when a hazardous event strikes an urban centre.

  • Probabilistic earthquake risk assessment of Barcelona using CAPRA

     Marulanda Fraume, Mabel Cristina; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Ordaz Schroeder, Mario Gustavo; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
    p. 1-3
    Presentation's date: 2014-08-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The seismic risk assessment of Barcelona has been performed using the modules of CAPRA and the corresponding holistic estimation of the seismic risk of this urban area. In addition, according to the physical risk results and the information on the socio-economic indicators of the city, was performed a holistic evaluation of seismic risk, which is a valuable result to facilitate the integrated risk management by the different stakeholders involved in risk reduction decision making.

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    Coupled plastic damage model for low and ultra-low cycle seismic fatigue  Open access

     Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    World Congress on Computational Mechanics
    p. 2955-2966
    Presentation's date: 2014-07-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents the theoretical framework for a coupled plastic damage constitutive model valid for materials subjected to cyclic loads that lead to low and ultra-low cycle fatigue. Two numerical examples were presented in order to illustrate the behaviour of the model and its capabilities.

  • Comparing a simulated loss scenario with the observed damage: the Lorca 2011 case study

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Salgado Galvez, Mario A.; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario
    National Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 23-36
    Presentation's date: 2014-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A loss assessment was performed for the buildings of Lorca, Spain, considering an earthquake hazard scenario with similar characteristics to those of a real event which occurred on May 11th 2011, in terms of epicentre, depth and magnitude. This low-to moderate earthquake caused severe damage and disruption in the region and especially on the city. A building by building resolution database was developed and used for damage and loss assessment. The portfolio of buildings was characterized by means of relevant indexes capturing information from a structural point of view such as age, main construction materials, number of stories, and building class. A replacement cost approach was selected for the analysis in order to calculate the direct losses incurred by the event. Hazard and vulnerability were modeled in a probabilistic way, considering their inherent uncertainties which were also taken into account in the damage and loss calculation process. Losses have been expressed in terms of the mean damage ratio of each dwelling and since the analysis has been performed on a geographical information system platform, the distribution of the damage and its categories was mapped for the entire urban centre. The simulated damage was compared with the observed damage reported by the local authorities that inspected the city after the event.

  • Grup de resistència de materials i estructures a l'enginyeria

     Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Bugeda Castelltort, Gabriel; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Chiumenti, Michele; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Suarez Arroyo, Benjamin; Miquel Canet, Juan; Cante Teran, Juan Carlos; Hernandez Ortega, Joaquin Alberto; González Lopez, Jose Manuel; Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Escudero Torres, Cuauhtemoc; Morillo Guzman, Carlos; Huespe, Alfredo Edmundo; Carbonell Puigbo, Josep Maria; Rossi, Riccardo; Otero Gruer, Fermin Enrique; Comellas Sanfeliu, Ester; Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Oliver Olivella, Fco. Javier
    Competitive project

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    Análisis numérico de la reparación y refuerzo de estructuras con FRP  Open access

     Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Molina, Maritzabel; Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos; Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Nallim, Liz G.
    DOI: 10.3926/oms.210
    Date of publication: 2014
    Book chapter

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    El propósito de esta obra es aportar una visión global del estado actual de la técnica y los recientes desarrollos sobre la aplicabilidad de los materiales compuestos en la obra civil y la edificación. El libro recoge una colección de trabajos de investigación de expertos nacionales e internacionales, que abordan los retos actuales y futuros en este campo, proporcionando, a través de una amplia variedad de casos de estudio, una hoja de ruta con las habilidades técnicas y los conocimientos prácticos necesarios para el empleo de materiales compuestos en nuevas aplicaciones. Los textos son ¿en la medida de lo posible¿ autocontenidos en sus partes, permitiendo una lectura acorde al interés particular de cada lector. En ellos se presentan fundamentos técnicos, resultados de investigaciones, y se revisan y compilan referencias bibliográficas actualizadas que complementan y permiten al lector adquirir un conocimiento más profundo de los temas expuestos, encaminándolo hacia posibles futuras líneas de investigación. Escrito por profesionales e investigadores con experiencia en este campo, este libro pretende ser un texto de referencia para los no iniciados en la temática y una herramienta de estudio e investigación para lectores de niveles más avanzados.

    Este libro presenta una panorámica del estado actual de los materiales compuestos y sus aplicaciones más relevantes en la obra civil y la edificación.

  • Doctor Honoris Causa

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    Award or recognition

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  • Análisis comparativo del peligro sísmico de Barcelona

     Aguilar Meléndez, Armando; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Ordaz Schroeder, Mario Gustavo; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Lantada Zarzosa, Nieves; García Elías, Alejandro; Campos, Amelia
    Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Sísmica
    p. 1-17
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modelización numérica del comportamiento constitutivo del daño local y global y su correlación con la evolución de las frecuencias naturales en estructuras de hormigón reforzado  Open access

     Paredes Lopez, Jairo Andrés
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Esta tesis surge de la necesidad de establecer un método racional y práctico para identificar, a través del cambio de las frecuencias naturales , el daño en estructuras de hormigón armado. Por lo que se desarrolla un nuevo modelo constitutivo de daño diferenciado con dos variables internas de daño utilizando una única superficie de discontinuidad para tracción, compresión y cortante; asimismo, se plantea un procedimiento numérico para el cálculo de las frecuencias naturales con sus formas modales de vibración para diferentes estados de daño de estructuras de hormigón armado; se presenta una metodología para correlacionar daño global y frecuencias naturales . Esta tesis se desarrollará en el marco del análisis de estructuras y la mecánica computacional, particularmente, del análisis de materiales compuestos utilizando la teoría de mezclas serie/paralelo. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos se han comparado con resultados experimentales y numéricos obtenidos de la literatura, se ha observado buenos ajustes de los resultados.

    Esta tesis surge de la necesidad de establecer un método racional y práctico para identificar, a través del cambio de las frecuencias naturales , el daño en estructuras de hormigón armado. Por lo que se desarrolla un nuevo modelo constitutivo de daño diferenciado con dos variables internas de daño utilizando una única superficie de discontinuidad para tracción, compresión y cortante; asimismo, se plantea un procedimiento numérico para el cálculo de las frecuencias naturales con sus formas modales de vibración para diferentes estados de daño de estructuras de hormigón armado; se presenta una metodología para correlacionar daño global y frecuencias naturales . Esta tesis se desarrollará en el marco del análisis de estructuras y la mecánica computacional, particularmente, del análisis de materiales compuestos utilizando la teoría de mezclas serie/paralelo. Los resultados numéricos obtenidos se han comparado con resultados experimentales y numéricos obtenidos de la literatura, se ha observado buenos ajustes de los resultados

    This thesis emerges from the need to establish a rational and smart method to estimate the global damage through changes on eigenfrequency of concrete structures. Therefore, a new constitutive damage model is developed with two scalar inner variables and using only one surface of discontinuity to traction, compression and shear. Additionally, a numerical process has been proposed to calculate eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors of concrete structure with different levels of damage. A methodology to correlation ship between global damage and changes on e1genfrequencies has been proposed. This thesis is based on structural analysis and computational mechanics and, particularly, on analysis of composite materials using serial/parallel mix theory. The numerical results obtained in this thesis is have been compared with experimental and numerical results obtained of literature, and can be seen a good fit.

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    Stepwise advancing strategy for the simulation of fatigue problems  Open access

     Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Conference on Computational Plasticity Fundamentals and Applications
    p. 1153-1164
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A time advance strategy for cyclic loading will be presented, applied to the fatigue formulation first proposed by [1].The coupling of both formulationsprovides a comprehensive approachto simulate high cycle fatigue problems accurately and with an important computational cost reduction. The capabilities of the proposed procedure are shown in a numerical example

    A time advance strategy for cyclic loading will be presented, applied to the fatigue formulation first proposed by [1].The coupling of both formulations provides a comprehensive approachto simulate high cycle fatigue problems accurately and with an important computational cost reduction. The capabilities of the proposed procedure are shown in a numerical example

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    Analysis of ultra low cycle fatigue problems with the Barcelona plastic damage model  Open access

     Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Conference on Computational Plasticity Fundamentals and Applications
    p. 352-363
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a plastic formulation based on the Barcelona plastic damage model capable of predicting the material failure due to Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue. This is achieved taking into account the fracture energy dissipated during the cyclic process. This approach allows the simulation of ULCF in regular cyclic tests, but also in non-regular cases such as seismic loads.

  • Seismic and structural response of a framed four level building with RC and steel structure designed according to current Venezuelan codes

     Ugel Garrido, Ronald David; Herrera González, Reyes Indira; Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga
    International Conference on Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures
    p. 109-120
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study determines the structural behavior of a four level framed building with composite RC and steel structure designed according Venezuelan seismic codes. The structural system consists of RC frames in the first three levels and steel frames in the fourth. It was performed linear analysis to design all structural elements. Capacity curves and performance points were obtained with pushover analysis. Results showed greater ductility in the X frames¿ direction and greater resistance reserve in the external frames. Performing points showed adequate resistance values but low stiffness in two Y frames¿ directions. Seismic action is carried on through synthetic accelerograms defined by the seismic codes used in this study. Dynamic analysis is used to compute parameters of ductility, over strength and displacements. In one case the collapse Limit State was reached, implying a general collapse of the building. Incremental dynamic analysis was performed to obtain fragility curves and damage probability matrix; a very high probability of significant lateral displacement and damage was evidenced from this despite a normative design of structural elements.

    This study determines the structural behavior of a four level framed building with composite RC and steel structure designed according Venezuelan seismic codes. The structural system consists of RC frames in the first three levels and steel frames in the fourth. It was performed linear analysis to design all structural elements. Capacity curves and performance points were obtained with pushover analysis. Results showed greater ductility in the X frames’ direction and greater resistance reserve in the external frames. Performing points showed adequate resistance values but low stiffness in two Y frames’ directions. Seismic action is carried on through synthetic accelerograms defined by the seismic codes used in this study. Dynamic analysis is used to compute parameters of ductility, over strength and displacements. In one case the collapse Limit State was reached, implying a general collapse of the building. Incremental dynamic analysis was performed to obtain fragility curves and damage probability matrix; a very high probability of significant lateral displacement and damage was evidenced from this despite a normative design of structural elements.

  • Seismic response and torsional effects of RC structure with irregular plant and variations in diaphragms, designed with Venezuelan codes

     Herrera González, Reyes Indira; Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ugel Garrido, Ronald David; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga
    International Conference on Earthquake Resistant Engineering Structures
    p. 85-96
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The objective of this study is to determine the seismic response and torsional effects of an existing Reinforced Concrete building with irregular plant and five levels projected according to an older version of Venezuelan seismic design code. Two structures were analysed: the original building and a redesigned version. Nonlinear static analysis and nonlinear 3D dynamic analysis were applied, based on registers of three synthetic accelerograms compatible with the elastic design spectrum for the used code. In 3D analysis, four structures were simulated, with and without rigid diaphragms so as to compare the seismic behaviour of the buildings. Through this nonlinear analysis parameters were determined that define the behaviour of the structure, torsional moments and rotations in columns reached for simulated buildings. Also, to obtain damage fragility curves for five states damage were generated. Results show that the original structure has an inadequate resistant behaviour and a high probability of exceeding the moderate damage state, while the redesigned structure presents good performance under seismic events according to the existing code. It was also observed that maximum torsional effects occur in the entrant corners of the irregular plant, which are reduced in mid-rise buildings by using a rigid diaphragm.

  • Análisis estructural estático y dinámico probabilista de edificios de hormigón armado. Aspectos metodológicos y aplicaciones a la evaluación del daño.  Open access

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Esta tesis propone una metodología de evaluación del daño sísmico basada en el método del espectro de capacidad pero con un enfoque probabilista que se apoya en simulaciones Monte Carlo. Así la acción sísmica, la estructura y el daño esperado se consideran y se analizan como variables aleatorias. La metodología, que se valida mediante el análisis dinámico incremental, es una nueva, robusta y potente herramienta de análisis de riesgo tanto a nivel de edificios individuales como a nivel urbano y regional. La validación mediante el análisis dinámico, de hecho, ha supuesto crear también una metodología probabilista basada en el análisis dinámico incremental. El daño esperado puede obtenerse para cualquier intervalo de confianza permitiendo así, a los gestores de la protección civil la elección de los niveles prioritarios o de interés. Como el análisis dinámico incremental requiere acelerogramas, se ha optado por usar registros de terremotos y se ha diseñado una técnica que, para una determinada base de datos, permite optimizar, minimizando la dispersión, el número de acelerogramas compatibles con un determinado espectro de respuesta; de esta forma la incertidumbre en la acción sísmica se considera de una manera adecuada. Aunque a efectos metodológicos, se ha estimado suficiente y adecuado considerar como variables aleatorias gaussianas sólo las propiedades resistentes del hormigón y el acero, con todo se ha introducido también una nueva e interesante forma de incorporar la variabilidad espacial de la resistencia de vigas y columnas. Los desarrollos metodológicos se ilustran con numerosos casos de estudio de edificios existentes y bien documentados. En particular, se han estudiado los edificios de hormigón armado con forjados reticulares, clasificados en altos, de altura mediana y bajos. Este estudio se ha realizado considerando acciones sísmicas compatibles con los espectros previstos en el eurocódigo EC8 para terremotos tipo 1 y tipo 2 y para suelos A, B, C, D y E. La aplicación del método a edificios irregulares ha confirmado la insuficiencia de los modelos 2D para estructuras asimétricas. Así, el método probabilista se ha aplicado a dos edificios de especial importancia para escenarios sísmicos de interés. El primero es el hospital de Vielha, para la acción sísmica con un periodo de retorno de 475 años; el segundo es un edificio del Barrio de San Fernando en Lorca, que fue severamente dañado por el terremoto del mes de mayo de 2011. En este segundo caso la acción sísmica se ha definido de forma determinista mediante las dos componentes horizontales de aceleración registradas en la ciudad. En los análisis 3D se ha incorporado el efecto de direccionalidad, concluyendo que edificios del mismo tipo situados en un mismo lugar pueden sufrir daños significativamente distintos dependiendo sólo de su orientación azimutal. Los resultados obtenidos en el caso de Lorca son compatibles con los daños observados lo que contribuye a validar el método probabilista y los desarrollos implementados en esta tesis.

    Esta tesis propone una metodología de evaluación del daño sísmico basada en el método del espectro de capacidad pero con un enfoque probabilista que se apoya en simulaciones Monte Carlo. Así la acción sísmica, la estructura y el daño esperado se consideran y se analizan como variables aleatorias. La metodología, que se valida mediante el análisis dinámico incremental, es una nueva, robusta y potente herramienta de análisis de riesgo tanto a nivel de edificios individuales como a nivel urbano y regional. La validación mediante el análisis dinámico, de hecho, ha supuesto crear también una metodología probabilista basada en el análisis dinámico incremental. El daño esperado puede obtenerse para cualquier intervalo de confianza permitiendo así, a los gestores de la protección civil la elección de los niveles prioritarios o de interés. Como el análisis dinámico incremental requiere acelerogramas, se ha optado por usar registros de terremotos y se ha diseñado una técnica que, para una determinada base de datos, permite optimizar, minimizando la dispersión, el número de acelerogramas compatibles con un determinado espectro de respuesta; de esta forma la incertidumbre en la acción sísmica se considera de una manera adecuada. Aunque a efectos metodológicos, se ha estimado suficiente y adecuado considerar como variables aleatorias gaussianas sólo las propiedades resistentes del hormigón y el acero, con todo se ha introducido también una nueva e interesante forma de incorporar la variabilidad espacial de la resistencia de vigas y columnas. Los desarrollos metodológicos se ilustran con numerosos casos de estudio de edificios existentes y bien documentados. En particular, se han estudiado los edificios de hormigón armado con forjados reticulares, clasificados en altos, de altura mediana y bajos. Este estudio se ha realizado considerando acciones sísmicas compatibles con los espectros previstos en el eurocódigo EC8 para terremotos tipo 1 y tipo 2 y para suelos A, B, C, D y E. La aplicación del método a edificios irregulares ha confirmado la insuficiencia de modelos 2D en estructuras asimétricas. Así, el método probabilista se ha aplicado a dos edificios de especial importancia para escenarios sísmicos de interés. El primero es el hospital de Vielha, para la acción sísmica con un periodo de retorno de 475 años; el segundo es un edificio del Barrio de San Fernando en Lorca, que fue severamente dañado por el terremoto del mes de mayo de 2011. En este segundo caso la acción sísmica se ha definido de forma determinista mediante las dos componentes horizontales de aceleración registradas en la ciudad. En los análisis 3D se ha incorporado el efecto de direccionalidad, concluyendo que edificios del mismo tipo situados en un mismo lugar pueden sufrir daños significativamente distintos dependiendo sólo de su orientación azimutal. Los resultados obtenidos en el caso de Lorca son compatibles con los daños observados lo que contribuye a validar el método probabilista y los desarrollos implementados en esta tesis.

    This dissertation proposes a methodology for seismic damage assessment based on the capacity spectrum method but with a probabilistic approach which is supported on Monte Carlo simulation. The seismic action, the structure and the expected damage are considered and analyzed as random variables. The method, which is validated through incremental dynamic analysis, is a new, robust and powerful tool for risk analysis that can be applied to individual buildings, but also at urban and regional scales. In fact, the validation through dynamic analyses has involved creating also a probabilistic method for damage assessment, based on incremental dynamic analysis. The expected damage can be obtained for any confidence interval thus allowing the civil protection managers choosing the levels of priority or interest. As incremental dynamic analyses require accelerograms, the use of earthquake records has been preferred and it has been developed a specific technique that, for a given database, minimizes the dispersion and optimizes the number of accelerograms compatible with a given response spectrum; in this way, the uncertainties in the seismic action are considered in an appropriate manner. Although for methodological purposes it was estimated sufficient and adequate to consider only the strength properties of concrete and steel as Gaussian random variables, yet a new and interesting way to incorporate the spatial variability of the strength of beams and columns has been also proposed. The methodological developments are illustrated with numerous case studies of existing and well documented buildings. Specifically, reinforced concrete buildings with waffle slabs, classified as low-rise, mid-rise and high-rise, have been studied. This study has been conducted considering seismic actions compatible with the response spectra foreseen in the Eurocode EC8 for type 1 and type 2 earthquakes and soil classes A, B, C, D and E. The application of the method to irregular buildings confirmed the insufficiency of 2D models for asymmetric structures. Thus, the probabilistic method has been applied to two buildings of special importance for seismic scenarios of interest. The first one is the hospital of Vielha considering the seismic action with a return period of 475 years; the second one is a building located in the neighborhood of San Fernando in Lorca, which was severely damaged by the earthquake of May 2011. In this second case the seismic action has been defined deterministically by means of the two horizontal accelerograms recorded in the city. In 3D analyses the directionality effect is considered, concluding that buildings of the same type located in the same place can suffer significantly different damages depending only of their azimuthal angle. The results obtained in the case of Lorca are compatible with the observed damage. This fact supports the validity of the probabilistic method as well as that of the developments implemented in this thesis.

  • Risk assessment of reinforced concrete buildings considering the earthquake directionality effects

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In order to assess the seismic risk of structures, several methods based on pushover analysis have been developed. These methods are very useful in the case of symmetric structures because they can be easily approximated by means of a 2D model. In the case of asymmetric structures several improvements to the pushover analysis procedure have been proposed for considering the effect of asymmetry on the global response. However, such methods, in some cases, can be more expensive, from computational point of view, than the nonlinear dynamic analysis. In this article, we propose to assess the effect of the directionality of the earthquake by using non-linear dynamic analysis and considering uncertainties in the mechanical properties of the materials and in the seismic action. We use as a case study a group of reinforced concrete buildings located in Lorca, Spain, damaged by the earthquake of May 2011. The results show a good agreement between the observed and the calculated damage.

    In order to assess the seismic risk of structures, several methods based on pushover analysis have been developed. These methods are very useful in the case of symmetric structures because they can be easily approximated by means of a 2D model. In the case of asym-metric structures several improvements to the pushover analysis procedure have been proposed for considering the effect of asymmetry on the global response. However, such methods, in some cases, can be more expensive, from computational point of view, than the nonlinear dynamic analysis. In this article, we propose to assess the effect of the directionali-ty of the earthquake by using non-linear dynamic analysis and considering uncertainties in the mechanical properties of the materials and in the seismic action. We use as a case study a group of reinforced concrete buildings located in Lorca, Spain, damaged by the earthquake of May 2011. The results show a good agreement between the observed and the calculated damage.

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    Hybrid loss exceedance curve (HLEC) for risk assessment  Open access

     Velázquez, César; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Yamín Lacouture, Luis Eduardo; Mora Cuevas, Miguel; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Symposium Computational Civil Engineering
    p. 155-174
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Countries need to assess the expected risk due to natural hazards as a permanent activity in their financial plan; otherwise, they will experience a lack in the information required by the application of disaster risk reduction policies. In this article, a risk assessment methodology is proposed that uses, in one hand, empiric estimations of loss, based on information available in local disaster data bases, allowing to estimate losses due to small events; on the ot her hand, it uses probabilistic evaluations to estimate loss for greater or even catastrophic events for which information is not available due the lack of historical data. A ¿hybrid¿ loss exceedance curve, which represents the disaster risk in a proper and complete way, is thus determined. This curve merges two components: the corresponding to small and moderate losses, calculated by using an inductive and retrospective analysis, and the corresponding to extreme losses, calculated by using a deductive and prospective analysis. Applications of this new probabilistic risk assessment technique are given in this article for three countries.

    Countries need to assess the expected risk due to natural hazards as a permanent activity in their financial plan; otherwise, they will experience a lack in the information required by the application of disaster risk reduction policies. In this article, a risk assessment methodology is proposed that uses, in one hand, empiric estimations of loss, based on information available in local disaster data bases, allowing to estimate losses due to small events; on the ot her hand, it uses probabilistic evaluations to estimate loss for greater or even catastrophic events for which information is not available due the lack of historical data. A “hybrid” loss exceedance curve, which represents the disaster risk in a proper and complete way, is thus determined. This curve merges two components: the corresponding to small and moderate losses, calculated by using an inductive and retrospective analysis, and the corresponding to extreme losses, calculated by using a deductive and prospective analysis. Applications of this new probabilistic risk assessment technique are given in this article for three countries.

  • Enfoque integral para la evaluación de efectos de sitio en ciudades y su aplicación en Bogotá

     Bernal Granados, Gabriel Andres; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Salgado, Mario
    Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Sísmica, Colombia
    p. 1-20
    Presentation's date: 2013-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A methodology for modeling site effects in cities is presented. This methodology is based on the definition of the prevailing geological formations and their relation to soft soil deposits within the urban area. Based on the geological interpretation for the city area, the elevation (over the sea level) of the geological contacts is defined, and a tridimensional geometrical model of geological formations is obtained. Available geotechnical data, gathered from an exhaustive geotechnical field research, is used to assign soil types and parameters to the previously defined geological formations. Static and dynamic soil characteristics are defined as random variables and their probability moments are computed form statistical estimations over the geotechnical data. A grid is defined over the city and for each grid node a synthetic soil deposit model is obtained with soil parameters assigned following their statistical distributions. Dynamic response is computed, for each grid node, by means of a 1D linear equivalent non-linear analysis, using a set of accelerograms which are compatible with the seismic hazard at bedrock level for the city. Spectral transfer functions of strong motion intensities are computed at each grid site. The application of this methodology in Bogotá is presented, and results are discussed in comparison with the current building construction requirements in the city.

  • Evaluación probabilista del riesgo sísmico de edificios de hormigón armado con base en la degradación de la rigidez

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    Congreso Nacional de Ingeniería Sísmica, Colombia
    p. 1-21
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The incremental dynamic analysis is a powerful tool for evaluating the seismic vulnerability and risk of buildings. It allows calculating the global damage of structures for different peak ground accelerations, PGA, and representing this result by means of damage curves. Such curves are currently used to obtain seismic risk scenarios at urban level. Even if the application of this method in a probabilistic environment requires a relevant computational effort, it is the reference method for determining those curves. Nevertheless, it would be of high practical interest to have a simpler method based, for instance, on pushover analysis, for assessing the seismic vulnerability and risk of buildings, which allows obtaining results similar to those based on the incremental dynamic analysis. Referring to the capacity-spectrum-based-methods, expert opinions have been used in previous researches for defining damage states thresholds starting from the yielding and the ultimate spectral displacement identified in the bilinear capacity spectrum. But we prove in this article that the results provided by these methods do not reproduce with sufficient precision the dynamic ones. Therefore, a new procedure for defining the damage states thresholds, based on the stiffness degradation of reinforced concrete building, is proposed herein and a fully probabilistic approach is tackled by means of Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated in the paper that the obtained results are in good agreement with those calculated using the incremental dynamic analysis.

    The incremental dynamic analysis is a powerful tool for evaluating the seismic vulnerability and risk of buildings. It allows calculating the global damage of structures for different peak ground accelerations, PGA, and representing this result by means of damage curves. Such curves are currently used to obtain seismic risk scenarios at urban level. Even if the application of this method in a probabilistic environment requires a relevant computational effort, it is the reference method for determining those curves. Nevertheless, it would be of high practical interest to have a simpler method based, for instance, on pushover analysis, for assessing the seismic vulnerability and risk of buildings, which allows obtaining results similar to those based on the incremental dynamic analysis. Referring to the capacity‐spectrum‐based‐methods, expert opinions have been used in previous researches for defining damage states thresholds starting from the yielding and the ultimate spectral displacement identified in the bilinear capacity spectrum. But we prove in this article that the results provided by these methods do not reproduce with sufficient precision the dynamic ones. Therefore, a new procedure for defining the damage states thresholds, based on the stiffness degradation of reinforced concrete building, is proposed herein and a fully probabilistic approach is tackled by means of Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated in the paper that the obtained results are in good agreement with those calculated using the incremental dynamic analysis.

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    Seismic evaluation of low rise RC framed building designed according to Venezuelan codes  Open access

     Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Ugel Garrido, Ronald David; Herrera González, Reyes Indira
    DOI: 10.5772/55158
    Date of publication: 2013-04-09
    Book chapter

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    The mitigation of earthquake-related hazards represents a key role in the modern society. The mitigation of such kind of hazards spans from detailed studies on seismicity, evaluation of site effects, and seismo-induced landslides, tsunamis as well as and the design and analysis of structures to resist such actions. The study of earthquakes ties together science, technology and expertise in infrastructure and engineering in an effort to minimize human and material losses when they inevitably occur. Chapters deal with different topics aiming to mitigate geo-hazards such as: Seismic hazard analysis, Ground investigation for seismic design, Seismic design, assessment and remediation, Earthquake site response analysis and soil-structure interaction analysis.

    Along its history, Venezuela has been severely affected by destructive earthquakes. Approximately 80% of the population lives in seismically active areas, where have occurred destructive earthquakes even in recent times; The seismic hazard, inadequate design and construction of buildings as well as the damage occurred from previous earthquakes, demonstrate a high vulnerability in existing buildings. Then it is essential to continuously make progress and research in the field of earthquake engineering and upgrade the seismic design codes. Seismic upgrade requires the evaluation or predictions of the expected damage to structures at the time of an earthquake of a certain severity occur. From this prediction it can be defined solutions for the reduction of structural vulnerability.

  • Modelación probabilista de pérdidas ecconómicas por sismo para la estimación de la vulnerabilidad fiscal del estado y la gestión financiera del riesgo soberano  Open access

     Marulanda Fraume, Mabel Cristina
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El riesgo sísmico y en general los desastres futuros que puede sufrir una ciudad, una región o un país, significan unaobligación o pasivo contingente no explícito que puede afectar, desde el punto de vista macroeconómico, la sostenibilidadfiscal del Estado. En otras palabras, del riesgo de desastre se deriva una exposición fiscal que debe ser dimensionada deacuerdo con la responsabilidad de cada Estado, el cual es un tomador de riesgo, consciente o no, que debe formular unaestrategia para afrontar dicho riesgo y, así, evitar efectos económicos adversos que afecten su sostenibilidad económica.En esta investigación se ilustra el porqué tanto los desastres extremos como los desastres menores recurrentes significanuna exposición fiscal y son pasivos contingentes que deben tenerse en cuenta en el balance contable de las naciones. Laevaluación de la vulnerabilidad fiscal frente a desastres depende del potencial de pérdidas económicas que puede llegar atener un país, y de la capacidad o resiliencia económica que tiene para afrontarlas y llevar a cabo la reposición oreconstrucción post-desastre. Aquí se sustenta que la forma más apropiada para llevar a cabo dicha evaluación, esutilizando modelos probabilistas de riesgo que den cuenta del potencial de pérdidas máximas esperadas para un períodode retorno y de modelos analíticos que permitan determinar la capacidad o el acceso a recursos económicos que permitancubrir el déficit que puede generar un desastre. El presente documento presenta el tip de técnicas actuariales con lascuales se puede dimensionar la exposición fiscal, evaluando en forma probabilista el daño estructural y las pérdidas que sederivan sobre los activos o bienes inmuebles de responsabilidad del Estado. La modelización probabilista del riesgocatastrófico y el inventario de efectos económico de los eventos menores recurrentes son insumos fundamentales paraproyectar mecanismos financieros factibles y estructuras alternativas de retención y transferencia del riesgo de acuerdo conanálisis de optimización financiera. Dicha modelización actuarial permite proponer índices para asignar la prioridad derehabilitación o refuerzo estructural de inmuebles utilizando la relación beneficio-costo de este tipo de intervenciones. Sepresenta una descripción de los instrumentos financieros que se podrían explorar para definir una estrategia óptima deprotección financiera. Se describe la aplicación de la modelización probabilista del riesgo sísmico a nivel urbano para elcaso de Manizales, Colombia, con el propósito de ilustrar el diseño del seguro colectivo voluntario por terremoto para lasedificaciones privadas, que actualmente está operando cubriendo a los estratos sociales de bajos ingresos de la ciudad através de un subsidio cruzado. También se presenta el cálculo del riesgo sísmico y las estrategias financieras de gestióndel riesgo para Bogotá, Colombia, y la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de Barcelona, España, utilizando métricasprobabilistas. Finalmente se incluye el análisis de riesgo sísmico del portafolio de edificaciones públicas de Colombia, parailustrar un análisis de riesgo a nivel de un país y los resultados de riesgo, utilizando indicadores, para los países de lasAméricas y a nivel mundial, con el fin de dar cuenta del riesgo nacional (i.e. para el sector público y privado) y el riesgosoberano (i.e. de responsabilidad fiscal) de los países del mundo.

    El riesgo sísmico y en general los desastres futuros que puede sufrir una ciudad, una región o un país significan una obligación o pasivo contingente no explícito que puede afectar, desde el punto de vista macroeconómico, la sostenibilidad fiscal del Estado. En otras palabras, del riesgo de desastre se deriva una exposición fiscal que debe ser dimensionada de acuerdo con la responsabilidad del Estado, el cual es un tomador de riesgo, consciente o no, que debe formular una estrategia para afrontar dicho riesgo y, así, evitar efectos económicos adversos que afecten su sostenibilidad económica. En esta investigación se ilustra el porqué tanto los desastres extremos como los desastres menores recurrentes significan una exposición fiscal y son pasivos contingentes que deben tenerse en cuenta en el balance contable de las naciones. La evaluación de la vulnerabilidad fiscal frente a desastres depende del potencial de pérdidas económicas que puede llegar a tener un país y de la capacidad o resiliencia económica que tiene para afrontarlas y llevar a cabo la reposición o reconstrucción postdesastre. Aquí se sustenta que la forma más apropiada para llevar a cabo dicha evaluación es utilizando modelos probabilistas de riesgo que den cuenta del potencial de pérdidas máximas esperadas para un período de retorno y de modelos analíticos que permitan determinar la capacidad o el acceso a recursos económicos que permitan cubrir el déficit que puede generar un desastre. El presente documento presenta el tipo de técnicas actuariales con las cuales se puede dimensionar la exposición fiscal, evaluando en forma probabilista el daño estructural y las pérdidas que se derivan sobre los activos o bienes inmuebles de responsabilidad del Estado. La modelización probabilista del riesgo catastrófico y el inventario de efectos económicos de los eventos menores recurrentes son insumos fundamentales para proyectar mecanismos financieros factibles y estructuras alternativas de retención y transferencia del riesgo de acuerdo con análisis de optimización financiera. Dicha modelización actuarial permite proponer índices para asignar la prioridad de rehabilitación o refuerzo estructural de inmuebles utilizando la relación beneficio-costo de este tipo de intervenciones. Se presenta una descripción de los instrumentos financieros que se podrían explorar para definir una estrategia óptima de protección financiera. Se describe la aplicación de la modelización probabilista del riesgo sísmico a nivel urbano para el caso de Manizales, Colombia, con el propósito de ilustrar el diseño del seguro colectivo voluntario por terremoto para las edificaciones privadas, que actualmente está operando, cubriendo a los estratos sociales de bajos ingresos de la ciudad a través de un subsidio cruzado. También se presenta el cálculo del riesgo sísmico y las estrategias financieras de gestión del riesgo para Bogotá, Colombia, y la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de Barcelona, España, utilizando métricas probabilistas. Finalmente se incluye el análisis de riesgo sísmico del portafolio de edificaciones públicas de Colombia, para ilustrar un análisis de riesgo a nivel de un país y los resultados de riesgo, utilizando indicadores, para los países de las Américas y a nivel mundial, con el fin de dar cuenta del riesgo nacional (i.e. para el sector público y privado) y el riesgo soberano (i.e. de responsabilidad fiscal) de los países del mundo.

    Seismic risk and in general the potential disasters that a city, a region or a country can suffer mean a non-explicit contingent liability that can affect, from a macroeconomic perspective, the fiscal sustainability of the State. In other words, disaster risk derives in a fiscal exposure that has to be measure according to the responsibility of the State, which is a risk taker, conscious or not, that must develop a strategy to face that risk, thus, to avoid adverse economic effects that affect its economic sustainability. This research illustrates why both, extreme disasters and recurrent small disasters meand a fiscal exposure and why they are contingen liabilities that must be considered in the national balance of the countries. Fiscal vulnerability evaluation due to disasters depends on the potential economic losses that a country could have, and the ability or economic resilience that it has, to face them and carry out a post disaster recovery and reconstruction. It is explained the most appropriate way to develop an evaluation using probabilistic risk models that provides the potential maximum expected losses for a specific return period and describes how analytical models allow determining the ability to access economic resources to cover deficit that a disaster could generate. This document presents the kinds of actuarial techniques useful to measure fiscal exposure or fiscal vulnerability, evaluation, in a probabilistic way, structural damage and losses produced over the assets that are a fiscal responsibility of the government. Probabilistic catastrophe risk modeling and inventory of economic impact of recurrent small events are fundament supplies to propose feasible financial mechanisms and alternative structures of risk retention and risk transfer according to financial optimization analysis. This actuarial modeling allows proposing indices to prioritize, using cost/benefit rates, rehabilitation or structural reinforcement of assets. This thesis also presents a description of the financial instruments that can be explored to define an optimal strategy of financial protection. The document also presents the application of probabilistic seismic risk moddeling at urban level in three cities: The case of Manizales, Colombia illustrates the desighno of the voluntary collective earhtquake insurance of private buildings, which currentlycovers low-income homeowners of the city through a cross subsidy strategy; the seismic risk estimation and financial risk strategies for Bogota, Colombia; and the sismic risk evaluation of Barcelona, Spain. Finally, this thesis illustrates risk analysis at country level through presenting seismic risk analysis of public buildings portfolio of Colombia. Also, it describes a risk analysis at regional level in the Americas and at global level, using indicators to represent national risk (of public and private sectors) and sovereign risk (fiscal responsibility) of the whole countries of the world.

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    Indicadores de amenaza, exposición y riesgo urbano  Open access

     Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Marulanda Fraume, Mabel Cristina
    Date of publication: 2013-03-06
    Book chapter

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  • Incremental dynamic analysis and pushover analysis of buildings: a probabilistic comparison

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-5134-7
    Date of publication: 2013-03-05
    Book chapter

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    The considerable influence of inherent uncertainties on structural behavior has led the engineering community to recognize the importance of a stochastic approach to structural problems. Issues related to uncertainty quantification and its influence on the reliability of the computational models are continuously gaining in significance. In particular, the problems of dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertain system and excitation parameters have been the subject of continuous research over the last two decades as a result of the increasing availability of powerful computing resources and technology. This book is a follow up of a previous book with the same subject (ISBN 978-90-481-9986-0) and focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools which can highly assist in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic/seismic analysis and design of structures. The selected chapters are authored by some of the most active scholars in their respective areas and represent some of the most recent developments in this field. The book consists of 21 chapters which can be grouped into several thematic topics including dynamic analysis of stochastic systems, reliability-based design, structural control and health monitoring, model updating, system identification, wave propagation in random media, seismic fragility analysis and damage assessment. This edited book is primarily intended for researchers and post-graduate students who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study or to advance the state of the art on a particular topic in the field of computational stochastic structural dynamics. Nevertheless, practicing engineers could benefit as well from it as most code provisions tend to incorporate probabilistic concepts in the analysis and design of structures.

  • Análisis y gestión del riesgo sísmico de edificios y sistemas esenciales  Open access

     Valcarcel Torres, Jairo Andres
    Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En este trabajo se adoptan y presentan metodologias para evaluar Ia seguridad y riesgo sismica, asi como Ia factibilidad delas actividades de reducci6n de perdidas, con elfin de priorizar estudios detallados y orientar program as de reducci6n de Iavulnerabilidad sismica de edificios ysistemas esenciales. Estes procedimientos se aplican en diferentes casas de estudio,a escala local, regional, nacional ysupranacional, realizando evaluaciones sabre centres educativos ycentros de salud,entre otros edificios de importancia especial.Respecto a Ia evaluaci6n de Ia seguridad sismica, se adopta un metoda simplificado basado en espectros de capacidadpara evaluar el comportamiento ycalificar su seguridad de acuerdo a los estandares propuestos par el Comite VISION2000. Para este analisis, los edificios se clasifican en tipologias estructurales para las cuales se conocen espectros decapacidad. Para estimar Ia acci6n sismica (en roca firm e), se adaptan espectros de amenaza uniforme a las form asespectrales del Euroc6digo 8. Para evaluar Ia acci6n sismica en superficie, se emplean espectros de respuesta paradiferentes tipos de suelo, de acuerdo a los resultados de estudios de mesozonaci6n sismica. A partir de Ia evaluaci6n delcomportamiento ydano esperado de los edificios, se presentan alternativas para evaluar las perdidas econ6micas, indicesde funcionalidad, asi como estimaciones del tiempo de recuperaci6n que permiten identificar las instalaciones mas criticas.Los analisis de seguridad sismica se realizaron a escala local, a edificios esenciales de municipios de Val d'Aran (Espana)asi como a nivel regional, para un conjunto de centres educativos yde hospitales de Cataluna (Espana), considerandoescenarios de periodo de retorno de 475 y975 anos.Respecto al analisis del riesgo sismica, en este trabajo se adoptan metodologias para Ia estimaci6n de perdidasesperadas ante un conjunto de eventos potencialmente daninos, descritos par su magnitud ytasa de recurrencia. Dichoseventos se generan de acuerdo a Ia sismicidad de Ia zona de estudio. Para cada evento se evaluan las aceleracionesespectrales correspondientes allugar donde se hallan las instalaciones empleando I eyes de atenuaci6n. Los edificios seclasifican en tipologias estructurales para las cuales se desarrollan curvas de dana yde perdida esperada en terminos deIa aceleraci6n espectral. Baja este anal isis es posible estimar Ia perdida maxima probable para eventos de diferentesperiodos de retorno, asi como Ia perdida anual esperada. Esta metodologia se aplica a escalas nacional y supranacionalpara evaluar relaciones de beneficia-costa de Ia reducci6n del riesgo sismica de centres educativos publicos de paises deAmerica Latina.Como complemento a los analisis de perdidas dire~s, se presentan metodologias para evaluar las perdidas asociadas aIa interrupci6n del servicio de edificios esenciales durante terremotos, asi como los impactos del desastre. En el caso de Iainfraestructura sanitaria, se desarrolla un modele para evaluar Ia respuesta de una red de hospitales ante un con junto deeventos sismicos. Para cad a uno se estiman el numero de pacientes ingresados, en espera y no tratados oportunamente.Asu vez, se adopta una metodologia para estimar Ia reducci6n esperada en Ia atenci6n a Ia salud de Ia poblaci6n, dadoslos danos estimados en los hospitales en escenarios de periodo de retorno de 475 y975 anos. Estas metodologias seaplican a los hospitales publicos de Cataluna.Las metodologias propuestas y los resultados obtenidos son utiles para evaluar Ia importancia de Ia seguridad sismica delos edificios y sistemas esenciales. Adem as de Ia verificaci6n de los estandares de seguridad, los indices de perdidaecon6mica, de funcionalidad, el analisis de respuesta ante emergencias y los impactos del desastre perm iten identificar losbeneficios de Ia reducci6n de Ia fragilidad de las instalaciones, dando soporte a program as de mitigaci6n del riesgo.

    Los daños por terremotos en edificios y sistemas esenciales han motivado la definición de estándares de comportamiento de estas instalaciones, buscando reducir las pérdidas económicas y la pérdida de funcionalidad. Varias iniciativas nacionales y regionales han sugerido procedimientos para la evaluación del comportamiento y fragilidad de los edificios. Estos avances han dado soporte para la gestión de programas nacionales y regionales para la reducción de la vulnerabilidad de instalaciones esenciales, en los cuales se debe decidir entre ejecutar obras de reforzamiento o bien, renovar la infraestructura. En este trabajo se adoptan y presentan metodologías para evaluar la seguridad y riesgo sísmico, así como la factibilidad de las actividades de reducción de pérdidas, con el fin de priorizar el análisis detallado y orientar programas de reducción de la vulnerabilidad sísmica de edificios y sistemas esenciales. Estos procedimientos se aplican en diferentes casos de estudio, a escala local, regional, nacional y supranacional, realizando evaluaciones sobre centros educativos y centros de salud, entre otros edificios de importancia especial. Respecto a la evaluación de la seguridad sísmica de los edificios esenciales, se adopta un método simplificado basado en espectros de capacidad, propuesto en el proyecto RISK UE para evaluar su comportamiento y calificar su seguridad de acuerdo a los estándares sugeridos por el Comité VISION 2000. Para este análisis, los edificios se clasifican en tipologías estructurales para las cuales se conocen espectros de capacidad. Para estimar la acción sísmica (en roca firme), se adaptan espectros de amenaza uniforme a las formas espectrales del Eurocódigo 8. Para evaluar la acción sísmica en superficie, se emplean espectros de respuesta para diferentes tipos de suelo, de acuerdo a los resultados de estudios de mesozonación sísmica. A partir de la evaluación del comportamiento y daño esperado de los edificios, se presentan alternativas para evaluar las pérdidas económicas, índices de funcionalidad, así como estimaciones del tiempo de recuperación, que permiten identificar las instalaciones más críticas. Estos procedimientos se aplican a edificios esenciales de Cataluña (España), considerando periodos de retorno de 475 y 975 años. A escala local, esta metodología se aplica a los edificios esenciales ubicados en la Comarca de Val d’Arán. Este análisis permite evaluar su seguridad y priorizarlos según los daños esperados. De estos resultados se encuentra que cerca del 70% de los edificios son operacionales para periodos de retorno de 475 años. Para periodos de retorno de 975 años, son menos del 10% los edificios no cumplen con el nivel de comportamiento de seguridad de la vida. En cuanto a los daños esperados, el promedio de las instalaciones, para un periodo de retorno de 475 años, tienen un índice de pérdida económica del 25%. En cuanto a su funcionalidad, se observa que cerca del 50% tienen un índice de funcionalidad menor a 0.5. A escala regional, el mismo procedimiento se aplica para evaluar la seguridad de un conjunto de centros educativos de Cataluña, compuesto por instalaciones ubicadas en la Comarca de Val d’Aran, en la Provincia de Girona, así como edificios construidos con sistemas industrializados, la mayoría situados en la Provincia de Barcelona. Del total de centros analizados, para un periodo de retorno de 475 años, son menos del 5% las instalaciones que no cumplen con el nivel de comportamiento operacional. Para un periodo de retorno de 975 años, todos los centros educativos cumplen con el requisito de seguridad de la vida. El promedio de la pérdida económica de los centros de Girona se encuentra entre el 15% y el 20%. El promedio de la pérdida económica del conjunto de edificios industrializados es inferior al 5%. Para los centros educativos de de Val d’Aran, el promedio de la pérdida económica es del 25%. En forma similar, se desarrolla una evaluación de la seguridad de un conjunto de hospitales públicos de Cataluña. Para eventos de periodo de retorno de 475 años, cerca del 16% no cumplen el nivel de comportamiento operacional. Para eventos de periodo de retorno de 975 años, todos los hospitales cumplen con el requisito de seguridad de la vida. Además de la evaluación del comportamiento, se estiman índices de pérdida económica, de funcionalidad y se propone un Índice de Vulnerabilidad de Hospitales que incluye aspectos estructurales, no estructurales y de capacidad de respuesta a emergencias. Como complemento a la verificación de estándares de seguridad, en este trabajo se adoptan metodologías para la estimación de pérdidas esperadas ante un conjunto de eventos potencialmente dañinos, descritos por su magnitud y tasa de recurrencia. Dichos eventos se generan de acuerdo a la sismicidad de la zona de estudio. Para cada evento se evalúan las aceleraciones espectrales correspondientes al lugar donde se hallan las instalaciones empleando leyes de atenuación. Los edificios se clasifican en tipologías estructurales para las cuales se desarrollan curvas de vulnerabilidad. Dichas curvas relacionan la pérdida esperada y su desviación estándar con la aceleración espectral. Bajo este análisis es posible estimar la pérdida máxima probable para eventos de diferentes periodos de retorno, así como la pérdida anual esperada. Esta metodología se aplica a escala supranacional para evaluar relaciones de beneficio-costo de la reducción del riesgo sísmico en el área construida de centros educativos públicos de países de América Latina. Este análisis se centra en las pérdidas económicas y permite identificar los países en los cuales resulta viable la intervención estructural. Estos resultados se comparan con índices de progreso del sector educativo y de inversión pública en educación, con el fin de identificar los países en los cuales, los daños en la infraestructura escolar representan altos costos de oportunidad y pueden afectar el cumplimiento de los objetivos y metas en educación. Para la gestión de la seguridad de los edificios y sistemas esenciales, además de la estimación de las pérdidas económicas, es de interés evaluar las pérdidas asociadas a la interrupción del servicio durante terremotos, así como los impactos del desastre. Para el primer caso, se desarrolla un modelo para evaluar la respuesta de los hospitales durante eventos sísmicos. En este modelo se estiman el número de pacientes ingresados, en espera y no tratados oportunamente en un conjunto de hospitales. Este análisis se desarrolla para el conjunto de hospitales públicos de Cataluña para periodos de retorno de 475 y 975 años, así como para un conjunto de eventos generados de acuerdo a la peligrosidad sísmica de la región de estudio. De este análisis se encuentra que los hospitales con comportamiento crítico son aquellos ubicados en las zonas de mayor densidad de población y de mayor peligrosidad sísmica, en las cuales se espera que ocurran más heridos y que los hospitales puedan tener mayores daños. Para periodos de retorno de 475 años, el porcentaje de heridos no tratados oportunamente en el sistema puede llegar a ser del 8% y del 25% para periodos de retorno de 975 años. Para evaluar el impacto socioeconómico de los daños por terremotos en edificios esenciales, en este trabajo se adoptan metodologías para estimar los efectos sobre la población asociados a la reducción del funcionamiento de las instalaciones luego de eventos sísmicos. Estos procedimientos se aplican a un conjunto de hospitales públicos de Cataluña, con el fin de evaluar la reducción en la producción de salud, teniendo en cuenta diferentes escenarios de daños. La producción de salud se considera como el resultado de los servicios médicos ofrecidos con la infraestructura y recursos hospitalarios disponibles, los cuales influyen en la salud de la población. La producción de salud se mide en términos de la tasa de mortalidad (número de personas fallecidas anualmente por cada mil habitantes). De esta manera, una reducción en la producción de salud está relacionada con aumentos en la tasa de mortalidad. En el modelo adoptado, la producción de salud se relaciona con indicadores de los recursos sanitarios como el número de camas, personal médico y el diagnóstico de pacientes empleando nuevas tecnologías. De los resultados de este análisis se encuentra que, para escenarios de periodo de retorno de 475, la reducción en la producción de salud está relacionada con incrementos en la tasa de mortalidad de 0.84 muertos por cada mil habitantes. Dicho incremento es de de 1.14 para periodos de retorno de 975 años. Las metodologías propuestas y los resultados obtenidos son útiles para evaluar la importancia de la seguridad sísmica de los edificios y sistemas esenciales. Además de la verificación de los estándares de seguridad, los índices de pérdida económica, de funcionalidad, el análisis de respuesta ante emergencias y los impactos luego del desastre permiten identificar los beneficios de la reducción de la fragilidad de las instalaciones, dando soporte a programas de mitigación del riesgo.

    In this thesis, several methods to evaluate the seismic safety and seismic risk of essential and special buildings and systems are developed and applied. Those procedures are applied to case studies. Concerning the safety analysis, the seismic action is defined by means of response spectra which are defined according to the spectral shapes proposed In Euro-code EC 08. The soils effects are taken into account using the results of a seismic mesozonation study; buildings are defined by means of their bilinear capacity spectra but they are grouped ac-cording to simplified structural typologies. The expected damage is then estimated by means of a capacity spec-trum based method. Finally, the buildings safety is evaluated comparing the expected damage grades and the levels of seismic performance proposed by the Vision 2000 Committee. In the proposed method expected economic losses, residual functionality and recovery time periods also can be estimated. The obtained results allow identifying the buildings with worse seismic performance and can be useful for prioritizing vulnerability and risk reduction measures. The seismic safety study has been applied at local and regional scales. At local scale the buildings of special importance in the municipalities of Val d¿Aran (Spain) has been analyzed; at regional scale the methods are applied to a set of schools and public hospitals of Catalonia (Spain). Moreover well-known methods for seismic risk assessment were used to estimate expected losses in essential facilities when they are exposed to a set of potential harmful seismic events, which are defined by their magnitudes and recurrence rates. Then stochastic techniques are used to generate a family of such events according to the seismicity of the region of interest. For each event and for each building, the spectral accelerations at the site of the building are estimated by using seismological models linking magnitudes and spectral amplitudes and attenuation laws. Then, for each building typology, curves relating the expected economic losses and the spectral acceleration are developed. The method also allows estimating the corresponding standard deviations. The method can be applied before and after of hypothetical measures for reducing the vulnerability and seismic risk. Therefore, on this basis it is possible to estimate annual average losses according to the seismic hazard of the studied region. This procedure has been applied, at national and supranational scale, to obtain appraisals of the benefit-cost ratios of seismic risk reduction actions in schools in countries of Latin America. An added value of this thesis comes from the methods for assessing also the expected indirect losses associated to the disruption of essential and special facilities during earthquakes, as well as those related to the socioeconomic impacts of the disaster. In this context, a model was developed that allows evaluating the whole performance of a hospital network during seismic events. The method is based on the assessment, for each event, of the numbers of inpatients, injured people in waiting list and injured people not receiving treatment opportunely. The method also allows obtaining quantitative estimates of the expected reduction in the assistance of the health of the population. The methods and techniques proposed and used in this thesis, as well as the results obtained in specific case stud-ies, are useful for evaluating the actual seismic safety of essential facilities. Besides, the verification of the levels of performance, the assessment of indices of economic losses and of residual functionality, the analysis of the response, capacity and resilience to face emergencies and the detailed study of the impacts of the disasters, allow identifying the benefits of activities oriented to the reduction of the seismic vulnerability and risk, even in low to moderate seismic hazard areas.

  • Earthquake vulnerability assessment of buildings for catastrophic risk analysis in urban areas

     Yamín Lacouture, Luis Eduardo; Hurtado Chaparro, Alvaro Ivan; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Bernal Granados, Gabriel Andres; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A catastrophic risk model has been developed to evaluate, building by building, the probabilistic losses and pure premiums of different portfolios. The model includes a hazard module, an exposure module, a vulnerability module and a risk module. A brief summary of the methodological approach adopted for catastrophic risk assessment and an improvement methodological approach for the vulnerability assessment of building structures is presented. Dynamic nonlinear or simplified nonlinear analysis, the consideration of multiple damage functions for different types of components of the construction and a repair cost methodological approach are proposed in order to integrate the total economic losses for the building, for different performance levels of analysis. The methodology is illustrated with a one-story, one-bay reinforced concrete moment resisting frame with unreinforced masonry infill walls. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are presented for the implementation of the proposed methodology.

    A catastrophic risk model has been developed to evaluate, building by building, the probabilistic losses and pure premiums of different portfolios. The model includes a hazard module, an exposure module, a vulnerability module and a risk module. A brief summary of the methodological approach adopted for catastrophic risk assessment and an improvement methodological approach for the vulnerability assessment of building structures is presented. Dynamic nonlinear or simplified nonlinear analysis, the consideration of multiple damage functions for different types of components of the construction and a repair cost methodological approach are proposed in order to integrate the total economic losses for the building, for different performance levels of analysis. The methodology is illustrated with a one-story, one-bay reinforced concrete moment resisting frame with unreinforced masonry infill walls. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are presented for the implementation of the proposed methodology.

  • Holistic evaluation of the seismic risk in Barcelona by using indicators

     Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This article presents a methodology which evaluates the seismic risk from a holistic perspective, that is, it takes into account the expected physical damage and also the conditions related to social fragility and lack of resilience, which favour the second order effects when a hazard event strikes an urban centre. Indicators are used in order to capture favourable conditions for direct physical impacts, as well as indirect and, at times, intangible impacts of hazard events. In the case of Barcelona, the seismic hazard has been simulated by using the CRISIS 2007 code. The vulnerability of the buildings in the city of Barcelona has been defined with vulnerability functions using the Vulnerability Module of the CAPRA platform. These functions are defined for each building typology; the used typologies were defined in ICC/CIMNE (2004). This case study is part of the results obtained in the MOVE project of the European Commission.

  • Design and implementation of a collective insurance program based on cross subsidies for recovery of low income homeowners

     Marulanda Fraume, Mabel Cristina; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Mora Cuevas, Miguel
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events creates powerful incentives to develop planning options and tools to reduce and finance potential damages. This paper describes how probabilistic metrics such as the loss exceedance curve, the expected annual loss and the probable maximum loss, calculated with catastrophe risk models, are used for the designing of a risk transfer instrument to cover the private housing in Manizales, Colombia. This voluntary collective instrument promotes the insurance culture and provides financial protection not only to the estate-tax payers but also covers the low-income homeowners through a cross-subsidy strategy. This program is promoted by the city administration and the insurance industry, using the mechanism of the property-tax payment. This collective insurance helps the government to access key resources for low-income householder recovery and improve disaster risk management at local level.

  • The Quadrants Method: a procedure to evaluate the seismic performance of existing buildings

     Vielma Pérez, Juan Carlos; Martínez, Y; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work a new simple procedure for the evaluation of the seismic performance is formulated. It combines the results of non-linear static analysis with a specific Limit State defined by inter-storey drift-based damage threshold and the seismic demand obtained from the inelastic design spectrum. With both values it is possible to define four zones in the capacity curve which characterizes four different seismic performances. The procedure is used to evaluate two reinforced concrete framed buildings, the first one consist in a typical lowrise building designed according to current Venezuelan codes; the second one is a four-storey building designed according to older code, whose had been damaged by fire. Results shown both cases do not meet the Quadrants Method criterion then they need to be redesigned. Redesigned buildings were submitted to a non-linear dynamic analysis, representative of three hazard levels associated with three Limit States. These redesigned buildings met all the objectives associated with the hazard levels, showing the efficiency of the method for the rapid evaluation of the seismic performance of existing buildings.

  • CAPRA - Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment: international initiative for risk management effectiveness

     Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Ordaz Schroeder, Mario Gustavo; Reinoso Angulo, Eduardo; Yamín Lacouture, Luis Eduardo; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. This has been the reason why CAPRA, the risk evaluation model described in this paper, was developed with the technical and financial support of the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Strategy of United Nations for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). CAPRA is a techno-scientific methodology and information platform, composed of tools for the evaluation and communication of risk at various territorial levels. This model allows the evaluation of probabilistic losses on exposed elements using probabilistic metrics, such as the exceedance probability curve, expected annual loss and probable maximum loss, useful for multi-hazard/risk analyses. The platform is conceptually oriented to facilitate decision making. Using CAPRA it is possible to design risk transfer instruments, the evaluation of probabilistic cost-benefit ratio, providing an innovative tool for decision makers to analyze the net benefits of the risk mitigation strategies, such as building retrofitting. This model is useful for land use planning, loss scenarios for emergency response, early warning, on-line loss assessment mechanisms, and for the holistic evaluation of disaster risk based on indicators that facilitates the integrated risk management by the different stakeholders involved in risk reduction decision-making. CAPRA has been used in Central and South America and in some countries of Europe and Asia. It has been the base for the evaluation of the country´s risk profile for Colombia, Mexico and Nepal in the framework of the United Nations Global Assessment Report GAR-2011 and it is a potential contribution for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM).

    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. This has been the reason why CAPRA, the risk evaluation model described in this paper, was developed with the technical and financial support of the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and the International Strategy of United Nations for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). CAPRA is a techno-scientific methodology and information platform, composed of tools for the evaluation and communication of risk at various territorial levels. This model allows the evaluation of probabilistic losses on exposed elements using probabilistic metrics, such as the exceedance probability curve, expected annual loss and probable maximum loss, useful for multi-hazard/risk analyses. The platform is conceptually oriented to facilitate decision making. Using CAPRA it is possible to design risk transfer instruments, the evaluation of probabilistic cost-benefit ratio, providing an innovative tool for decision makers to analyze the net benefits of the risk mitigation strategies, such as building retrofitting. This model is useful for land use planning, loss scenarios for emergency response, early warning, on-line loss assessment mechanisms, and for the holistic evaluation of disaster risk based on indicators that facilitates the integrated risk management by the different stakeholders involved in risk reduction decision-making. CAPRA has been used in Central and South America and in some countries of Europe and Asia. It has been the base for the evaluation of the country´s risk profile for Colombia, Mexico and Nepal in the framework of the United Nations Global Assessment Report GAR-2011 and it is a potential contribution for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). Examples of application of the model in the different countries, descriptions of the wiki and visualization tools available are made to illustrate the capabilities of this innovative open architecture ad open source platform using as example earthquakes, nevertheless similar application can be made for hurricanes, floods, landslides and volcanoes.

  • Smart scaling of accelerograms applied to the study of steel buildings

     Bermúdez, C.A.; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Seismic risk scenarios in a cross-border zone of the Pyrenees

     Monfort, D.; Negulescu, Caterina; Roullé, Agathe; Colas, B.; Lantada Zarzosa, Nieves; Valcarcel Torres, Jairo Andres; Rodríguez, J.; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Irizarry, Janira; Susagna Vidal, Teresa; Macau, Albert; Figueras Vila, Sara; Goula Suriñach, Xavier
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Deterministic and probabilistic earthquake scenarios for the seismic risk analysis of URM buildings

     Avila Haro, Jorge Arturo; Gonzalez Drigo, Jose Ramon; Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics
    p. 537-540
    DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.525-526.537
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Seismic performance of unreinforced masonry buildings: application to Barcelona, Spain

     Avila Haro, Jorge Arturo; Gonzalez Drigo, Jose Ramon; Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Cattari, Serena
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Probabilistic assessment of the seismic risk of Barcelona

     Aguilar Meléndez, Armando; García-Elías, A.; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Lantada Zarzosa, Nieves; Ordaz Schroeder, Mario Gustavo
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-7
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Probabilistic vulnerability assessment of a reinforced concrete structure by using a 3-D model

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2012-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A tool for the identification of low R.C. structures damage levels

     Paredes, Jairo Andrés; Baños, J.; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Martinez Garcia, Xavier
    World Congress on Computational Mechanics
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Probabilistic assessment of the seismic damage in reinforced concrete buildings  Open access

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    International Symposium Computational Civil Engineering
    p. 43-61
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-25
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    The main objective of this article is to assess the expected seismic damage in reinforced concrete buildings from a probabilistic point of view by using Monte Carlo simulation. To do that, the seismic behavior of the building is studied by using random capacity obtained by considering the mechanical properties of the materials as random variables. Starting from the capacity curves, one can obtain the damage states and the fragility curves as well as to develop curves describing the expected seismic damage of the structures as a function of a seismic hazard characteristic. The latter can be calculated using the capacity spectrum and the demand spectrum according to the methodology proposed by the RISK-UE project. For defining the seismic demand as a random variable, a set of real accelerograms are obtained from the European and Spanish databases in such a way that the mean of their elastic response spectra is similar to an elastic response spectrum selected from Eurocode 8. In order to combine the uncertainties associated with the seismic action and the mechanical properties of materials, two procedures are considered for obtaining functions which relates the PGA to the maximum spectral displacements. The first one is based on a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses. The second one is based on the well known procedure named equal displacement approximation exposed in ATC 40. After applying both procedures, the probability density functions of the maximum displacement at the roof of the building are obtained and compared. The expected structural damage is finally obtained by replacing the spectral displacement obtained by using the ATC 40 and the incremental dynamic procedure. In the damage functions the results obtained from incremental static and dynamic analyses are finally compared and discussed from a probabilistic point of view.

  • Access to the full text
    Probabilistic seismic risk assessment of Barcelona, Spain  Open access

     Cardona Arboleda, Omar Dario; Marulanda Fraume, Mabel Cristina; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    International Symposium Computational Civil Engineering
    p. 91-108
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. The results of the seismic risk assessment of the city of Barcelona using CAPRA (Comprehensive Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment) presented in this paper involve the evaluation of probabilistic losses of the exposed elements using probabilistic metrics, such as the exceedance probability curve, the expected annual loss and the probable maximum loss, which are useful for multi-hazard/risk analyses. The outcomes obtained with technoscientific methodologies like CAPRA are oriented to facilitate decision-making. Using CAPRA, it is possible to design risk transfer instruments; evaluation of probabilistic cost-benefit ratio, to consider the net benefits of risk mitigation strategies; land use planning, loss scenarios for emergency response, early warning, on-line loss assessment mechanisms and holistic evaluation of disaster risk based on indicators. These applications facilitate the integrated risk management by the different stakeholders involved in risk reduction decisionmaking.

    Understanding disaster risk due to hazard events, such as earthquakes, creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to reduce potential damages. The results of the seismic risk assessment of the city of Barcelona using CAPRA (Comprehensive Approach for Probabilistic Risk Assessment) presented in this paper involve the evaluation of probabilistic losses of the exposed elements using probabilistic metrics, such as the exceedance probability curve, the expected annual loss and the probable maximum loss, which are useful for multi-hazard/risk analyses. The outcomes obtained with technoscientific methodologies like CAPRA are oriented to facilitate decision-making. Using CAPRA, it is possible to design risk transfer instruments; evaluation of probabilistic cost-benefit ratio, to consider the net benefits of risk mitigation strategies; land use planning, loss scenarios for emergency response, early warning, on-line loss assessment mechanisms and holistic evaluation of disaster risk based on indicators. These applications facilitate the integrated risk management by the different stakeholders involved in risk reduction decisionmaking.

  • Simulación de los materiales compuestos como refuerzo en estructuras de hormigón armado

     Molina Herrera, Maritzabel
    Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Evaluación probabilista de la vulnerabilidad y del riesgo sísmico en edificios de hormigón armado utilizando modelos estructurales avanzados

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio
    Competitive project

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  • El terremoto de Lorca del 11 de mayo de 2011: informe de la inspección y de los trabajos de campo realizados

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Goula Suriñach, Xavier; Macau, Albert; Carreño Tibaduiza, Martha Liliana; Irizarry, J.; Valcarcel Torres, Jairo Andrés; Figueras, Sara; Lantada Zarzosa, Nieves
    Date of publication: 2011-12
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  • Doctor Honoris Causa

     Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    Award or recognition

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  • Scénarios de risque sismique dans une zone transfrontalière des Pyrénées

     Monfort, Daniel; Lantada Zarzosa, Nieves; Goula Suriñach, Xavier; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Negulescu, Caterina; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Susagna Vidal, Teresa; Valcarcel Torres, Jairo Andres; Rodríguez, Jessica
    Colloque National de l'Association Française du Génie Parasismique
    p. 191-199
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Ultra low cycle fatigue of steel under cyclic high-strain loading conditions

     Oller Martinez, Sergio Horacio; Barbu, Lucia Gratiela; Martinez Garcia, Xavier; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro
    Competitive project

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  • EVALUACIÓN PROBABILÍSTA DEL RIESGO SÍSMICO DE EDIFICIOS EN ZONAS URBANAS

     Aguilar Meléndez, Armando
    Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geo-Sciences, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Comparación probabilista entre el análisis estático y dinámico incremental de edificios de hormigón armado

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    Congresso de Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de edificios, se han propuesto varias metodologías derivadas de la curva de capacidad obtenida por medio del análisis estático no lineal de carga incremental o análisis pushover. Por otra parte, el análisis dinámico incremental es una poderosa herramienta desarrollada recientemente, análoga al análisis pushover porque el PGA de la acción es incrementado obteniendo en cada paso de cálculo la respuesta dinámica máxima. Por tanto, es importante comparar los resultados obtenidos con estos dos métodos. Por otra parte, las incertidumbres asociadas a las propiedades mecánicas de los materiales y de la acción sísmica es otro aspecto importante que debe ser considerado en el estudio. Para incluir este enfoque probabilista, se estudia la respuesta estocástica de un modelo estructural mediante el método de Monte Carlo. La acción sísmica es tratada como una variable aleatoria tomando diferentes registros de aceleración compatibles con el espectro de respuesta elástica de una zona dado por las normas de diseño. El propósito de esta comparación es de obtener una medida del error en la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de las estructuras cuando la respuesta dinámica de una estructura es aproximada utilizando un procedimiento estático no lineal incremental. El estudio se aplica al caso de estructuras de hormigón armado comúnmente usadas en España. No obstante, las metodologías propuestas en este artículo pueden ser extendidas a cualquier tipo de edificio. Los resultados obtenidos mediante el procedimiento estático y dinámico son comparados y discutidos desde un punto de vista probabilista. Este análisis probabilista muestra que la dispersión de los resultados se incrementa cuando la estructura empieza a comportarse en régimen no lineal.

    En la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de edificios, se han propuesto varias metodologías derivadas de la curva de capacidad obtenida por medio del análisis estático no lineal de carga incremental o análisis pushover. Por otra parte, el análisis dinámico incremental es una poderosa herramienta desarrollada recientemente, análoga al análisis pushover porque el PGA de la acción es incrementado obteniendo en cada paso de cálculo la respuesta dinámica máxima. Por tanto, es importante comparar los resultados obtenidos con estos dos métodos. Por otra parte, las incertidumbres asociadas a las propiedades mecánicas de los materiales y de la acción sísmica es otro aspecto importante que debe ser considerado en el estudio. Para incluir este enfoque probabilista, se estudia la respuesta estocástica de un modelo estructural mediante el método de Monte Carlo. La acción sísmica es tratada como una variable aleatoria tomando diferentes registros de aceleración compatibles con el espectro de respuesta elástica de una zona dado por las normas de diseño. El propósito de esta comparación es de obtener una medida del error en la evaluación del riesgo sísmico de las estructuras cuando la respuesta dinámica de una estructura es aproximada utilizando un procedimiento estático no lineal incremental. El estudio se aplica al caso de estructuras de hormigón armado comúnmente usadas en España. No obstante, las metodologías propuestas en este artículo pueden ser extendidas a cualquier tipo de edificio. Los resultados obtenidos mediante el procedimiento estático y dinámico son comparados y discutidos desde un punto de vista probabilista. Este análisis probabilista muestra que la dispersión de los resultados se incrementa cuando la estructura empieza a comportarse en régimen no lineal.

  • Incremental dynamic analysis and pushover analysis: a probabilistic comparison

     Vargas Alzate, Yeudy Felipe; Pujades Beneit, Luis Gonzaga; Barbat Barbat, Horia Alejandro; Hurtado Gómez, Jorge Eduardo
    International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Capacity-spectrum-based-methods are also used for assessing the vulnerability and risk of existing buildings. Capacity curves are usually obtained by means of nonlinear static analysis. Incremental Dynamic Analysis is another powerful tool based on nonlinear dynamic analysis. This method is similar to the pushover analysis as the input is incrementally increased but it is different as it is based on dynamic analysis. Moreover, it is well known that the uncertainties associated to the structural response can be significant, because of the un-certainties involved in the mechanical properties of the materials, and because the expected seismic actions are also highly uncertain. In this work selected mechanical properties are considered as random variables and the seismic hazard is considered in a probabilistic way. A number of accelerograms of actual European seismic events have been selected in such a way that their response spectra fitted well the response spectra provided by the seismic codes for the zone where the target building is constructed. In this work a fully probabilistic ap-proach is tackled by means of Monte Carlo simulation and it is applied to a detailed study of the seismic response of a reinforced concrete building. The building is representative for multifamily buildings in Spain but the methods used and the results obtained can be extended to other types of buildings. The main purposes of this work are 1) to analyze the differences when static and dynamic techniques are used and 2) to obtain a measure of the uncertainties involved in the assessment of the vulnerability of structures. The results show that static based procedures are somehow conservative and that uncertainties increase with the severity of the seismic actins and with the damage. Low damage state fragility curves have little uncertainty while high damage grades fragility curves show great scattering.