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  • The diversity of dinoflagellates belonging to the gymnodiniales from the catalan coast (NW MEDITERRANEAN SEA)

     Reñé Vicente, Albert
    Defense's date: 2014-02-28
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Les dinoflagel¿lades són un dels grups més abundants i diversos de microalgues. Moltes espècies estan cobertes ambplaques de cel¿lulosa, mentre que d¿altres que no en tenen són conegudes com a atecades o nues. Les espècies atecadeshan estat generalment mal caracteritzades ja que es deformen quan són fixades amb mètodes tradicionals. La majoria degèneres atecats s'inclouen dins l¿ordre Gymnodinials i es distingeixen per caràcters morfològics, però la combinació recentd'observacions morfològiques amb dades filogenètiques conclou que les filogènies moleculars no suporten els criterismorfològics clàssics utilitzats per distingir els gèneres. També es coneix que l¿ordre Gymnodinials no és monofilètic. Pertant, la correcta taxonomia de dinoflagel¿lades requereix una combinació d¿informació morfològica i molecular. L'úsgeneralitzat de tècniques moleculars ha permès estudis detallats sobre la sistemàtica de molts grups. Tot i que moltesdinoflagel¿lades no són fàcilment cultivables i no es poden seqüenciar mitjançant tècniques estàndards, la tècnica desingle-cell PCR ha permès obtenir seqüències a partir d'una sola cèl¿lula, aprofitant el gran nombre de còpies dels gensribosòmics que les dinoflagel¿lades contenen.Entre els anys 1960 i 1980 es van dur a terme identificacions extensives de les dinoflagel¿lades existents al litoral català.Tanmateix, no es va caracteritzar adequadament la diversitat de dinoflagel¿lades atecades degut a l¿ús de mostres fixades ila manca d'eines moleculars. Aquesta memòria presenta l'estudi de la diversitat d'espècies de l¿ordre Gymnodinials a lacosta catalana com a representativa del NO del Mar Mediterrani, entre els anys 2010-2013. L'estudi presenta una revisió dela seva taxonomia pel que s'han combinant estudis morfològics d¿exemplars vius amb la corresponent informaciófilogenètica. Atès que la filogènia d¿alguns dels organismes estudiats no s'havia determinat amb anterioritat i l'evidència quel¿ordre Gymnodinials no és monofilètic, el segon objectiu ha estat estudiar les relacions filogenètiques de les espècies. Esva seleccionar la regió D1-D2 del 28s rDNA per dur a terme els anàlisis amb SC-PCR, però també es van obtenirseqüències del 18s rDNA quan ha estat necessari.La combinació de les dades morfològiques i moleculars ha permès la identificació inequívoca de 58 espècies atecadespertanyents a l¿ordre Gymnodinials. D¿aquestes, es detecten deu morfoespècies per primera vegada a la mar Mediterrània, ivuit per primera vegada al litoral català (Capítols 1 i 2). A més, l'aplicació de la SC-PCR ha permès seqüenciar 43 espèciesatecades, 25 de les quals per primera vegada (Capítols 1 i 2). També ha permès la detecció i caracterització d¿espècies nodescrites prèviament, que ha resultat en la descripció de les noves espècies Gymnodinium litoralis (Capítol 3) i Polykrikostanit (Capítol 4). A més, es va detectar per primera vegada l'espècie tòxica Cochlodinium polykrikoides al litoral català. Lamajoria d¿aquests organismes pertanyien a un nou ribotip, però d¿altres quedaren inclosos en un ribotip ja conegut,demostrant la seva coexistència al Mar Mediterrani (Capítol 5). Finalment, es va seqüenciar per primera vegada unespècimen del gènere Ceratoperidinium i es va obtenir un nou grup filogenètic, juntament amb d¿altres dinoflagel¿ladesatecades, incloent Ceratoperidinium margalefii, Gyrodinium falcatum, que va ser transferit al gènere Ceratoperidinium, tresespècies de Cochlodinium, i dos organismes semblants a Gymnodinium. Això va donar lloc a l'esmena de la famíliaCeratoperidiniaceae i del gènere Ceratoperidinum (Capítol 6). La correcta identificació de les espècies ha permès concloureque la costa catalana presenta una gran diversitat de dinoflagel¿lades atecades, i discutir les implicacions en la distribució ibiogeografia de les espècies a nivell de la Mediterrània, com el cas de C. polykrikoides (Capítol 5), o global, com el cas deGyrodinium spirale (Capítol 2).BARCELONA 10

  • Desenvolupament i implementació d'un sistema de predicció costanera a la costa catalana

     Espino Infantes, Manel
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Meteo-oceanographic simulations and observations to assess the potential of offshore wind farm in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    Journal of coastal research
    Date of publication: 2013-04-10
    Journal article

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  • Numerical simulations and observations for offshore wind farms in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    Journal of coastal research
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Renewable marine energy is important in squeezed Mediterranean coastal zones. Wind turbines deployed over the narrow Catalan continental shelf require accurate wind/wave/current fields for a reliable design, operation and maintenance. This paper presents the large (comparative to other open sea areas) errors in meteo-oceanographic predictions for semi enclosed domains such as the coastal sea off the Ebro Delta coast. The emphasis is on the sequence of high resolution coupled and nested models and the role of in situ collocated measurements for calibration and validation. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013.

  • Predictability of currents on a mesotidal estuary (Ria de Vigo, NW Iberia)

     Cerralbo Peñarroya, Pablo; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Espino Infantes, Manel; López Marco, Jaime
    Ocean dynamics
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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  • Meteo-oceanographic simulations and observations to assess the potential of offshore wind farm in a NW Mediterranean shelf

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; González Marco, Daniel; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Palomares, Ana; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Schuon, Frieder; Espino Infantes, Manel; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Pallares Lopez, Elena; Jiménez, Pedro Angel; Navarro, Jorge
    International Coastal Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Renewable marine energy is important in squeezed Mediterranean coastal zones. Wind turbines deployed over the narrow Catalan continental shelf require accurate wind/wave/current fields for a reliable design, operation and maintenance. This paper presents the large (comparative to other open sea areas) errors in meteo-oceanographic predictions for semi enclosed domains such as the coastal sea off the Ebro Delta coast. The emphasis is on the sequence of high resolution coupled and nested models and the role of in situ collocated measurements for calibration and validation.

  • Suspended sediment observations in the Barcelona inner-shelf during storms

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Fernández, Juan; Espino Infantes, Manel
    International Coastal Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This contribution describes in detail the Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) obtained from an observational set at 24 m depth in the Catalan inner-shelf (North-western Mediterranean Sea) analysing the dominant processes affecting sediment dynamics during storm events. A clear correlation between SSC, energetic waves, and along-shelf currents events has been found. Peaks in river discharge associated to rainy events are also correlated with SSC measurements. Measured conditions highlight the different sediment dynamic situations present during short-term events such as ¿wet¿ and ¿dry¿ storms with similar wave height. SSC observed during "dry" conditions are correlated with wave action. On the other hand, SSC peaks during "wet" conditions are primarily caused by wave action, along-shelf current, and river discharge. Observed sediment fluxes during storms are larger in spring than during fall. Although the observations present similar characteristics to other inner-shelf regions in the NW Mediterranean Sea, the results reveal a non-negligible influence of the along-shelf current in sediment dynamics. The results presented here contribute to advance in the understanding of sediment dynamics in wave-dominated regions such as the Catalan shelf.

  • Seasonal circulation over the Catalan inner-shelf (northwest Mediterranean Sea)

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Aretxabaleta, A.; Pelegrina, J.L.; Espino Infantes, Manel; Wagner, John C; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    This study characterizes the seasonal cycle of the Catalan inner-shelf circulation using observations and complementary numerical results. The relation between seasonal circulation and forcing mechanisms is explored through the depth-averaged momentum balance, for the period between May 2010 and April 2011, when velocity observations were partially available. The monthly-mean along-shelf flow is mainly controlled by the along-shelf pressure gradient and by surface and bottom stresses. During summer, fall, and winter, the along-shelf momentum balance is dominated by the barotropic pressure gradient and local winds. During spring, both wind stress and pressure gradient act in the same direction and are compensated by bottom stress. In the cross-shelf direction the dominant forces are in geostrophic balance, consistent with dynamic altimetry data. Key Points A hydrodynamic model is implemented for the first time in Catalan inner-shelf. Frictional and pressure gradient are revealed as the main forcing mechanisms A clear seasonal pattern is found in the current velocity.

  • Suspended sediment observations in the Barcelona inner-shelf during storms

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Fernández, Juan; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Journal of coastal research
    Date of publication: 2013-04-09
    Journal article

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  • Water renewal and risk assessment of water pollution in semi-enclosed domains: Application to Bilbao Harbour (Bay of Biscay)

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Del Campo, Andrea; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mader, Julien; González, Manuel; Borja, Angel
    Journal of marine systems
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • Integrative environmental assessment of the impact of Pasaia harbour activities on the Oiartzun estuary (southeastern Bay of Biscay)

     Montero, N.; Belzunce Segarra, M.J.; Del Campo, A.; Garmendia, J.M.; Ferrer, Luis; Larreta, J.; González, M.; Maidana Silanes, Augusto; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Journal of marine systems
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • Distribution and population biology of pelagic decapod crustaceans of the western Mediterranean

     Silveira Simão, Daniela
    Defense's date: 2013-11-22
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Expressió Gènica en Microorganismes Marins

     Coll Lladó, Montserrat
    Defense's date: 2013-09-27
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Biogeochemical Controls of the Transport and Cycling of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Polar Oceans.

     Galbán Malagón, Cristóbal José
    Defense's date: 2013-09-20
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • PREMI A LA MILLOR RECERCA

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; González Marco, Daniel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Alomar Dominguez, Marta; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente
    Award or recognition

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  • MAR2: Mar y Ambiente Marino

     Espino Infantes, Manel
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Incorporation of continental and urban run-off into a coastal circulation model: application to the Catalan coast  Open access

     Liste, Maria; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Keupers, Ingrid; Monbaliu, Jaak; Espino Infantes, Manel
    International Conference on Coastal Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A 3D hydrodynamical model has been set up to incorporate the continental and urban run-off into the Catalan Coastal waters. Particular attention was paid to introducing correctly the freshwater plumes and attention was also paid to determinate the influence of the land discharge profile with regard to the distributed continental run-off. The model domain includes a small part of the Catalan Coast where the combination of local land topography with torrential rainfall caused considerable local runoff on a short period of time with a large impact on the receiving coastal waters. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations were used to examine the dispersal to a freshwater delivery from two relevant event; a low river discharge typical of mean conditions during April 2011 and a high discharge representative of the storm event during March 2011 are considered. We have observed the plume responses to an abrupt change in river discharge. During the mean conditions, low salinity water is concentrated around the rivers mouth while during the flood event, the plume spread offshore in the direction of river water outflow and turned downstream close to the coast. The differences between a simulation including the river outflow as a land forcing and a simulation including river and urban runoff as a land forcing suggested that the urban runoff plays an important role in the spreading and shape of the river plume.

  • Along-shelf current variability on the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean)

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Aretxabaleta, L.; Espino Infantes, Manel; Warner, J.C
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2012-09
    Journal article

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  • Water circulation forecasting in Spanish harbours

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Jorda Sanchez, Gabriel; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Ferrer, Luis; Espino Infantes, Manel; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique
    Scientia marina
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Marine aerosols, their precursors and their influence on clouds over the global ocean  Open access

     Lana Celaya, María Aránzazu
    Defense's date: 2012-02-10
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Marine aerosols have a large potential to influence the Earth¿s climate through their effects on cloud properties. The CLAW hypothesis goes further, and suggests that marine aerosols formed by the sulphur cycle of the ocean and the atmosphere act as a mechanism for regulating the Earth's climate. This effect is produced through the influence of plankton emissions of sulphur compounds on cloud formation. Phytoplankton produces dimethylsulphide (DMS), a highly volatile sulphur compound. Once in the atmosphere, DMS is oxidized and becomes the main source of natural atmospheric sulphates. These sulphates act as condensation nuclei, particles that are essential for the formation of clouds. Those marine particles in the atmosphere play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget. Indirectly they produce a greater amount of cloud droplets. Higher cloud condensation nuclei imply smaller cloud droplets. The efficiency of smaller droplets in reflecting incident solar radiation is greater, resulting in an increase in cloud albedo, producing a cooling effect on the Earth's surface. To properly study the marine aerosols we need accurate knowledge of the global seawater distribution of the aerosol precursors. Our work focused on the ocean-to-atmosphere emissions of DMS and other biogenic gases that can have an impact on cloud microphysics. During the thesis we updated the monthly global DMS climatology taking advantage of the three-fold increased size and better resolved distribution of the observations available in the DMS database. The emerging patterns found with the previous versions of the database and climatology were explored with the updated version. The statistical relationships between the seasonalities of DMS concentrations and solar radiation doses and chlorophyll a concentrations were here re-examined. Analyses of nine years of satellite data suggested that there is a natural inverse correlation between the spatial cover of low marine clouds and the cloud droplet size, which is related to the presence of small aerosols. This coupled seasonality pushes cloud albedo to contribute higher negative radiative forcing in summer and lower in winter. This relation is disrupted in the marine atmosphere regions heavily impacted by anthropogenic aerosols. Consequently, the potential influence the aerosol precursors have on marine clouds was next analysed over unpolluted and polluted ocean, separately. The 9 years of global satellite data and ocean climatologies were used to derive parameterizations of the production fluxes of secondary aerosols formed by oxidation of DMS and other biogenic organic volatiles. Further, the emission fluxes of biogenic primary organic and sea salt aerosols ejected by wind action on sea surface were also globally studied. Series of weekly estimates of these fluxes were correlated to series of cloud droplet effective radius. The outcome of the statistical analyses indicated that sulphur and organic secondary aerosols might be important in seeding cloud nucleation and droplet activation over mid and high latitude unpolluted oceanic regions. Conversely, primary aerosols (organic and sea salt) showed that, despite contributing to large shares of the marine aerosol mass, they do not seem to be major drivers of the variability of cloud microphysics. Our results provide partial support for the feasibility of the CLAW hypothesis at the seasonal scale. Despite that DMS has drawn much of the attention on the links between marine biota and climate regulation, the implication of other biogenic precursors on cloud formation provides and suggests a wider scope on the formulation of such hypothesis.

    Los aerosoles marinos tienen un gran potencial para influir en el clima de la Tierra a través de sus efectos en las propiedades de las nubes. La hipótesis de CLAW va más allá y sugiere que los aerosoles marinos formados por el ciclo del azufre en océanos y atmósfera actúan como un mecanismo para la regulación del clima de la Tierra. Este efecto se produce a través de la influencia de las emisiones de plancton de compuestos de azufre en la formación de nubes. El fitoplancton produce sulfuro de dimetilo (DMS), un compuesto de azufre altamente volátil. Una vez en la atmósfera, el DMS se oxida y se convierte en la principal fuente de sulfatos naturales atmosféricos. Estos sulfatos actúan como núcleos de condensación, partículas esenciales para la formación de nubes. Estas partículas presentes en la atmósfera marina juegan un papel importante en el ciclo radiativo de la Tierra. Indirectamente, producen una mayor cantidad de gotas de las nubes. Mayor número de núcleos de condensación en las nubes implica gotas de nubes más pequeñas. La eficacia de las pequeñas gotas en reflejar la radiación solar incidente es mayor, lo que resulta en un aumento del albedo de las nubes, produciendo un efecto de enfriamiento en la superficie de la Tierra. Para estudiar adecuadamente los aerosoles marinos necesitamos tener un correcto conocimiento de la distribución oceánica global de los precursores de aerosoles. Nuestro trabajo se ha centrado en las emisiones del océano a la atmósfera de DMS y otros gases biogénicos que puede tener un impacto en la microfísica de nubes. Durante la tesis se ha actualizado la climatología mensual global de DMS, aprovechando el aumento en tres veces del número de observaciones y una mejor distribución global de las mismas, en la base de datos de DMS. Los patrones emergentes encontrados con las versiones anteriores de la base de datos y de la climatología se han re-evaluado con la versión actualizada. Las relaciones estadísticas encontradas entre la evolución temporal de las concentraciones de DMS y las dosis de radiación solar y concentraciones de clorofila han sido re-examinadas. Los análisis de nueve años de datos de satélite sugieren que existe una correlación inversa entre la cubierta espacial de nubes marinas bajas y el tamaño de las gotas de nubes, relacionado con la presencia de aerosoles pequeños. Esta estacionalidad acoplada conduce al albedo de las nubes a contribuir a un forzamiento radiativo negativo superior en verano, y más bajo en invierno. Esta relación se interrumpe en las regiones de la atmósfera marina con un alto impacto de los aerosoles antropogénicos. En consecuencia, la posible influencia de los precursores de aerosoles marinos en las nubes se ha analizado en una atmósfera marina limpia y contaminada, por separado. Los 9 años de datos satelitales globales y climatologías oceánicas se han utilizado para derivar las parametrizaciones de los flujos de producción de aerosoles secundarios, formados por la oxidación de DMS, y otros compuestos volátiles orgánicos biogénicos. Además, los flujos de emisiones biogénicas de aerosoles primarios orgánicos y aerosoles de sal marina expulsados por acción del viento sobre la superficie del mar se ha estudiado también a nivel global. Las series semanales de las estimaciones de estos flujos se han correlacionado con las series temporales de los radios de las gotas de nubes. El resultado de los análisis estadísticos ha indicado que el azufre orgánico y otros aerosoles secundarios pueden ser importantes en la nucleación y la activación de sus gotas sobre las regiones oceánicas no contaminadas en latitudes medias y altas. Por el contrario, aerosoles primarios (orgánico y la sal del mar) han mostrado que, a pesar de que contribuyen a una gran proporción de la masa de aerosol marino, no parecen ser los principales motores de la variabilidad de la microfísica de nubes. Nuestros resultados proporcionan un apoyo parcial a la viabilidad de la hipótesis de CLAW a escala estacional. A pesar de que el DMS ha llamado mucho la atención sobre los vínculos entre la biota marina y la regulación del clima, la implicación de otros precursores biogénicos en la formación de nubes ofrece y sugiere un mayor alcance en la formulación de esta hipótesis.

  • Interactive effects of vertical mixing, solar radiation and microbial activity on oceanic dimethylated sulfur cycling  Open access

     Galí Tàpias, Martí
    Defense's date: 2012-12-18
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The production and subsequent emission of volatile compounds is one of the numerous ways by which microbial plankton participate in the cycling of elements and influence the Earth's climate. Dimethylsulfide (DMS), produced by enzymatic decomposition of the algal intracellular compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), is the more abundant organic volatile in the upper ocean. Its global emission amounts ca. 28 Tg S per year, and represents the main biogenic source of sulfur to the troposphere and about 30% of the total S emission (anthropogenic, biogenic and volcanic). Atmospheric oxidation of DMS contributes to atmospheric acidity, and is believed to promote the formation and growth of aerosols. Furthermore, DMSderived sulfate aerosols have been suggested to cool the climate by reducing the amount of shortwave solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface through two mechanisms: by scattering solar radiation and, more important, by acting as cloud condensation nuclei, thus making clouds brighter and longerlived. The `CLAW' hypothesis postulates that, if oceanic DMS emission was in turn stimulated by solar radiation, a regulatory feedback mechanism could operate between marine plankton and the radiative budget over the oceans. However, the relationship between DMS emission and solar radiation is not straightforward, since a number of biochemical and photochemical transformations come into action from the moment DMSP is synthesized by phytoplankton until DMS is emitted. These transformations are intimately linked to the physical environment, the ecological setting and the microbial interactions, rendering the picture of dimethylated sulfur cycling a lot more complicated. Surprisingly, though, the seasonal cycle of seawater DMS concentration seems to follow that of solar radiation in the majority of oceanic regions, regardless their productivity regimes. The premise of this thesis is that, to understand this emerging pattern, we need to understand what regulates the DMS production and consumption processes and their balance (that is, DMS budgets). To this end, we have studied the response of biotic and abiotic DMS cycling to solar radiation by means of incubation experiments. At another level, we have studied the response of ecosystem DMS budgets to different radiation climates. Since the depth of the upper mixed layer regulates the amount and spectral composition of the `light' seen by the cells and molecules, our studies have been backed by a careful characterization of underwater radiation fields and vertical mixing dynamics. Our results show that solar radiation has a stimulating effect on gross DMS production. Moreover, the stimulation is more effective at shorter and more energetic wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV) region. Direct DMS production and/or increased DMSP release by UVstressed phytoplankton is the most plausible explanation for this observation, leaving a secondary role for DMS production mechanisms related to bacterial metabolism and microzooplankton grazing. At the ecosystem level, we have shown that vertical mixingmediated solar exposure regulates whether DMS is preferentially oxidized by bacteria or by photochemical reactions. The outcome of this competition between DMS sinks is that total DMS loss rate constants vary little across oceanic biomes. As a result, the seasonal and also the shortterm variability in DMS concentrations respond mainly to gross DMS production. The stress response occurs at different temporal scales: seasonally, through the succession of microbial communities towards stronger DMSP producers and higher DMS yields in summer stratified waters; and across daynight cycles, where shortterm radiative stress modulates DMSP to DMS conversion yields. By means of a literature metaanalysis, we have improved the current understanding of the different DMS(P) cycling regimes and their links with the ecological geography of the sea.

  • Wind-driven currents in the coastal and equatorial upwelling regions  Open access

     Castellano Ossa, Paola
    Defense's date: 2012-11-12
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    During the last two decades the scientific community has recognised the importance of the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the upwelling regions on the Earth's climate. This recognition has opened new questions such as: ¿What are the mechanisms for the ocean to adjust to variations in atmospheric forcing?, ¿Is there any indirect relation between the atmospheric seasonal cycle and the response of the surface ocean?, ¿How are the meridional boundary flows connected with the zonal jets in the interior ocean?, ¿What is the relevance of these processes in the redistribution of properties such as water mass, heat and fresh water? In this dissertation we explore several elements that determine the effect of the surface wind stress onto the processes within the near-surface ocean. The work focuses on recognizing the (subinertial) response mechanisms of the ocean surface to the spatial and temporal wind variations in two upwelling regions: a coastal region off Northwest Africa, in the area near Cape Blanc, and an oceanic region, in the equatorial Atlantic. With this purpose we use in situ and satellite data as well as numerical data from a high-resolution circulation model. The analysis of these data has been done with several methodologies, in some cases requiring substantial developments and tuning for local applications. The implementation of the Maximum Cross-Correlation Method has allowed determining some of the characteristics of the instantaneous and mean surface fields, during winter and spring, in the upwelling region north and south of Cape Blanc. We have identified three regions which are characterized by different responses to short-time changes of the along-shore wind stress. North of Cape Blanc stands out the intensity of the coastal baroclinic jet, in the Cape Verde basin the mesoscalar structures are relatively weak and large, and off Cape Blanc there is along-shore convergence which traduces in the formation of a normal-to-shore giant surface filament. The analyses of time series corresponding to several upwelling indexes show that the atmospheric forcing and the oceanic response are different north and south of Cape Blanc and during the first and second trimester of the year. The total subinertial flux may be represented as the combination of a surface Ekman flux (calculated as the Ekman transport divided by the thickness of the surface mixed layer) and the surface geostrophic current (deduced from altimetry satellite images). One of the most relevant results is that the temporal and spatial changes in the normal-to-shore Ekman transport influence the intensity of the geostrophic (baroclinic) coastal jet, therefore affecting the corresponding along-shore convergence (e.g. becoming intensified off Cape Blanc) and the offshore transport of upwelled waters. The dissertation has also aimed at understanding the patterns of seasonal variability in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean through the statistical analysis of time series of sea level pressure, sea surface wind stress, sea surface height, and the circulation of the near-surface ocean. The data reveals a predominant annual component in all these variables, closely related to the latitudinal oscillation of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial divergence of the Ekman transport is well correlated with the intensity of the zonal system of equatorial currents, which includes the Equatorial Undercurrent and its northern and southern branches. Additionally, the seasonal appearance of the North Equatorial Counter Current during (boreal) summer and fall is related to the meridional convergence of the Ekman transport during those same seasons, which leads to a temporal rise of sea level and the generation of an eastward current in geostrophic balance. In general, the divergence/convergence of meridional Ekman transport is dominant in the northern hemisphere and of lesser relevance in the southern hemisphere.

    Durante las últimas dos décadas la comunidad científica internacional ha pasado a reconocer la importancia del Océano Atlántico tropical y las regiones de afloramiento en el clima terrestre. Este reconocimiento ha abierto nuevos interrogantes, tales como: ¿Cuáles son los mecanismos de ajuste del océano a las variaciones en el forzamiento atmosférico?, ¿Existe algún tipo de relación indirecta entre el ciclo estacional atmosférico y la respuesta del océano superficial?, ¿Cómo se conectan los flujos oceánicos meridionales en los contornos con los flujos zonales en el océano interior?, ¿Cuál es la importancia de estos procesos en la redistribución de propiedades tales como masa, calor y agua dulce? En esta tesis se exploran diversos elementos que determinan el efecto del esfuerzo del viento superficial sobre los procesos que ocurren en el océano superficial. El trabajo se centra en reconocer cuales son los mecanismos (subinerciales) de respuesta de la superficie del océano a las variaciones espaciales y temporales del viento en dos regiones de afloramiento: una costera al Noroeste de África, en el área cercana a Cabo Blanco, y otra oceánica, en el Atlántico ecuatorial. Para ello se emplean observaciones in situ, datos satelitales y datos numéricos provenientes de un modelo de circulación de alta resolución. El análisis de estos datos se ha realizado con diversas metodologías, cuya aplicación en algunos casos ha requerido un esfuerzo substancial de desarrollo y puesta a punto. La implementación del método de Máximas Correlaciones Cruzadas ha permitido determinar algunas de las características de los campos instantáneos y medios de velocidades superficiales, durante invierno y primavera, en la región del afloramiento de Cabo Blanco. Se han identificando tres regiones caracterizadas por tener respuestas distintas a los cambios que el viento paralelo a la costa experimenta en escalas temporales cortas. Al norte de Cabo Blanco destaca la intensidad del chorro baroclino costero, en la cuenca de Cabo Verde se aprecian estructuras mesoscalares relativamente débiles y grandes, y frente a Cabo Blanco existe convergencia paralela a costa que se traduce en flujo normal a costa en forma de un gran filamento superficial. El análisis de las series temporales de diversos índices de afloramiento muestra que los forzamientos atmosféricos y las respuestas oceánicas son distintas al norte y sur de Cabo Blanco y durante el primer y segundo trimestre del año. El flujo subinercial resultante se puede representar como la combinación de un flujo superficial de Ekman (calculado como el transporte de Ekman dividido por la profundidad de la capa de mezcla) y la corriente geostrófica superficial (deducida a partir de imágenes satelitales de altimetría). Uno de los resultados más relevantes es que los cambios espaciales y temporales en el transporte de Ekman perpendicular a costa influyen sobre la intensidad del chorro geostrófico (baroclíno) costero, y por tanto afectan su convergencia a lo largo de la costa intensificándose, por ejemplo, frente a Cabo Blanco) y la transferencia neta de aguas afloradas hacia el océano interior. La tesis también se ha encaminado a investigar los patrones de variabilidad estacional del Océano Atlántico ecuatorial, a través del análisis estadístico de series temporales de presión a nivel de mar, esfuerzo cortante del viento sobre la superficie oceánica, elevación del océano superficial, y la circulación oceánica superficial. Los datos revelan una fuerte componente anual en estas variables, estrechamente vinculada con la oscilación meridional de la Zona de Convergencia Intertropical. La divergencia ecuatorial del transporte de Ekman se correlaciona adecuadamente con la intensidad del sistema de corrientes zonales ecuatoriales, que incluyen la Corriente Ecuatorial Subsuperficial y sus ramales norte y sur. Asimismo, la aparición estacional de la Contra-Corriente Ecuatorial durante verano y otoño (boreal) se relaciona con la convergencia meridional en el transporte de Ekman que tiene lugar durante estas épocas, lo cual conduce a una subida del nivel del mar y la generación de una corriente hacia el este en balance geostrófico. En general se aprecia que los procesos de divergencia/convergencia del transporte meridional de Ekman son dominantes en el hemisferio norte y de menor relevancia en el hemisferio sur. Finalmente, con el fin de comprender mejor la dinámica ecuatorial, se ha desarrollado un modelo sencillo que permite cuantificar el aporte de la divergencia de Ekman al flujo zonal en varias bandas zonales características. Se han identificado dos condiciones típicas extremas, en primavera y otoño, y se han calculado la divergencia/convergencia meridional a través de líneas definidas por un máximo en la elevación de la superficie del mar. Bajo la suposición de que el transporte zonal cerca del contorno oriental (aquí tomada a una longitud de 0º) es nulo, se estima que la franja ecuatorial presenta, en su margen occidental, valores máximos de transporte correspondientes a 58 Sv en primavera y 27 Sv durante otoño, cuyo origen es el sistema de corrientes de frontera oeste.

  • Modelado y tecnologías de observación avanzadas para estudiar procesos de transporte, constituyentes ópticos activos y variabilidad

     Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Cerralbo Peñarroya, Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel
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  • Crucial times for Spanish physical oceanography

     Pelegri ., Josep Lluis; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique; Espino Infantes, Manel; Font Ferré, Jordi; Parrilla, Gregorio; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    Scientia marina
    Date of publication: 2012-09
    Journal article

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  • Hidrodinámica y renovación en una bahía micromareal: el caso de la bahía del Fangar

     Cerralbo Peñarroya, Pablo; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Jornadas de Geomorfología Litoral
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Caracterização da agitação marítima ao largo de Maputo

     Guiloviça, C.B.; Castro Alves Oliveira, Tiago; Palalane, J.; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gomez Aguar, Jesus Javier; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia Costeira e Portuária
    Presentation's date: 2011-10-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    O objectivo deste trabalho é fazer a caracterização da agitação marítima ao largo de Maputo. Na ausência de dados de bóias e dados visuais que permitissem executar uma caracterização da agitação a longo prazo optou-se pela utilização de dados numéricos de retro-analise. Utilizaram-se resultados das predições oceânicas de escala global da NOAA/NWS/NCEP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admistration, National Wether Service, National Center for Environmental Prediction, as três dos Estados Unidos da America) que tem como base o modelo numérico WAVEWATCH III (Tolman, 2002) que utiliza dados do NCEP para definir as condições fronteira para o modelo. Efectuou-se uma analise a longo prazo tanto do clima médio como extremo e estudaram-se quais as funções de distribuição de probabilidade para análise extrema (Lognormal, Exponencial, Weibull, Gumbel e Frechet) melhor se adaptam ao clima marítimo da região. Os resultados serão apresentados com o objectivo de compreender que condições de agitação marítimas devem ser utilizadas no dimensionamento de estruturas (para diferentes períodos de retorno) bem como para estudos relacionados com transporte de sedimentos.

  • Capability assessment of sediment transport forecasting in Mediterranean continental shelves

     Fernández Sainz, Juan; Jorda Sanchez, Gabriel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Coastal Sediments
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A management system for accidental water pollution risk in a harbour: the Barcelona case study

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Jordà, Gabriel; Espino Infantes, Manel; Romo, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos
    Journal of marine systems
    Date of publication: 2011-03-02
    Journal article

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  • Simulation of water circulation over a model of a submarine canyon using FIC-FEM numerical model

     Germán, Arnel; Garcia Espinosa, Julio; Espino Infantes, Manel; Maidana Silanes, Augusto
    Journal of waterway, port, coastal, and ocean engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-05-26
    Journal article

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  • Optical propertiers of the dissolved organic matter as tracers of microbiological and geochemical processes in marine ecosystems

     Romera Castillo, Cristina
    Defense's date: 2011-10-07
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Nutrient fluxes n marine sponges: Methodology, geographical variability and the role of associated microorganisms

     Jiménez Tejero, Eroteida
    Defense's date: 2011-12-16
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Trophic ecology of hake, anchovy, sardine, round sardinella and bullet tuna larvae of nw mediterranean. Influence of trophic environment and ontogeny  Open access

     Morote Córdoba, Elvira
    Defense's date: 2011-12-02
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha analizado las relación de la comunidad ictioplanctonica con su ambiente físico y trófico en dos condiciones hidrográficas contrastadas (estratificación estival y mezcla otoñal) y se ha caracterizado la dieta larvaria de cinco especies de teleósteos presentes en el Noroeste del Mediterráneo: los tres clupeiformes de la región [anchoa (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardina (Sardina pilchardus) y alacha (Sardinella aurita)], un pequeño túnido [la melva (Auxis rochei)] y la especie de pez demersal más importante de la región [la merluza (Merluccius merluccius)]. Estas especies han sido elegidas porque representan dos morfotipos distintos, 1) morfotipo estilizado representado por los clupeiformes, con boca pequeña, cuerpo alargado y tracto digestivo ligado a la cola, y 2) morfotipo robusto representado por la melva y la merluza, con boca grande, cuerpo robusto y digestivo compacto e independiente de la cola. Además se han estudiado las variaciones de la dieta i) a lo largo del desarrollo, en relación ii) con la disponibilidad de presas y iii) con la morfología de las estructuras implicadas en la alimentación como son el sistema visual, el aparato bucal y el sistema digestivo. La alimentación es un aspecto de la ecología larvaria de los peces que en último termino afecta a la dinámica de sus poblaciones (a través de la supervivencia larvaria y las consiguientes fluctuaciones en el reclutamiento). Los factores que influyen en la preferencia de las larvas de peces por sus presas y las estrategias de alimentación han sido poco o nada estudiados para estas especies escogidas en el mar Catalán. Estos factores pueden diferir entre especies y cambiar a lo largo de la ontogenia. Esta tesis doctoral ha tenido como principal finalidad comprender las estrategias tróficas específicas de las larvas de estas cinco especies importantes en las pesquerías mediterráneas. A grandes rasgos se puede observar tres tipos de estrategias: 1) La que sigue la merluza, que desde el comienzo de la alimentación exógena se especializa en un tipo de presa (Clausocalanus spp.) y solo aumenta el número de copépodos que ingiere para responder al aumento de los requerimientos nutricionales de crecimiento. 2) La que siguen la anchoa y sardina, que muestran una baja intensidad alimenticia, y que varían el tamaño y número de presas poco a poco a lo largo del desarrollo sin grandes cambios en la dieta. 3) La descrita para la melva y la alacha, que contrariamente la las tres especies anteriores, son oportunistas y en su etapa larvaria ajustan los tipos de presa (y tamaños) conforme mejoran sus habilidades de una forma mucho más marcada que el resto de especies. El trabajo presentado en esta tesis ha estado dirigido a obtener información básica y necesaria para interpretar los patrones de distribución y dilucidar el efecto del tipo de ecología trófica de diversas especies de peces en la supervivencia larvaria. Ha sido la primera vez que se estudian las larvas de estas especies en el mar Catalán en relación a la distribución de sus presas potenciales del plancton para evaluar el papel que juega el acoplamiento espacio-temporal de larvas y presas en la estrategia alimentaria. También es la primera vez que se estudia la dieta de estas especies en relación a la morfología de estructuras relacionadas con la alimentación como son el sistema visual, la boca y el tracto digestivo. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran como la morfología opuesta del tipo de digestivo, junto con el tamaño de boca y ojos de las larvas explica las diferencias entre clupeiformes y melva y merluza en lo que se refiere a incidencia alimentaria de la población, tamaños extremos de presas grandes y agudeza visual, pero esto no es suficiente para explicar las estrategias de la alacha que se asemeja mas en sus hábitos alimentarios a la melva que a las especies morfológicamente similares (la anchoa y sardina), así como tampoco sirve para explicar las diferencias de dieta entre merluza y melva pese a que morfológicamente comparten características. Pese a que tanto la melva como la merluza parten de unas características morfológicas mas ventajosas como son el cuerpo robusto, tamaño de boca grande, mayor agudeza visual y digestivos con mayor capacidad de almacenaje, la melva sí refleja estas ventajas en unos hábitos predadores intensos y con incorporación de presas mas grandes y móviles conforme se desarrolla mientras que la merluza no cambia su dieta pese a que estaría capacitada para detectar y capturar presas más nutritivas. La merluza parte de un tamaño de boca relativamente grande al eclosionar que le permite ingerir presas grandes desde el comienzo de la alimentación exógena, patrón similar a las especies que nacen con desarrollo directo o con tamaños de larvas grandes, y no varía su dieta a lo largo del desarrollo larvario

    We have analysed the relationship of the ictioplankton community with its fisical and trophic environment in two hydrographical contrasting conditions (summer stratification versus autumn mixed column), and we have characterized the larval diet of five teleost species in the NW Mediterranean: the three clupeiform of the region [anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita)], a small tuna [bullet tuna (Auxis rochei)] and the most important demersal species of the region [hake (Merluccius merluccius)]. These species have been chosen because they represent two different morphotypes, 1) that of the clupeiforms, which correspond to a stylized larvae with small mouth, long body and digestive tract linked to the tail, and 2) that of bullet tuna and hake, which correspond to a robust larvae with big mouth, robust body and compact digestive tract independent of the tail. Moreover, we have studied the diet variations i) along development, in relation to ii) prey availability and iii) morphology of the feeding-related structures like visual system, mouth and digestive tract. Feeding is an important aspect of the larval fish ecology that affects the population dynamics (through larval survival and subsequence recruitment fluctuations). The factors that affect the larvae in their prey selection and the feeding strategies have been scarcely studied for these species in the Catalan Sea. These factors can be different depending on the species and can change with ontogeny. The main objective of this Ph.D has been to understand the specific trophic strategies of the larvae of these five important species in Mediterranean fisheries. We can point out three types of strategies: 1) The hake’s one, which from the onset specializes feeding in a prey type (Clausocalanus spp.) and only increases the number of copepods to respond to the nutritional requirements of growth. 2) Anchovy and sardine’s type, which show low feeding incidence at the beginning, and they change the size and number of preys step by step along development without showing abrupt changes in the diet. 3) Bullet tuna and hake’s type, opportunist species which deeply adjust their prey type (and size) in their larval period as they enhance their abilities. This research has aimed to obtain the basic and necessary information to explain the fish larval distribution and to elucidate the effect of the trophic ecology of several species of fishes in the larval survival. It has been the first time to study these species in the Catalan Sea in relation to the potential prey distribution to evaluate the rol of spatial-time match of larvae and preys in the feeding strategies. Moreover, it is the first time that the diet composition of the five species has been studied in relation to the morphology of the feeding-related structures such as the visual system, the mouth and the digestive tract. The results of this research highlights that the contrasting morphology of the digestive tract together with the mouth and eyes size can explain the differences in the feeding habits (feeding incidence, size range and visual acuity) among clupeiforms, bullet tuna and hake, but this is not enough to explain the strategies of round sardinella. The feeding habits of this clupeiform is closer to the bullet tuna’s than to the morphogically similar species (anchovy and sardine), nor serves to explain the differences between hake and bullet tuna diet despite sharing morphological characteristics. Although both bullet tuna and hake have a more favourable morphological features such as robust body, large mouth size, higher visual acuity and greater storage capacity, bullet tuna does reflect these advantages in an intense predatory habits with the incorporation of larger and more mobile prey as it develops, but hake diet does not change even though it would be able to detect and capture more nutritious prey. Hake has a relatively large mouth size at hatching therefore can eat larger prey since the beginning of exogenous feeding, similar to species that are born with direct development of larvae or large sizes, and does not change its diet during the course of larval development.

  • MAR2: Mar y Ambiente Marino

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Cerralbo Peñarroya, Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel
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  • NEPTUNE

     Espino Infantes, Manel; González-Marco, D.; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
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  • A new risk assessment method for water quality degradation in harbour domains, using hydrodynamic models

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Jorda Sanchez, Gabriel; Borja, Angel; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Marine pollution bulletin
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Journal article

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  • Sources of plankton variability in an urbanized coastal ecosystem

     ROMERO SOTOCA, ESTELA
    Defense's date: 2010-09-22
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Fluxes, Interactions and Environment at the Land-Ocean Boundary. Downscaling, Assimilation and Coupling

     Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Espino Infantes, Manel; Mösso Aranda, Octavio Cesar; Mestres Ridge, Marc; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Cateura Sabri, Jordi; González Marco, Daniel; Tolosana Delgado, Raimon; Sospedra Iglesias, Joaquin; Alomar Dominguez, Marta; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
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  • Water.cat - catalan r&d network for water technologies

     Blade i Castellet, Ernest; Garcia Serrano, Joan; Espino Infantes, Manel; Puigagut Juarez, Jaume
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  • Atlas preliminar de agitación portuaria y riesgos medioambientales del Puerto de Barcelona

     Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Sierra Pedrico, Juan Pablo; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Date: 2010-05-31
    Report

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  • Estimating geostrophic and total velocities from CTD and ADCP data: Intercomparison of different methods

     Gomis, D; Gabriel, Jordà; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Journal of marine systems
    Date of publication: 2009-04
    Journal article

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  • Origin and dynamics of mesoscale eddies in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean): Insight from a numerical model study

     Barnier, B; Jorda, G; Espino Infantes, Manel; Marsaleix, P
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2009-06
    Journal article

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  • A fully 3D finite element model for non-hydrostatic coastal flows with a free-surface

     Blasco Lorente, Jorge; Maidana, Manuel Augusto; Espino Infantes, Manel
    International journal for numerical methods in fluids
    Date of publication: 2009-05
    Journal article

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  • 3D hydrodynamic characterisation of a meso-tidal harbour: The case of Bilbao (northern Spain)

     Grifoll Colls, Manel; Fontan, A; Ferrer, Luis; Mader, J; Gonzalez, M; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Coastal engineering
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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  • First steps in the implementation of a sediment transport model in the Ebro Delta continental shelf

     Fernández Sainz, Juan; Jordà, Gabriel; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Espino Infantes, Manel; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin
    International Short Course and Conference on Applied Coastal Research
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sediment transport in the Ebro shelf: a modelling approach

     Fernández Sainz, Juan; Gracia Garcia, Vicente; Espino Infantes, Manel; Sanchez-arcilla Conejo, Agustin; Jorda Sanchez, Gabriel
    IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A sediment transport model has been implemented and calibrated in the Ebro Delta Continental Shelf. Several parameters in the hydrodynamic and sediment transport module have been assessed in order to improve the results of this calibration. Four different non-cohesive and one cohesive classes have been defined and studied. The Ebro Delta shelf sediment dynamics have been analysed, highlighting the role of the currents, waves and freshwater input.

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  • Particle fluxes dynamics in Blanes submarine canyon (Northwestern Mediterranean)

     Zuñiga, D; Flexas Sbert, Maria del Mar; Sánchez Vidal, Anna; Coenjaerts, Johan; Calafat, Antoni; Jordà, G; García Orellana, Jordi; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Canals, M; Sardá Amills, Francesc; Espino Infantes, Manel; Company, J B
    Progress in oceanography
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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    Within the framework of the multidisciplinary RECS project and with the aim of describing the particle flux transfer from the continental shelf to the deep basin, an array of five mooring lines equipped with a total of five pairs of PPS3/3 sequential-sampling sediment traps and RCM-7/8 current meters were deployed 30 m above the bottom from March 2003 to March 2004 inside and outside the Blanes Canyon. One mooring line was located in the upper canyon at 600 m depth, one in the canyon axis at 1700 m depth and other two close to the canyon walls at 900 m depth. A fifth mooring line was deployed in the continental open slope at 1500 m water depth. The highest near-bottomdownwardparticle flux (14.50 g m-2 d-1)wasrecorded at the trap located in the upper canyon (M1), where continental inputs associated with the presence of the Tordera River are most relevant. On the other hand, the downward fluxes (4.35 g m-2 d-1) in the canyon axis (M2) were of the same order as those found in the western flank (M3) of the canyon. Both values were clearly higher than the value (1.95 g m-2 d-1) recorded at the eastern canyon wall (M4). The open slope (M5) mass flux (5.42 mg m-2 d-1) recorded by the sediment trap located outside the canyon system was three orders of magnitude lower than the other values registered by the inner canyon stations. The relevance of our data is that it explains how the transport pathway in the canyon occurs through its western flank, where a more active and persistent current toward the open ocean was recorded over the entire year of the experiment. Off-shelf sediment transport along the canyon axis showed clear differences during the period of the study, with some important events leading to strong intensifications of the current coupled with large transport of particle fluxes to the deepest parts of the canyon. Such events are primarily related to increases in river discharge and the occurrence of strong storms and cascading events during the winter. In summary, in this study it is shown that the dynamics of thewater masses and the currents in the study area convert the sharp western flank of the Blanes Canyon in a more active region that favors erosion processes than the eastern flank, which has a smoother topography and where the absence of erosional conditions yields to steadier sedimentary processes.

  • Relationship between environment and the occurrence of the deep-water rose shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)

     Company, J B; Sardá Amills, Francesc; Bahamón, N; Rotllant, G; Flexas Sbert, Maria del Mar; Sánchez, J. D.; Zuñiga, D; Coenjaerts, Johan; Orellana, D.; Jordà, G; Puigdefabregas Sagrista, Juan; Sánchez Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Martín, D.; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Progress in oceanography
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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  • SISTEMA DE APOYO A LA INVESTIGACIÓN DEL ORIGEN DE VERTIDOS ILEGALES EN EL MAR

     Lopez Marco, Jaime; Grifoll Colls, Manel; Madrigal Cadavid, Rafael Andrés; Espino Infantes, Manel
    Participation in a competitive project

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