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    Reactive Power Control for Distributed Generation Power Plants to Comply With Voltage Limits During Grid Faults  Open access

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Borrell Sanz, Angel
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Grid faults are one of the most severe problems for network operation. Distributed generation power plants can help to mitigate the adverse effects of these perturbations by injecting the reactive power during the sag and the postfault operation. Thus, the risk of cascade disconnection and voltage collapse can be reduced. The proposed reactive power control is intended to regulate the maximum and minimum phase voltages at the point of common coupling within the limits established in grid codes for continuous operation. In balanced three-phase voltage sags, the control increases the voltage in each phase above the lower regulated limit by injecting the positive sequence reactive power. In unbalanced voltage sags, positive and negative sequence reactive powers are combined to flexibly raise and equalize the phase voltages; the maximum phase voltage is regulated below the upper limit and the minimum phase voltage just above the lower limit. The proposed control strategy is tested by considering a distant grid fault and a large grid impedance. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the behavior of the control scheme.

    Grid faults are one of the most severe problems for network operation. Distributed generation power plants can help to mitigate the adverse effects of these perturbations by injecting reactive power during the sag and the post-fault operation. Thus, the risk of cascade disconnection and voltage collapse can be reduced. The proposed reactive power control is intended to regulate the maximum and minimum phase voltages at the point of common coupling within the limits established in grid codes for continuous operation. In balanced three-phase voltage sags, the control increases the voltage in each phase above the lower regulated limit by injecting positive sequence reactive power. In unbalanced voltage sags, positive and negative sequence reactive powers are combined to flexibly raise and equalize the phase voltages; maximum phase voltage is regulated below the upper limit and the minimum phase voltage just above the lower limit. The proposed control strategy is tested by considering a distant grid fault and a large grid impedance. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the behavior of the control scheme.

  • Voltage support control strategies for static synchronous compensators under unbalanced voltage sags

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    Static synchronous compensators have been broadly employed for the provision of electrical ac network services, which include voltage regulation, network balance, and stability improvement. Several studies of such compensators have also been conducted to improve the ac network operation during unbalanced voltage sags. This paper presents a complete control scheme intended for synchronous compensators operating under these abnormal network conditions. In particular, this control scheme introduces two contributions: a novel reactive current reference generator and a new voltage support control loop. The current reference generator has as a main feature the capacity to supply the required reactive current even when the voltage drops in amplitude during the voltage sag. Thus, a safe system operation is easily guaranteed by fixing the limit required current to the maximum rated current. The voltage control loop is able to implement several control strategies by setting two voltage set points. In this paper, three voltage support control strategies are proposed, and their advantages and limitations are discussed in detail. The two theoretical contributions of this paper have been validated by experimental results. Certainly, the topic of voltage support is open for further research, and the control scheme proposed in this paper can be viewed as an interesting configuration to devise other control strategies in future works.

    Static synchronous compensators have been broadly employed for the provision of electrical ac network services, which include voltage regulation, network balance, and stability improvement. Several studies of such compensators have also been conducted to improve the ac network operation during unbal- anced voltage sags. This paper presents a complete control scheme intended for synchronous compensators operating under these abnormal network conditions. In particular, this control scheme introduces two contributions: a novel reactive current reference generator and a new voltage support control loop. The current reference generator has as a main feature the capacity to supply the required reactive current even when the voltage drops in amplitude during the voltage sag. Thus, a safe system operation is easily guaranteed by fixing the limit required current to the maximum rated current. The voltage control loop is able to imple- ment several control strategies by setting two voltage set points. In this paper, three voltage support control strategies are proposed, and their advantages and limitations are discussed in detail. The two theoretical contributions of this paper have been validated by experimental results. Certainly, the topic of voltage support is open for further research, and the control scheme proposed in this paper can be viewed as an interesting configuration to devise other control strategies in future works.

  • Modeling and design of voltage support control schemes for three-phase inverters operating under unbalanced grid conditions

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Three-phase inverters equipped with voltage support control schemes have been successfully used to alleviate the negative impact of voltage imbalance on electric power systems. With these schemes, dc-link voltage ripple and current harmonics are significantly reduced by processing the positive and negative sequence components separately. However, the design methods for tuning the parameters of these control schemes have one or more of the following limitations: 1) the design is a very time-consuming task, 2) it is conservative, 3) it does not guarantee the specifications for all the considered situations, and 4) the system can be unstable in some abnormal conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents a design method based on the analysis of oscillations in nonlinear systems. The method proceeds by first developing simple and accurate models of the power system, second it reveals the system features through an in deep analysis of the derived models, and third it introduces a systematic design procedure for tuning the parameters of the control schemes. As an example, a voltage support control scheme for a three-phase inverter operating under an unbalanced voltage sag is designed and validated experimentally.

  • Control method for wireless inductive energy transfer systems with relatively large air gap

     Van Der Pijl, Frank F. A; Bauer, Pavol T.; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Recent improvements in semiconductor technology make efficient switching possible at higher frequencies, which benefits the application of wireless inductive energy transfer. However, a higher frequency does not alter the magnetic coupling between energy transmitter and receiver. Due to the still weak magnetic coupling between transmitting and receiving sides that are separated by a substantial air gap, energy circulates in the primary transmitting side without being transferred to the secondary receiving side. This paper introduces an energy control method that reduces energy circulation in the primary to zero. Themethod makes use of the fact that energy can be stored in a magnetic field by the primary side and absorbed by the secondary side. Furthermore, the secondary side converter topology is modified in order to boost the damping as seen by the primary converter at required times. Essentially, the control method realizes an energetic coupling factor of one between the air coils of the wireless transformer. The working principle of the controlmethod has been verified with an experimental setup.

  • Flexible voltage support control for three-phase distributed generation inverters under grid fault

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    Ancillary services for distributed generation (DG)systems become a challenging issue to smartly integrate renewable-energy sources into the grid. Voltage control is one of these ancillary services which can ride through and support the voltage under grid faults. Grid codes fromthe transmission system operators describe the behavior of the energy source, regulating voltage limits and reactive power injection to remain connected and support the grid under fault. On the basis that different kinds of voltage sags require different voltage support strategies, a flexible control scheme for three-phase grid-connected inverters is proposed. In three-phase balanced voltage sags, the inverter should inject reactive power in order to raise the voltage in all phases. In one- or two-phase faults, the main concern of the DG inverter is to equalize voltages by reducing the negative symmetric sequence and clear the phase jump. Due to system limitations, a balance between these two extreme policies is mandatory. Thus, over- and undervoltage can be avoided, and the proposed control scheme prevents disconnection while achieving the desired voltage support service. The main contribution of this work is the introduction of a control algorithm for reference current generation that provides flexible voltage support under grid faults. Two different voltage sags have been experimentally tested to illustrate the behavior of the proposed voltage support control scheme.

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    Reduction of Current Harmonic Distortion in Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters via Resonant Current Control  Open access

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    The resonant current control has been extensively employed to reduce the current harmonic distortion in a wide range of grid-connected distributed generation applications, including photovoltaic (PV) inverters, wind and water turbines, and fuel-cell inverters. However, the performance of these systems is deteriorated when the utility grid voltage experiences abnormal conditions such as voltage harmonics and imbalances. Several advanced control solutions have been recently introduced to cope with this problem but at the cost of a signi¿cant increase in the control computational load. This paper ¿rst analyzes the limitations of the standard resonant current control operating under abnormal grid conditions and then introduces a control scheme that improves the current harmonic distortion in such adverse conditions without increasing the computational load of the standard current control. This theoretical contribution is validated by means of selected experimental results from a three-phase PV inverter.

    The resonant current control has been extensively employed to reduce the current harmonic distortion in a wide range of grid-connected distributed generation applications, including photovoltaic (PV) inverters, wind and water turbines, and fuel-cell inverters. However, the performance of these systems is deteriorated when the utility grid voltage experiences abnormal conditions such as voltage harmonics and imbalances. Several advanced control solutions have been recently introduced to cope with this problem but at the cost of a significant increase in the control computational load. This paper first analyzes the limitations of the standard resonant current control operating under abnormal grid conditions and then introduces a control scheme that improves the current harmonic distortion in such adverse conditions without increasing the computational load of the standard current control. This theoretical contribution is validated by means of selected experimental results from a three-phase PV inverter

  • Control design for multiphase synchronous buck converters based on exact constant resistive output impedance

     Borrell Sanz, Angel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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    This paper describes a control design methodology based on output impedance analysis for multiphase synchronous buck converters. This design leads to an optimal output voltage transient response. Two design alternatives are proposed. The first alternative uses an equivalent single-phase converter to design the control parameters. This approximation is valid as long as the deviations between the phases of the converter are within the usual tolerance limits. The second one achieves exact constant resistive output impedance regardless of the differences that exist between the phases. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the two design approaches.

    This paper describes a control design methodology based on output impedance analysis for multiphase synchronous buck converters. This design leads to an optimal output voltage transient response. Two design alternatives are proposed. The first alternative uses an equivalent single-phase converter to design the control parameters. This approximation is valid as long as the deviations between the phases of the converter are within the usual tolerance limits. The second one achieves exact constant resistive output impedance regardless of the differences that exist between the phases. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the two design approaches.

  • Control scheme with voltage support capability for distributed generation inverters under voltage sags

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    Voltage sags are one of the main problems in transmission and distribution grids with high penetration of distributed generation. This paper proposes a voltage support control scheme for grid-connected power sources under voltage sags. The control is based on the injection of reactive current with a variable ratio between positive and negative sequences. The controller determines, also, the amount of reactive power needed to restore the dropped voltage magnitudes to new reference values confined within the continuous operation limits required in grid codes. These reference values are chosen in order to guarantee low current injection when fulfilling the voltage support objective. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  • CONTROL COOPERATIVO PARA LA GESTION OPTIMA DE LA ENERGIA EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

     Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Font Mateu, Josep; Cruz Vaquer, Juan; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Ortega García, Carlos; Borrell Sanz, Angel; pellitero rodriguez, carlos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
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  • Red Iberoamericana de Generación Distribuida y Microrredes Eléctricas Inteligentes (713RT0475)

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Cruz Vaquer, Juan; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Font Mateu, Josep; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • An adaptive prefiltering method to improve the speed/accuracy tradeoff of voltage sequence detection methods under adverse grid conditions

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guzman Sola, Ramon
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2013-07-23
    Journal article

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    This paper deals with the improvement of the transient response and harmonic, subharmonic, and dc-offset voltage rejection capability of a grid voltage sequence detection scheme based on a second-order generalized integrator (SOGI). To perform that, the SOGI structure is first analyzed in deep, emphasizing both its tradeoff limits between settling time and harmonic attenuation and the sensitivity to grid subharmonics and dc-offset voltage. Then, a study of the effect of grid voltage harmonics and subharmonics in SOGI and in the SOGI-FLL and MSOGI-FLL structures is introduced. Hence, to overcome these problems, a new structure based on the use of the SOGI filter as prefilter for the previous structures is proposed to achieve a faster time response and higher harmonic rejection. This structure is used in a sequence detection scheme for the detection of the grid voltage components in the aß-frame and it is applied in a three-phase PV system. Experimental and comparative results are shown to validate this proposal

    This paper deals with the improvement of the transient response and harmonic, subharmonic, and dc-offset voltage rejection capability of a grid voltage sequence detection scheme based on a second-order generalized integrator (SOGI). To perform that, the SOGI structure is first analyzed in deep, emphasizing both its tradeoff limits between settling time and harmonic attenuation and the sensitivity to grid subharmonics and dc-offset voltage. Then, a study of the effect of grid voltage harmonics and subharmonics in SOGI and in the SOGI-FLL and MSOGI-FLL structures is introduced. Hence, to overcome these problems, a new structure based on the use of the SOGI filter as prefilter for the previous structures is proposed to achieve a faster time response and higher harmonic rejection. This structure is used in a sequence detection scheme for the detection of the grid voltage components in the αβ-frame and it is applied in a three-phase PV system. Experimental and comparative results are shown to validate this proposal.

  • Distributed reactive power control methods to avoid voltage rise in grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

  • Control strategies based on effective power factor for distributed generation power plants during unbalanced grid voltage

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guzman Sola, Ramon; de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Marti Colom, Pau; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanced grid voltages can be selected prioritizing positive or negative sequence active and reactive power. This selection determines the voltage support service and therefore can improve the voltage profile, i.e. phase-voltages can be properly supported and voltage imbalance simultaneously corrected. Based on the definition of effective power factor in IEEE 1459 Standard, the reactive power needed for any control strategy is obtained and the resulting effects are described.

    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanced grid voltages can be selected prioritizing positive or negative sequence active and reactive power. This selection determines the voltage support service and therefore can improve the voltage profile, i.e. phase-voltages can be properly supported and voltage imbalance simultaneously corrected. Based on the definition of effective power factor in IEEE 1459 Standard, the reactive power needed for any control strategy is obtained and the resulting effects are described.

  • Mixing local and distributed reactive power control for balancing inverters¿ effort in grid-connected photovoltaic systems

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    International Conference on Systems and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Reactive power control methods have been proven to be a successful technique for maintaining voltages of photo-voltaic (PV) distributed generators (DG) within the admissible limits without enforcing to reduce the production of active power. Usually the control goal is achieved at the expenses of stressing PV inverters unequally. As a consequence, inverters deteriorate at different velocities. This paper presents a mixed local and distributed control strategy that aims at balancing the effort posed by each inverter while achieving the control goal. The local control is a drop-like method that locates inverters’voltages within the permissible voltage levels. Simultaneously, the distributed control, making use of a communication infrastructure, is in charge of driving the DG system to the point where all connected inverters inject the same current, thus balancing the stress between them.

  • Active damping control for a three phase grid-connected inverter using sliding mode control

     Guzman Sola, Ramon; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes a new active damping method based on virtual resistors for three-phase grid connected voltage source inverters (VSI) with LCL filter. The use of this filters is a standard solution to provide the proper attenuation to the sideband voltage harmonics of the modulation signal. However these grid filters can introduce an unstable dynamics if a passive or active damping is not properly introduced. The passive damping solution causes a decrease of the overall efficiency due to the associated losses and reduces the filter effectiveness but in contrast no more extra sensors are needed. Active damping methods are more efficient because they don't introduce losses but suffers from control and system complexity because in some cases a high number of sensors are needed. The proposed strategy employs a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) scheme in natural frame in combination with a Kalman filter to emulate a resistor in the LCL filter which damps the system actively without the use of extra sensors. Two current controllers are designed in order to control the active and reactive power independently and a voltage controller is designed to control the neutral point which is fixed with a third harmonic voltage in order to increase the control dynamic range.

    This paper proposes a ne w active damping method based on virtual resistors for three-phase grid connected voltage source inverters (VSI) with LCL filter. The use of this filters is a standard solution to provide the proper attenuation to the sideband voltage harmonics of the modulation signal. However these grid filters can introduce an unstable dynamics if a passive or active damping is not pr operly introduced. The passive damping solution causes a decrease of the overall efficiency due to the associated losses and reduces the filter effectiveness but in contrast no more extra sensors are needed. Active damping methods are more efficient because they don’t introduce losses but suffers from control and system complexity because in some cases a high number of sensors are needed. The proposed strategy employs a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) scheme in natural frame in combination with a Kalman filter to emulate a resistor in the LCL filter which damps the system actively without the use of extra sensors. Two current controllers are designed in order to control the active and reactive power independently and a voltage controller is designed to control the neutral point which is fixed with a third harmonic vol tage in order to increase the control dynamic range.

  • Adaptive sliding-mode control for a multiple-user inductive power transfer system without need for communication

     Van Der Pijl, Frank F. A; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Bauer, Pavol T.
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2012-09-06
    Journal article

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    A complicating aspect in the control design of resonant inductive power transfer systems is the absence of a direct communication link between primary and (multiple) secondary system sides. This paper introduces a new adaptive sliding-mode control surface, which continuously adapts the inductive system’s input power to the required, but unknown, variable load power. As a result, an indirect communication link is redundant. Furthermore, due to matching input and output power, optimum relative system efficiency is automatically guaranteed in the entire system’s output power range. The controller design, which has a simple analog implementation, has been verified with a dual-load experimental contactless system.

  • Control scheme for photovoltaic three-phase inverters to minimize peak currents during unbalanced grid-voltage sags

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Nowadays, the majority of the photovoltaic (PV) power sources are connected to the public grid. One of the main connection problems occurs when voltage sags appear in the grid due to short circuits, lightning, etc. International standards regulate the grid connection of PV systems, forcing the source to remain connected during short-time grid-voltage faults. As a consequence, during the voltage sag, the source should operate with increasing converter currents to maintain the injection of the generated power. This abnormal operation may result in nondesired system disconnections due to overcurrents. This paper proposes a controller for a PV three-phase inverter that ensuresminimum peak values in the grid-injected currents, as compared with conventional controllers. From the system analysis, a design method is presented in order to set the parameters of the control scheme. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  • CONTROLADOR DE HISTÉRESIS DE BAJO COSTE PARA CONVERTIDOR BUCK SÍNCRONO MULTIFASE  Open access

     Borrell Sanz, Ángel
    Defense's date: 2012-07-12
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The multiphase synchronous buck converter is universally used today for powering low voltage, high current and high slew-rate loads, such as CPUs and other high performance digital ICs. This converter demands control techniques with high dynamical response in order to face large and fast load transients. In this regard, hysteretic regulators represent an excellent option due to their immediate reaction, unlimited duty cycle and outstanding capacity for handling large signal regimes. The main contributions of much published work in the field of multiphase hysteretic controllers are current sharing and phase interleaving. However, the author is not aware of any studies describing a control scheme that integrates the main control functions for powering such demanding loads: output voltage regulation, adaptive voltage positioning, current sharing and phase interleaving. Nor is there a design methodology based on the closed-loop output impedance. This design would optimize the output voltage transient response and, in this way, the entire voltage tolerance window of the processor would be exploited. Thus, this research work presents a novel hysteretic controller for a multi-phase synchronous buck converter supplying low voltage, high current and high slew-rate loads along with a design methodology based on closed-loop output impedance analysis. The single-phase hysteretic controller is the start point for this research work. Several authors have extensively treated the single-phase hysteretic controller. In this regard, a review of a low-cost single-phase control scheme is carried out first. The main feature of this controller is the lack of current sensing and processing circuitry in order to accomplish the adaptive voltage regulation. Then, the influence of variations of the inductor and output capacitor and the control parameters on the output impedance is studied. This has allowed for establishing a correspondence between each of the control parameters and the output filter components. The review finishes by implementing a synchronization system to achieve fixed switching frequency in steady state while maintaining the instantaneous reaction and optimal output-voltage response during transients. At this point, a novel low-cost hysteretic controller for multiphase synchronous buck converters is presented. Two design alternatives for the controller are proposed. The first uses an equivalent single-phase converter to design the control parameters. This approximation is valid as long as the deviations between the phases of the converter are within the usual limits (+/- 15 %). The second does the same considering the exact model of the converter, achieving resistive output impedance regardless of the differences that exist between the phases. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the features of the novel control scheme. From a practical point of view, the lack of current sensing and processing circuitry in the controller allow for a simple and low-cost implementation of the adaptive voltage positioning and current sharing with outstanding performance. The injection of an external synchronization signal has been proved to be a simple alternative in order to implement fixed switching frequency and phase interleaving operation. Finally, the proposed controller achieves similar characteristics to the high performance controllers intended for powering low voltage, high current and fast transient loads, but with the additional advantage of simplicity and low-cost circuit implementation.

    Actualmente, el convertidor buck síncrono multifase es universalmente utilizado para la alimentación de cargas dinámicas de baja tensión y elevada corriente como CPUs y otros circuitos integrados digitales de altas prestaciones. Este convertidor exige de técnicas de control con alta respuesta dinámica para hacer frente a los grandes y rápidos transitorios de carga a los que es sometido. A este respecto, los reguladores de histéresis representan una excelente opción debido a su reacción inmediata, ciclo de trabajo ilimitado y excepcional capacidad para manejar régimen de gran señal. Las principales aportaciones de la mayor parte de trabajos publicados en el campo de los controladores de histéresis multifase son distribución de corriente entre las fases y funcionamiento entrelazado. Sin embargo, el autor no tiene conocimiento de estudios que describan un esquema de control que integre las principales funciones de control para la alimentación de tales exigentes cargas: regulación de tensión de salida con posicionamiento adaptativo, distribución de corriente y funcionamiento entrelazado. Tampoco existe una metodología de diseño basada en la impedancia de salida de lazo cerrado. Este diseño optimiza la respuesta transitoria de la tensión de salida y, de este modo, se puede aprovechar toda la ventana de tolerancia del procesador. Por lo tanto, este trabajo de investigación presenta un novedoso controlador de histéresis para convertidor síncrono multifase destinado a alimentar cargas dinámicas de baja tensión y alta corriente, junto con una metodología de diseño basada en el análisis de la impedancia de salida de lazo cerrado. El controlador de la histéresis de una sola fase es el punto de partida de este trabajo de investigación. Varios autores han tratado ampliamente el controlador de histéresis de una sola fase. En este sentido, en primer lugar se lleva a cabo una revisión de un esquema de control de bajo coste de una sola fase. La característica principal de este controlador es la ausencia de circuitos de sensado y procesado de corriente para lograr la regulación de tensión adaptativa. El estudio de la influencia de las variaciones del inductor, condensador de salida y los parámetros de control y los componentes del filtro de salida. La revisión termina implementando un sistema de sincronización para lograr frecuencia fija de comunicación en estado estacionario, que mantiene la reacción instantánea y la respuesta transitoria óptima de la tensión de salida. Llegado a este punto, se presenta un controlador de histéresis de bajo coste para convertidores buck síncrono multifase. Se proponen dos alternativas de diseño para controlador. La primer a utiliza un equivalente de convertidor de una sola fase para diseñar los parámetros de control. Esta aproximación es válida siempre y cuando las desviaciones entre las fases del convertidor están dentro de los límites habituales (+/-15%). La segunda hace lo propio teniendo en cuenta el modelo exacto del convertidor, logrando impedancia de salida resistiva independientemente de las diferencias que existan entre las fases. Se presentan los resultados de simulación y experimentales con el fin de validar las características del esquema de control propuesto. Desde un punto de vista práctico, la ausencia de circuitos de sensado y procesado de corriente en el controlador permiten una implementación sencilla y de bajo coste para las funciones de regulación de tensión con posicionamiento adaptativo de reparto de corriente con buen rendimiento. La inyección de una señal de sincronización externa demuestra ser una alternativa simple a fin de obtener frecuencia fija de conmutación y funcionamiento entrelazado de las fases. Finalmente, el controlador propuesto alcanza características similares alos controladores destinados a la alimentación de cargas de baja tensión y alta dinámica con la ventaja adicional de la simplicidad y el bajo coste de implementación.

  • Control y gestión de una microrred basada en energía eólica con cargas locales

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
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  • Coordinated reactive power control for static synchronous compensators under unbalanced voltage sags

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unbalanced voltage sags strongly deteriorate the performance of power converters and electrical machines connected to the distribution network. In particular, a reduction of the power quality is noticed in these equipments, which is caused by a ripple in the output power and an increase of the current harmonic distortion. Several solutions based on reactive power compensation have been introduced to cope with this problem. Among them, static synchronous compensators have confirmed the superior performance due to the possibility of using all rated power exclusively to voltage support. This paper presents a simple reactive power control algorithm for static synchronous compensators operating under unbalanced voltage sags. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is that it allows a fine adjustment of the amount of reactive power injected by the positive- and negative-sequence components. Thus the control algorithm provides voltage support at the output of the static synchronous compensator. Specifically the proposed control conveniently corrects both the positive- and negative-sequence voltage. Selected simulation results are provided to validate the proposal.

  • Reactive power control for voltage support during type C voltage-sags

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Marti Colom, Pau
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fast grid synchronization technique based on a multiple cascaded general integrator scheme for distributed generation inverters

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes a new structure for grid synchronization based on generalized integrators (GI) that lead to fast detection of positive and negative components of the grid voltage. The GI are used as a band pass filter (GI-BPF) mainly to provide in-phase and quadrature components of grid voltage. The proposed structure consists in the cascaded connection of multiple GI-BPF to achieve a faster time response than a single GI-BPF but with the same bandwidth characteristics. This structure is used with a frequency locked loop and a positive sequence detector to operate under unbalanced voltage sags. Simulations and experimental results of a photovoltaic power system injecting power to the grid in the stationary reference frame are shown to validate this proposal. Comparisons between this proposal and one that uses a single GI-BPF in the sequence detector are provided. The results show that the proposed cascaded GI-BPF achieves a considerably time response reduction in the sequence grid detection under a fault with the same quality-filter characteristics.

  • Decoupled sliding mode control for three-phase LCL VSI operating at fixed switching frequency

     Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • On the use of communication infrastructure in distributed power generation: a preliminary case study

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Penetration of distributed power generation poses new problems in energy distribution. For example, photovoltaic generation systems may difficult the voltage management in distribution lines and voltage rise may occur. To overcome this problem, several voltage control strategies are available and they can be classified as autonomous or distributed regarding whether communication is available between dispersed generators. Through a preliminary case study, this paper investigates the impact that the communication infrastructure has for a given distributed voltage control strategy. Communication issues like transmission rate, delays, and losses are analyzed with respect to the voltage control application performance.

  • Sliding-mode input¿output linearization controller for the DC/DC ZVS CLL-T resonant converter

     Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Moreno, Luz Stella
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2011-10-24
    Journal article

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  • Simple low-cost hysteretic controller for multiphase synchronous buck converters

     Borrell, Angel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a novel hysteretic controller for a multiphase synchronous buck converter supplying low voltage, high current, and high slew-rate loads. The control scheme implements the main control functions for powering such demanding loads, including output-voltage regulation, adaptive voltage positioning, current sharing, and phase interleaving. This paper also describes a control-design methodology based on outputimpedance analysis. This design leads to optimal output-voltage transient response with a simple and low-cost control implementation. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the features of the novel control scheme.

  • Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled AC and DC Microgrids¿A General Approach Toward Standardization

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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  • Hierarchical Control of Intelligent Microgrids

     Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE industrial electronics magazine
    Date of publication: 2010-12-10
    Journal article

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  • Grid-fault control scheme for three-phase photovoltaic inverters with adjustable power quality characteristics

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2010-12-23
    Journal article

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  • Direct Rotor Current-Mode Control Improves the Transient Response of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbines

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Borrell, Angel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on energy conversion
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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  • Virtual Impedance Loop for Droop-Controlled Single-Phase Parallel Inverters Using a Second-Order General-Integrator Scheme

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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  • SISTEMA DE SUPERVISIÓN Y CONTROL PARA MICRORREDES INTELIGENTES

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Font Mateu, Josep; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
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    A novel robust sliding mode controller for Half-bridge converter  Open access

     Hang, Lijun; Liu, Sensen; Lu, Zhengyu; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    International Power Electronics Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-23
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    This paper proposes one novel sliding mode controller for the Half-bridge converter to reduce the line and load disturbance. Based on the bilinear model of the Half-bridge DC/DC converter, the small signal model and the design consideration of the sliding mode controller for this converter are deduced and presented. The controller is simply implemented in the analog controller board. The validation of the controller is verified both by theory analysis and experimental results. By applying the novel sliding mode controller, the Half-bridge converter can achieve good transient response.

  • Modeling and Performance Analysis of the DC/DC Series¿Parallel Resonant Converter Operating With Discrete Self-Sustained Phase-Shift Modulation Technique

     Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-03
    Journal article

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  • A Comparative Study of Sliding-Mode Control Schemes for Quantum Series Resonant Inverters

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a comparative study of sliding-mode control schemes for quantum series resonant inverters. The single-input and two-input resonant systems considered in this study are designed with identical specifications. The control performance is evaluated in aspects such as load transient response, sensitivity to disturbances, and efficiency. Other aspects such as control complexity and cost are also considered. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the theoretical predictions. Essentially, the study demonstrates the following: 1) The load transient response of the proposed two-input system is insensitive to load variations; 2) the single-input system exhibits higher efficiency, particularly at light load conditions, and 3) both control schemes have similar complexity and cost. © 2009 IEEE.

  • Sliding-Mode Control for a Single-Phase AC/AC Quantum Resonant Converter

     Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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  • Design of hysteretic regulators for low voltage and high-current applications

     Cruz Vaquer, Juan; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    International journal of industrial electronics and drives
    Date of publication: 2009-07
    Journal article

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    Selective harmonic-compensation control for single-phase active power filter with high harmonic rejection  Open access

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-08-11
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a linear current control scheme for single-phase active power filters. The approach is based on an outer voltage loop, an inner current loop, and a resonant selective harmonic compensator. The design of the control parameters is carried out using conventional linear techniques (analysis of loop gain and other disturbance-rejection transfer functions). The performance of the proposed controller is evaluated and compared with two reference controllers: a basic control and an advanced repetitive control. In comparison with these controllers, the proposed control scheme provides additional attenuation to the harmonics coming from the load current, the grid voltage, and the reference signal, resulting in a grid current with lower harmonic distortion. Experimental results are reported in order to validate this paper.

    (c) 2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.

  • Control Strategy for Flexible Microgrid Based on Parallel Line-Interactive UPS Systems

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-03
    Journal article

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    In this paper, the control strategy for a flexible microgrid is presented. The microgrid presented here consists of several line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems connected in parallel. The control technique is based on the droop method to avoid critical communications among UPS units. Thus, a flexible microgrid is obtained to operate in either grid-connected or islanded mode. A small-signal analysis is presented in order to analyze the system stability, which gives rules to design the main control parameters. Simulation and experimental results are presented, showing the feasibility of the proposed controller. © 2009 IEEE.

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    Design of an analog quasi-steady-state nonlinear current-mode controller for single-phase active power filter  Open access

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-12
    Journal article

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    The injection of sinusoidal current to an electrical grid is nowadays possible with the use of active power filters (APFs).With quasi-steady-state (QSS) nonlinear controllers, these power filters provide low grid-current-harmonic content with simple-control analog implementation. This paper focuses on the design of a QSS nonlinear controller for a single-phase APF. A complete analysis based on the sliding-mode-control theory is given. From the analysis, a set of control-design guidelines is presented to select the gains and parameters of the control scheme. Selected experimental results are reported to validate the theoretical design procedure.

  • Control Design Guidelines for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters With Damped Resonant Harmonic Compensators

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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  • CONTROL DE SISTEMES ELECTRICS D'ENERGIA RENOVABLE

     Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Bogarra Rodriguez, Santiago; Jornet Alvarez, Atanasi; Rolan Blanco, Alejandro; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Font Mateu, Josep; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
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  • Hierarchical Control in Microgrids for the Integration of Decentralized Electrical Generators and Energy Storage Systems

     Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Miret Tomas, Jaume; González, J.; Miró, I.; Sandia, J.; González, R.; Abellán, A.; Martínez, J. A.; Carranza, O.; Benavent, J. M.; Garcerá, Gabriel; Figueres, Emilio; Abellán, Antonio; Pascual, Marcos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
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    Design of a multi-phase hysteretic regulator for low voltage applications  Open access

     Cruz Vaquer, Juan; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    Barcelona Forum on Ph.D. Research in Electronic Engineering
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Implementation of an adaptive sliding-mode control for a quantum series-resonant converter

     Fredrik, Van Der Pijl; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Pavol, Bauer
    European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
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  • Feedback linearization of direct-drive synchronous wind-turbines via a sliding mode approach

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2008-05
    Journal article

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  • Feedback linearization of a single-phase active power filter via sliding mode control

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Comparative study of hysteretic controllers for single-phase voltage regulators

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis
    IET power electronics
    Date of publication: 2008-03
    Journal article

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  • Linear Current Control Scheme With Series Resonant Harmonic Compensator for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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  • Decentralized Control for Parallel Operation of Distributed Generation Inverters Using Resistive Output Impedance

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Date of publication: 2007-04
    Journal article

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