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  • Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies (MNT)

     Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Puigdollers Gonzalez, Joaquin; Voz Sanchez, Cristobal; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Martin Garcia, Isidro; Bardes Llorensi, Daniel; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Calderer Cardona, Josep; Dominguez Pumar, Manuel M.; Prat Viñas, Luis; Garcies Salva, Pau; Jimenez Serres, Vicente; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Orpella Garcia, Alberto; Ortega Villasclaras, Pablo Rafael; Pons Nin, Joan; Silvestre Berges, Santiago; Garin Escriva, Moises; Colina Brito, Monica Alejandra; Morales Vilches, Ana Belen; Coll Valenti, Arnau; Lopez Rodriguez, Gema; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria
    Competitive project

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  • Emisores térmicos selectivos y filtros ópticos basados en cristales fotónicos para la detección de gases

     Bardes Llorensi, Daniel; Garcies Salva, Pau; Calderer Cardona, Josep; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Competitive project

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  • High-density capacitor devices based on macroporous silicon and metal electroplating

     Vega, Didac; Reina Marsinyach, Jordi; Pavón Urbano, Ramón; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    IEEE transactions on electron devices
    Vol. 61, num. 1, p. 116-122
    DOI: 10.1109/TED.2013.2290065
    Date of publication: 2014-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a novel technique for the fabrication of ultrahigh capacitance structures based on macroporous silicon. Electrochemical etching is used to create a 3-D template in silicon. These structures reach high specific capacitances and can be incorporated into integrated circuits. Very low series resistance is attained using a metal electrode. The fabrication technology uses standard UV lithography for silicon patterning, and a low-temperature electroplating process for the electrode formation. Devices have been fabricated with several insulator thicknesses to demonstrate the technology. The fabricated devices have a pore diameter of 3 µm arranged in a square lattice of 4-µm pitch, achieving capacitance density up to 110 nF/mm2. Further gains in capacitance can be obtained by reducing pore size and increasing pore density, and also using alternate geometries for the macroporous silicon template. Moreover, to increase capacitance, the use of alternative dielectrics, like high- k materials, is discussed.

  • Development and impedimetric evaluation of a magnetic interdigitated microelectrode

     Sánchez Terrones, Benjamin; Vega Bru, Didac; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Bragos Bardia, Ramon; Marco Colas, María Pilar; Valera Cano, Enrique Andres
    Sensors and actuators B. Chemical
    Vol. 203, p. 444-451
    DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2014.06.139
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    A magnetic interdigitated microelectrode (m-ID mu E) has been developed, characterized and evaluated. In order to demonstrate the potential use of these electrodes in the biosensors field, impedimetric measurements of bovine serum albumin (BSA) biofunctionalized magnetic mu-particles (BSAMP) were performed. Thanks to their magnetic capabilities and to the use of magnetic mu-particles, the developed electrodes were successfully regenerated and could be reused several times. The classical stepped-sine impedance spectroscopy (IS) technique and the state-of-art frequency response analyzer (FRA) multisine IS method based on the local polynomial method (LPM) were used as measurement techniques. The significant reduction of measuring time and accuracy of the multisine IS LPM-based technique reveals a promising performance for fast and accurate real-time on-line screening applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Macroporous silicon for high-capacitance devices using metal electrodes

     Vega Bru, Didac; Reina Marsinyach, Jordi; Martin, Ferran; Pavón Urbano, Ramón; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Nanoscale Research Letters
    Vol. 9
    DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-473
    Date of publication: 2014-09-05
    Journal article

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    In this paper, high-capacity energy storage devices based on macroporous silicon are demonstrated. Small footprint devices with large specific capacitances up to 100 nF/mm(2), and an absolute capacitance above 15 mu F, have been successfully fabricated using standard microelectronics and MEMS techniques. The fabricated devices are suitable for high-density system integration. The use of 3-D silicon structures allows achieving a large surface to volume ratio. The macroporous silicon structures are fabricated by electrochemical etching of silicon. This technique allows creating large structures of tubes with either straight or modulated radial profiles in depth. Furthermore, a very large aspect ratio is possible with this fabrication method. Macroporous silicon grown this way permits well-controlled structure definition with excellent repeatability and surface quality. Additionally, structure geometry can be accurately controlled to meet designer specifications. Macroporous silicon is used as one of the electrodes over which a silicon dioxide insulating layer is grown. Several insulator thicknesses have been tested. The second capacitor electrode is a solid nickel filling of the pores prepared by electroplating in a low-temperature industry standard process. The use of high-conductivity materials allows reaching small equivalent series resistance near 1 a"broken vertical bar. Thanks to these improvements, the presented devices are capable of operating up to 10 kHz.

    In this paper, high-capacity energy storage devices based on macroporous silicon are demonstrated. Small footprint devices with large specific capacitances up to 100 nF/mm(2), and an absolute capacitance above 15 mu F, have been successfully fabricated using standard microelectronics and MEMS techniques. The fabricated devices are suitable for high-density system integration. The use of 3-D silicon structures allows achieving a large surface to volume ratio. The macroporous silicon structures are fabricated by electrochemical etching of silicon. This technique allows creating large structures of tubes with either straight or modulated radial profiles in depth. Furthermore, a very large aspect ratio is possible with this fabrication method. Macroporous silicon grown this way permits well-controlled structure definition with excellent repeatability and surface quality. Additionally, structure geometry can be accurately controlled to meet designer specifications. Macroporous silicon is used as one of the electrodes over which a silicon dioxide insulating layer is grown. Several insulator thicknesses have been tested. The second capacitor electrode is a solid nickel filling of the pores prepared by electroplating in a low-temperature industry standard process. The use of high-conductivity materials allows reaching small equivalent series resistance near 1 a

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    Immunosensors: concepts and structures for fast and accurate sensing  Open access

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Valera Cano, Enrique Andres
    DOI: 10.5772/55969
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Book chapter

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  • Bio-ethanol steam reforming and autothermal reforming in 3-m channels coated with RhPd/CeO2 for hydrogen generation

     Divins, N.J.; López, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Vega, Didac; Llorca Pique, Jordi
    Chemical engineering and processing
    Vol. 64, p. 31-37
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2012.10.018
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    A silicon micromonolith of 7 mm diameter and 0.2 mm length containing 1.5 million regular channels with a diameter of 3.3 µm was used for obtaining hydrogen through ethanol or bio-ethanol steam reforming (ESR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR). The microchannels were coated with RhPd/CeO2 catalyst by a two-step method. First a CeO2 layer of ca. 100 nm thickness was deposited from cerium methoxyethoxide over a SiO2 layer, which was previously grown over the silicon microchannels by oxidation. Then, noble metals were grafted over the CeO2 support from chloride precursors. The unit was successfully tested for hydrogen production, achieving hydrogen rates of 180¿LH2¿cmR-3 for the steam reforming of bio-ethanol at 873 K, S/C = 2 and 0.009 s contact time. Reaction yields of 3.8 and 3.7 mol hydrogen generated per mol ethanol in feed were measured for ESR and OSR, respectively. A performance comparison was performed with a conventional cordierite monolith with the same catalyst formulation. Results show for the silicon microreactor an outstanding improvement of the specific hydrogen production rate, operating at considerably reduced residence times, due to the increase in contact area per unit volume.

    A silicon micromonolith of 7 mm diameter and 0.2 mm length containing 1.5 million regular channels with a diameter of 3.3 μm was used for obtaining hydrogen through ethanol or bio-ethanol steam reforming (ESR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR). The microchannels were coated with RhPd/CeO2 catalyst by a two-step method. First a CeO2 layer of ca. 100 nm thickness was deposited from cerium methoxyethoxide over a SiO2 layer, which was previously grown over the silicon microchannels by oxidation. Then, noble metals were grafted over the CeO2 support from chloride precursors. The unit was successfully tested for hydrogen production, achieving hydrogen rates of 180 LH2 cmR−3 for the steam reforming of bio-ethanol at 873 K, S/C = 2 and 0.009 s contact time. Reaction yields of 3.8 and 3.7 mol hydrogen generated per mol ethanol in feed were measured for ESR and OSR, respectively. A performance comparison was performed with a conventional cordierite monolith with the same catalyst formulation. Results show for the silicon microreactor an outstanding improvement of the specific hydrogen production rate, operating at considerably reduced residence times, due to the increase in contact area per unit volume.

  • Condensador de silicio macroporoso de baja resisténcia serie

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Vega Bru, Didac; Reina Marsinyach, Jordi; Pavón Urbano, Ramón
    Date of request: 2013-05-03
    Invention patent

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    La presente solicitud de Patente de Invención consiste conforme indica su enunciado, en un "condensador de silicio macroporoso de baja resistencia serie", cuyas nuevas características de construcción conformación y diseño le confieren alta relación capacidad/superficie de la muestra a la vez que mejora la respuesta frecuencial respecto a dispositivos anteriores.

  • Silicio macroporoso: aplicaciones

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Vega, Didac
    Workshop en Microsistemas y Nanotecnología y Asamblea Anual de IBERNAM
    p. 31-33
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El silicio macroporoso es un material que ha sido y sigue siendo objeto de intenso estudio durante los últimos años. Se trata de un material nuevo, con una variedad de interesantes propiedades estructurales, mecánicas, térmicas, eléctricas, etc. Estas propiedades permiten el desarrollo de nuevas estructuras, dispositivos y aplicaciones. A medida que mejoran las técnicas de preparación, se van obteniendo propiedades que posibilitan funcionalidades previstas hace tiempo, así como otras nuevas. En este artículo se hace un repaso de aplicaciones que el silicio macroporoso tiene en la actualidad, entre ellas, en diversos tipos de sensores.

  • Macroporous silicon microreactor for the preferential oxidation of CO

     Divins, N.J.; López, E.; Llorca, J.; Vega, Didac; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Gonzàlez de Rivera, Ferran; Angurell Purroy, Inmaculada; Seco, m.; Rossell Alfonso, Josep Oriol
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 1-4
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481362
    Presentation's date: 2013-02-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A macroporous silicon micromonolith containing ca. 40,000 regular channels of 3.3 µm in diameter per square millimeter has been successfully functionalized with an Au/TiO2 catalyst for CO preferential oxidation (CO-PrOx) in the presence of hydrogen. The functionalization of the silicon microchannels has been accomplished by growing a SiO2 layer on the channel walls, followed by exchange with a titanium alkoxyde precursor and decomposition into TiO2 and, finally, by anchoring carbosilanethiol dendron protected pre-formed Au nanoparticles. Catalytically active centers at the Au-TiO2 interface have been obtained by thermal activation. With this method, an excellent homogeneity and adherence of the catalytic layer over the microchannels of the macroporous silicon micromonolith has been obtained, which has been tested for CO-PrOx at 363-433 K and ¿=2 under H2/CO=0-20 (molar). The macroporous silicon micromonolith converts ca. 3 NmL of CO per minute and mL of micro reactor at 433 K under H2/CO=20, suggesting that it could be particularly effective for hydrogen purification in low-temperature microfuel cells for portable applications.

    A macroporous silicon micromonolith containing ca. 40,000 regular channels of 3.3 μm in diameter per square millimeter has been successfully functionalized with an Au/TiO2 catalyst for CO preferential oxidation (CO-PrOx) in the presence of hydrogen. The functionalization of the silicon microchannels has been accomplished by growing a SiO2 layer on the channel walls, followed by exchange with a titanium alkoxyde precursor and decomposition into TiO2 and, finally, by anchoring carbosilanethiol dendron protected pre-formed Au nanoparticles. Catalytically active centers at the Au-TiO2 interface have been obtained by thermal activation. With this method, an excellent homogeneity and adherence of the catalytic layer over the microchannels of the macroporous silicon micromonolith has been obtained, which has been tested for CO-PrOx at 363-433 K and λ=2 under H2/CO=0-20 (molar). The macroporous silicon micromonolith converts ca. 3 NmL of CO per minute and mL of micro reactor at 433 K under H2/CO=20, suggesting that it could be particularly effective for hydrogen purification in low-temperature microfuel cells for portable applications.

  • Macroporous silicon FET transistors for power applications

     Vega, Didac; Najar Molina, Raúl; Pina, Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 91-94
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481350
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we propose the use of macroporous silicon for microelectronic devices. We propose and study four different FET transistor structures using macroporous silicon as base material. Macroporous silicon is a novel material whose application most commonly suggested is as photonic crystals. Nevertheless, this is a versatile structured material with applications in many different areas, though microelectronics is not usually cited. We suggest its use for electronics devices as a FET transistor. The presented structures are studied by simulation in device modelling software (TCAD). Two kinds of operation modes have been considered: vertical (axial) and horizontal (transverse) in relation to the etched pores in silicon. One of the notable features of the described structures is the ability to have a massive number of identical unitary-cell transistor devices operating in parallel, having an all-around gate.

    In this paper we propose the use of macroporous silicon for microelectronic devices. We propose and study four different FET transistor structures using macroporous silicon as base material. Macroporous silicon is a novel material whose application most commonly suggested is as photonic crystals. Nevertheless, this is a versatile structured material with applications in many different areas, though microelectronics is not usually cited. We suggest its use for electronics devices as a FET transistor. The presented structures are studied by simulation in device modelling software (TCAD). Two kinds of operation modes have been considered: vertical (axial) and horizontal (transverse) in relation to the etched pores in silicon. One of the notable features of the described structures is the ability to have a massive number of identical unitary-cell transistor devices operating in parallel, having an all-around gate. These features allow driving the gate with low controlling voltages while handling large current density. Furthermore, the external device volume remains small thanks to the very large area-to-volume ratio. Thanks to the considerable amount of active area achievable, we further propose the use of such devices for low-voltage power applications. In this paper we present the obtained results of our simulations of the proposed devices.

  • Macroporous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing

     Vega, Didac; Reina, Jordi; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 143-146
    DOI: 10.1109/CDE.2013.6481363
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we study a compact gas sensor based on a photonic crystal built from macroporous silicon. Its sensing mechanism is based in the absorption of infrared light by a gas. Photonic crystals are structured materials which can be engineered to have photonic bandgaps. They also can be tailored to create localized states inside the bandgaps. We exploit the possibility to confine light inside a cavity with very high-Q, which allows for long interaction time between the gas and light. Simulation of different 2-D and 3-D structures have been done to extract the appropriate dimensions for gas detection, and their optical behaviour. Resonant cavities were created by adding defects in the ordered geometrical structure, thus creating a single state and confining the trapped light in a crystal bandgap. The structures were tested by simulating the presence of ethanol inside the structures.

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    Emissive properties of SiO2 thin films through photonic windows  Open access

     Hernández García, David; Garin Escriva, Moises; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Applied physics letters
    Vol. 100, num. 9, p. 091901-1-091901-3
    Date of publication: 2012-02
    Journal article

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  • Microsystem based in macroporous silicon for the preferential oxidation of CO

     Divins, N.J.; Moreno, Cesar; López, E.; Vega, Didac; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Gonzàlez de Rivera, Ferran; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, M; Rosell, O
    Journées Franco-Espagnoles
    p. 13-1-13-2
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • MEMS Devices

     Quero, J.M.; Luque Estepa, Antonio; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Ionescu, Adrian; Fernández-Bolaños, Montserrat; Faraone, Lorenzo; Dell, John M.
    Date of publication: 2011-02-01
    Book chapter

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  • Immunosensors based on interdigitated electrodes for the detection and quantification of pesticides in food

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Book chapter

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  • Cristales fotónicos y manipulación de nanopartículas enfocados a su aplicación como sensores en el infrarojo

     Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Bardes Llorensi, Daniel; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Vega, Didac; Hernández García, David; Di Virgilio, Vito; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Competitive project

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  • Zeolite-coated interdigital capacitors for humidity sensing

     Urbiztondo, M.; Pellejero, I.; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Pina Iritia, M.P.; Santamaría Ramiro Ramiro, Jesús Marcos
    Sensors and actuators B. Chemical
    Vol. 157, num. 2, p. 450-459
    DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2011.04.089
    Date of publication: 2011-05-06
    Journal article

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    Inter-digital capacitors (IDCs) with electrode gaps of 10 or 50 microns have been coated with zeolite films consisting of different zeolites with Si/Al ratios ranging from 1.5 (zeolite A) to infinite (silicalite). The performance of the sensor in the measurement of humidity has been related to the electrical properties of the zeolites (relative permittivity, ɛr), which in turn is a function of their Si/Al ratio. With zeolites of a high Al content the limit of detection was under 0.5 ppmV.

  • Novel Electronic Devices in Macroporous Silicon: Design of FET Transistors for Power Applications

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Vega Bru, Didac; Najar Molina, Raúl; Pina, M.
    IEEE transactions on electron devices
    Vol. 58, num. 9, p. 3065-3071
    DOI: 10.1109/TED.2011.2159508
    Date of publication: 2011-07
    Journal article

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    In this paper, we study the application of macroporous silicon (MpSi) to the fabrication of transistors: Four different FET transistor structures are proposed using MpSi as the base material. These devices have been studied by simulation, and their characteristics are shown herein. The proposed structures include JFET, MOSFET, and trio de-like devices; in this study, we have considered both vertical and horizontal structures. For the vertical case, the proposed devices use the MpSi tubes to create the channel, filling them with a semiconductor and using the bulk silicon as a cylindrical gate all around. In contrast, for the horizontal transistors, the MpSi structure is used as the channel medium, while the conductor-filled pores serve as the controlling gate, thus obtaining a trio de-like device. The use of MpSi allows one to obtain large transistor arrays of extremely high density, thus obtaining a large amount of parallel devices in a moderate-to-small device area. Even more, pore engineering introduces a degree of freedom in the design of the transistor characteristics. We show that the proposed devices have a low threshold voltage and can support large currents. Finally, the behavior of these structures is studied for different geometries.

  • Macroporous silicon: efficient antireflective layer on crystalline silicon

     Fonthal Rico, Faruk; Torres, Ivaldo; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics
    Vol. 22, num. 7, p. 895-900
    DOI: 10.1007/s10854-010-0232-6
    Date of publication: 2011-07
    Journal article

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  • Optical properties of Al2O3 and TiO2 coated 3D macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Garin Escriva, Moises; Vega Bru, Didac; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 47-48
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A million-channel fuel processor on a fingertip

     López, E.; Irigoyen, A.; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Jiménez, N.; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Llorca Pique, Jordi
    International Conference on Microreactor Technology
    p. 3473-3479
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.01.146
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Blackbody behaviour from spiked macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Vega Bru, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 257-258
    DOI: 978-1-4244-7864-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Photonic Crystals (PhC) are structured materials, which show very attractive optical properties. In this report, we study and discuss the reflection and emission characteristics of a “black face” Macro-porous Silicon (MpSi) Photonic Crystal (PhC). This “black face” is formed by silicon spikes ending in a sharp tip, of high aspect radio. Measures reveal that this face is nearly a perfect absorber at MIR wavelenghs

  • Fast and accurate immunosensors based on interdigitated electrodes

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    China Medicina Biotech Forum
    p. 99
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Negative refraction Index in 3D macroporous silicon photonic crystals

     Vega Bru, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 83-84
    DOI: 978-1-4244-7864-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-02-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Photonic crystals (PhC) are sturctured materials, which show very attractive propieties, specially their optical behaviour and electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper, we simulate a three-dimensional Photonic Chrystal (3D-PhC) structure made from Macropourus silicon (MpSi)in which we can find a range of frenquencies that exhibit notable dispersion characteristics. One promising trait is the existence of negative refraction index, which we show in this paper.

  • Determination of atrazine residues in red wine samples. A conductimetric solution

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres; Ramón Azcón, Javier; Barranco, Alejandro; Alfaro, Begoña; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Marco Colas, María Pilar; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Food chemistry
    Vol. 122, p. 888-894
    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.030
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    The potential of a conductimetric immunosensor to detect residual amounts of atrazine in a complexv matrix, such as red wine, is evaluated. The immunosensor presented is based on interdigitated μ-electrodes (IDμEs), immunoreagents specifically developed to detect atrazine, and antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles. Due to the amplification of the conductive signal, produced by the presence of the gold particles, atrazine can be detected using simple and inexpensive direct current (DC) measurements. Then, sensors response is related to the atrazine concentration in the sample. Likewise, the presence of gold particles generates an increase in the intensity of the electric field between the electrodes. The time for assay completion, for 48 samples, was 5 h. Nevertheless, during the first hour (devoted to the incubation assays), the number of samples could be increased without prejudice the assay duration. Sensor responses obtained using red wine samples are compared with results obtained using buffer solutions. As a consequence, the strong matrix effect related to red wine samples has been identified as a non-specific increase of the current intensity through the device. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained are far below the Maximum Residue Level (50 μg kg-1) established by EU for residues of atrazine as herbicide in the wine grapes and other foodstuff products. This opens the door to commercial sensors of simple manipulation, transportable and economics.

  • Fabrication of flexible interdigitated µ-electrodes (FIDµEs) for the development of a conductimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection based on antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres; Muñiz, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Microelectronic engineering
    Vol. 87, num. 2, p. 167-173
    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2009.07.001
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    The present paper describes a simple and low-cost method for the fabrication of mechanically flexible interdigitated μ-electrodes (FIDμEs) and its application as immunosensor. FIDμEs consist of two coplanar non-passivated interdigitated metallic μ-electrodes supported on a flexible transparent substrate, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). Bioreagents deposition on PEN substrates becomes possible by depositing SiO2 on the electrodes surface (fingers and inter-digits space). These FIDμEs were successfully applied for the development of a selective conductimetric immunosensor for the quantification of atrazine residues. The immunosensor has been demonstrated for detection of small amounts of atrazine, thanks to the use of immunoreagents specifically developed to detect this pesticide. The detection method applied is based on the use of antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles. The presence of these particles amplifies the conductive signal; hence the immunosensor response was quantified using simple and inexpensive DC measurements. Immunochemical detection of the concentrations of atrazine is achieved by a competitive reaction which occurs before the inclusion of the labelled antibodies. The immunosensor shows limits of detection in the order of 2–3 μg L−1, far below the maximum residue level (50 μg kg−1) established by EU for residues of atrazine as herbicide in the wine grapes and other foodstuff products.

  • A million-channel reformer on a fingertip: Moving down the scale in hydrogen production

     López, Eduardo; Irigoyen, Aitor; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Llorca Pique, Jordi
    International journal of hydrogen energy
    Vol. 35, num. 8, p. 3472-3479
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.01.146
    Date of publication: 2010-04
    Journal article

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  • Thermal emission of macroporous silicon chirped photonic crystals

     Garin Escriva, Moises; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Optics letters
    Vol. 35, num. 20, p. 3348-3350
    DOI: 10.1364/OL.35.003348
    Date of publication: 2010-09-15
    Journal article

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  • 3D metallo-dielectric structures combining electrochemical and electroplating techniques

     Hernández, D.; Lange, Diego; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Garin Escriva, Moises; Garcia Molina, Francisco Miguel; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Microelectronic engineering
    Vol. 87, num. 5-8, p. 1458-1462
    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2009.11.108
    Date of publication: 2010-06
    Journal article

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    Three-dimensional (3D) periodic nickel micro-structures with a periodicity of 4 μm and high number of structural periods were fabricated by electrodeposition. Macroporous silicon, consisting of periodic arrays of sine-wave modulated pores, was used as a deposition template. It was prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon and subsequent pore widening by multiple oxidation/oxide-removal steps. The pore widening allows to open windows between adjacent pores obtaining a 3D network of interconnected voids embedded in silicon. This structure is then void-free filled with nickel in the electroplating process. The combination of electrochemical etching and electroplating techniques opens a route for the fabrication of large-scale 3D-periodic metallic micro-structures.

  • A million-channel CO-PrOx microreactor on a fingertip for fuel cell application

     Divins, N.J.; López, E.; Roig Costa, Maria; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Gonzàlez de Rivera, Ferran; Rodríguez, L.I. Rodríguez; Seco, M; Rosell, O; Llorca, J.
    Chemical engineering journal
    Vol. 67, num. 2-3, p. 597-602
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2010.07.072
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    A silicon micromonolith containing ca.40000 regular channels of 3.3 μm in diameter per square millimeter has been successfully functionalized with anAu/TiO2 catalyst for CO preferential oxidation(CO-PrOx) in the presence of hydrogen. The functionalization of the silicon microchannels has been accomplished by growing a SiO2 layer on the channel walls, followed by exchange with a titanium alkoxy deprecursor and decomposition intoTiO2 and, finally, by anchoring carbosilanethiol dendron protected pre-formed Au nanoparticles. Catalytically active centers at the Au–TiO2 interface have been obtained by thermal activation. With this method, an excellent homogeneity and adherence of the catalytic layer over the microchannels of the silicon micromonolith has been obtained, resulting in geometric exposed surface area values of about 4×105m2/m3. The functionalized silicon micromonolith has been tested forCO- PrOx at 363–433 Kand = 2 under H2/CO =0–20 (molar), and the results have been compared with those obtained over a conventional cordierite monolith with 400 cpsi loaded with the same catalyst. The performance of the silicon micromonolith, which converts ca. 1 NmL of CO per minute and mL of microreactor at 398 K under H2/CO ~20, is two orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional monolithic structures, suggesting that silicon micromonoliths could be particularly effective for hydrogen purification in low-temperature microfuel cells for portable applications.

  • CO removal at the nanoscale: A 1-cent gold prox reactor

     Jiménez, NURIA; López, E; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; González de Rivera, G.; Rodríguez, L.I.; Rodríguez, M; Seco, M; Rosell, O; Llorca Pique, Jordi
    International Conference on Chemical Reactors
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Macroporous silicon : a next generation catalytic monolith for ethanol steam reforming

     Vega, Didac; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Hernández García, David; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Jiménez, Nuria; Llorca Pique, Jordi; López, E.
    International conference on Porous Semiconductors Science and Technology
    p. 383-384
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Macroporous silicon membranes, consisting of straight parallel pores with a diameter of 3.3μm and depth/width ratio >60, are used as microreactors for high efficiency hydrogen generation via steam reforming of ethanol. The inner walls of the pores were coated with Co3O3*ZnO catalyst film. The as-prepared reactors were fed with water-ethanol gas mixture and the effect of the reactor temperature and inlet flow rate on the H2 generation was studied. We observed a superior H2 generation efficiency in comparison with conventional microreactors.

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    Template fabrication of 3D metallic microstructures by electrochemical etching and electroplanting  Open access

     Hernández García, David; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Lange, Diego; Garin Escriva, Moises; Garcia Molina, Miguel; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 1-2
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work, we show that macroporous silicon consisting of periodic arrays of etched pores is a feasible alternative for synthesis of 2D and 3d metallic microstructures due to its flexibility in the definition of complex geometries bulk. In addition macroporous silicon features full three-dimensionality, well controlled pore distribution and growth, and scalable dimensions (0.5-100 μm). We present here the fabrication of 3D Ni micro-structures by electroplating of macroporous silicon templates. The given approach can be applied for depositions of different metals and in more complicated template-structures.

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    Tuning the emissivity of 3D macroporous silicon in the mid-infrared  Open access

     Hernández García, David; Vega Bru, Didac; Garin Escriva, Moises; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 33-34
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tailoring the thermal emission of a particular material by using periodic micro-structures has attracted great interest for its potential applications in heating and lighting systems or thermophotovoltaics. […] Metallic and dielectric gratings, can be designed to introduce sharp emissions peaks which can be controlled with the grating parameters. 3D photonic band gap materials are particularly flexible in managing and confining light and, therefore, they are excellent candidates for controlling thermal radiation. Macroporous silicon, consisting of periodic arrays of etched pores in hydrofluoric acid solution, is a versatile material that provides large-area, high-quality and thermally-stable microstructures. It features full three-dimensionality, well controlled pore distribution and growth, and scalable dimensions in a range from 0.5 μm up to 100 μm. Silicon 3D structures operate at infrared wavelengths, efficiently reducing the emissivity inside the PBG regions. We present several Si microstructures and their emissivity/reflectivity responses measured by FT-IR spectrometry.

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    Catalytic membrane reactors based on macroporous silicon for hydrogen production  Open access

     Vega Bru, Didac; Hernández, D.; Jiménez, N.; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Llorca, J.; López, E.
    Encuentro Franco-Español de Química y Física del Estado Sólido
    p. 104-105
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The typology of using hydrogen as an energy carrier and its implementation in portable fuel cells has motivated a considerable research interest in the development of new efficient hydrogen production technologies. Hydrogen storage and manipulation is however a problematic and hazardous issue. Therefore, the low temperature on-site steam reforming of alcohols for hydrogen supply offers a nice solution to safety and storage issues, while providing several environment advantages […]

  • DESARROLLO DE MICROREACTORES INTEGRADOS

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel
    Competitive project

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    Interdigitated u-electrodes for development of an impedimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection  Open access

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Sanchez, F. J.; Marco, M. P.; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria
    Spanish Conference on Electron Devices
    p. 278-280
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This contribution describes the development of an impedimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection. This immunosensor is based on the use of interdigitated metallic μ-electrodes (IDμEs) The method described in this work does not use any redox mediator and relies on the direct detection of immunochemical competitive reaction between the pesticide and a haptenized-protein immobilized on interdigitated μ-electrodes for the specific antibody. The immunoreagents used were specifically developed to detect atrazine. The immunochemical detection of this pesticide is achieved without using any label. The immunosensor shows a limit of detection of 8.34±1.37 μg L-1, witch is lower than the Maximun Residue Level (MRL) (50μg L-1)established by EU (European Union)for residues of atrazine as herbicide in the wine grapes and other foodstuff products.

  • New approaches for the fabrication of photonic structures of nonlinear optical materials

     Carvajal, J J; Peña, A; Kumar, R.; Pujol, M. C.; Mateos, X.; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F; Vázquez De Aldana, J. R.; Méndez, C.; Moreno, P; Roso, L; Trifonov, T; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Král, Z; Ferré Borrull, J.; Pallarès Marzal, Josep; Marsal, L F; Finizio, Sergio Di; Martorell, J; Macovez, Roberto
    Journal of luminescence
    Vol. 129, num. SI:12, p. 1441-1447
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jlumin.2009.03.035
    Date of publication: 2009-12
    Journal article

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  • Immunosensors for atrazine detection in red wine samples

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Azcón, J.R.; Sánchez Baeza, Francisco J.; Marco Colas, María Pilar
    International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices
    p. 226-230
    Presentation's date: 2009-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Two novel immunosensors, one impedimetric and other one conductimetric, for atrazine detection in red wine samples have been developed. Impedimetric immunosensor is based on an array of interdigitated μ- electrodes (IDμEs) and bioreagents specifically developed to detect this pesticide. Conductimetric immunosensor incorporates additionally gold nanoparticles. Bioreagents were covalently immobilized on the surface of the electrodes (interdigital space). In both cases the biochemical determination of atrazine is possible without any redox mediator. For the case of the impedimetric immunosensor, the detection method is based on impedimetric measurements (in a wide range of frequencies), whereas in the case of the conductimetric immunosensor the detection method is based on conductimetric measurements (DC measurements).The potential of the impedimetric immunosensor to analyze atrazine in complex sample matrices, such as red wine, have been evaluated. This immunosensor can detect atrazine with limits of detection in the order sub-ppb, far below the maximum residue level (MRL) (50 μg L−1) established by European Union (EU) for residues of this herbicide in the wine grapes.

  • 3D metallo-dielectric structures combining electrochemical and electroplating techniques

     Hernández García, David; Lange, Diego; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Garin Escriva, Moises; Garcia Molina, Francisco Miguel; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Micro Nano Engineering
    p. 273-281
    DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2009.11.108
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A million channel reformer on a fingertip

     López, Eduardo; Irigoyen, Aitor; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Llorca Pique, Jordi
    Europacat
    p. 1-4
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.01.146
    Presentation's date: 2009-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Functionalized Silicon-based Proton Exchange Membranes for Monolithic Microf Fuel Cells

     Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Torres Herrero, Nuria; Tarancón, A.; Santander, Joaquim; Sabaté, Nuria; Cané Ballart, Carles; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Esquivel, J.P.; Duch, Marta; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Iberian Symposium on Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Advanced Batteries
    p. 367-375
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Immunosensors based on Interdigitated µ-Electrodes: Application to Pesticide Detection

     Valera Cano, Enrique Andres
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Manipulación de micro-nano partículas en 2D y 3D

     Silvestre Berges, Santiago; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Bermejo Broto, Alexandra; Bardes Llorensi, Daniel; Lopez Gonzalez, Juan Miguel
    Competitive project

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  • Electrical and optical characterization of porous silicon/pcrystalline silicon heterojunction diodes

     Fonthal Rico, Faruk; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Goyes, C.; Marsal Garvi, Lluis Francesc; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Pallarès Marzal, Josep
    AIP Conference proceedings
    Vol. 992, p. 780-785
    DOI: 10.1063/1.2926970
    Date of publication: 2008
    Journal article

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  • Polymer microfibers obtained using porous silicon templates

     Marsal Garví, Lluis; Formentín, P.; Palacios, R.; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Pallarès Marzal, Josep; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Physica status solidi A. Applications and materials science
    Vol. 205, num. 10, p. 2437-2440
    DOI: 10.1002/pssa.200723556
    Date of publication: 2008
    Journal article

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  • An Impedimetric Immunosensor based on Interdigitated Microelectrodes (IDµE) for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Food Samples

     Barranco, A; Ramón-Azcón, J; Valera, E; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Alfaro, B; Marco, M P; Sanchez-Baeza, F; Castañer Muñoz, Luis Maria
    BIOSENSORS 2008
    p. 1
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  • Characterization of 2D macroporous silicon photonic crystals: improving the photonic band identification in angular-dependent reflection spectroscopy in the mid-IR

     Král, Z; Ferré-Borrull, J; Pallarès Marzal, Josep; Trifonov, T; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Marsal, L F; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon
    Materials science and engineering B. Solid state materials for advanced tech
    Vol. 147, p. 179-182
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Colloidal crystal wires

     Tymczenko, M; Marsal, L E; Todorov Trifonov, Trifon; Rodriguez Martinez, Angel; Ramiro-Manzano, F; Pallares, J; Alcubilla Gonzalez, Ramon; Meseguer, F
    Advanced materials
    Vol. 20, num. 12, p. 2315-2320
    Date of publication: 2008-06
    Journal article

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