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    Power flow limitations for LCL grid-connected power converters  Open access

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices
    p. 1-5
    DOI: 10.1109/SSD.2014.6808899
    Presentation's date: 2014-02-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The controllers of VSI Power Converters connected to the electrical grid can produce line currents in phase (or not) with respect to the phase-to-neutral voltages. The amplitude of the currents and the phase difference are determined by the control signal, and they are limited by the passive elements of the LCL input filter, the grid impedance, the dc bus voltage, the maximum bearable power by the converter and the control signal itself. In this paper, the role of each element is studied in order to determine the final operation region of the power converter. These limitations can be useful to design the LCL filter and the converter's operation range

    The controllers of VSI Power Converters connected to the electrical grid can produce line currents in phase (or not) with respect to the phase-to-neutral voltages. The amplitude of the currents and the phase difference are determined by the control signal, and they are limited by the passive elements of the LCL input filter, the grid impedance, the dc bus voltage, the maximum bearable power by the converter and the control signal itself. In this paper, the role of each element is studied in order to determine the final operation region of the power converter. These limitations can be useful to design the LCL filter and the converter's operation range

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Sliding mode controlled multiphase buck converter with interleaving and current equalization

     Ramos Lara, Rafael Ramon; Biel Sole, Domingo; Fossas Colet, Enric; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Control engineering practice
    Vol. 21, num. 5, p. 737-746
    DOI: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2012.09.005
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a sliding mode control design of a multiphase power converter. The use of multiphase converters and an appropriate phase shift result in chattering reduction to the desired level at a given switching frequency in the so called ¿ripple cancellation¿ or ¿harmonic cancellation¿. Additionally, this strategy considers sliding mode as a suitable substitute for Pulse Width Modulation because of the benefits in sliding mode control, i.e. the possibility of achieving desired system responses regardless of parameter changes. A 4-phase buck converter prototype was built and the controller was programmed in an FPGA. Experimental results show that chattering reduction, robust output regulation and phase current equalization are achieved, thus validating the proposed approach.

  • Discrete-time AFC control of a single-phase full-bridge LCL PWM rectifier

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 3474-3479
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699687
    Presentation's date: 2013-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Controllers for ac/dc power converters are subject to many constraints: first, they must be reliable when working conditions are not ideal, i.e., when the grid voltages present sags or swells, big impedances, changes in the frequency or harmonics. Second, they must be robust since the plant is not perfectly know (parametric uncertainty), it may change over time (load changes) and they must reduce to the minimum the currents¿ harmonics. And third, they must operate using the minimum number or sensors to reduce the cost. On the other hand, the use of digital controllers is very common today since it makes easier the implementation and gives them flexibility. In this paper, a discrete-time control technique based on Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) is proposed for a full-bridge single-phase power rectifier. The controller has been entirely designed in discrete-time, avoiding approximations from continuous-time. The experimental results show that AFC controllers are not only robust, but also they present a very good performance

    Controllers for ac/dc power converters are subject to many constraints: first, they must be reliable when working conditions are not ideal, i.e., when the grid voltages present sags or swells, big impedances, changes in the frequency or harmonics. Second, they must be robust since the plant is not perfectly know (parametric uncertainty), it may change over time (load changes) and they must reduce to the minimum the currents’ harmonics. And third, they must operate using the minimum number or sensors to reduce the cost. On the other hand, the use of digital controllers is very common today since it makes easier the implementation and gives them flexibility. In this paper, a discrete-time control technique based on Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) is proposed for a full-bridge single-phase power rectifier. The controller has been entirely designed in discrete-time, avoiding approximations from continuous-time. The experimental results show that AFC controllers are not only robust, but also they present a very good performance

  • Conditions for existence of equilibrium points of systems with constant power loads

     Sanchez Acevedo, Santiago; Ortega, Romeo; Bergna, Gilbert; Molinas Cabrera, Marta; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    p. 3641-3646
    Presentation's date: 2013-12-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we investigate the sine qua non condition of existence of equilibria for electrical systems with external sources furnishing constant power to the loads, which is a scenario encountered in modern applications. Two general cases are considered, when the system is (i) linear time¿invariant or (ii) nonlinear, with dynamic behavior described by a port¿Hamiltonian model with constant dissipation and switching interconnection matrix. The latter class includes the practically important case of power converters. For both cases necessary and suf¿cient conditions for existence of equilibria are given, which impose that the power dissipated in steady¿state should exceed the extracted constant power. The equilibrium is ensured if and only if the inequality is satis¿ed.

    In this paper we investigate the sine qua non condition of existence of equilibria for electrical systems with external sources furnishing constant power to the loads, which is a scenario encountered in modern applications. Two general cases are considered, when the system is (i) linear time–invariant or (ii) nonlinear, with dynamic behavior described by a port–Hamiltonian model with constant dissipation and switching interconnection matrix. The latter class includes the practically important case of power converters. For both cases necessary and suf¿cient conditions for existence of equilibria are given, which impose that the power dissipated in steady–state should exceed the extracted constant power. The equilibrium is ensured if and only if the inequality is satis¿ed.

  • G2V and V2G operation 20 kW battery charger

     Escoda, Jordi; Fontanilles, Joan; Biel Sole, Domingo; Repecho Del Corral, Victor; Cardoner Parpal, Rafael; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition
    p. 1-5
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a bidirectional on-board battery charger for Electric Vehicles designed to perform both Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operation. The charger can also operate with single or three-phase power grid connection, regulates the battery charging current and presents input unity power factor. A high frequency three-phase transformer has been included in the charger, this providing galvanic isolation.

    This paper presents a bidirectional on-board battery charger for Electric Vehicles designed to perform both Grid to Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operation. The charger can also operate with single or three-phase power grid connection, regulates the battery charging current and presents input unity power factor. A high frequency three-phase transformer has been included in the charger, this providing galvanic isolation.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Técnicas de control avanzadas para la mejora de la operación de convertidores VSI conectados a la red eléctrica

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Simposio CEA de Ingenieria de Control
    p. 61-66
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral es el desarrollo de una metodología para la concepción de controladores de tiempo discreto especialmente diseñ~ados para mejorar la operación de convertidores VSI conectados a la red eléctrica. En concreto, los problemas que se pretenden tratar a la hora de controlar un convertidor AC/DC son el incremento de la impedancia o cambio de la frecuencia de red, huecos de tensión y / o sobretensiones, desequilibros, presencia de armónicos de tensión y cambios en la carga. La técnica de control utilizada es conocida como Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) o control resonante, una técnica lineal basada en resonadores que permite el seguimiento y /o rechazo asintótico de señales periódicas. Dado que la implementación del control se realiza mediante un procesador de señales digitales (DSP), se hace hincapié en el control muestreado, diseñando los controladores directamente en tiempo discreto y, así pues, evitando aproximaciones desde tiempo continuo. Para que el controlador sea lo más práctico posible, se debe llevar a cabo con las míinimas mediciones posibles. Además de los resonadores, en esta tesis se tratan el resto de elementos que permiten controlar de forma completa y adecuada el convertidor VSI: el filtro LCL y Active Damping , y el Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral es el desarrollo de una metodología para la concepción de controladores de tiempo discreto especialmente diseñ~ados para mejorar la operación de convertidores VSI conectados a la red eléctrica. En concreto, los problemas que se pretenden tratar a la hora de controlar un convertidor AC/DC son el incremento de la impedancia o cambio de la frecuencia de red, huecos de tensión y / o sobretensiones, desequilibros, presencia de armónicos de tensión y cambios en la carga. La técnica de control utilizada es conocida como Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) o control resonante, una técnica lineal basada en resonadores que permite el seguimiento y /o rechazo asintótico de señales periódicas. Dado que la implementación del control se realiza mediante un procesador de señales digitales (DSP), se hace hincapié en el control muestreado, diseñando los controladores directamente en tiempo discreto y, así pues, evitando aproximaciones desde tiempo continuo. Para que el controlador sea lo más práctico posible, se debe llevar a cabo con las míinimas mediciones posibles. Además de los resonadores, en esta tesis se tratan el resto de elementos que permiten controlar de forma completa y adecuada el convertidor VSI: el filtro LCL y Active Damping , y el Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)

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    Control digital basado en AFC de un rectificador trifásico PWM  Open access

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Seminario Anual de Automática, Electrónica Industrial e Instrumentación
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La operación de los convertidores de potencia conectados a la red eléctrica está sometida cada vez a más condicionantes (reducción de armónicos, funcionamiento en presencia de sags y swells, altas impedancias de red, etc.). El desafío para los controladores es grande, puesto que deben ser suficientemente robustos para asegurar la estabilidad del sistema, sobre todo cuando las condiciones de trabajo no son ideales. En este artículo, se propone una técnica de control en tiempo discreto para un convertidor trifásico de tres hilos basada en Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC). Dado que el sistema va a ser controlado mediante un controlador digital, el método de diseño para los resonadores ha sido trasladado a tiempo discreto. De esta forma, el controlador se ha diseñado por completo de forma muestreada, evitando versiones aproximadas obtenidas a partir de las expresiones de tiempo continuo y, además, se ha tomado en cuenta el retardo unitario debido al tiempo de computación e implementación del control en el microprocesador. Las simulaciones llevadas a cabo muestran que este tipo de control resonante no solamente es robusto, sino que también presenta buenas prestaciones

    La operación de los convertidores de potencia conectados a la red eléctrica está sometida cada vez a más condicionantes (reducción de armónicos, funcionamiento en presencia de sags y swells, altas impedancias de red, etc.). El desafío para los controladores es grande, puesto que deben ser suficientemente robustos para asegurar la estabilidad del sistema, sobre todo cuando las condiciones de trabajo no son ideales. En este artículo, se propone una técnica de control en tiempo discreto para un convertidor trifásico de tres hilos basada en Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC). Dado que el sistema va a ser controlado mediante un controlador digital, el método de diseño para los resonadores ha sido trasladado a tiempo discreto. De esta forma, el controlador se ha diseñado por completo de forma muestreada, evitando versiones aproximadas obtenidas a partir de las expresiones de tiempo continuo y, además, se ha tomado en cuenta el retardo unitario debido al tiempo de computación e implementación del control en el microprocesador. Las simulaciones llevadas a cabo muestran que este tipo de control resonante no solamente es robusto, sino que también presenta buenas prestaciones.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Digital AFC control of a three-phase three-wire unity-power-factor PWM rectifier

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Asian Control Conference
    p. 1-6
    DOI: 10.1109/ASCC.2013.6606312
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nowadays, ac/dc power converters must fulfill more and more design constraints with respect to the electrical grid: harmonics reduction, operation with sags and swells and/or high grid impedances, etc. This is a challenge for the controllers, since they must be robust enough to ensure the stability of the system, specially when working the conditions are not the ideal ones. In this paper, a discrete-time control technique based on Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) is proposed for a three-phase three-wire rectifier with a LCL input filter. The continuous-time design method for resonators has been translated into the discrete-time domain. Thus, the controller has been entirely designed in discrete-time, avoiding approximate conversions of the controller from the continuous-time domain. Besides, the usual unit computational delay in sampled-data control systems is taken into account. The simulation results show that this kind of resonant control is not only robust, but also presents a good performance.

    Nowadays, ac/dc power converters must fulfill more and more design constraints with respect to the electrical grid: harmonics reduction, operation with sags and swells and/or high grid impedances, etc. This is a challenge for the controllers, since they must be robust enough to ensure the stability of the system, specially when working the conditions are not the ideal ones. In this paper, a discrete-time control technique based on Adaptive Feed-forward Cancellation (AFC) is proposed for a three-phase three-wire rectifier with a LCL input filter. The continuous-time design method for resonators has been translated into the discrete-time domain. Thus, the controller has been entirely designed in discrete-time, avoiding approximate conversions of the controller from the continuous-time domain. Besides, the usual unit computational delay in sampled-data control systems is taken into account. The simulation results show that this kind of resonant control is not only robust, but also presents a good performance.

  • Static reference frame LQR optimal state-feedback control for Static-Series Compensators

     Perez Morales, Jorge; Cóbreces Álvarez, Santiago; Rodriguez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Bueno Peña, Emilio J.; Sanz Alonso, Ines; Huerta, Francisco; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 3776-3781
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699737
    Presentation's date: 2013-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents an optimal LQR control for a static-series compensator (SSC) and propounds a design criterion for the choice of the LQR weights in order to mitigate grid-voltage dips. The authors present a SSC state-space model that considers the modelling of grid, transformer and R-L load. The proposed control works in the Stationary-Reference Frames (SRF) and implements AFC resonant controllers, allowing the direct control of unbalanced dips in a three wire grid-load connection.

    This paper presents an optimal LQR control for a static-series compensator (SSC) and propounds a design criterion for the choice of the LQR weights in order to mitigate grid-voltage dips. The authors present a SSC state-space model that considers the modelling of grid, transformer and R-L load. The proposed control works in the Stationary-Reference Frames (SRF) and implements AFC resonant controllers, allowing the direct control of unbalanced dips in a three wire grid-load connection.

  • Some considerations about discrete-time AFC controllers

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    p. 6904-6909
    DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2013.6760983
    Presentation's date: 2013-12-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Resonant Control or Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation is a linear control technique dealing with periodic signals. It is based on the Internal Model Principle and let asymptotically track/reject periodic references/disturbances. Many papers studying resonators in the continuous-time domain have been published, nevertheless, the increasing use of microcontrollers motivates its discrete-time design; sampled-data control systems are a rich subject of study and discretizing resonators from continuous-time is not enough to take into account all the sampling effects. In this paper, a review of discrete-time AFC controllers is presented and some results of the classical continuous-time design techniques for resonators are translated into discrete-time

    Resonant Control or Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation is a linear control technique dealing with periodic signals. It is based on the Internal Model Principle and let asymptotically track/reject periodic references/disturbances. Many papers studying resonators in the continuous-time domain have been published, nevertheless, the increasing use of microcontrollers motivates its discrete-time design; sampled-data control systems are a rich subject of study and discretizing resonators from continuous-time is not enough to take into account all the sampling effects. In this paper, a review of discrete-time AFC controllers is presented and some results of the classical continuous-time design techniques for resonators are translated into discrete-time

  • Experimental platform for development and Evaluation of hybrid generation systems based on fuel cells

     Talpone, J.L.; Puleston, Paul; More, J.J.; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Cendoya, M.G.
    International journal of hydrogen energy
    Vol. 37, num. 13, p. 10346-10353
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.01.161
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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  • Discrete-time repetitive controller for time-delay systems with disturbance observer

     Na, Jing; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Ren, Xuemei
    Asian journal of control
    Vol. 14, num. 5, p. 1340-1354
    DOI: 10.1002/asjc.428
    Date of publication: 2012-09
    Journal article

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  • On the stability of discrete-time active damping methods for VSI converters with a LCL input filter

     Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 2378-2383
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2012.6388871
    Presentation's date: 2012-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The use of LCL filters with VSI converters is interesting since they present good attenuation of current ripple at high frequencies. Nevertheless, they also present a high resonance peak which can cause undesired oscillations, and even instability problems. Passive and Active Damping are methods which try to reduce those resonance effects. In this paper, Passive Damping is briefly reviewed and Active Damping is formally analyzed in continuous-time and, specially, in discrete-time. It will be shown that the one period delay included in sampled-data control systems and the grid impedance play a very important role in stability conditions. The presented results are useful to design discrete-time Active Damping controllers. Moreover, important implications for higher level controls can be deduced since the Active Damping is the first control loop in the power converter's controller.

  • Theory and experimental results of two dynamic energy routers

     Ramirez, Victor; Ortega, Romeo; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Sánchez-Squella, Antonio; Bethoux, Olivier
    American Control Conference
    p. 2128-2133
    Presentation's date: 2012-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Efficient regulation of the energy transfer between generating, storage and load subsystems is a topic of current practical interest. A new strategy to achieve this objective, together with its corresponding power electronics implementation, was recently proposed by the authors. The device is called dynamic energy router (DER) because, in contrast with current practice, the regulation of the direction and rate of change of the power flow is done without relying on steady–state considerations. A key assumption for the correct operation of the DER is that dissipation in the system is negligible. Unfortunately, in the presence of dissipation the original DER ceases to be operational. In this paper a new DER that takes into account the presence of losses is proposed. Simulation and experimental evidence of the performance improvement with the new DER are presented.

  • Nouveau routeur dynamique prenant en compte les pertes : Théorie et résultats expérimentaux

     Ramírez, Victor; Ortega, Romeo; Sánchez-Squella, Antonio; Bethoux, Olivier; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Conférence Internationale Francophone d'Automatique
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2012-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Dans de nombreux r eseaux, la r egulation e cace du transfert d' energie entre les sous-syst emes de production, de stockage et d'utilisation demeure un sujet di cile a traiter. Les auteurs proposent ici une nouvelle strat egie pour atteindre cet objectif, ainsi que sa mise en oeuvre. Le dispositif est appel e routeur d' energie dynamique (RED), parce que, contrairement a la pratique actuelle, l'asservissement de l' ecoulement de puissance se fait sans s'appuyer sur des hypoth eses stationnaire. Une hypoth ese cl e pour le bon fonctionnement du RED est que la dissipation du syst eme est n egligeable. Toutefois, en pr esence de pertes en ligne le RED inital n'est plus op erationnel, car il est bas e sur l'hypoth ese cl e de non dissipation des interconnections. Dans ce papier, un nouveau RED prenant en compte la pr esence de pertes est propos e. Des preuves de l'am elioration des performances sont pr esent ees en simulation comme en exp erimentation.

  • Repetitive control for systems with time-delays and application to robotic servo motor

     Na, Jing; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Guo, Y.; Ren, Xuemei
    Annual Conference on Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems
    p. 377-389
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-32527-4_34
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In many industrial robotic applications there is a need to track periodic reference signals and/or reject periodic disturbances. This paper presents a novel repetitive control design for systems with constant time-delays in both forward and feedback control channels. An additional delay is introduced together with plant delays to construct an internal model for periodic signals, and a simple proportional control is utilized to stabilize the closed-loop system. Sufficient stability conditions of the closed-loop system and the robustness analysis under modeling uncertainties are studied. Experimental results are included to evaluate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

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    Phase-Locked Loop using a comb filter with fractional delay  Open access

     Griño Cubero, Roberto; Mughal, Umair Najeeb
    Date: 2011-05
    Report

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    A Phase Locked Loop is a feedback system combining a Voltage Controlled Oscillator and a Phase Comparator These are connected so that the oscillator maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal. Phase locked loops can be used, for example to generate stable output frequency signals from a fixed frequency signal. A Comb Filter is a kind of Notch Filter (Non Recursive Filter) that is normally used to remove the harmonic terms from a particular signal. In this Design, a PLL is implemented using a Comb Filter because the main frequencies that are considered noise in the PLL loop are the harmonics of the fundamental frequency. There are 2 objectives of this project report, 1. Implementing Comb Filter Using Fractional Delay 2. Comparision of Frame Based and Typical Discrete Sample Based Implementation of a Comb Filter

  • Técnicas de control avanzado para la mejora de la operación de convertidores vsi conectados a la red eléctrica

     Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Biel Sole, Domingo; Fossas Colet, Enric; Olm Miras, Josep Maria; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Orellana Barcelo, Marcos; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Competitive project

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    Plataforma experimental para el desarrollo y evaluación de sistemas de generación híbridos basados en pilas de combustible.  Open access

     Talpone, J.L.; Puleston, Paul; More, J.J.; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Cendoya, M.G.
    Congreso Iberoamericano Hidrógeno y Fuentes Sustentables de Energía
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La creciente demanda de energía, la constante disminución de las fuentes de origen fósil y la preocupación por el deterioro del medio ambiente, han volcado la atención mundial a las tecnologías basadas en fuentes de energía alternativas. El perfeccionamiento de sistemas de generación eléctrica eficientes basados en energías alternativas, actualmente se ha convertido en un área de investigación y desarrollo de crucial importancia. En este contexto en constante expansión, las investigaciones en el campo de nuevas tecnologías para sistemas híbridos se han vuelto un tema de alta prioridad. Orientada a esta problemática, en el marco de un proyecto de colaboración internacional con el Grupo ACES de los institutos IRI (CSIC-UPC) e IOC (UPC), Cataluña, España, se ha desarrollado una plataforma experimental de generación híbrida de energía eléctrica. La misma permite implementar en tiempo real nuevos algoritmos de control avanzado, orientados a maximizar la eficiencia energética y optimizar la gestión de potencia eléctrica. La plataforma propuesta está formada por dos canales de generación: uno basado en una Pila de Combustible (FC) y otro, constituido por una fuente electrónica programable, que emula una fuente de energía alternativa, en particular un módulo de generación eólica. Se dispone además de un canal de almacenamiento, que utiliza un banco de Supercapacitores (SC). Por último, una carga electrónica, también programable, representa la demanda de energía cuyo perfil puede ser especificado de manera arbitraria. Todos los canales del sistema están conectados a un Bus de Corriente Continua común; la FC y el SC lo hacen a través de convertidores electrónicos conmutados intermediarios. Los convertidores son específicamente controlados por un sistema basado en un procesador digital de señales (DSP). A su vez, todo el equipo es supervisado mediante una PC. De esta forma la plataforma desarrollada presenta un alto grado de flexibilidad y versatilidad. Resultados experimentales permiten validar su funcionamiento en forma integral.

  • A feedback-based L-2-norm limiter for periodic signals

     Griño Cubero, Roberto; Ortega, Romeo; Fossas Colet, Enric
    Automatica
    Vol. 48, num. 1, p. 205-210
    DOI: 10.1016/j.automatica.2011.09.037
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    Limiting the rms value (L2 norm) of periodic signals can be a necessity in some controllers for power electronic devices. The prevailing existing solution is simply to compute, off-line, the L2 norm and then to multiply the signal by the factor that ensures the desired bound is achieved. This feedforward procedure could yield unsatisfactory results during the transients of the system. In this paper, a feedback-based algorithm that carries out the computations on-line is proposed. Besides the on-line computation of the L2 norm, the second component of the algorithm is a classical proportional–integral loop with an anti-windup mechanism. Although the overall algorithm is described by complicated nonlinear, non-autonomous, delay-differential equations, a detailed stability analysis is carried out, proving its robust performance. Simulation results, that confirm the theoretical results, are presented.

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    Nonlinear control of single-phase shunt active power filter. Theoretical analysis of closed-loop performances.  Open access

     Lachkar, I.; Giri, F.; Abouloifa, A; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Chaoui, F.Z; Elfadil, H.
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    p. 4954-4959
    DOI: 10.3182/20110828-6-IT-1002.03186
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The problem of controlling single-phase shunt active power filter is addressed in presence of nonlinear loads. The control objective is twofold: (i) compensation of harmonic and reactive currents absorbed by the nonlinear load; (ii) regulation of the inverter output capacitor voltage. A two-loop cascade control strategy is developed that includes an inner-loop designed, using the backstepping technique, to cope with the compensation issue and an outer-loop designed to regulate the capacitor voltage. The controller performances are formally analysed, using the averaging theory. The analysis results are illustrated by simulation.

  • Propulsor híbrido para vehículo urbano liviano

     Roqueiro, Nestor; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Fossas Colet, Enric; Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Batlle Arnau, Carles; Riera Colomer, Jordi; Olm Miras, Josep Maria; Pagano, Daniel Juan; Valencia da Luz, Mauricio; Oliveira, Amir; Nicolazzi, Lauro; de Souza Vieira, Rodrigo; Gaudenzi Faria, Marcelo; de Lima, Sigmar; de Souza Campos, David
    Competitive project

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  • Influence of reverse logistics on optimal manufacturing, remanufacturing, and storage capacities  Open access

     Benedito Benet, Ernest
    Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El propósito de la presente tesis es estudiar la influencia de la logística inversa en las capacidades de fabricación, refabricación y almacenaje óptimas de un sistema industrial. El interés por la logística inversa ha crecido en los últimos años de forma paralela a la preocupación, creciente también, por las cuestiones medioambientales en el mundo industrializado. En el capítulo 2 se hace una introducción a la logística inversa, explicando su definición y los motivos por los que se ha creado esta área de gestión diferenciada de la logística tradicional; se describen los tipos de productos que intervienen en la logística inversa y los distintos procesos para recuperar su valor. Además, se analizan las características del comportamiento de un sistema con logística inversa, comparándolas con las de un sistema tradicional. En el capítulo 3 se revisa la literatura tanto en el ámbito de la gestión de las capacidades de fabricación y almacenaje en un sistema tradicional como en el ámbito de la logística inversa. Para cumplir con el objetivo de la tesis, en los capítulos 4, 5 y 6 se estudian tres modelos de un sistema en que el producto recuperado es indistinguible del producto nuevo. El proceso seguido para realizar el estudio ha sido el mismo en cada uno de los modelos presentados: en primer lugar se ha determinado la política de producción óptima utilizando una cierta función de coste y suponiendo que tenemos dadas unas capacidades fijas, en segundo lugar se ha determinado el valor óptimo de las capacidades que optimizan la función de coste y en tercer lugar se estudian las variaciones de las cantidades óptimas al variar algunos parámetros relacionados con la logística inversa. En el capítulo 4 se pone de manifiesto cómo influye la aleatoriedad de los retornos en las capacidades óptimas estudiando un sistema con demanda uniforme y retornos aleatorios. La función de coste a optimizar es el valor esperado del coste en un periodo. En el capítulo 5 se estudia un modelo en el que la demanda y los retornos son funciones conocidas, continuas y periódicas. La función de coste a optimizar es el coste incurrido en el periodo y el problema de determinar la política de fabricación óptima es un problema de control óptimo. El modelo presentado permite analizar la variación en las capacidades óptimas al variar el plazo entre la venta y los retornos de los productos. En el capítulo 6 se trata un modelo con demanda y retornos aleatorios. La función de coste a optimizar es el valor esperado del coste en un periodo. Para realizar el cálculo de las políticas óptimas se hace la hipótesis de independencia estocástica de los retornos, comúnmente utilizada en la literatura. Una vez calculadas las capacidades óptimas se contrasta la validez de la hipótesis mediante simulación. El modelo se utiliza para estudiar la dependencia de las capacidades respecto de la probabilidad de que el producto sea retornado y respecto de los costes variables de refabricación. Finalmente en el capítulo 7 se recogen las conclusiones y los futuros temas de investigación.

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the influence of reverse logistics in optimal manufacturing, remanufacturing and storage capacities of an industrial system. The interest in reverse logistics has grown in recent years in parallel with the increasing concern about environmental issues in the industrialized world. In chapter 2, we provide an introduction to reverse logistics: explaining the definition of reverse logistics and the reasons for which has been created as a differentiated area of management of traditional logistics, describing the types of products involved in reverse logistics and the different processes to recover its value, and examining the behavioral characteristics of a reverse logistics systems, compared with the traditional logistics system. In chapter 3 we review the literature both in the field of capacity management in traditional systems and in the field of reverse logistics. To meet the objective of the thesis, we study three models of a system in which the recovered product is indistinguishable from the new product. The process followed for the study was the same in each of the models presented: firstly, we determine the optimal production policy for every value of capacities; the second step is determining the optimal value of the capacities when optimal policies are applied and third we study the dependency of optimal capacities on some parameters related with reverse logistics. In chapter 4 we study a system with uniform demand and random returns to show the influence of the randomness of returns in the optimal capacities. The cost function to optimize is the expected value of cost in a period. In chapter 5 we study a model in which demand and returns are known functions, continuous and periodic. The cost function to optimize is the cost incurred in the period and the problem of determining the optimal production policy is an optimal control problem. Using this model, we analyze the dependence of optimal capacity on the time between sales and product returns. In chapter 6 we present a stochastic model where demand and returns are sequences of random variables. The cost function to optimize is the expected value of cost in a period. To perform the calculation of optimal policies we assume that returns are stochastically independent of demand (this assumption is commonly used in the literature). The hypothesis is validated by simulation after optimal capacity is calculated. The model is used to study the dependence of the optimal capacities on the probability that the product is returned and also on the variable costs of remanufacturing. Finally in chapter 7 we discuss the conclusions and future research topics.

  • Dynamic energy router: energy management in electrical systems fed by multiple sources

     Sanchez Squella, Antonio; Ortega, Romeo; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Malo Barragan, Shane Leonardo
    IEEE control systems magazine
    Vol. 30, num. 6, p. 72-80
    DOI: 10.1109/MCS.2010.938096
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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  • Repetitive controller for time-delay systems based on disturbance observer

     Na, Jing; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Chen, Q.; Ren, Xuemei
    IET control theory and applications
    Vol. 4, num. 11, p. 2391-2404
    DOI: 10.1049/iet-cta.2009.0411
    Date of publication: 2010-11
    Journal article

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  • Design, Construction, and Control of a Stand-Alone Energy-Conditioning System for PEM-Type Fuel Cells

     Malo Barragan, Shane Leonardo; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 25, num. 10, p. 2496-2506
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2050151
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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    Nonlinear control design and averaging analysis of a full-bridge boost rectifier  Open access

     Abouloifa, A; Giri, F.; Lachkar, I.; Chaoui, F.Z.; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    International Journal of Integrated Energy Systems
    Vol. 2, num. 1, p. 1-8
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Journal article

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    We are considering the problem of controlling AC/DC full bridge converters. The control objectives are twofold:(i) guaranteeing a regulated voltage for the supplied load, (ii) enforcing power factor correction (PFC) with respect to the main supply network. The considered problem is dealt with using a nonlinear controller that involves two loops in cascade. The inner-loop is designed, using sliding mode approach, to cope with the PFC issue. The outer-loop is designed to regulate the converter output voltage. While several double-loop regulators (designed for different converters) can be found in the relevant literature, it is the first time that a so formal average analysis is developed that rigorously describes the controller performances. The development of such theoretical analysis framework is a major motivation of this paper.

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    Power-quality improvement of a stand-alone induction generator using a STATCOM with battery energy storage system  Open access

     Barrado, J.A.; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Valderrama Blavi, Hugo
    IEEE transactions on power delivery
    Vol. 25, num. 4, p. 2734-2741
    DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2010.2051565
    Date of publication: 2010-10
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a STATCOM with a self-oscillating bidirectional dc-dc converter for interfacing battery energy storage in a stand-alone induction generator system. The self-oscillation mode is based on relay feedback control with hysteresis. To reduce the output current ripple, an LCL filter is connected between the half bridge of this dc-dc converter and the energy storage system. The other side of bidirectional converter is coupled with a voltage-source converter. The proposed control allows that the previous electronic converters, with an additional resistive dump load, compensate all disturbances in a self-excited induction generator due to three-phase four-wire loads and an improvement of system efficiency. The simulated results show good performance of the stand-alone power system under different loading conditions.

  • Adaptive neural network state predictor and tracking control for nonlinear time-delay systems

     Na, Jing; Ren, Xuemei; Gao, Yan; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    International journal of innovative computing information and control
    Vol. 6, num. 2, p. 627-639
    Date of publication: 2010-02
    Journal article

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    A new adaptive nonlinear state predictor (ANSP) is presented for a class of unknown nonlinear systems with input time-delay. A dynamical identification with neu- ral network (NN) is constructed to obtain NN weights and their derivatives. The future NN weights are deduced for the nonlinear state predictor design without iterative calcu- lations. The time-delay and unknown nonlinearity are compensated by a feedback control using the predicted states. Rigorous stability analysis for the identification, predictor and feedback control are provided by means of Lyapunov criterion. Simulations and practical experiments of a temperature control system are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  • A transient model for RF cavity analysis under beam loading

     Hassanzadegan, Hooman; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, accelerators SP
    Vol. 615, num. 2, p. 143-157
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.01.070
    Date of publication: 2010-04
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  • ACES CONTROL AVANÇAT DE SISTEMES D'ENERGIA

     Serra Prat, Maria; Franch Bullich, Jaime; Sarmiento Carnevali, Maria Laura; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Olm Miras, Josep Maria; Batlle Arnau, Carles; Biel Sole, Domingo; Riera Colomer, Jordi; Fossas Colet, Enric
    Competitive project

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  • Disturbance Observer based Repetitive Controller for Time-Delay Systems

     Na, Jing; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Ren, Xuemei
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2009.5347008
    Presentation's date: 2009-10-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Design and Control of an Electric Energy Conditioning System for a PEM Type Fuel Cell  Open access

     Malo Barragan, Shane Leonardo
    Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Isolated electric energy generation systems are often needed to supply electric loads where the electrical network is not available. This could be caused due to geographic isolation, the necessity of load mobility, demanded values of voltage and current that are not compatible with the local networks, etc. This makes the design and construction of stand-alone energy generation systems a must.Modern designs are being pushed towards cleaner technologies. The experience has shown that the usual methods employed to produce electrical energy are not sustainable, especially because of environmental concerns. Usual stand-alone energy generation systems employ batteries and fuel engines. Batteries offer a cheap mean to feed the generation system but need rigorous maintenance routines, the substances used in their construction are strong pollutants, offer relatively low durability and the ratio charge time/discharge time is too high. Fuel engines extract their energy from petroleum based fuels, and as its well known, pollute their surrounding environment in several ways producing smoke, noise and heat.Polymer electrolyte membrane type fuel cells are among the new technologies that are being considered as a good alternative to the traditional power sources used for stand-alone energy generation systems.AIthough the basic principles of operation of the fuel cells are known since 1839, this is a technology that is far from being mature. More work needs to be done in order to make of the fuel cells systems with, high reliability, with maximum efficiency, and capable of providing electrical energy with quality comparable to the quality achieved using usual methods.The problems when working with fuel cells can be split in two big groups of interest, the first, being the handling and control of the electrochemical variables, and the second, the handling and control of the electrical variables taking care of the limits imposed by the dynamics of the fuel cell unit. This work deals with the second group of concerns, looking at the fuel cell as a black-box dc power supply with certain current/voltage characteristics. The energy provided by the fuel cells needs to be conditioned to the levels and characteristics required by the loads to be fed. In Europe, for single-phase ac loads, the specifications are a sinusoidal output voltage with 230 V ac rms and a frequency of 50 Hz. This work presents the the analysis, design, construction, and control of the electric energy conditioning system for a polymer eIectrolyte membrane type fuel cell to act as an stand-alone dc-ac inverter to feed linear or nonlinear loads with big variations.

    Los sistemas de generación de energía eléctrica "en isla" son necesarios en muchas ocasiones para alimentar cargas donde la red eléctrica no está disponible. Esto puede deberse a diversos factores como: aislamiento geográfico, necesidad de movilidad de la carga, requerimientos de corriente y voltaje que no son compatibles con las redes locales, etc. Todas estas razones hacen del diseño y construcción de sistemas autónomos de generación de energía una necesidad.En la actualidad, los diseños de este tipo de dispositivos están tendiendo hacia tecnologías más limpias.La experiencia ha enseñado que los métodos habituales para producir energía eléctrica no son los más apropiados, especialmente por motivos medioambientales. Los sistemas autónomos de generación de energía eléctrica típicos utilizan baterías y máquinas de combustión. Las baterías ofrecen una fuente barata para alimentar el sistema de generación de energía eléctrica, pero necesitan de rigurosas rutinas de mantenimiento, algunas de las sustancias utilizadas en su construcción son altamente contaminantes, ofrecen una relativamente baja durabilidad y la razón tiempo de carga/tiempo de descarga es grande.Por otro lado, las máquinas de combustión extraen la energía de combustibles a base de petróleo, como es bien conocido, contaminan el entorno produciendo humo, ruido y calor.Las pilas de combustible de membrana de electrolito polimérico están entre las nuevas tecnologías que se consideran como una buena alternativa a las fuentes que se utilizan usualmente para alimenta sistemas autónomos de generación de energía. Aunque los principios básicos de operación de las pilas de combustible son conocidos desde 1839, esta es una tecnología que está aún lejos de pode considerarse madura. Aún es necesario realizar más esfuerzos con el objetivo de hacer de las pilas de combustible fuentes de energía de alta confiabilidad, de máxima eficiencia y capaces de proveer energía con niveles de calidad comparables a los alcanzados al utilizar los métodos tradicionales.La problemática que se presenta al trabajar con pilas de combustible puede ser dividida en dos grandes grupos de interés, el primero, sería el control de las variables electroquímicas, y el segundo, el manejo control de las variables eléctricas tomando en cuenta los límites impuestos por la dinámica de la pila de combustible. Éste trabajo trata con el segundo, viendo la pila de combustible como una "caja negra" que constituye una fuente de potencia de corriente continua con ciertas características particulares de voltaje/corriente. La energía provista por la pila de combustible debe ser acondicionada a los niveles características requeridas por las cargas a ser alimentadas. En Europa, para sistemas de monofásico de corriente alterna, las especificaciones son un voltaje sinusoidal con 230 V efectivos y una frecuencia de 50 Hz. Éste trabajo presenta el análisis, diseño, construcción y control del sistema de acondicionamiento de energía eléctrica para una pila de combustible de membrana de electrolito polimérico, que actúa como un sistema autónomo de inversión de corriente continua-corriente alterna para alimentar cargas lineales o no lineales que pueden experimentar grandes variaciones.

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    High-Performance Control of a Single-Phase Shunt Active Filter  Open access

     Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Cardoner Parpal, Rafael; Fossas Colet, Enric
    IEEE transactions on control systems technology
    Vol. 17, num. 6, p. 1318-1329
    DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2008.2007494
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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    Shunt active power filters are devices, connected in parallel with nonlinear and reactive loads, which are in charge of compensating these characteristics in order to assure the quality of the distribution network. This paper analyzes the dynamics of a dc bus split-capacitor boost converter used as an active filter and proposes a control system which guarantees the desired closedloop performance (unity power factor and load-current harmonics and reactive-power compensation). The proposed controller is hierarchically decomposed into two control loops, one in charge of shaping the network current and the other in charge of assuring the power balance. Unlike previous works that appeared in the literature, both control loops are analytically tuned. This paper describes the analytical design of the controller and presents some experimental results that show the good performance of the closedloop system.

  • A Passive Repetitive Controller for Discrete-Time Finite-Frequency Positive-Real Systems

     Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Wang, D.
    IEEE transactions on automatic control
    Vol. 54, num. 4, p. 800-804
    Date of publication: 2009-04
    Journal article

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    Transient analysis of RF cavities under beam loading  Open access

     Hassanzadegan, Hooman; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Einfeld, Dieter
    Particle Accelerator Conference
    p. 1-3
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The conventional electrical model analogy of a RF cavity is a shunt RLC circuit supplied by two current sources representing the RF amplifier and the beam. In the literature, the impedance of the cavity is often calculated in the Fourier domain. This type of cavity modelling has two drawbacks: First, it assumes a perfect matching between the cavity and the amplifier therefore it neglects the reflected voltage. And, second, it does not provide any information about the cavity transient response, for example at start-up or upon beam arrival, while this information can be very important for the design of the regulation loops. In this work we will remove these drawbacks by calculating the cavity impedance in Laplace domain taking the reflected voltage into account. We will then modify our model so that it also includes the influence of the beam on the cavity. For transient RF simulations, though, a typical problem is the long simulation time due to the relatively slow transient response compared to the RF period. To overcome this problem, finally, we will use a mathematical method to map the cavity frequency response from RF to baseband to reduce the simulation time significantly.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation Control of a Full-Bridge DC-AC Voltage Inverter

     Malo Barragan, Shane Leonardo; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    p. 4571-4576
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Control digital avanzado para el seguimiento de señales periódicas. Aplicación a convertidores electrónicos de potencia.

     Olm Miras, Josep Maria; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Fossas Colet, Enric
    Competitive project

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  • High performance control of a single-phase shunt active filter

     Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Fossas Colet, Enric; Cardoner Parpal, Rafael
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 3350-3355
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Standalone self-excited induction generator with a three-phase four-wire active filter and energy storage system

     Barrado, Rodrigo J A; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Valderrama Blavi, Hugo
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 600-605
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Power-Factor Compensation is Equivalent to Cyclodissipassivation

     Garcia-Canseco, E; Ortega, R; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Stankovic, A
    American Control Conference
    p. 6043-6048
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Resonant Control of a Single-Phase Full-Bridge Unity Power Factor Boost Rectifier

     Costa Castelló, Ramon; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Fossas Colet, Enric
    IEEE International Conference on Control Aplications
    p. 599-604
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Output voltage regulation of a high-efficiency high step-up DC-DC power converter

     Malo Barragan, Shane Leonardo; Griño Cubero, Roberto
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 854-859
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Power-factor compensation of electrical circuits. A framework for analysis and design in the nonlinear nonsinusoidal case

     Garcia-Canseco, E; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Ortega, R; Salichs Vivancos, Miguel; Stankovic, A M
    IEEE control systems magazine
    Vol. 27, num. 2, p. 46-59
    Date of publication: 2007-04
    Journal article

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  • Digital Repetitive Control of a Three-Phase Four-Wire Shunt Active Filter

     Griño Cubero, Roberto; Cardoner Parpal, Rafael; Fossas Colet, Enric; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 54, num. 3, p. 1495-1503
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2007.894790
    Date of publication: 2007-06
    Journal article

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  • Compensador Selectivo de Corrientes Armónicas, Reactiva y de Desequilibrio.

     Griño Cubero, Roberto; Cardoner Parpal, Rafael; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Fossas Colet, Enric
    Date of request: 2007-01-11
    Invention patent

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    Compensador selectivo de corrientes armónicas, reactiva y de desequilibro.

    Compensador de corrientes eléctricas que comprende un convertidor de potencia, sensores de corrientes compensadoras y de carga, un filtro a la entrada del convertidor y medios de control digitales del convertidor que comprenden bancos de filtros selectivos para el análisis de las corrientes de carga, y cuyos sensores de las corrientes compensadoras están conectados a la salida del filtro por el lado de red y en el cual dichas corrientes compensadoras se controlan mediante una batería de resonadores digitales, eliminándose con gran efectividad los armónicos de conmutación de la PWM y haciendo innecesaria la utilización de otros filtros adicionales a este efecto, dotando al sistema de un funcionamiento correcto con cualquier nivel de cargas y de selección de compensación, y reduciendo así la posibilidad de tener resonancias indebidas entre la red, las cargas y el compensador.

  • Industrial Controllers: Subproject of MATEO (Matching Technologies and Opportunities)

     Fossas Colet, Enric; Biel Sole, Domingo; Griño Cubero, Roberto; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Doria Cerezo, Arnau
    Competitive project

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