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  • RTC-2014-1824-3-Anualitat 2015

     Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio
    Competitive project

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  • Hierarchical control of HV-MTDC systems with droop-based primary and OPF-based secondary

     Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Gomez Exposito, Antonio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
    DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2014.2365854
    Date of publication: 2014-11-12
    Journal article

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    This paper proposes a hierarchical control architecture designed for an arbitrary high voltage multiterminal dc (MTDC) network. In the proposed architecture, the primary control of the MTDC system is decentralized and implemented using a generalized droop strategy. Design criteria for dimensioning the primary control parameters, including voltage limits, are offered by analyzing the transients appearing in the system. The proposed secondary control is centralized and regulates the operating point (OP) of the network so that optimal power flow (OPF) is achieved. Compared to previous works, this paper further elaborates, both analytically and through simulations, on the coordination between the primary and secondary control layers. This includes how local primary controllers have to be driven by the centralized controller in order to ensure a smooth transition to the optimal OP.

  • Decentralized primary control of MTDC networks with energy storage and distributed generation

     Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Citro, Costantino; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE transactions on industry applications
    Vol. 50, num. 6, p. 4122-4131
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2014.2315715
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Multiterminal dc networks are drawing a lot of interest lately in applications related to distributed generation, particularly in those that also integrate energy storage (ES). A few approaches for controlling the operation of such systems have been proposed in the literature; however, the existing structures can be significantly enhanced. This paper proposes an improved primary control layer, based on custom droop characteristics obtained by combining concepts of droop and dc-bus signaling control. This approach is designed to be generic and takes into account the various operating states of the network. Five operating bands, similar to the operating states of the ac grids, as well as various droop characteristics for different elements connected to the dc network, are defined. For the ES, the state of charge is taken into account at the primary control level and included in the droop characteristic, creating a two-variable droop surface. The proposed control strategy is validated through simulation and experimental results obtained from a case study that involves amicro dc network composed of a photovoltaic generator, a lead-acid battery, and a connection point to the ac grid.

  • A protection strategy for fault detection and location for multi-terminal MVDC distribution systems with renewable energy systems

     Monadi, Mehdi; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications
    p. 496-501
    DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016434
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A fault location method and a fault clearance strategy are presented in this paper for medium voltage dc (MVDC) distribution system. MVDC systems are applicable for connection between microgrids (MGs) and integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) to distribution systems. Due to the specifications of fault current in dc systems, it is difficult to coordinate the over current (O/C) relays based on the time inverse grading. Hence, in this paper, a communication link between O/C relays is used to diagnose the fault location. On the other hand, the fault clearance is done by the operation of dc circuit breakers (DCCB) and isolator switches. In this protection strategy, O/C relays detect the faulty part using communication links and after the fault extinguishing by DCCBs, the dc switches isolate the faulty part. Finally, the sound parts of the system re-energize when DCCB are re-closed. Moreover, data transmission by communication links is based on the standard messages of IEC61850 protocol.

  • An active power self-synchronizing controller for grid-connected converters emulating inertia

     Remón, D.; Mir Cantarellas, Antonio; Rakhshani, Elyas; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications
    p. 424-429
    DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016421
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Renewable energy sources are increasing their penetration in power systems, making necessary new control systems that offer services usually provided only by conventional generators. In this paper, an active power controller able to achieve synchronization with the grid and to control the DC link voltage is proposed. This controller allows identifying the converter with a virtual synchronous generator whose inertia can be modified online, considering that its virtual kinetic energy is stored in the DC link. Additionally, the resulting active power loop is a second order system whose damping factor can be defined freely.

  • A control strategy for DC-link voltage control containing PV generation and energy storage — An intelligent approach

     Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications
    p. 268-271
    DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA.2014.7016568
    Presentation's date: 2014-10-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, DC-link voltage control in DC microgrids with photovoltaic (PV) generation and battery, is addressed based on an intelligent approach. The proposed strategy is based on the modeling of the power interface, i.e. power electronic converter, located between the PV array, battery and DC bus, by use of measurement data. For this purpose, a local model network (LMN) is developed to model the converter and then a local linear control (LLC) strategy is designed based on the LMN. Simulation results on a DC microgrid demonstrates efficacy of the proposed approach.

  • Storage system requirements for grid supporting PV-power plants

     Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 5323-5330
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2014.6954131
    Presentation's date: 2014-09-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Large penetration of renewable energy is currently attenuated by concerns regarding their impact on the controllability and reliability of the electrical system. As the inclusion of energy storage is to a great extent the solution to these issues, this paper proposes a methodology for approaching the calculation of the size of the energy storage to be connected to a PV power plant for providing inertia emulation, primary control, and the reduction of power fluctuation. A complete control strategy, developed for the inclusion of these services in the operation of a dc-ac grid connected converter has been implemented and validated through simulation results. The obtained results are validated by experimental tests performed on a scaled 10 kW prototype.

  • An active power synchronization control loop for grid-connected converters

     Remón, D.; Mir Cantarellas, Antonio; Rakhshani, Elyas; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
    DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939250
    Presentation's date: 2014-07-31
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems requires new control systems that provide services similar to those of conventional generators. This paper proposes an active power controller that is able to automatically achieve synchronization with the grid and to control the DC link voltage. Through this controller, the converter can be identified with a virtual synchronous generator whose kinetic energy is stored in the DC link. Moreover, the active power loop becomes a second order system whose damping can be programmed freely.

  • Posicast control: a novel approach to mitigate multi-machine power system oscillations in presence of wind farm

     Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
    DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939414
    Presentation's date: 2014-07-31
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, application of Posicast control method to generator excitation system is presented. The method is one of the simplest possible control design methods that can be applied to damp the oscillations caused by changing the excitation reference signal. Stability and robustness of the designed controller are shown using extensive time domain simulations. All the detailed simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  • Application of Posicast control method to generator excitation system

     Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 58-63
    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2014.6864586
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Application of Posicast control method to generator excitation system is presented in this paper. Presented control method is one of the simplest control design methods which can be installed in generators excitation to damp the oscillations caused by changing the excitation reference signal. Stability of the designed controller is shown using extensive time domain simulations. Performance of Posicast controller in IEEE power system standard models with presence of PV power plant is evaluated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

  • Harmonic compensation analysis in offshore wind power plants using hybrid filters

     Hasan, Khurshid N Md; Kalle, Rauma; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE transactions on industry applications
    Vol. 50, num. 3, p. 2050-2060
    DOI: 10.1109/TIA.2013.2286216
    Date of publication: 2014-05-16
    Journal article

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    The harmful effects of harmonics are an important issue in wind power plants (WPPs), especially in offshore applications. In offshore WPPs, the wind turbines are linked to the network through high-power converters that produce harmonics at relative low frequencies. Moreover, in the network of a WPP, the propagation of noncharacteristic harmonics and the effect of resonance contribute as well in boosting the harmonic distortion. In this paper, a solution for compensating the harmonics in a WPP by means of using hybrid filters is proposed. In this paper, not only the filtering solution is tested, but also a method for finding the best place where to connect the filter, based on a modal analysis or a harmonic modal resonance analysis, is implemented. The proposed solution has been tested by considering the model of a real 400-MW offshore WPP as the study case. As it will be shown, the hybrid filter is capable of damping the resonances in the plant, while the analysis conducted permits us to optimize its location in the plant

  • Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage

     Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE/PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Latin America
    p. 6863334-1-6863334-5
    Presentation's date: 2014-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an intelligent control scheme for DC voltage regulationin a DC micro-grid integrating photovoltaic (PV) generation, energy storage and electric loads. The maximum power generation of the PV panel is followed using the incremental conductance (IC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm while a high-performance local linear controller (LLC)is developed for the DC voltage control in the micro-grid.The LLC, as a data-driven control strategy, controls the bidirectional converter located between the battery and the DC micro-grid to regulate the micro-grid's voltage at the specified reference value.In order to validate the controller different simulations including variations in the load and in the solar irradiance are performed. Finally a comparison with PI based controller demonstrates the advantages of the proposed control technique for regulating theDC micro-grid's voltage.

  • A sensor-less sliding mode control scheme for a stand-alone wound rotor synchronous generator under unbalanced load conditions

     Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro
    International journal of electrical power and energy systems
    Vol. 60, p. 275-282
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.003
    Date of publication: 2014-04-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a sliding mode control for a wound rotor synchronous machine acting as an isolated generator connected to an unbalanced load. In order to simplify the control methodology, the standard dq-model of the machine is connected to a balanced resistive load. A switching function is defined in order to fulfill the control objective. From the desired surface, the standard sliding methodology is applied to obtain a robust and very simple controller. Then, the actual measured voltage of the machines is acquired and treated trough a frequency locked loop algorithm in order to extract the positive sequence and control it to guarantee a good definition of the park transformation. A phase locked loop algorithm is also used to avoid speed sensors. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the control law and show good performance and a fast response to load and reference changes

  • RTC-2014-1824-3-Anualitat 2014

     Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio
    Competitive project

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  • Nuevas tecnologías para el transporte de energia renovable a larga distancia en corriente alterna

     Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Medina Garcia, Jose Luis; Rouzbehi, Kumars; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio
    Competitive project

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  • Analysis of ferroresonance effects in distribution networks with distributed source units

     Monadi, Mehdi; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Fayezizadeh, Mostafa; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 1974-1979
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699434
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The connection of Distributed Generation (DG) units to existing networks may give rise to harmful effects on the network and the DG units itself. Therefore, due to increasing penetration of DG units, it is important to consider these effects in order to avoid some of harmful events. Ferroresonance is one of these destructive phenomena. Over voltages due to this phenomena can damage devices which are connected to the network. In DG systems, due to the use of capacitor banks which are used for VAR compensation, grid connection filters, etc. ferroresonance may appear. Also, special operations like islanding, may lead these systems to ferroresonance. In traditional systems ferroresonance normally appear after there is an unbalance in the system. Nevertheless, for networks with significant penetration of DG units, the situation that gives rise to ferroresonance may be different from traditional systems and they can happen without any unbalancing occurrence. In this paper a distribution system integrating wind (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) power systems has been evaluated in order to analyze the performance of ferroresonance in such systems. Finally, the most appropriate techniques to prevent its appearance, and the associated over voltages, have been studied and implemented using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  • Grid harmonic detection and system resonances indentification in wave power plant applications

     Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul; Mir Cantarellas, Antonio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 1644-1649
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699379
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    There is a growing interest in electrical grid connection of single unit Wave Energy Converters (WECs), as well as the multiple units based Wave Power Plant (WPP) applications. Due to the increasing integration of high power converters in WPP, additional concerns on the harmonic current mitigation of WEC device arise which requires the grid filter installation. Furthermore, the identification and appropriate mitigation of additional harmonics at the WPP level is needed, as any inductances and capacitors of the WPP can interact with the resonant frequency of the entire system and lead to detrimental effects on equipment. The present paper focuses on the potential harmonic studies of a realistic proposed WPP layout, in which the system resonances are identified by performing the frequency scan and modal analysis (HRMA) methods. The later technique has the ability of determining the participation factor of each bus, finding in this way the nodes in the system that have more influence on the obtained results. In this way, the most suitable nodes in which additional filtering solutions should be implemented can be identified.

  • Comprehensive analogy between conventional AC grids and DC grids characteristics

     Rouzbehi, Kumars; Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 2004-2010
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699439
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The high penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and photovoltaic, as well as the development of power electronics devices play an important role in the development of DC grids. However, the evolution of DC-systems from point-to-point connections to ‘Multi-terminal’ DC (MTDC) networks is not so straight forward. At the current moment there is a large gap in the literature concerning the dynamics, control and operation of MTDC networks. On the other hand, conventional AC networks have been studied exhaustively in the past decades providing for a rich inspiration source. In this paper we are going to establish a comprehensive analogy between the characteristics of conventional AC grids and the emerging DC grids. The key similarities and differences between the two types of grids are identified in an attempt to better understand the characteristics and behavior of DC grids. In the end, the extent to which concepts like planning for operation and control of AC grids can be conveniently extrapolated to DC grids is evaluated.

    The high penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and photovoltaic, as well as the development of power electronics devices play an important role in the development of DC grids. However, the evolution of DC-systems from point-to-point connections to ‘Multi-terminal’ DC (MTDC) networks is not so straight forward. At the current moment there is a large gap in the literature concerning the dynamics, control and operation of MTDC networks. On the other hand, conventional AC networks have been studied exhaustively in the past decades providing for a rich inspiration source. In this paper we are going to establish a comprehensive analogy between the characteristics of conventional AC grids and the emerging DC grids. The key similarities and differences between the two types of grids are identified in an attempt to better understand the characteristics and behavior of DC grids. In the end, the extent to which concepts like planning for operation and control of AC grids can be conveniently extrapolated to DC grids is evaluated.

  • A hierarchical control structure for multi-terminal VSC-based HVDC grids with GVD characteristics

     Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a hierarchical control structure for Multi terminal HVDC grids. The hierarchical control structure is inspired by the three-layer control structure of largescale AC power systems and it is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary control. This structure permits to create an easy interaction between power dispatch and the lower controllers. Moreover, a generalized voltage droop (GVD) characteristic is also proposed which facilitates control issues inside the Multi terminal HVDC grids. In the proposed control structure, the coefficients of the GVD characteristics are set based on the solution of a DC power flow algorithm, executed in the secondary control level.

  • Decentralized control of MTDC networks with energy storage and distributed generation

     Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Citro, Costantino; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Annual International Energy Conversion Congress and Exhibition for the Asia/Pacific
    p. 2657-2663
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2013.6647044
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Multi-terminal dc (MTDC) networks are drawing a lot of interest lately in applications related to distributed generation, especially in those that integrate energy storage. Several approaches for controlling the operation of such systems have been proposed in the literature; however the existing structures can be significantly enhanced. This paper proposes an improved primary control layer, based on droop and dc-bus signaling to serve as a base framework for implementing a hierarchical control structure in a MTDC system. As it will be further discussed in this work, five operating bands as well as various droop characteristics for different elements connected to the dc-bus were defined. For the energy storage the state of charge (SoC) was taken into account at the primary control level and it was included in the droop characteristic, creating a two variables droop surface. The proposed control strategy was validated through simulation and experimental results obtained from a case study that involves a micro dc network composed of a PV generator, a lead-acid battery and one connection point to the ac grid. © 2013 IEEE.

  • Control of grid-connected power converters based on a virtual admittance control loop

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Citro, Costantino; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Luna Alloza, Alvaro
    European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2013.6634621
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The connection of electronic power converters to the electrical network is increasing mainly due to massive integration of renewable energy systems. However, the electrical dynamic performance of these converters does not match the behavior of the network, which is mainly formed by generation facilities based on big synchronous generation systems. Depending on the desired electrical operation mode different control structures can be implemented in the converters in order to get adapted with the grid conditions. However, changing between different control structures and operation is not an optimal solution, as the resulting system results complex and is not highly robust. As an alternative, this paper presents a new control technique for grid connected power converters based on the concept of virtual admittance. The proposed control permits to emulate the electrical performance of generation facilities based on classical synchronous generators with a power converter, with no need of implementing different control structures, giving rise to a system that provides a friendly and robust operation with the network.

    The connection of electronic power converters to the electrical network is increasing mainly due to massive integration of renewable energy systems. However, the electrical dynamic performance of these converters does not match the behavior of the network, which is mainly formed by generation facilities based on big synchronous generation systems. Depending on the desired electrical operation mode different control structures can be implemented in the converters in order to get adapted with the grid conditions. However, changing between different control structures and operation is not an optimal solution, as the resulting system results complex and is not highly robust. As an alternative, this paper presents a new control technique for grid connected power converters based on the concept of virtual admittance. The proposed control permits to emulate the electrical performance of generation facilities based on classical synchronous generators with a power converter, with no need of implementing different control structures, giving rise to a system that provides a friendly and robust operation with the network.

  • Adaptive droop for primary control in MTDC networks with energy storage

     Gavriluta, Catalin; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
    p. 1-9
    DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2013.6631976
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Multi-terminal DC (MTDC) systems are drawing a lot of interest lately in applications related to distributed generation, especially in those that integrate wind or PV systems together with energy storage. This paper proposes an improved strategy for the primary control of MTDC integrating energy storage (ES) units. The concept is based on the combination of a droop control method and dc-bus signaling in order to provide a generic approach to be used as basis for a hierarchical control structure in a multi-point DC-bus system. The proposed method considers the State of Charge (SoC) of the energy storage system at the primary control level, yielding a surface characteristic for a droop control that depends both on the SoC and the dc bus voltage. Finally, a method for designing and tuning the system is proposed and analyzed theoretically and through simulations and experiments on a 10kVA system with energy storage.

  • Modeling and control of multi modular converters using optimal LQR controller with integral action

     Rakhshani, Elyas; Mir Cantarellas, Antonio; Remón, D.; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 3965-3970
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2013.6647226
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new application of LQR controller with the ability of reference tracking for a multi modular converter with several cells is proposed. First, the mathematical model for the grid connected MMC is presented and then, the small signal state space model is obtained. MMC is a very complex MIMO system with several state variables and global control for this system is very important issue. Optimal advanced controller based on linear quadratic regulator with integral action is a very good candidate for controlling the AC signals and energy balancing in multi cells MMC system. The performance and validity of obtained model and designed linear controller are evaluated with non-linear model of MMC in SimPower System toolbox/Matlab. Simulation results are verified the excellent performance of the proposed approach in the transient and steady state operational conditions.

    A new application of LQR controller with the ability of reference tracking for a multi modular converter with several cells is proposed. First, the mathematical model for the grid connected MMC is presented and then, the small signal state space model is obtained. MMC is a very complex MIMO system with several state variables and global control for this system is very important issue. Optimal advanced controller based on linear quadratic regulator with integral action is a very good candidate for controlling the AC signals and energy balancing in multi cells MMC system. The performance and validity of obtained model and designed linear controller are evaluated with non-linear model of MMC in SimPower System toolbox/Matlab. Simulation results are verified the excellent performance of the proposed approach in the transient and steady state operational conditions.

  • Control of PV generation systems using the synchronous power controller

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 993-998
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2013.6646811
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The high penetration of distributed generation, as PV or wind power, has forced the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) to set restrictive requirements for the operation of such systems. As it can be extracted from the forthcoming grid codes drafts, the future distributed generation systems will be requested to have the equivalent performance of a synchronous generator, which is seen from the TSOs as the only solution if a massive integration of renewable in the electrical network should be achieved. In this paper a method for controlling PV grid connected power converters as a synchronous generator, namely Synchronous Power Controller (SPC), is presented. As a difference with previous works this method permits to take advantage of emulating the synchronous behavior meanwhile it is able to get rid of its drawbacks. The main concept of the SPC, as well as some simulation and experimental results will be shown in this paper considering a PV power plant as a study case.

    The high penetration of distributed generation, as PV or wind power, has forced the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) to set restrictive requirements for the operation of such systems. As it can be extracted from the forthcoming grid codes drafts, the future distributed generation systems will be requested to have the equivalent performance of a synchronous generator, which is seen from the TSOs as the only solution if a massive integration of renewable in the electrical network should be achieved. In this paper a method for controlling PV grid connected power converters as a synchronous generator, namely Synchronous Power Controller (SPC), is presented. As a difference with previous works this method permits to take advantage of emulating the synchronous behavior meanwhile it is able to get rid of its drawbacks. The main concept of the SPC, as well as some simulation and experimental results will be shown in this paper considering a PV power plant as a study case.

  • Analysis on capability of harmonic damping using active filter acting as resistive harmonic impedance

     Hasan, Khurshid N Md; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Annual International Energy Conversion Congress and Exhibition for the Asia/Pacific
    p. 2928-2933
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2013.6647082
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents the analysis of shunt active filter (SAF) in harmonic damping. SAF with voltage-based detection control act as an active damping and able to attenuate harmonic propagation throughout the power distribution network. The active filter is implemented on two different power line networks to assess its practicality in different network configuration. The first network is 220-V distribution power line and the second network is the reduced equivalent WPP network of 150-kV, 444.4-MVA. Assessment on the best place for active filter implementation is supported by using harmonic resonance mode analysis method.

    This paper presents the analysis of shunt active filter (SAF) in harmonic damping. SAF with voltage-based detection control act as an active damping and able to attenuate harmonic propagation throughout the power distribution network. The active filter is implemented on two different power line networks to assess its practicality in different network configuration. The first network is 220-V distribution power line and the second network is the reduced equivalent WPP network of 150-kV, 444.4-MVA. Assessment on the best place for active filter implementation is supported by using harmonic resonance mode analysis method.

  • Pla d'Actuació SEER

     Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
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  • Efficiency analysis of DCM-232 three-phase PV topology

     Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Vazquez, Gerardo; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 5714-5719
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2012.6389051
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper the losses of the DCM-232 topology for a particular modulation strategy has been analyzed. This modulation has as particular that no common mode currents are presented. Some simulation and experimental results are given in order to prove the good behavior of the topology regarding common mode voltage (CMV), the converter efficiency and the THD

  • Harmonic resonances damping using hybrid filter for WPP

     Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul; Rauma, Kalle; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 1312-1319
    DOI: /ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6388549
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Harmonic distortion is one of important factor to consider in power system network. In a big network such as wind power plant (WPP), careful analysis and mitigation steps is essential. Many aspects including resonances created from interactions between inductive and capacitive elements must be considered. Passive filter or tuned filters are common solution for mitigating harmonics by creating path for specific harmonic but many times it created a resonance issue. By implementing hybrid filter, an active filter connected in series with shunt passive filter, it enhances the ability of damping the resonant. The concept is adapted from previous research works and in this paper it is implemented on a WPP network. This paper presents a study on harmonic resonances in a WPP, particularly on parallel resonance. The damping of resonance by using common passive filter and an alternative hybrid filter is proved through simulation in PSCAD-EMTDC software. An aggregated WPP model of 400 MW with 40 wind turbines of 10 MW each are used as a study case

  • Advanced structures for grid synchronization of power converters in distributed generation applications

     Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 2769-2776
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2012.6342381
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The Transmission System Operators are specially concerned about the Low Voltage Ride Through requirements of distributed generation power plants. Solutions based on the installation of STATCOMs and DVRs, as well as on advanced control functionalities for the existing power converters have contributed to enhance their response under faulty and distorted scenarios, and hence to fulfill these requirements. In order to achieve satisfactory results it is necessary to count on accurate and fast grid voltage synchronization algorithms, which are able to work under unbalanced and distorted conditions. This paper analyzes and compares the synchronization capability of three advanced synchronization systems: the Decoupled Double Synchronous Reference Frame-Phase-Locked Loop, the Dual Second Order Generalized Integgrator- Phase-Locked Loop and the Three-Phase Enhanced Phase-Locked Loop, designed to work under such conditions. Its response will be analyzed with respect the synchronization needs that can be extracted from the standards

  • Harmonic resonance damping in Wind Power Plant

     Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul; Rauma, Kalle; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 2067-2074
    DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2012.6342557
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Harmonic is one of main concern in Wind Power Plant (WPP) as growing usage of power electronic converter is observed. Besides the injection of harmonic by individual wind turbine (WT) as source of harmonic, its propagation in network and problem of resonance is also an issue. By implementing passive filter for harmonic mitigation, additional resonance peak is observed due to its interaction with system side impedance. This paper explores the solution for harmonic mitigation with capability of damping resonance in WPP. An aggregated model of 400-MW WPP network is analyzed in correlating resonance and amplification. A passive filter and hybrid filter is designed to mitigate harmonic accordingly. It is shown that hybrid filter able to provide damping capability and improve the performance

  • Study on harmonic resonances and damping in wind power plant

     Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul; Rauma, Kalle; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    International Conference on Intelligent & Advanced Systems
    p. 418-423
    DOI: 10.1109/ICIAS.2012.6306230
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Harmonic resonance is among imperative aspect need to be analyzed in a wind power plant (WPP). It becomes complex since it involves a large network with high operating power. This paper presents a study on harmonic resonances in a WPP, particularly on parallel resonance. Important factors including length of cable, number of operating wind turbine and usage of output grid-side filter are analyzed. The damping of resonance by using common passive filter and an alternative hybrid filter is also explored. An aggregated WPP model of 400 MW with 40 wind turbines of 10 MW each are used as a study case

  • TECCIT12-1-0009-10 - Pla de transferencia tecnologica pttu de la Univeristat Politècnica de Catalunya

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Herrera Arias, Lidia
    Competitive project

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  • Pla de transferencia tecnologica pttu de la Univeristat Politècnica de Catalunya

     Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Competitive project

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  • CONTROL INTERACTIVO CON RED ELECTRICA DE PLANTA FV DE GENERACION CON ALMACENAMIENTO DE ENERGIA

     Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Jornet Alvarez, Atanasi; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Rodriguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Competitive project

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  • Sensor-less sliding mode control of a stand-alone wound rotor synchronous generator with unbalanced load

     Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Doria Cerezo, Arnau; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Alvaro
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 3847-3852
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2011.6119960
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a Sliding Mode Control for a wound rotor synchronous machine acting as an isolated generator connected to an unbalanced load. In order to simplify the control methodology, the standard dq-model of the machine is connected to a balanced resistive load. A switching function is defined in order to fulfill the control objective. From the desired surface, the standard sliding methodology is applied to obtain a robust and very simple controller. Then, the actual measured voltage of the machines is acquired and treated trough a frequency locked loop algorithm in order to extract the positive sequence and control it to guarantee a good definition of the park transformation. A phase locked loop algorithm is also used to avoid speed sensors. Numerical simulations a validate the control law and show good performance and a fast response to load and reference changes.

  • Overview of power processing structures for embedding energy storage in PV power converters

     Citro, Costantino; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 2417-2423
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2011.6119701
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The level of penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown very quickly in recent years. Nonetheless, network stresses related to the recurrent voltage and frequency oscillations caused by their irregular power production could be a limiting factor on the future expansion of these applications. With the capability of storing and releasing electrical energy on demand, Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) may play a key role in finding an effective solution to overcome these kinds of problems. The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the state-of-the-art power conversion systems used to combine ESDs and grid-connected PV plants. The work has been edited after an accurate analysis of the current scientific literature, focusing particular attention on medium-high-power PV applications utilizing batteries and/or supercapacitors. A detailed analysis on advantages, disadvantages and range of application is provided for each of the reported conversion systems.

  • An overview of harmonic analysis and resonances of large wind power plant

     Rauma, Kalle; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 2392-2399
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presented an overview of harmonic analysis and resonance in large wind power plant. The harmonic related problem becomes a concern as the growing numbers of nonlinear load and the increased possibility of harmonic resonances occurrence. In WPP, several conditions may contribute to the resonance phenomenon that will amplify the effect of the harmonic frequency. General overview of international standards and grid codes and basic modeling of WPP for harmonic analysis is also presented. Furthermore, an overview of the harmonic analysis methods are reviewed with emphasize given on the harmonic resonance analysis. A simple three-bus system example is evaluated applying three resonance analysis methods.

  • DCM-232 converter: a PV transformerless three-phase inverter

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Vázquez, Gerardo; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 3743-3748
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nowadays transformerless PV converters are widely used in the energy conversion stage of a PV plant, because their good characteristics regarding efficiency, size, cost and weight. The main problem in transformerless PV systems is the common mode voltage variations that can generate leakage ground currents (LGC) through the parasitic capacitance formed between the PV panels and ground. These LGC are a risk for the users in a PV system therefore they should be avoided. The LGC has a clear origin on the pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy and the converter structure. In this paper a three-phase inverter with constant common mode voltage (CMV) is proposed. Simulation results are also provided.

  • Sensorless control of PMSG–based wind energy conversion systems using a FLL–based synchronization technique

     Aguilar, Daniel; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 3086-3091
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2011.6119823
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Symmetrical ripple constant common mode voltage modulation strategy for DCM-232 three- phase PV topology

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Vázquez, Gerardo; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Etxeberria Otadui, Ion
    IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics
    p. 2430-2435
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper a modulation strategy for the DCM-232 power converter is proposed. This modulation has as particular a symmetrical ripple and that no common mode currents are presented. Some simulation and experimental results are given in order to prove the good behavior of the topology regarding common mode voltage (CMV).

  • Constant common mode voltage modulation strategy for the FB10 power converter

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Vázquez, Gerardo; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Teodorescu, Remus
    IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition
    p. 1972-1977
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper a modulation strategy based on the classical space vector modulation is applied to the FB10 converter, a new converter topology for PV applications. Firstly, the FB10 converter is presented and the natural modulation is computed. Secondly, the simulation and experimental results are shown. Finally, the conclusions are stated.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • A three-phase hybrid filter for medium voltage applications using an H-bridge

     Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Nisak Md Hasan, Khairul; Rauma, Kalle; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Etxeberria, Ion
    European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a new solution for filtering current harmonics in three-phase thee-wire medium voltage networks. The hybrid filter topology presented in this paper is characterized by the use of an HBridge instead of the usual thee-phase inverter. This H-bridge is directly connected in series with a passive filter tuned around sixth harmonic. This paper provides a theoretical explanation on voltage control of Hbridge in three-phase systems. The good performance of this new topology as well as the proposed controller will be evaluated by means of simulations.

  • Connection and disconnection transients for micro-grids under unbalance load condition

     Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Azevedo, Gustavo M.S.; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The recent grid integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) possibility the formation of intentional islands in the case of a grid fault conditions. For such island formation is required an active agent capable of governing the micro-grid connection state in a safe mode, especially in connection and disconnection transients. This paper focuses on the design of a method oriented to carry out a stable intentional disconnection, and later re-connection, of local grids from the main distribution grid in an intentional way; also under unbalance load condition. Seamless transfer between grid-connected and isolated mode has been achieved in an alpha-beta stationary reference frame with a frequency based synchronization control loop. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the proper performance of the proposed solution.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Single-phase active power filter based on a feedbacked VSI with unipolar voltage switching

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Horta Bernus, Ricard
    Portuguese-Spanish Conference on Electrical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • TECCOL11-1-0007-18

     Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    Competitive project

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  • Controlador de admitancia virtual de un convertidor estático de potencia

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Teodorescu, Remus
    Date of request: 2011-02-28
    Invention patent

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    La presente invención se refiere a un controlador de admitancia virtual basado en convertidores estáticos de potencia, que comprende un lazo de control en cuya entrada se inyecta la diferencia de tensión existente entre una tensión interna virtual (e) y la tensión existente en el punto de la red al que está conectado (v) y esa diferencia de tensiones alimenta a un procesador de admitancia virtual (13) que es el encargado de determinar el valor de una corriente de referencia (i*) que comunica a una fuente de corriente (14) la cual se encarga de inyectar físicamente dicha corriente a la red (15).

  • Controlador de caracteristica electro-mecánica virtual de un convertidor estático de potencia

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Teodorescu, Remus
    Date of request: 2011-02-28
    Invention patent

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    Controlador de la característica electromecánica virtual para un convertidor estático de potencia que comprende un PLC (23) ("power loop controller" o "controlador del lazo de potencia") el cual recibe a la entrada la diferencia de potencia (ΔP) existentes entre la potencia de entrada (Pin) (potencia entregada al convertidor por la fuente primaria) y la potencia entregada a la red (Pelec), y es capaz de modificar en línea los parámetros del coeficiente de inercia virtual y factor de amortiguamiento en función de la respuesta deseada y de las condiciones de la red para diferentes rangos de frecuencia.

  • Controlador de potencia síncrona de un sistema de generación basado en convertidores estáticos de poténcia

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Teodorescu, Remus
    Date of request: 2011-02-28
    Invention patent

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  • Access to the full text
    Multi-resonant frequency-locked loop for grid synchronization of power converters under distorted grid conditions  Open access

     Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Mujal Rosas, Ramon Maria; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 58, num. 1, p. 127-138
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2042420
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a new multiresonant frequencyadaptive synchronization method for grid-connected power converters that allows estimating not only the positive- and negative-sequence components of the power signal at the fundamental frequency but also other sequence components at other harmonic frequencies. The proposed system is calledMSOGI-FLL since it is based on both a harmonic decoupling network consisting of multiple second-order generalized integrators (MSOGIs) and a frequency-locked loop (FLL), which makes the system frequency adaptive. In this paper, the MSOGI-FLL is analyzed for singleand three-phase applications, deducing some key expressions regarding its stability and tuning. Moreover, the performance of the MSOGI-FLL is evaluated by both simulations and experiments to show its capability for detecting different harmonic components in a highly polluted grid scenario.

  • Intelligent connection agent for three-phase grid-connected microgrids

     Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Azevedo, Gustavo M.S.; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 26, num. 10, p. 2993-3005
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2116126
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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