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    Reactive Power Control for Distributed Generation Power Plants to Comply With Voltage Limits During Grid Faults  Open access

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Borrell Sanz, Angel
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. PP, num. 11, p. 6224-6234
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2301463
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Grid faults are one of the most severe problems for network operation. Distributed generation power plants can help to mitigate the adverse effects of these perturbations by injecting the reactive power during the sag and the postfault operation. Thus, the risk of cascade disconnection and voltage collapse can be reduced. The proposed reactive power control is intended to regulate the maximum and minimum phase voltages at the point of common coupling within the limits established in grid codes for continuous operation. In balanced three-phase voltage sags, the control increases the voltage in each phase above the lower regulated limit by injecting the positive sequence reactive power. In unbalanced voltage sags, positive and negative sequence reactive powers are combined to flexibly raise and equalize the phase voltages; the maximum phase voltage is regulated below the upper limit and the minimum phase voltage just above the lower limit. The proposed control strategy is tested by considering a distant grid fault and a large grid impedance. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the behavior of the control scheme.

    Grid faults are one of the most severe problems for network operation. Distributed generation power plants can help to mitigate the adverse effects of these perturbations by injecting reactive power during the sag and the post-fault operation. Thus, the risk of cascade disconnection and voltage collapse can be reduced. The proposed reactive power control is intended to regulate the maximum and minimum phase voltages at the point of common coupling within the limits established in grid codes for continuous operation. In balanced three-phase voltage sags, the control increases the voltage in each phase above the lower regulated limit by injecting positive sequence reactive power. In unbalanced voltage sags, positive and negative sequence reactive powers are combined to flexibly raise and equalize the phase voltages; maximum phase voltage is regulated below the upper limit and the minimum phase voltage just above the lower limit. The proposed control strategy is tested by considering a distant grid fault and a large grid impedance. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the behavior of the control scheme.

  • Voltage support control strategies for static synchronous compensators under unbalanced voltage sags

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 61, num. 2, p. 808-820
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2013.2257141
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    Static synchronous compensators have been broadly employed for the provision of electrical ac network services, which include voltage regulation, network balance, and stability improvement. Several studies of such compensators have also been conducted to improve the ac network operation during unbalanced voltage sags. This paper presents a complete control scheme intended for synchronous compensators operating under these abnormal network conditions. In particular, this control scheme introduces two contributions: a novel reactive current reference generator and a new voltage support control loop. The current reference generator has as a main feature the capacity to supply the required reactive current even when the voltage drops in amplitude during the voltage sag. Thus, a safe system operation is easily guaranteed by fixing the limit required current to the maximum rated current. The voltage control loop is able to implement several control strategies by setting two voltage set points. In this paper, three voltage support control strategies are proposed, and their advantages and limitations are discussed in detail. The two theoretical contributions of this paper have been validated by experimental results. Certainly, the topic of voltage support is open for further research, and the control scheme proposed in this paper can be viewed as an interesting configuration to devise other control strategies in future works.

    Static synchronous compensators have been broadly employed for the provision of electrical ac network services, which include voltage regulation, network balance, and stability improvement. Several studies of such compensators have also been conducted to improve the ac network operation during unbal- anced voltage sags. This paper presents a complete control scheme intended for synchronous compensators operating under these abnormal network conditions. In particular, this control scheme introduces two contributions: a novel reactive current reference generator and a new voltage support control loop. The current reference generator has as a main feature the capacity to supply the required reactive current even when the voltage drops in amplitude during the voltage sag. Thus, a safe system operation is easily guaranteed by fixing the limit required current to the maximum rated current. The voltage control loop is able to imple- ment several control strategies by setting two voltage set points. In this paper, three voltage support control strategies are proposed, and their advantages and limitations are discussed in detail. The two theoretical contributions of this paper have been validated by experimental results. Certainly, the topic of voltage support is open for further research, and the control scheme proposed in this paper can be viewed as an interesting configuration to devise other control strategies in future works.

  • Modeling and design of voltage support control schemes for three-phase inverters operating under unbalanced grid conditions

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 29, num. 11, p. 6139-6150
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2296774
    Date of publication: 2014-11-01
    Journal article

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    Three-phase inverters equipped with voltage support control schemes have been successfully used to alleviate the negative impact of voltage imbalance on electric power systems. With these schemes, dc-link voltage ripple and current harmonics are significantly reduced by processing the positive and negative sequence components separately. However, the design methods for tuning the parameters of these control schemes have one or more of the following limitations: 1) the design is a very time-consuming task, 2) it is conservative, 3) it does not guarantee the specifications for all the considered situations, and 4) the system can be unstable in some abnormal conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents a design method based on the analysis of oscillations in nonlinear systems. The method proceeds by first developing simple and accurate models of the power system, second it reveals the system features through an in deep analysis of the derived models, and third it introduces a systematic design procedure for tuning the parameters of the control schemes. As an example, a voltage support control scheme for a three-phase inverter operating under an unbalanced voltage sag is designed and validated experimentally.

  • Control design for multiphase synchronous buck converters based on exact constant resistive output impedance

     Borrell Sanz, Angel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 60, num. 11, p. 4920-4929
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2221115
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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    This paper describes a control design methodology based on output impedance analysis for multiphase synchronous buck converters. This design leads to an optimal output voltage transient response. Two design alternatives are proposed. The first alternative uses an equivalent single-phase converter to design the control parameters. This approximation is valid as long as the deviations between the phases of the converter are within the usual tolerance limits. The second one achieves exact constant resistive output impedance regardless of the differences that exist between the phases. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the two design approaches.

    This paper describes a control design methodology based on output impedance analysis for multiphase synchronous buck converters. This design leads to an optimal output voltage transient response. Two design alternatives are proposed. The first alternative uses an equivalent single-phase converter to design the control parameters. This approximation is valid as long as the deviations between the phases of the converter are within the usual tolerance limits. The second one achieves exact constant resistive output impedance regardless of the differences that exist between the phases. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the two design approaches.

  • Evaluating the impact of the administrative procedure and the landscape policy on grid connected PV systems (GCPVS) on-floor in Spain in the period 2004¿2008: To which extent a limiting factor?

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Martins Rodriguez, Blanca Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Energy policy
    Vol. 63, num. December, p. 147-167
    DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.08.056
    Date of publication: 2013-09-17
    Journal article

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  • CONTROL COOPERATIVO PARA LA GESTION OPTIMA DE LA ENERGIA EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

     Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Font Mateu, Josep; Cruz Vaquer, Juan; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Ortega García, Carlos; Borrell Sanz, Angel; pellitero rodriguez, carlos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    Competitive project

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  • Red Iberoamericana de Generación Distribuida y Microrredes Eléctricas Inteligentes (713RT0475)

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Cruz Vaquer, Juan; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Font Mateu, Josep; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Guzman Sola, Ramon; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Competitive project

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  • An adaptive prefiltering method to improve the speed/accuracy tradeoff of voltage sequence detection methods under adverse grid conditions

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guzman Sola, Ramon
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 61, num. 5, p. 2139-2151
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2013.2274414
    Date of publication: 2013-07-23
    Journal article

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    This paper deals with the improvement of the transient response and harmonic, subharmonic, and dc-offset voltage rejection capability of a grid voltage sequence detection scheme based on a second-order generalized integrator (SOGI). To perform that, the SOGI structure is first analyzed in deep, emphasizing both its tradeoff limits between settling time and harmonic attenuation and the sensitivity to grid subharmonics and dc-offset voltage. Then, a study of the effect of grid voltage harmonics and subharmonics in SOGI and in the SOGI-FLL and MSOGI-FLL structures is introduced. Hence, to overcome these problems, a new structure based on the use of the SOGI filter as prefilter for the previous structures is proposed to achieve a faster time response and higher harmonic rejection. This structure is used in a sequence detection scheme for the detection of the grid voltage components in the aß-frame and it is applied in a three-phase PV system. Experimental and comparative results are shown to validate this proposal

    This paper deals with the improvement of the transient response and harmonic, subharmonic, and dc-offset voltage rejection capability of a grid voltage sequence detection scheme based on a second-order generalized integrator (SOGI). To perform that, the SOGI structure is first analyzed in deep, emphasizing both its tradeoff limits between settling time and harmonic attenuation and the sensitivity to grid subharmonics and dc-offset voltage. Then, a study of the effect of grid voltage harmonics and subharmonics in SOGI and in the SOGI-FLL and MSOGI-FLL structures is introduced. Hence, to overcome these problems, a new structure based on the use of the SOGI filter as prefilter for the previous structures is proposed to achieve a faster time response and higher harmonic rejection. This structure is used in a sequence detection scheme for the detection of the grid voltage components in the αβ-frame and it is applied in a three-phase PV system. Experimental and comparative results are shown to validate this proposal.

  • Flexible voltage support control for three-phase distributed generation inverters under grid fault

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 60, num. 4, p. 1429-1441
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2185016
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    Ancillary services for distributed generation (DG)systems become a challenging issue to smartly integrate renewable-energy sources into the grid. Voltage control is one of these ancillary services which can ride through and support the voltage under grid faults. Grid codes fromthe transmission system operators describe the behavior of the energy source, regulating voltage limits and reactive power injection to remain connected and support the grid under fault. On the basis that different kinds of voltage sags require different voltage support strategies, a flexible control scheme for three-phase grid-connected inverters is proposed. In three-phase balanced voltage sags, the inverter should inject reactive power in order to raise the voltage in all phases. In one- or two-phase faults, the main concern of the DG inverter is to equalize voltages by reducing the negative symmetric sequence and clear the phase jump. Due to system limitations, a balance between these two extreme policies is mandatory. Thus, over- and undervoltage can be avoided, and the proposed control scheme prevents disconnection while achieving the desired voltage support service. The main contribution of this work is the introduction of a control algorithm for reference current generation that provides flexible voltage support under grid faults. Two different voltage sags have been experimentally tested to illustrate the behavior of the proposed voltage support control scheme.

  • Control scheme with voltage support capability for distributed generation inverters under voltage sags

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 28, num. 11, p. 5252-5262
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2246190
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    Voltage sags are one of the main problems in transmission and distribution grids with high penetration of distributed generation. This paper proposes a voltage support control scheme for grid-connected power sources under voltage sags. The control is based on the injection of reactive current with a variable ratio between positive and negative sequences. The controller determines, also, the amount of reactive power needed to restore the dropped voltage magnitudes to new reference values confined within the continuous operation limits required in grid codes. These reference values are chosen in order to guarantee low current injection when fulfilling the voltage support objective. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

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    Reduction of Current Harmonic Distortion in Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters via Resonant Current Control  Open access

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 60, num. 4, p. 1464-1472
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2011.2167734
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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    The resonant current control has been extensively employed to reduce the current harmonic distortion in a wide range of grid-connected distributed generation applications, including photovoltaic (PV) inverters, wind and water turbines, and fuel-cell inverters. However, the performance of these systems is deteriorated when the utility grid voltage experiences abnormal conditions such as voltage harmonics and imbalances. Several advanced control solutions have been recently introduced to cope with this problem but at the cost of a signi¿cant increase in the control computational load. This paper ¿rst analyzes the limitations of the standard resonant current control operating under abnormal grid conditions and then introduces a control scheme that improves the current harmonic distortion in such adverse conditions without increasing the computational load of the standard current control. This theoretical contribution is validated by means of selected experimental results from a three-phase PV inverter.

    The resonant current control has been extensively employed to reduce the current harmonic distortion in a wide range of grid-connected distributed generation applications, including photovoltaic (PV) inverters, wind and water turbines, and fuel-cell inverters. However, the performance of these systems is deteriorated when the utility grid voltage experiences abnormal conditions such as voltage harmonics and imbalances. Several advanced control solutions have been recently introduced to cope with this problem but at the cost of a significant increase in the control computational load. This paper first analyzes the limitations of the standard resonant current control operating under abnormal grid conditions and then introduces a control scheme that improves the current harmonic distortion in such adverse conditions without increasing the computational load of the standard current control. This theoretical contribution is validated by means of selected experimental results from a three-phase PV inverter

  • Power sharing control in islanded microgrid using event driven communication

     de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Marti Colom, Pau; Guzman Sola, Ramon
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 2151-2156
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699464
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a novel power sharing control strategy for islanded mode microgrids (MG). The goal is to enable renewable power sources connected to the point of com-mon coupling (PCC) through three-phase three-wire inverters to cooperatively feed linear and non-linear local loads. The strategy contribution is two-fold. First, a centralized controller is designed to facilitate the power sharing capability of all inverters by means of data communications regardless of load changes and inverter faults. Second, a communication protocol is designed following an event-driven paradigm in such a way that the consumed bandwidth is reduced. Selected simulation results show the main features of the power sharing control strategy.

    This paper presents a novel power sharing control strategy for islanded mode microgrids (MG). The goal is to enable renewable power sources connected to the point of com- mon coupling (PCC) through three-phase three-wire inverters to cooperatively feed linear and non-linear local loads. The strategy contribution is two-fold. First, a centralized controller is designed to facilitate the power sharing capability of all inverters by means of data communications regardless of load changes and inverter faults. Second, a communication protocol is designed following an event-driven paradigm in such a way that the consumed bandwidth is reduced. Selected simulation results show the main features of the power sharing control strategy.

  • Mixing local and distributed reactive power control for balancing inverters¿ effort in grid-connected photovoltaic systems

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    International Conference on Systems and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Reactive power control methods have been proven to be a successful technique for maintaining voltages of photo-voltaic (PV) distributed generators (DG) within the admissible limits without enforcing to reduce the production of active power. Usually the control goal is achieved at the expenses of stressing PV inverters unequally. As a consequence, inverters deteriorate at different velocities. This paper presents a mixed local and distributed control strategy that aims at balancing the effort posed by each inverter while achieving the control goal. The local control is a drop-like method that locates inverters’voltages within the permissible voltage levels. Simultaneously, the distributed control, making use of a communication infrastructure, is in charge of driving the DG system to the point where all connected inverters inject the same current, thus balancing the stress between them.

  • Active damping control for a three phase grid-connected inverter using sliding mode control

     Guzman Sola, Ramon; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 382-387
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6699166
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes a new active damping method based on virtual resistors for three-phase grid connected voltage source inverters (VSI) with LCL filter. The use of this filters is a standard solution to provide the proper attenuation to the sideband voltage harmonics of the modulation signal. However these grid filters can introduce an unstable dynamics if a passive or active damping is not properly introduced. The passive damping solution causes a decrease of the overall efficiency due to the associated losses and reduces the filter effectiveness but in contrast no more extra sensors are needed. Active damping methods are more efficient because they don't introduce losses but suffers from control and system complexity because in some cases a high number of sensors are needed. The proposed strategy employs a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) scheme in natural frame in combination with a Kalman filter to emulate a resistor in the LCL filter which damps the system actively without the use of extra sensors. Two current controllers are designed in order to control the active and reactive power independently and a voltage controller is designed to control the neutral point which is fixed with a third harmonic voltage in order to increase the control dynamic range.

    This paper proposes a ne w active damping method based on virtual resistors for three-phase grid connected voltage source inverters (VSI) with LCL filter. The use of this filters is a standard solution to provide the proper attenuation to the sideband voltage harmonics of the modulation signal. However these grid filters can introduce an unstable dynamics if a passive or active damping is not pr operly introduced. The passive damping solution causes a decrease of the overall efficiency due to the associated losses and reduces the filter effectiveness but in contrast no more extra sensors are needed. Active damping methods are more efficient because they don’t introduce losses but suffers from control and system complexity because in some cases a high number of sensors are needed. The proposed strategy employs a nonlinear sliding mode control (SMC) scheme in natural frame in combination with a Kalman filter to emulate a resistor in the LCL filter which damps the system actively without the use of extra sensors. Two current controllers are designed in order to control the active and reactive power independently and a voltage controller is designed to control the neutral point which is fixed with a third harmonic vol tage in order to increase the control dynamic range.

  • Mixing local and distributed reactive power control for balancing inverters' effort in grid-connected photovoltaic systems

     Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Marti Colom, Pau; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    International Conference in Sustainability Science
    p. 708-713
    DOI: 10.1109/ICoSC.2013.6750937
    Presentation's date: 2013-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Reactive power control methods have been proven to be a successful technique for maintaining voltages of photovoltaic (PV) distributed generators (DG) within the admissible limits without enforcing to reduce the production of active power. Usually the control goal is achieved at the expenses of stressing PV inverters unequally. As a consequence, inverters deteriorate at different velocities. This paper presents a mixed local and distributed control strategy that aims at balancing the effort posed by each inverter while achieving the control goal. The local control is a drop-like method that locates inverters' voltages within the permissible voltage levels. Simultaneously, the distributed control, making use of a communication infrastructure, is in charge of driving the DG system to the point where all connected inverters inject the same current, thus balancing the stress between them.

    Reactive power control methods have been proven to be a successful technique for maintaining voltages of photovoltaic (PV) distributed generators (DG) within the admissible limits without enforcing to reduce the production of active power. Usually the control goal is achieved at the expenses of stressing PV inverters unequally. As a consequence, inverters deteriorate at different velocities. This paper presents a mixed local and distributed control strategy that aims at balancing the effort posed by each inverter while achieving the control goal. The local control is a drop-like method that locates inverters' voltages within the permissible voltage levels. Simultaneously, the distributed control, making use of a communication infrastructure, is in charge of driving the DG system to the point where all connected inverters inject the same current, thus balancing the stress between them.

  • Distributed reactive power control methods to avoid voltage rise in grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 1-6
    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2013.6563803
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

    A high density of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems is expected to occur in urban areas. The connection of distributed generation (DG) may cause serious problems in the distribution system such as voltage rise. Several voltage control strategies exist to avoid the over-voltage at the power grid. In particular, reactive power control methods have been proved to successfully bring DGs voltages within the admissible voltage range without reducing the production of active power. In addition, the possible use of communication infrastructure to link DGs opens up the development of new reactive power control methods where control actions at each DG may be decided using both local and global information. This paper presents a comparative study of existing and novel distributed reactive power control methods that have been designed exploiting the information exchange facility provided by a communication infrastructure.

  • Control strategies based on effective power factor for distributed generation power plants during unbalanced grid voltage

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guzman Sola, Ramon; de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Marti Colom, Pau; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 7134-7139
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2013.6700318
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanced grid voltages can be selected prioritizing positive or negative sequence active and reactive power. This selection determines the voltage support service and therefore can improve the voltage profile, i.e. phase-voltages can be properly supported and voltage imbalance simultaneously corrected. Based on the definition of effective power factor in IEEE 1459 Standard, the reactive power needed for any control strategy is obtained and the resulting effects are described.

    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanced grid voltages can be selected prioritizing positive or negative sequence active and reactive power. This selection determines the voltage support service and therefore can improve the voltage profile, i.e. phase-voltages can be properly supported and voltage imbalance simultaneously corrected. Based on the definition of effective power factor in IEEE 1459 Standard, the reactive power needed for any control strategy is obtained and the resulting effects are described.

  • Control y gestión de una microrred basada en energía eólica con cargas locales

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
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  • Control scheme for photovoltaic three-phase inverters to minimize peak currents during unbalanced grid-voltage sags

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 27, num. 10, p. 4262-4271
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2191306
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Nowadays, the majority of the photovoltaic (PV) power sources are connected to the public grid. One of the main connection problems occurs when voltage sags appear in the grid due to short circuits, lightning, etc. International standards regulate the grid connection of PV systems, forcing the source to remain connected during short-time grid-voltage faults. As a consequence, during the voltage sag, the source should operate with increasing converter currents to maintain the injection of the generated power. This abnormal operation may result in nondesired system disconnections due to overcurrents. This paper proposes a controller for a PV three-phase inverter that ensuresminimum peak values in the grid-injected currents, as compared with conventional controllers. From the system analysis, a design method is presented in order to set the parameters of the control scheme. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  • Fast grid synchronization technique based on a multiple cascaded general integrator scheme for distributed generation inverters

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 1003-1010
    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237226
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes a new structure for grid synchronization based on generalized integrators (GI) that lead to fast detection of positive and negative components of the grid voltage. The GI are used as a band pass filter (GI-BPF) mainly to provide in-phase and quadrature components of grid voltage. The proposed structure consists in the cascaded connection of multiple GI-BPF to achieve a faster time response than a single GI-BPF but with the same bandwidth characteristics. This structure is used with a frequency locked loop and a positive sequence detector to operate under unbalanced voltage sags. Simulations and experimental results of a photovoltaic power system injecting power to the grid in the stationary reference frame are shown to validate this proposal. Comparisons between this proposal and one that uses a single GI-BPF in the sequence detector are provided. The results show that the proposed cascaded GI-BPF achieves a considerably time response reduction in the sequence grid detection under a fault with the same quality-filter characteristics.

  • On the use of communication infrastructure in distributed power generation: a preliminary case study

     Marti Colom, Pau; Velasco Garcia, Manuel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    p. 1-4
    DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2012.6489730
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Penetration of distributed power generation poses new problems in energy distribution. For example, photovoltaic generation systems may difficult the voltage management in distribution lines and voltage rise may occur. To overcome this problem, several voltage control strategies are available and they can be classified as autonomous or distributed regarding whether communication is available between dispersed generators. Through a preliminary case study, this paper investigates the impact that the communication infrastructure has for a given distributed voltage control strategy. Communication issues like transmission rate, delays, and losses are analyzed with respect to the voltage control application performance.

  • Reactive power control for voltage support during type C voltage-sags

     Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Alarcon Cot, Eduardo Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Marti Colom, Pau
    Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
    p. 3462-3467
    DOI: 10.1109/IECON.2012.6389343
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Coordinated reactive power control for static synchronous compensators under unbalanced voltage sags

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Matas Alcala, Jose; Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 987-992
    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237223
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unbalanced voltage sags strongly deteriorate the performance of power converters and electrical machines connected to the distribution network. In particular, a reduction of the power quality is noticed in these equipments, which is caused by a ripple in the output power and an increase of the current harmonic distortion. Several solutions based on reactive power compensation have been introduced to cope with this problem. Among them, static synchronous compensators have confirmed the superior performance due to the possibility of using all rated power exclusively to voltage support. This paper presents a simple reactive power control algorithm for static synchronous compensators operating under unbalanced voltage sags. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is that it allows a fine adjustment of the amount of reactive power injected by the positive- and negative-sequence components. Thus the control algorithm provides voltage support at the output of the static synchronous compensator. Specifically the proposed control conveniently corrects both the positive- and negative-sequence voltage. Selected simulation results are provided to validate the proposal.

  • Decoupled sliding mode control for three-phase LCL VSI operating at fixed switching frequency

     Alarcon Gallo, Eduardo; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Camacho Santiago, Antonio
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 1572-1578
    DOI: 10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237326
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Simple low-cost hysteretic controller for multiphase synchronous buck converters

     Borrell, Angel; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 58, num. 6, p. 2355-2365
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2010.2060462
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a novel hysteretic controller for a multiphase synchronous buck converter supplying low voltage, high current, and high slew-rate loads. The control scheme implements the main control functions for powering such demanding loads, including output-voltage regulation, adaptive voltage positioning, current sharing, and phase interleaving. This paper also describes a control-design methodology based on outputimpedance analysis. This design leads to optimal output-voltage transient response with a simple and low-cost control implementation. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the features of the novel control scheme.

  • Sliding-mode input¿output linearization controller for the DC/DC ZVS CLL-T resonant converter

     Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Moreno, Luz Stella
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 59, num. 3-4, p. 1554-1564
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2011.2161253
    Date of publication: 2011-10-24
    Journal article

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  • SISTEMA DE SUPERVISIÓN Y CONTROL PARA MICRORREDES INTELIGENTES

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Font Mateu, Josep; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Virtual Impedance Loop for Droop-Controlled Single-Phase Parallel Inverters Using a Second-Order General-Integrator Scheme

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 25, num. 12, p. 2093-3002
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2082003
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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  • Hierarchical Control of Intelligent Microgrids

     Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE industrial electronics magazine
    Vol. 4, num. 4, p. 23-29
    DOI: 10.1109/MIE.2010.938720
    Date of publication: 2010-12-10
    Journal article

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  • Grid-fault control scheme for three-phase photovoltaic inverters with adjustable power quality characteristics

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 25, num. 12, p. 2930-2940
    DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2070081
    Date of publication: 2010-12-23
    Journal article

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  • Direct Rotor Current-Mode Control Improves the Transient Response of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbines

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Borrell, Angel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    IEEE transactions on energy conversion
    Vol. 25, num. 3, p. 722-731
    DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2010.2052105
    Date of publication: 2010-09
    Journal article

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  • CONTROL DE SISTEMES ELECTRICS D'ENERGIA RENOVABLE

     Aldabas Rubira, Emiliano; Rolan Blanco, Alejandro; Jornet Alvarez, Atanasi; Bogarra Rodriguez, Santiago; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Candela Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Matas Alcala, Jose; Font Mateu, Josep; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Luna Alloza, Alvaro; Rodriguez Cortes, Pedro; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Hierarchical Control in Microgrids for the Integration of Decentralized Electrical Generators and Energy Storage Systems

     Muñoz Aguilar, Raul Santiago; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Rocabert Delgado, Joan; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Miret Tomas, Jaume; González, J.; Miró, I.; Sandia, J.; González, R.; Abellán, A.; Martínez, J. A.; Carranza, O.; Benavent, J. M.; Garcerá, Gabriel; Figueres, Emilio; Abellán, Antonio; Pascual, Marcos; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    Competitive project

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  • Access to the full text
    Selective harmonic-compensation control for single-phase active power filter with high harmonic rejection  Open access

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 8, p. 3117-3127
    Date of publication: 2009-08-11
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a linear current control scheme for single-phase active power filters. The approach is based on an outer voltage loop, an inner current loop, and a resonant selective harmonic compensator. The design of the control parameters is carried out using conventional linear techniques (analysis of loop gain and other disturbance-rejection transfer functions). The performance of the proposed controller is evaluated and compared with two reference controllers: a basic control and an advanced repetitive control. In comparison with these controllers, the proposed control scheme provides additional attenuation to the harmonics coming from the load current, the grid voltage, and the reference signal, resulting in a grid current with lower harmonic distortion. Experimental results are reported in order to validate this paper.

    (c) 2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.

  • Access to the full text
    Design of an analog quasi-steady-state nonlinear current-mode controller for single-phase active power filter  Open access

     Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 12, p. 4872-4881
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2026385
    Date of publication: 2009-12
    Journal article

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    The injection of sinusoidal current to an electrical grid is nowadays possible with the use of active power filters (APFs).With quasi-steady-state (QSS) nonlinear controllers, these power filters provide low grid-current-harmonic content with simple-control analog implementation. This paper focuses on the design of a QSS nonlinear controller for a single-phase APF. A complete analysis based on the sliding-mode-control theory is given. From the analysis, a set of control-design guidelines is presented to select the gains and parameters of the control scheme. Selected experimental results are reported to validate the theoretical design procedure.

  • Control Design Guidelines for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters With Damped Resonant Harmonic Compensators

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 11, p. 4492-4501
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2017820
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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  • Modeling and Performance Analysis of the DC/DC Series¿Parallel Resonant Converter Operating With Discrete Self-Sustained Phase-Shift Modulation Technique

     Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 3, p. 697-705
    Date of publication: 2009-03
    Journal article

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  • A Comparative Study of Sliding-Mode Control Schemes for Quantum Series Resonant Inverters

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 9, p. 3487-3495
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2022517
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a comparative study of sliding-mode control schemes for quantum series resonant inverters. The single-input and two-input resonant systems considered in this study are designed with identical specifications. The control performance is evaluated in aspects such as load transient response, sensitivity to disturbances, and efficiency. Other aspects such as control complexity and cost are also considered. Simulation and experimental results are reported in order to validate the theoretical predictions. Essentially, the study demonstrates the following: 1) The load transient response of the proposed two-input system is insensitive to load variations; 2) the single-input system exhibits higher efficiency, particularly at light load conditions, and 3) both control schemes have similar complexity and cost. © 2009 IEEE.

  • Sliding-Mode Control for a Single-Phase AC/AC Quantum Resonant Converter

     Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 56, num. 9, p. 3496-3504
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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  • Design of hysteretic regulators for low voltage and high-current applications

     Cruz Vaquer, Juan; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    International journal of industrial electronics and drives
    Vol. 1, num. 1, p. 25-33
    Date of publication: 2009-07
    Journal article

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  • Feedback linearization of a single-phase active power filter via sliding mode control

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 23, num. 1, p. 116-125
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Comparative study of hysteretic controllers for single-phase voltage regulators

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis
    IET power electronics
    Vol. 1, num. 1, p. 132-143
    Date of publication: 2008-03
    Journal article

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  • Linear Current Control Scheme With Series Resonant Harmonic Compensator for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 55, num. 7, p. 2724-2733
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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  • Feedback linearization of direct-drive synchronous wind-turbines via a sliding mode approach

     Matas Alcala, Jose; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 23, num. 3, p. 1093-1103
    Date of publication: 2008-05
    Journal article

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  • Dynamics analysis for the series-parallel resonant converter operating with SSPSM

     Sosa Avendaño, Jorge Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
    p. 895-890
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Decentralized Control for Parallel Operation of Distributed Generation Inverters Using Resistive Output Impedance

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 54, num. 2, p. 994-1004
    Date of publication: 2007-04
    Journal article

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  • Designing VRM hysteretic controllers for optimal transient response

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    IEEE transactions on industrial electronics
    Vol. 54, num. 3, p. 1726-1738
    DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2007.894765
    Date of publication: 2007-06
    Journal article

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  • Simple low-cost hysteretic controller for single-phase synchronous buck converters

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Berbel Artal, Nestor
    IEEE transactions on power electronics
    Vol. 22, num. 4, p. 1232-1241
    Date of publication: 2007-07
    Journal article

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  • TECNIQUES DE CONTROL NO LINIAL APLICADES A CONVERTIDORS CONNECTATS EN PARAL·LEL A UNA MICROXARXA (ENE2006-15521-C03-01)

     Castilla Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Miret Tomas, Jaume
    Competitive project

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  • Droop control method for the parallel operation of online UPS systems using resistive output impedance

     Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Berbel Artal, Nestor; Garcia de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, Jose Luis; Matas Alcala, Jose; Miret Tomas, Jaume; Castilla Fernandez, Miguel
    Twenty-First Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)
    p. 1716-1722
    Presentation of work at congresses

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