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  • Occupational risk index for assessment of risk in construction work by activity

     Casanovas Rubio, Maria Del Mar; Armengou, Jaume; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    Journal of construction engineering and management
    Date of publication: 2014-01
    Journal article

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    The concern for occupational health and safety in construction work is reflected in the many preventive measures taken. However, examples of the systematic assessment of project alternatives aimed at minimizing occupational hazards are rare. This paper proposes a measure of occupational safety [occupational risk index (ORI)] that is based solely on the project design and resulting construction process, and is a function of the activities carried out and their specific occupational risk (probability and consequences of occurrence). The ORI can thus be used as an indicator to feed multicriteria decision-analysis tools. The proposal is illustrated with a simple example in which two alternatives (one precast and the other constructed in situ) are prioritized in terms of occupational safety, and certain aspects related to redesign are briefly addressed. With the ORI, occupational safety goes from having a passive influence (application to projects that have already been designed) to an active one (influence on the design concept itself) in the design stage of construction projects. The research is based on an analysis of the applicable legislation and interviews with experts.

  • Shear-off strength of compact reinforcement splicing for improved construction of in situ concrete structures

     Diaz de Terán, Jose Ramon; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Jorquera Lucerga, Juan Jose; Barragán, Bryan E.; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Construction process of span-by-span in situ concrete decks built with travelling scaffolding is being modified in order to shorten the time of completion. In order to do so, compact splicing between cast phases is needed to enable the movement of internal formworks. As this reinforcement detailing is not covered by standards, this paper presents an original experimental research program evaluating the structural behavior of such construction joints under shear stresses. To evaluate the robustness of such planes between phases, shear strength has been evaluated under two conditions, flexurally uncracked and flexurally cracked joints. This last test series aims to evaluate the possible deleterious effects of transverse bending moments. Material has been also taken as a variable, testing normal strength concrete, self compacting concrete and high strength concrete. Results show the reliability of this unconventional splices as well as their strength.

  • Optimization of in situ construction of concrete decks: Flexure tests of compact splices of reinforcement between phases

     Díaz de Terán, José Ramón; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Jorquera, Juan José; Barragan, Bryan Erick; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Construction & building materials
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Journal article

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  • Contributions to rework prevention in construction projects.

     Macarulla Marti, Marcel
    Defense's date: 2013-12-17
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La literatura sosté que les empreses del sector de la construcció poden reduir els costos derivats dels ¿rework¿ implementant sistemes de gestió de qualitat. Els reptes i obstacles més comuns als que s¿enfronten les empreses del sector de la construcció durant la implementació i operació dels sistemes de gestió de la qualitat estan relacionats amb ¿com¿ la informació pot ser enregistrada d¿una manera eficaç, i ¿què¿ es pot fer amb aquesta informació enregistrada. La tesi té com a objectiu millorar el procés d¿enregistrament de defectes en les empreses del sector de la construcció, i proposar mètodes i eines per utilitzar els defectes enregistrats en obra per tal de prevenir i reduir els ¿rework¿ en les empreses del sector de la construcció. La tesi s¿inicia amb el desenvolupament d¿un mètode conceptual per caracteritzar defectes. El model proposat està basat en models preexistents, però tenint en compte el context del sector residencial espanyol. El model es basa en l¿enumeració d¿una sèrie de paràmetres que permeten caracteritzar els defectes. El model final inclou 6 paràmetres, cada un d¿ells inclou un llistat de paraules estandarditzades amb les corresponents definicions.Els llistat de paraules estandarditzades estan basats en estudis previs, però adaptant-los al context espanyol. Cal destacar però que en termes de defectes, no existeixen llistes estandarditzades. Per aquesta raó, aquesta tesi inclou el desenvolupament d¿una taxonomia de defectes pel sector de la construcció espanyol. Aquesta taxonomia consta de 15 categories principals i 19 subcategories. La tesi continua amb el desenvolupament d¿una metodologia per capturar defectes en el sector de la construcció. La metodologia es implementada en una eina informàtica, anomenada MoBuild. El sistema es basa en la captura d¿imatges i en l¿etiquetatge d¿aquestes. D¿aquesta manera la informació es captura de manera estructurada, fet que possibilita el posterior anàlisi estadístic de la informació capturada. La nova estratègia implementada en l¿aplicació MoBuild permet als professionals reduir el temps del procés d¿enregistrament, facilitant la implementació de sistemes de gestió de la qualitat, tals com la ISO 9000 en empreses del sector industrial. La recerca proposa també una metodologia quantitativa per identificar els riscos de qualitat derivats de la construcció d¿edificis residencials durant les etapes de pre-construcció. El punt fort d¿aquesta metodologia rau en el fet que ajuda als dissenyadors a considerar explícitament la qualitat del projecte constructiu durant el procés de disseny. Els dissenyadors poden comparar diferents alternatives de disseny, i quantificar els riscos de qualitat d¿un projecte de construcció sense que les seves aptituds creatives es vegin restringides. La metodologia és especialment valuosa per als dissenyadors amb menys experiència, als quals els hi manquen les habilitats requerides i el coneixement per a reconèixer els riscos de qualitat derivats de la construcció dels seus dissenys. La metodologia també serveix com a eina d¿assessorament per a empreses constructores. Aquestes poden utilitzar la metodologia per a determinar i quantificar els riscos de qualitat derivats dels projectes constructius que aquests duguin a terme. D¿aquestes manera les empreses constructores poden preparar i planificar els seus projectes constructius i optimitzar els seus recursos i activitats.Finalment, aquesta tesi analitza la qualitat percebuda pels usuaris finals dels edificis residencials un cop aquests en comencen a fer ús. La tesi utilitza diferents mètodes estadístics per mostrar la utilitat de les dades de qualitat enregistrades per les empreses del sector de la construcció. L¿objectiu és ressaltar el rol essencial que tenen les dades enregistrades en les activitats d¿una empresa, en particular donant evidències de quins beneficis poden aportar els sistemes de la gestió de la qualitat.

  • A model for the nonlinear, time-dependent and strengthening analysis of shear critical frame concrete structures  Open access

     Santos Ferreira, Denise Carina
    Defense's date: 2013-03-22
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Nonlinear fibre beam models, due to its intrinsic simplicity and computational efficiency, are often an adequate alternative to the complex nonlinear plane and solid FE models for the assessment of entire frame structures. Nevertheless, simulations of structural concrete members undergoing relevant shear stresses cannot be performed by these models, as nonlinear shear effects and shear-bending interaction are neglected. In turn, the presence of shear stresses in cracked reinforced concrete (RC) elements leads to a rather complex resistant mechanism which numerical modelling is neither straightforward nor clearly established. Within this problematic, the formulation proposed in this thesis is an upgrade version of an existent flexural fibre beam model for the time-dependent analysis of segmentally constructed RC frames by taking into account the shear effects. The model is devised for the analysis of 2D RC and prestressed frame elements under combined axial, bending and shear forces. Shear-bending interaction is taken into account by means of a hybrid kinematic/force-based sectional approach. The key characteristics of the proposed model are: (i) at the material level RC is simulated through a smeared cracked approach with rotating cracks; (ii) at the fibre level an iterative procedure guarantees equilibrium between concrete and transversal reinforcement, allowing to compute the biaxial stress-strain state of each fibre; (iii) at the section level a uniform shear stress flow is assumed in order to estimate the internal shear stress-strain distribution and (iv) at the element level, the Timoshenko beam theory takes into account the deformation due to shear. As a result, the relevant attributes of the proposed formulation can be resumed as: (i) its capability for considering shear effects in both service and ultimate levels; (ii) the time step-by-step solution procedure enables taking into account the time-dependent response due to creep and shrinkage of concrete, temperature variations and relaxation of prestressing steel considering the multiaxial stress-strain state of the fibres and; (iii) the sequential type of analysis allows capturing the strengthening effects, accounting for the state of the structure prior to the intervention. The model is validated through experimental tests available in the literature, as well as through an experimental campaign carried out by the author. Accordingly, the capacity of the model to efficiently reproduce the behaviour of shear critical beams is demonstrated. The importance of including shear-bending interaction in the numerical analysis is underlined by comparing the results with the ones provided by the pure flexural basis model. The influence of transversal stresses on the time-dependent response of shear and bending dominant beams is also studied with the proposed model. Considering shear effects in modelling the time-dependent response of diagonally cracked RC and prestressed beams is found to be relevant. The proposed model is successfully used to predict the experimental results of a shear damaged and subsequently strengthened RC beam, available in the literature. An alternative strengthening solution for the damaged beam based on post-tensioned stirrups is numerically analysed. This technique showed to be effective to avoid brittle shear failure allowing for the development of all the flexural capacity of the repaired beam. The importance of considering previous damage in the numerical assessment of strengthened RC beams is revealed. Finally, the response of a dismantled prestressed concrete bridge, with deficient shear resistance, submitted to full-scale tests is successfully simulated with the proposed model. In addition, different strengthening proposals based on post-tensioning measures are studied for this bridge. In this manner, the capacity of the model to determine the safety of existent structures and to analyse the performance of strengthening measures is demonstrated.

    Los modelos de vigas, debido a su simplicidad inherente y eficiencia computacional, pueden ser alternativas adecuadas a complejos modelos de elementos finitos planos y sólidos. Sin embargo, el comportamiento de elementos estructurales de hormigón sometidos a fuertes esfuerzos cortantes, no pueden ser correctamente simulado mediante estos modelos, ya que no consideran los efectos no lineales del cortante y la interacción cortante-flexión. A su vez, la presencia del cortante en el hormigón armado fisurado da lugar a un complejo mecanismo resistente cuya modelización no está aún claramente definida. En esta tesis si propone un modelo de vigas que considera la no linealidad y el comportamiento paso-a-paso en el tiempo de estructuras porticadas de hormigón construidas evolutivamente teniendo en cuenta los efectos del cortante. El modelo se basa en una formulación existente de flexión y está concebido para el análisis de estructuras planas porticadas de hormigón armado (HA) y pretensado sometido a la acción combinada del esfuerzo axil, flexión y cortante. La interacción cortante-flexión si consigue mediante una formulación seccional basada en suposiciones mixtas de cinemática y fuerza. Las características clave del modelo son: (i) a nivel del material el HA se simula mediante una aproximación de fisuración distribuida rotacional; (ii) a nivel de la fibra un procedimiento iterativo garantiza el equilibrio entre el hormigón y la armadura transversal, permitiendo calcular el estado biaxial de tensiones y deformaciones en cada fibra; (iii) a nivel de la sección un patrón de tensiones tangenciales constantes estima la distribución interna de tensiones y deformaciones de cortante y (iv) a nivel del elemento se aplicada la formulación del elemento de viga Timoshenko. De este modo, los aspectos relevantes de la formulación propuesta se resumen en: (i) su capacidad para considerar los efectos del cortante en estados de servicio y últimos; (ii) el procedimiento paso-a-paso en el tiempo permite tener en cuenta la respuesta diferida debido a fluencia y retracción del hormigón, variaciones de temperatura y relajación del pretensado considerando el estado multiaxial de tensiones y deformaciones en las fibras y; (iii) el análisis secuencial permite evaluar los efectos del refuerzo teniendo en cuenta el estado de la estructura antes de la intervención El modelo se valida mediante ensayos experimentales disponibles en la literatura, así como, a través de una campaña experimental realizada por la autora, demostrando su capacidad para reproducir la respuesta de vigas críticas a cortante. La importancia de incluir la interacción cortante-flexión en el análisis numérico es destacada por medio de la comparación de los resultados con los proporcionados por el modelo básico de flexión. Con el modelo propuesto se estudia la influencia del cortante en la respuesta diferida de vigas dominadas por cortante y flexión. La consideración de los efectos del cortante es relevante en la modelación de la respuesta diferida de vigas de HA con fisuras diagonales y en vigas pretensadas. El modelo propuesto se compara con éxito con los resultados experimentales de una viga dañada a cortante y posteriormente reforzada mediante un recrecido de hormigón y armadura transversal. Adicionalmente, se analiza numéricamente otra solución alternativa de refuerzo basada en estribos pretensados. La importancia de considerar el daño previo de la viga reforzada queda demostrada en la evaluación numérica. Finalmente, se simula la respuesta de un puente pretensado desmantelado con deficiente resistencia a cortante y sometido a ensayos de carga a larga-escala. Son también estudiadas diferentes propuestas de refuerzo basadas en soluciones de pos-tensado. De este modo, se demuestra la capacidad del modelo para determinar la seguridad de estructuras existentes y analizar la eficiencia de las medidas de refuerzo.

  • Costruction Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

     Lozano Galant, Jose Antonio
    Defense's date: 2013-07-22
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Evaluación de la retracción y fluencia en el hormigón autocompactable de resistencia media

     Morales, C.J.C.; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Pérez, W.A.H.
    Dyna
    Date of publication: 2012-10
    Journal article

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  • Construction engineering of the Madrid-Barcelona-French Border high speed railway viaduct over river Fluvià

     Polo Orodea, Tomás; Ramos Moreno, Caterina; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance
    Presentation's date: 2012-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This article introduces the static scheme, the construction method and the seismic-resistant designing of the Fluvià Viaduct, which has a total length of 835m (45+10x60+2x70+50m) and an average height of 18m. So, it is the longest viaduct in the Barcelona-Madrid-French Border section between Barcelona and France. The spans of this structure are medium-long for prestressed concrete solutions in Spain. The general concept of the structure is a 14 span continuous post-tensioning prestressed concrete main girder, simply supported in piers and abutments, with a useful width of 14m. The main girder cross-section is a 4.0m depth one-cell box with quasi-vertical webs, which results in an close-to-optimum length to depth ratio of L/15 for the typical spans. In piers P-11; P-12 and P-13 depth grows linearly up to 5.5m in order to adapt properly to the bending moments appearing in longer spans. The main girder is prestressed to one of the abutments, which acts as fixed point of the structure for supporting horizontal longitudinal actions like traction-braking forces and earthquake loads. With a fixed end in one abutment, the viaduct has a total expanding length of 835m, which is far from the maximum expansion length reached in others structures in Spain, but nearly close to the recommended maximum length that can be solved with conventional track devices. Earthquake loads are the limiting factor in the design of most of the elements of the substructure (foundations, piers and abutments, and diaphragms). The construction method for the piers and the abutments is the most common for this sort of structural parts, and the greatest engineering effort is done to design the girder for a span-by-span construction with a self-bearing falsework designed initially for road bridges of 50m of maximum spans. The use of this available self-bearing falsework for the construction of a railway viaduct (with a cross-section heavier than a highway cross-section for the same span length) deals directly with most of the limitations that influenced the design and construction of the girder. It was necessary to limit the load on the falsework girders to an allowable limit, that prevented from casting the whole cross-section at once. Constructionengineering of the Madrid-Barcelona-French Border high speed railway viaductover river Fluvià. So every phase of the sequential construction method (every “span”) has two sub-phases: 1.- Only bottom slabs, webs and outer flanges are cast. After hardening of concrete, prestressed up to 60%. In this sub-phase, a self-bearing structure is achieved, so falsework can be launched while works go on in the current “span”. In this phase the cross-section is temporarily opened, so it is necessary to close it with steel struts that can be reused.

  • Building a high-speed railway station in Girona

     Pujol Baldellou, Víctor; Tomàs Acosta, Joan; Ramos Moreno, Caterina; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The high-speed railway station in Girona (Spain) is a diaphragm wall enclosure of approximately 600 meters long, 55 meters wide and an excavated depth of 25 meters. In the cross section there is a bus station, two floors of parking vehicles and a high-speed railway station. The different floors are supported by the external diaphragm walls and the piles of the central zone of the station. A pile diaphragm wall in the lineup of the central piles let pass the TBM that performs the previous and posterior tunnel without delaying the timing of the whole construction.

  • Self-compacting concrete with micronized calcium carbonate

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Barragan, Bryan Erick
    CPi ¿ Concrete Plant International
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Towards a model of dry shear keyed joints: Modelling of panel tests

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Computers and concrete
    Date of publication: 2012-11
    Journal article

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  • Método para la Evaluación de Riesgos Laborales en Obras de Construcción de Grandes Viaductos  Open access

     Claudino Véras, Juliana
    Defense's date: 2012-10-19
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    A method for occupational risk assessment in construction sites is developed in this study. This method provides a system to perform exhaustive analysis of the situations that could result in serious accidents. The main characteristic of this method is the integration of the safety and health legislation of three legal frameworks associated with the monitoring of construction procedures. The method is structured in three stages: protocol, data analysis system and risk control procedure. The protocol provides a systematic in situ evaluation, through requirements for identifying and assessing the gravity of the factors that can contribute to an accident. Likewise, it allows identifying the workers in areas of risk. The data analysis system is a tool that processes the information gathered in the protocol. The result is a set of quantitative indicators characterizing the work environment. A significant feature of this tool is its applicability to other productive activities besides construction. The main indicator provided by the method is the safety global index (Is). A formulation representative of the characteristics of the assessed environment and capable of effectively translating its safety level was developed. To this end, a classification range was defined based on the analysis of numerous risk assessments. A detailed study of the parameters of the formulation was conducted, testing their conceptual and mathematical consistency and the influence of one parameter in the others. The third stage of the method is the risk control procedure which establishes an action plan on the irregularities identified in the evaluation. The first version of this method was tested in six bridges and viaducts construction sites. When the necessary adjustments were identified, the effectiveness of the final version was verified twice in two construction sites, a bridge and a viaduct. The validation of the method was completed by means of a survey among the staff responsible for the prevention of accidents in the two construction sites and through the its verification according to a model of validation in operations research. In light of the above, conclusions from the theoretical basis of the method and the results obtained in the risk assessments performed in the construction sites of bridges and viaducts are drawn.

    En este trabajo se ha desarrollado un método para la evaluación de riesgos laborales en obras de construcción. Éste método facilita un sistema de análisis exhaustivo de aquellas situaciones que puedan resultar en accidentes graves. Su principal característica es la integración de la legislación de prevención de riesgos laborales de tres marcos jurídicos, asociada al seguimiento de los métodos constructivos. Está estructurado en tres etapas: protocolo, sistema de análisis de datos y procedimiento de control de riesgos. El protocolo aporta una sistemática para la evaluación in situ, a través de requisitos para la identificación y valoración de la gravedad de los factores que puedan contribuir a un accidente. Igualmente permite la identificación de los trabajadores en las áreas de riesgos. El sistema de análisis de datos es una herramienta que procesa las informaciones originadas por el protocolo. Resulta en un conjunto de indicadores cuantitativos que caracteriza el ambiente laboral. Tiene como importante característica la aplicabilidad a otras actividades productivas además de a la construcción. El principal indicador facilitado por el método es el índice global de seguridad (Is). Se ha desarrollado una formulación representativa de las características del ambiente evaluado, que traduce muy eficazmente su nivel de seguridad. Para ello se ha desarrollado un rango de clasificación a partir del análisis de numerosas evaluaciones de riesgos. Se ha realizado un detallado estudio de los parámetros que componen la formulación, comprobando su coherencia conceptual y matemática, y la influencia de un parámetro sobre los demás. La tercera parte del método es un procedimiento de control de riesgos, que establece un plan de acción sobre las irregularidades identificadas en la evaluación. La primera versión del método fue testada en seis obras de construcción de puentes y viaductos. Identificados los ajustes necesarios, se verificó la eficacia de la versión definitiva con la aplicación por dos veces, en dos obras, un puente y un viaducto. Se ha concluido la validación del método a través de una encuesta realizada con los responsables de la prevención de accidentes de las dos obras, y a través de su comprobación respecto a los criterios propuestos por un modelo de validación de investigación operativa. De todo lo anterior, se han extraído conclusiones desde la fundamentación teórica del método, hasta los resultados obtenidos en evaluaciones de riesgos realizadas en obras de construcción de puentes y viaductos.

  • Verificación experimental de uniones mediante lazos de armadura y su aplicación en la construcción evolutiva de puentes  Open access

     Contreras Lopez, Catalina Del Pilar
    Defense's date: 2012-03-23
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The box-girder is currently the solution for large prestressed concrete bridges, being most used today in steel and mixed structures. Their widespread use is due to the strength characteristics and versatility, using various construction processes depending on the conditions of the work. However, it has the great disadvantage that the concrete should be done in phases. Because of the advantages of this section is really important develop new techniques to improve the performance, and reduce construction times. The construction of the top slab involves extension straight joints. It has been observed that this kind of joint requires additional measures during execution, either from the point of view of the danger to operators or remove the inside formwork. As a result, it is needed propose a new type of joint, by loops, reducing risks, minimizing the construction times and making easier the work on site. To understand the behaviour of a structure with this loop joint, are built concrete sections with representative dimensions of a railway bridge, with a concrete joint, reproducing, as far as possible, what happens in reality. These sections will be tested experimentally. In a previous study has been analysed the performance in a simple bending test. For this reason, in this study is checked the response in pure bending. Dynamic and static campaigns are done, using for this a total of 8 slabs, existing three types of union based on European codes: - Reference Slab (LR) with a continuous reinforcement - DIN Slab (LD) with a loop joint according to DIN 1045 - Experimental Slab (LE) with the proposed loop joint With these results it is possible to know the performance until failure, under static and dynamics loads with a number of cycles of 2 x 10^6. In static load campaign are tested 3 slabs, representatives of the different types of continuity. With these results is possible to make a comparison between the behaviour of the slabs associated with: longitudinal and transverse strain, deflections and concrete joint opening. In dynamic load campaign are tested 5 slabs, three of them with the same type of reinforcement and the other two representatives of the others types. In each of these tests are applied different load ranges, depending on the objectives, defining 5 tests: 1. LR: ¿s=150 MPa --> Q_max=141 kN y Q_min=50 kN 2. LD: ¿s=150 MPa --> Q_max=141 kN y Q_min=50 kN 3. LE_2: ¿s=150 MPa --> Q_max=141 kN y Q_min=50 kN 4. LE_3: ¿s=150 MPa --> Q_max=210 kN y Q_min=119 kN 5. LE_4: ¿s=127 MPa --> Q_max=125 kN y Q_min=47 kN Based on the test load levels, are made comparisons between these results and the results obtained for an experimental slab under simple bending (L.F.S.), associated to: dynamic deflection, concrete joint opening, longitudinal and transverse strain, and failure loads after finished dynamic tests. Finally, are proposed futures research works, in order to increase the knowledge associated with a loop joint reinforcement under another type of efforts.

  • Contributions to the measurement, monitoring and evaluation of environmental performance in construction sites

     Fuertes Casals, Alba
    Defense's date: 2012-01-12
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Structural behaviour of segmental concrete continuous bridges with unbonded prestressing and dry joints

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Structure and infrastructure engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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  • Nueva metodología para el diseño de tubos de hormigón estructural  Open access

     de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto
    Defense's date: 2011-10-14
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The technical and economic suitability of using fibers has been proved in reinforced concrete pipes.However, the use of fibers in concrete pipe is slow, on the one hand due to the inertia to change in the construction field, and on the other hand due to the lack of a standardized, agile and reliable design method that accounts for the structural contribution of fibers. In this sense, this Doctoral Thesis aims to cover these aspects with regard to reinforced concrete pipes. For this purpose, a design method allows considering the strength contribution of the fibers in concrete pipes is proposed. Furthermore, in order to favour the spread of the results both to the scientific and the industrial community, the document of the Doctoral Thesis is presented as a compendium of articles accepted and / or in review status in scientific journals. Each of these articles presents the results of each of the lines of work and whose union has helped to achieve the main objective of this Doctoral Thesis. Firstly, the numerical tool Analysis of Evolutionary Sections (AES) developed to deal with the analysis of the strength response of reinforced concrete sections is presented. The tool is general and can simulate different reinforcement configurations (passive and/or active reinforcement with the possibility of incorporating fibers) and even the evolutionary construction of the section taking into account the rheological behaviour of materials. The model AES was subsequently used as a calculation tool of sections with the aim of addressing parametric studies as well as a subroutine into the other two models developed in the scope of this Doctoral Thesis. The second line of work focuses on the study of conventional reinforced concrete pipes. To address their optimal design the model Análisis de Tubos de Hormigón (ATH) has been developed. The practical interest of the model lies in the possibility of obtaining the optimal amount of reinforcement which meets the requirements in terms of bearing capacity specified in project. These reinforcements obtained from the models are, in most of the cases, inferior to the amounts in the design tables that are used traditionally. With the purpose of confirming the suitability of the ATH, an experimental campaign with tubes of 2800 mm of diameter has been carried out. By using the model, reductions up to 30% of the reinforcement have been obtained for pipes with the aforementioned diameter, while the differences in the bearing capacity do not exceed 10% when compared to the results of the three bearing edge test performed in the laboratory. The third and final line of work deepens into the technical and industrial side of the fiber reinforced concrete pipes. On the one hand, an extensive experimental campaign (some of it developed at the Universidade de São Paulo) is conducted, addressing issues associated with fiber reinforced concrete as well as others regarding the three edges test and the structural response of tubes of different diameters and with different amounts of fibers. On the other hand, the model for the Analysis of Pipes (MAP) was developed simultaneously for simulating the structural response of the fiber reinforced concrete pipes. The results of the bearing capacity of tubes up to 1000 mm of diameter tested have been compared with simulations performed with the MAP model, obtaining excellent correlations and not exceeding, in any case, the 5.5% relative error between the design loads. In view of the good results, it can be concluded that the design methodology herein presented, based on the use of the MAP model, ensures results that fit real behaviour and that the amounts of reinforcement provided are very close to the optimum necessary to meet the strength requirements established in each case.

    El hormigón reforzado con fibras ha demostrado ser una alternativa atractiva frente al hormigón armado tradicional en numerosas tipologías estructurales. En los últimos diez años, los avances técnicos llevados a cabo en relación con este material han sido muy importantes, prueba de ello es que varios códigos normativos nacionales a nivel europeo ya han aceptado las fibras estructurales como material de refuerzo del hormigón, entre ellos la instrucción española EHE‐08 “Instrucción de Hormigón Estructural” en su Anejo 14. A pesar del escenario aparentemente positivo, la consideración de aporte resistente asociado al uso de las fibras es todavía anecdótica, lo cual no responde en la mayoría de las ocasiones a razones técnicas, sino a la gran inercia al cambio existente en el sector general de la construcción. Este es el caso de las tuberías de hormigón armado para redes de saneamiento. Se trata de una tipología estructural para la cual la idoneidad técnica y económica del uso de fibras ya se ha demostrado. Asimismo, también ha sido regulado por varias normativas nacionales específicas de tubos, entre éstas, la UNE‐EN 1916:2008 “Tubos y piezas complementarias de hormigón en masa, hormigón armado y hormigón con fibra de acero”. Sin embargo, el empleo de forma natural de fibras en tubos de hormigón está siendo lento, por una parte, debido a la inercia al cambio anteriormente citada, a lo que debe sumarse el hecho que pocas de las varias experiencias llevadas a cabo se han plasmado en la literatura técnica, y, por otra, a que no existe un método de diseño estandarizado, ágil y fiable al alcance de los proyectistas que permita tener en cuenta la incorporación de las fibras como material resistente. En esta dirección, la presente Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo cubrir estos aspectos asociados con los tubos de hormigón armado. Para ello, los trabajos llevados a cabo han permitido lograr distintos avances en relación con los tubos de hormigón armado tradicionales y los tubos de hormigón armado con fibras. Respecto a estos últimos, se propone el primer método para el diseño conocido hasta la fecha y que permite considerar la contribución resistente de las fibras. Además, de cara a maximizar la difusión de los resultados tanto hacia la comunidad científica como hacia la industrial, el documento de Tesis se plantea como un compendio de artículos aceptados y/o en estado de revisión en revistas científicas en los que se recogen los resultados específicos de cada una de las partes, cuya unión, ha permitido alcanzar el objetivo principal de esta Tesis Doctoral.

  • Aplicación de criterios de robustez estructural para la ampliación de la vida útil de puentes existentes

     Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Valenzuela Saavedra, Andrés; Chambi Chuquichambi, José Luis; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon
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  • Viabilidad del empleo de hormigón autocompactante en viaductos de hormigón

     Díaz de Terán, José Ramón; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Salinas, Santiago; Barragan, Bryan Erick; Mozos, Carlos Manuel; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Congreso Iberoamericano sobre Hormigón Autocompactante
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Además de las vigas prefabricadas, existen dos procedimientos clásicos de construcción de tableros de viaductos de gran longitud y luces medias, uno, el de la construcción vano a vano y otro el del empuje del dintel, bien en sus versiones “in situ”, o bien mediante dovelas prefabricadas. No obstante, a pesar de estar bastante industrializados, su competitividad en cuanto a costes estrictos de implantación se ve perjudicada por los plazos de ejecución requeridos. Siguiendo las fases de hormigonado clásicas de la sección transversal de un puente de hormigón construído vano a vano, el plazo de ejecución de un vano es de dos semanas por vano (una semana por fase). Se ha visto que la posible evolución de estos sistemas constructivos en cuanto a disminución de plazo y, por tanto, de coste de construcción, va en la dirección de construir esquemas autoportantes parciales que permitan avanzar la cimbra o empujar rápidamente un núcleo resistente y completar luego la sección transversal con medios auxiliares más sencillos y fuera de camino crítico. Además, el empleo de hormigones autocompactantes (Self Compacting Convcrete, SCC), de fácil puesta en obra, aumentaría los rendimientos de producción.

  • Criterios de diseño de viaductos en varios tramos de L.A.V. Madrid-Barcelona-Frontera francesa

     Polo Orodea, Tomás; Ramos Moreno, Caterina; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    Hormigon y acero
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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  • Contributions to the implementation of integrated environmental and health and safety management systems in construction companies  Open access  awarded activity

     Gangolells Solanellas, Marta
    Defense's date: 2010-01-08
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Resum de la tesi (màxim 4000 caràcters. Si se supera aquest límit, el resum es tallarà automàticament al caràcter 4000) Molts dels problemes i obstacles que més freqüentment han d’encarar les empreses constructores durant el procés d’implementació i ús de sistemes integrats de gestió mediambiental i de seguretat i salut estan relacionats amb les peculiaritats pròpies del sector de la construcció. D’acord amb investigacions prèvies realitzades per diferents autors, una de les qüestions que tradicionalment comporta un major grau d’incertesa és la integració dels instruments de planificació i control, on s’inclouen els elements per a la identificació i l’avaluació dels impactes ambientals i dels riscos de seguretat i salut i l’aplicació de les subseqüents mesures de control. Aquesta tesi doctoral contribueix a la implementació i ús de sistemes integrats de gestió mediambiental i de seguretat i salut en empreses constructores amb un enfocament orientat al procés i emprant el risc com a factor d’integració. A nivell de projecte constructiu, aquesta recerca proposa una metodologia quantitativa per tal d’identificar i avaluar aquells riscos de salut i seguretat i impactes ambientals potencialment adversos que poden originar-se en obres residencials o d’altres tipologies similars durant les etapes pre-constructives. La metodologia desenvolupada facilita als dissenyadors la consideració de forma explícita dels impactes ambientals i la seguretat dels treballadors a l’obra durant el procés de disseny d’edificis residencials. Els dissenyadors poden comparar diferents alternatives de disseny i determinar, per a cada una de les solucions, el corresponent nivell d'impacte ambiental global així com el nivell de risc de seguretat i salut global, sense limitar el seu talent creatiu. La metodologia és especialment útil per a aquells dissenyadors menys experimentats que presenten una manca d’habilitats i coneixements per al reconeixement d’aspectes mediambientals i de riscos de seguretat i salut, ajudant-los a desenvolupar dissenys més òptims des d’aquestes perspectives. La metodologia també serveix com a eina d'avaluació per a que les empreses constructores puguin mesurar el comportament mediambiental i en termes de salut i de seguretat dels projectes constructius que duran a terme i les subseqüents activitats constructives, proporcionant una base consistent per a realitzar comparacions i per a l’establiment de futures etiquetes en termes mediambientals i de seguretat i salut entre diferents projectes de construcció i empreses constructores. La metodologia proposada també permet a les empreses constructores la optimització del seu comportament a l’obra en termes mediambientals i de salut i seguretat durant les etapes de planificació i preparació. La metodologia desenvolupada no només proporciona als dissenyadors un forma d’avaluar el comportament mediambiental i en termes de seguretat i salut dels seus dissenys residencials sinó que també ajuda a les empreses constructores a millorar el seu comportament mediambiental i en termes de seguretat i salut a l’obra. Una vegada s’ha assolit el disseny final, la metodologia subratlla aquells impactes ambientals i riscos de seguretat i salut que encara són significatius. Una millor identificació d'impactes ambientals i de riscos de seguretat i salut porta indubtablement a una gestió mediambiental i de seguretat in situ més exitosa. D’aquesta manera, es poden implementar a l’obra un conjunt d’instruccions de treball orientades a eliminar o reduir fins a un nivell acceptable els impactes ambientals i els riscos de seguretat i salut restants. Per tal de promoure el control operacional integrat a l’obra dels impactes ambientals i riscos de salut i seguretat, aquesta tesi doctoral proposa una aproximació basada en les ontologies. Entendre les relacions existents entre impactes ambientals, riscos de salut i seguretat, processos constructius i instruccions de treball proporciona una aproximació integrada que pot ajudar als contractistes a gestionar i controlar els impactes ambientals i els riscos de seguretat i salut relacionats amb el procés constructiu. Amb l’objectiu d’incrementar l'ús d'aquesta recerca, la metodologia desenvolupada s'ha implementat en un sistema web de gestió del coneixement i la informació. Per una banda, aquesta aplicació permet significativament reduir el temps dedicat a l'avaluació de cada projecte de construcció. D'altra banda, la formalització i visualització de l’aproximació basada en ontologies que s’ha desenvolupat durant la tesi confereix una guia per als contractistes en la gestió de moltes de les incidències mediambientals i de seguretat i salut que poden tenir lloc a les obres de construcció. Finalment, aquesta tesi doctoral documenta la verificació i la validació de la metodologia desenvolupada i de la corresponent eina d’implementació. La tesi doctoral conclou subratllant les principals contribucions d'aquesta investigació. Aquells temes que sobrepassen l’abast d’aquesta tesi són comentats i proposats com a futurs treballs.

    Most common challenges and obstacles encountered by construction organizations during the implementation process and use of integrated environmental and health and safety management systems are related to the inherent peculiarities of the construction sector. According to several research authors, one of the issues involving a higher level of uncertainty is the integration of planning and control instruments, including elements for identifying and assessing environmental impacts and health and safety risks and implementing subsequent necessary control measures. This dissertation contributes to the implementation of environmental and health and safety management systems in construction companies by proposing a process-oriented approach and using risk as an integrating factor. At a project level, this research proposes a quantitative methodology for dealing with potential adverse environmental impacts and health and safety risks during the pre-construction stages of residential buildings and other similar typologies. The strength of this methodology lies in the fact that it helps designers to explicitly consider on-site environmental impacts and construction worker safety during the design process. Designers can compare several design alternatives during the design phase and determine corresponding overall environmental impact level and overall safety risk level of a construction project without their creative talents being restricted. The methodology is especially worthwhile for those less-experienced designers who lack the skills and knowledge required to recognize environmental aspects and safety hazards, developing optimal designs. The methodology also serves as an assessment tool for construction companies to measure the environmental and health and safety performance of construction projects and its subsequent construction activities, providing a consistent basis for comparisons, future labelling and environmental and safety benchmarking among construction projects and construction companies. The suggested methodology also allows construction companies to optimize its on-site performance in the environmental and the health and safety domains during the planning and preparation stages. The developed methodology not only provides designers with a risk-analysis-based way of evaluating the environmental and safety-related performance of their residential construction designs, but also helps construction companies improve their on-site environmental and safety performance. Once a final design is reached, the methodology highlights the significant remaining environmental impacts and health and safety risks. Improved levels of environmental impacts and safety risks identification undoubtedly lead to successful on-site environmental and safety management. A range of measures can then be implemented at the construction site to eliminate the remaining impacts and risks or reduce them to an acceptable level. In order to promote the integrated operational control of on-site environmental impacts and health and safety risks, this research proposes an ontology-based approach. Understanding relationships between environmental impacts, health and safety risks, construction processes and work instructions provides an integrated approach to help contractors managing and controlling environmental impacts and health and safety risks related to the construction process. In order to increase the usability of this research, the developed methodology has been implemented in a web-based information-and knowledge-management system. On one hand, this application allows significantly reducing the time devoted to the assessment of each construction project. On the other hand, formalizing and visualizing the developed ontology-based approach offers guidance to contractors on the integrated management of many of the environmental and health and safety incidences at the construction site. Finally, this dissertation documents the verification and validation of the developed methodology and corresponding web-based implementation tool. The dissertation concludes by outlining the main contributions of this research. Those subjects that exceed this dissertation scope are commented and proposed as future work.

  • Shear truss analogy for concrete members of solid and hollow circular

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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  • GRUP DE TECNOLOGIA D'ESTRUCTURES

     Arnedo Pena, Alfredo Bernardo; Agulló Fité, Luís; Roca Fabregat, Pedro; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon; Bairan Garcia, Jesus Miguel; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Molins Borrell, Climent; de la Fuente Antequera, Alberto; Chacon Flores, Rolando Antonio; Valdes Lopez, Manuel; Real Saladrigas, Esther; Garcia Vicente, Tomas; Oller Ibars, Eva; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Aguado De Cea, Antonio; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, Enrique; Estrada Palacios, Immaculada; Mari Bernat, Antonio Ricardo
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  • BEAM SHEAR TEST OF STRUCTURAL SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE

     De La Cruz, Claudia Jenny; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Gettu, Ravindra; Barragan, Bryan Erick; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    Dyna (Medellín)
    Date of publication: 2009-09
    Journal article

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  • Un nuevo Sistema Integrado de Gestión de Costes en Proyectos de Obra Civil y Edificación

     AZUOLA QUIROS, LUIS DIEGO
    Defense's date: 2008-11-03
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Un nuevo Sistema Integrado de Gestión de Costes en Proyectos de Obra

    Defense's date: 2008-11-03
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Proyecto y construcción de la losa intermedia del tramo de Santa Coloma de la Línea 9 del ferrocarril metropolitano de Barcelona

     Buil Adrados, Alberto; Arranz Marco, Tomás; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Ainchil Lavin, Javier
    Congreso de la Asociación Científico-Técnica del Hormigón Estructural
    Presentation's date: 2008-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La configuración del Túnel de la Línea 9 del Ferrocarril Metropolitano de Barcelona con una sección mayoritariamente en dos niveles obliga a un estudio minucioso de la solución de la losa intermedia de separación de ambos sentidos de circulación. Frente a la solución convencional de pórtico in situ ejecutado con carro integral en hormigón armado, se ha desarrollado una solución alternativa con la que obtiene un elevado grado de industrialización. La losa intermedia se ha ejecutado mediante una prelosa autoresistente pretensada prefabricada que apoya sobre las ménsulas, transportada y colocada gracias a un monorraíl tripulado, sustentado en la clave del túnel, y sobre la cual se ejecuta una losa de compresión en hormigón armado.

  • Estudio de comportamiento diferido de hormigones autocompactables de resistencias medias

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Cruz, de la C; Gettu, R; Barragan, B
    1er Congreso Español sobre hormigón autocompactante
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  • Estudio de la adherencia en hormigones autocompactables

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Cruz, de la C; Gettu, R; Barragan, B; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon
    1er Congreso Español sobre hormigón autocompactante
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  • Estudio de la adherencia del hormigón autocompactable de resistncia media

     Cruz, de la C; Gettu, R; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    1er Congreso Español sobre hormigón autocompactante
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  • Ensayos a cortante de vigas de hormigón estructual autocompactante

     Cruz, de la C; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Gettu, R; Barragan, B; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    1er Congreso Español sobre hormigón autocompactante
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  • Seguretat, medi ambient, qualitat a la construcció. La visió dels estudiants. Curs 2006-07

     Casas Rius, Joan Ramon; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    Date of publication: 2007-12
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  • Shear Strength of Dry Joints of Concrete Panels with and without Steel Fibres. Application to Precast Segmental Bridges

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2006-01
    Journal article

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  • Shear Behaviour of Unbonded Post-Tensioned Segmental Beams with Dry Joints

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    ACI Structural Journal
    Date of publication: 2006-06
    Journal article

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  • Comportamiento estructural de puentes de dovelas prefabricadas con pretensado exterior y junta seca. Primera parte: ensayos de vigas

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Piernagorda, G; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Hormigon y acero
    Date of publication: 2006-04
    Journal article

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  • Comportamiento estructural de puentes de dovelas prefabricadas con pretensado exterior y junta seca. Segunda parte: modelización de ensayos

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Hormigon y acero
    Date of publication: 2006-04
    Journal article

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  • Shear strength of match cast dry joints of precast concrete segmental bridges: proposal for Eurocode 2. Resistencia de juntas secas conjugadas de puentes de dovelas prefabricadas de hormigón:propuesta para el Eurocódigo 2

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Materiales de construcción (Madrid)
    Date of publication: 2006-04
    Journal article

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  • FEM Modelling of Unbonded Post-tensioned Segmental Beams with Dry Joints

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2006-05
    Journal article

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  • Normalized test for prediction of debonding failure in concrete elements strengthened with CFRP

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon; Alarcon, A
    Journal of composites for construction
    Date of publication: 2006-12
    Journal article

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  • Desarollo de hormigones autocompactables de resistencia media, para aplicaciones estructurales

     DE LA CRUZ MORALES, CLAUDIA JENNY
    Defense's date: 2006-10-30
    Department of Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
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  • Some Implications of Using Eurocode 2 in the Design of Medium Span Bridges

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    7th International Conference on Short and Medium Span Bridges
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  • Shear reinforcement in segmental bridges with unbonded prestressing

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Turmo Coderque, Jose; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    First International Conference on Advances in Bridge Engineering.Bridges-Past Present and Future
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  • Seguretat, medi ambient, qualitat a la construcció: la visió dels estudiants: curs 2005-06

     Casas Rius, Joan Ramon; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo
    Date of publication: 2006-09
    Book

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  • Optimización global del procedimiento constructivo de grandes viaductos: impacto ambiental, coste, plazo y seguridad laboral

     Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos; Casas Rius, Joan Ramon
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  • Bridges without Shear Reinforcement

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    IABSE International Symposium. Responding to tomorrow's Challeges in Structural Engineering
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  • SLS and ULS of Segmental Concrete Bridges with Unbonded Prestressing and Dry Joints

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    III International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management
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  • Discussion on the paper Shear strength of joints in precast concrete segmental bridges

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    ACI Structural Journal
    Date of publication: 2005-11
    Journal article

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  • Resistencia de juntas secas conjugadas de puentes de dovelas prefabricadas de hormigón: "ensayos de paneles"

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Polo, T; Llopart, S; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Cemento hormigón : fabricación, investigación y aplicaciones del cemento y del hormigón
    Date of publication: 2005-09
    Journal article

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  • Fem Study on the Structural Behaviour of Segmental Concrete Bridges with Unbonded Prestressing and Dry Joints: Simple Supported Bridges

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Engineering structures
    Date of publication: 2005-09
    Journal article

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  • Estudio numérico del comportamiento de juntas secas de puentes de dovelas prefabricadas

     Turmo Coderque, Jose; Ramos Schneider, Gonzalo; Aparicio Bengoechea, Angel Carlos
    Ingeniería civil (Madrid)
    Date of publication: 2005-07
    Journal article

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