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  • Bounded Model Checking for Asynchronous Concurrent Systems  Open access

     Rakotoarisoa, Manitra Johanesa
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En esta tesis se estudia la verificación de sistemas concurrentes asincrónicos utilizando una técnica de modelo de control simbólico llamado ¿bounded model checking¿ (BMC). BMC es un método cuyo objetivo principal es encontrar errores en un sistema. Responde a la pregunta si existe una ruta de ejecución, más corto que un número determinado, que viola una propiedad determinada. Este camino de ejecución se conoce como contraejemplo. Durante una operación de BMC cada ruta de ejecución se codifica en una fórmula Booleana, y el problema se reduce a comprobar la satisfactibilidad de la fórmula. Por lo tanto, la operación consiste principalmente en la construcción de una fórmula Booleana que es satisfactible si y sólo si existe un contraejemplo.Modelamos nuestros sistemas con los ¿transition systems¿ (TSs). En particular, estamos interesados principalmente en productos sincronizada de los TSs. Dado que los sistemas concurrentes están formados por una combinación de varios componentes de la comunicación entre los demás, productos sincronizada de los TSs son adecuado para capturar el comportamiento de dichos sistemas. Las ejecuciones de sistemas concurrentes suelen modelado usando la ejecución llamada ¿interleaving execution¿ que permite sólo lanzar un único evento en cada paso. Sin embargo, debido a la complejidad de tales sistemas, la realización de BMC con ¿interleaving¿ no sólo requieren muchos pasos, pero también generan fórmulas largas. En este trabajo, se adoptan métodos diferentes basado en ¿breadth-first search¿ (BFS). Nuestros métodos de reducir las medidas necesarias, y producir más pequeñas fórmulas. En una operación de BMC, la traducción de la modelo en una fórmula Booleana es polinomio en el tamaño del modelo, pero el tiempo de resolución de la fórmula Booleana puede ser exponencial en el tamaño de la fórmula. Por lo tanto, nuestra hipótesis de investigación es que podemos mejorar la eficiencia de BMC generando fórmula sucinta, y reduciendo al mínimo el número de medidas necesarias durante la ejecución.Se introduce varias técnicas de BMC para mejorar la eficiencia de BMC para sistemas concurrentes asincrónicos. Las técnicas que se agrupan en dos partes principales (i) técnicas para la verificación de las propiedades de accesibilidad y (ii) técnicas para la verificación de propiedades escrito en ¿linear temporal logic¿ (LTL). Además, también propone algunos métodos para reducir al mínimo el número de pasos de ejecución.Implementamos todos estos métodos en un conjunto de herramientas de BMC. Al final de la disertación, vamos a discutir los resultados experimentales obtenidos.

    Complex hardware systems become more and more ubiquitous in mission critical applications such as military, satellite, and medical to name but a few. In such applications, reliability remains a primary concern because a failure that occurs during their normal operations might produce important catastrophes like loss of life or loss of money. All these failures are often caused by minuscule bug that exists inside the software which controls the systems, or within the hardware itself. In addition, most of these systems cannot be interrupted while working, even for a few seconds a year, making it difficult to repair bugs found during their normal operations. The main purpose of this work is to build efficient verification techniques for asynchronous concurrent systems. Because of the pivotal roles these systems assume in a given application, designers of such systems must keep development and maintenance costs under control and meet nonfunctional constraints on the design of the system, such as cost, power, weight, or the system architecture by itself. But most importantly, they must assure their customer as well as the certification authorities that both the design and its implementation are correct. Otherwise, they may end up shipping unsafe systems to the market, and the consequences of this action would be catastrophic. To achieve this goal, designers need efficient methods and tools to assist them in verifying the correctness of the design. In this thesis we focus on a symbolic model checking technique called bounded model checking (BMC). BMC is a method targeted mainly at finding bugs in a system. It answers the questions whether there exists a counterexample, shorter than a given length, that violates a given property. During a BMC operation each execution path is encoded into Boolean formula, and the problem is reduced to satisfiability checking of the formula. Therefore, the operation consists mainly in constructing a Boolean formula that is satisfiable if and only if such a counterexample exists. We model our systems with transition systems (TSs). In particular, we are mainly interested in synchronized product of TSs. Since concurrent systems are formed by a combination of several components communicating between each other, synchronized product of TSs is well-suited to capture the behavior of such systems. The executions of concurrent systems are commonly modeled using the so-called interleaving execution, which allows only one single event to fire at each step. However, due to the complexity of such systems inteleaving method will not only require many steps but also generate long formulas. In this work, we adopt another approach based on breadth-first search (BFS). In a BMC operation, the translation of the model into a Boolean formula is polynomial in the size of the model, but the solving time of the Boolean formula can be exponential in the size of the formula. Therefore, our research hypothesis is that we can improve the efficiency of BMC by generating succinct formula, and by minimizing the number of necessary steps during an execution. We introduce several BMC techniques aimed at improving the efficiency of BMC for asynchronous concurrent systems. The techniques are grouped in two main parts (i) techniques for checking reachability properties and (ii) techniques for checking properties written in linear temporal logic (LTL). In addition, we also propose some methods for minimizing the number of execution steps or bound. We implemented all these methods in a BMC toolset. At the end of the dissertation, we will discuss the experimental results we obtained.

  • Operaciones RPAS en el Cielo Unico Europeo

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Valero Garcia, Miguel; López Rubio, Juan; Reyes Muñoz, M. Angélica; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Preparing for an unmanned future in SESAR real-time simulation of RPAS missions

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 9
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The insertion of RPAS in non-segregated IFR airspace has a number of well defined research gaps that need to be addressed in order to progress forward with the integration. Especially in the ATM domain, the lack of flight experience for RPAS maintains the myth that they will impose an increased burden to ATCo, thus reducing the operational safety and airspace capacity. The ISIS+ simulation infrastructure will allow the real time simulation of IFR operations by coupling a highly capable RPAS simulation system together with one of Eurocontrols ATC simulation environment called eDEP. Complex RPAS missions will be carried out under historic or forecast traffic obtained from Eurocontrols DDR2 database. Real ATC controllers can monitor the sectors of interest, while RPAS pilots can operate the simulated RPAS, and experienced pilots can operate the surrounding simulated IFR traffic. In all cases, voice communications, transponder and ADS-B, data-link, satellite induced latency, etc; can be reproduced as close to reality as possible. Overall ISIS+ will facilitate the reproduction of a variety of RPAS operational scenarios, asses its interaction with traffic controllers and surrounding traffic, and evaluate is any significant ATCo workload increase or capacity reductions occur for each selected concept of operation.

  • Architecture issues and challanges for the integration of RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Despite the evolution of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), the technological development on airframes, autopilots, communications and payload, is still limited by the absence of software standardization. Engineers face the development of UAS systems with the implementation of ad - hoc solutions to satisfy the mission requirements. This is a major limitation with regard to the software maintenance and re-usability that may result in an increment of both project cost and risk. Well structured UAS avionics supporting increased levels of automation (and eventually autonomy), together with reconfiguration capabilities and costeffectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a global scenario. Additionally the major civil applications require UAS with access to non-segregated airspace. Following Eurocontrol, FAA and ICAO philosophy, the introduction of unmanned traffic should not affect ATM operations, thus UAS should comply with the performance levels required by SESAR and NextGen. Hence, operations with unmanned aircraft should guarantee safe and efficient interaction with the ATM system. In that aspect gaps and issues into unmanned aircraft software architectures are discussed in this paper. Required mechanism for ATM communication, collision avoidance, maneuver automation and SESAR/NextGen integration are discussed to identify possible short-term and long-term software requirements. Moreover, existing standardized software frameworks and proposed software proposed are reviewed to identify the gaps it should deal with to achieve an efficient UAS integration.

    Despite the evolution of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), the technological development on airframes, autopilots, communications and payload, is still limited by the absence of software standardization. Engineers face the development of UAS systems with the implementation of ad - hoc solutions to satisfy the mission requirements. This is a major limitation with regard to the software maintenance and re-usability that may result in an increment of both project cost and risk. Wellstructured UAS avionics supporting increased levels of automation (and eventually autonomy), together with reconfiguration capabilities and costeffectiveness, are key requirements for UAS to be successful in a global scenario. Additionally the major civil applications require UAS with access to non-segregated airspace. Following Eurocontrol, FAA and ICAO philosophy, the introduction of unmanned traffic should not affect ATM operations, thus UAS should comply with the performance levels required by SESAR and NextGen. Hence, operations with unmanned aircraft should guarantee safe and efficient interaction with the ATM system. In that aspect gaps and issues into unmanned aircraft software architectures are discussed in this paper. Required mechanism for ATM communication, collision avoidance, maneuver automation and SESAR/NextGen integration are discussed to identify possible short-term and long-term software requirements. Moreover, existing standardized software frameworks and proposed software proposed are reviewed to identify the gaps it should deal with to achieve an efficient UAS integration.

  • Towards the automation of the UAS mission management

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    p. 6D6-1-6D6-13
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Most unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Most current UAS solutions, if not remotely piloted, rely on waypoint based flight control system for their navigation and are unable to coordinate the aircraft flight with payload and mission operation. In this paper, an architecture for providing automation in UAS application is presented. This architecture is part of a UAS-specific distributed service-oriented architecture designed to enable easy reconfiguration and deployment of UAS in a wide range of scenarios without (or very little) additional system development. Flight, payload and mission service coordination, service interfaces and message interactions between services are discussed in this paper. Finally, a preliminary prototype of these services has been implemented to validate the purpose architecture specification. Additionally, a helicopter-based UAS is being developed to test in real scenarios the automation capabilities provided by the USAL architecture.

  • ISIS+: A realistic ATM-UAS simulation environment

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Batlle, M.P; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    AUVSI's Unmanned Systems
    p. 715-738
    Presentation's date: 2013-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are currently being used primarily for military applications, but with the evolution of avionics technology, a huge market in civil applications is emerging. However, most civil applications require UAS to access non-segregated airspace. Current use limitations of non-segregated airspace make it extremely difficult to extensively evaluate operational concepts and mission profiles. Using real flights to test the complete UAS mission infrastructure involves costs and risks. Therefore, simulators must be used prior to real flight campaigns to test and validate UAS components and must take into account all the actors involved in the non-segregated airspace. This paper describes the development of a Software-in-the-Loop simulator called ISIS+ to evaluate the automated operations of UAS in non-segregated airspace and to test new software components of the UAS with other avionics components. The ISIS+ simulator provides a realistic simulation environment in which the UAS software components can be developed under real air traffic scenarios while taking into account all the UAS's peculiarities. The UAS is integrated with eDEP, an air traffic simulation environment, in order to explore the UAS behavior, conflicting traffic and air traffic controllers' requests with the airspace actors. The integration is carried out using ADS-B messages and considers the UAS as an active actor in the networked environment to simulate future SESAR and NextGen scenarios.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Supervisory control interface design for unmanned aerial vehicles through GEDIS-UAV

     Lorite, Salvador; Muñoz, Adolfo; Tornero, Josep; Ponsa Asensio, Pedro; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39232-0
    Date of publication: 2013-07-26
    Book chapter

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    This paper reflects the state of art in the field of human factors for unmanned aerial vehicles. It describes the GEDIS-UAV guide, which is a modification of the GEDIS guide. It also shows the evaluation of the Sky-eye project graphical user interface as an example of the methodology. The analysis and evaluation method reflected in this paper may be used to improve the graphical user interface of any unmanned aerial vehicle.

    This paper reflects the state of art in the field of human factors for unmanned aerial vehicles. It describes the GEDIS-UAV guide, which is a mod- ification of the GEDIS guide. It also shows the evaluation of the Sky-eye project graphical user interface as an example of the methodology. The analy- sis and evaluation method reflected in this paper may be used to improve the graphical user interface of any unmanned aerial vehicle.

  • Best paper in track award - ATM Seminar 2013

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Award or recognition

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  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)  Open access

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    Jornadas sobre la enseñanza universitaria de la informática
    p. 175-182
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En esta ponencia se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificación de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario más adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como guía para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edición para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El análisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares.

    SUMMARY -- This paper describes the key aspects of an experience of unification of pairs of subjects in order to create a more suitable scenario for deployment of Project Based Learning. To guide the review of these essential aspects we use a letter that students from the first edition wrote to protest against the organization of the subjects. The analysis of the complaints of the students can be very helpful for others who are planning similar innovations.

  • Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Jellyfish monitoring on coastlines using remote pilotes aircraft  Open access

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Fuentes, Javier A.; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Royo Chic, Pablo; Olariaga, Alejandro Daniel; López Rubio, Juan; Fuentes, Verónica Lorena; Gili Sardá, Josep Maria; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment
    p. 1-7
    DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/17/1/012195
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term ¿Jellyfish¿ refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.

    In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term “Jellyfish” refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.

  • Sistema de perfeccionamiento para pilotos de aeronaves que realizan fotografía aérea y procedimiento asociado a dicho sistema

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    Date of request: 2012-12-18
    Invention patent

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    Sistema de perfeccionamiento para pilotos de aeronaves que realizan fotografía aérea y procedimiento asociado a dicho sistema.

    Dado un plan de vuelo diseñado para fotografía aérea (24), el sistema extiende las funcionalidades de una plataforma de vuelo (21), real o simulada, con un componente de cálculo de desviación de ruta (22) y un dispositivo indicador (23) que muestra de forma continuada al piloto la información de navegación respecto al plan de vuelo deseado. El dispositivo indicador (23) permite informar al piloto sobre los errores cometidos por posición, velocidad o actitud del avión inadecuados. El sistema fija tres modos de funcionamiento, según la distancia respecto al inicio del tramo a sobrevolar, que afecta al modo de cálculo de las desviaciones. El sistema puede ser alternativamente presentado como un dispositivo embarcado, cuando la plataforma de vuelo es una aeronave, o como programa y pantalla de ordenador, cuando la plataforma de vuelo es simulada.

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    On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper studies the separation maneuvers that an Unmanned Air System (UAS) may execute to avoid breaching the separation safety margins imposed in each type of airspace, namely 3 NM, 5 NM, and 10 NM. The UAS was assumed under the control of its Pilot in Command, with available information about its surrounding traffic through ADS-B or ADS-C, and most likely under the supervision of an ATCo. A number of UAS separation maneuvers have been identified that may guarantee the desired levels of separation if executed with the right parameters and enough anticipation. This paper focuses on identification of the most suitable maneuver for any separation conflict geometry and performance envelop. The conflict geometry is modeled to take into account the speed of both vehicles (the UAS and the intruder), the conflict angle, the turning limitations of the UAS, the reaction time of the pilot, and the communication latency.

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    A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

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    Evaluation of separation strategies for unmanned aerial sytems  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper analyzes loss of separation scenarios when an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) enters in conflict with a much faster airplane flying at the same altitude. Separation distances are analyzed in terms of minimum heading changes and reaction times. Results show that maneuvers need to be performed well in advance if the (low-speed) UA is the aircraft that changes its heading. In some cases the time in which the UA and the intruder are in conflict could be too long, and may even involve multiple airliners flying over the same airway. Given that standard separation strategies may have a negative impact on the UA mission, in this paper a set of pre-planned separation maneuvers are proposed. These maneuvers aim to improve the situational awareness of both air traffic controller and UA pilotin- command, but also to disrupt as less as possible the mission performed by the UA and to minimize the uncertainty in the reactions the UA may adopt autonomously if the link with the ground station is lost. Some preliminary real-time simulations are shown, using a UA ground station simulator linked to a air traffic control simulator.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Integration of SAA Capabilities into a UAS Distributed Architecture for Civil Applications

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Lema Rosas, Juan Manuel; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    DOI: 10.1002/9781119964049.ch4
    Date of publication: 2012-04
    Book chapter

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  • ESTANDARIZACION DE SISTEMAS AVIONICOS PARA AVIONES NO TRIPULADOS

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Evaluating technologies and mechanisms for the automated/autonomous operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sky eye: an helicopter-based UAS for hotspot monitoring

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Salamí San Juan, Esther; López Rubio, Juan
    AUVSI's Unmanned Systems
    p. 1354-1372
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Best paper award 1st International Conference on application and theory of automation in command and control system

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Award or recognition

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  • An architecture to automate UAS operations in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 5-16
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Depart and approach procedures for UAS in a VFR environment

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 27-37
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    UAS architecture for forest fire remote sensing  Open access

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Solé, M.; Lema Rosas, Juan Manuel; López Rubio, Juan; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents the hardware/software architecture of the Sky-Eye UAS prototype. In particular it details the hardware of the prototype, its operational concept and the software avionics architecture. The software architecture is named UAS Service Abstraction Layer (USAL) and consists on the set of standard services required for most UAS missions. The USAL is a distributed architecture which follows the publish / subscribe communication paradigm, allowing fast development of new functionalities. We describe the USAL services required to properly manage the remote sensing mission of hot spot detection. This includes the sensor management, data storage, communications, image processing, flight plan management and mission management.

  • Fast geolocation for hot spot detection

     Salamí San Juan, Esther; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Service Oriented Architecture for Embedded (Avionics) Applications

     López Rubio, Juan
    Department of Computer Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATIONS, OPERATIONS AND AVIONICS FOR ROBUST (UN)MANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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    An Assessment for UAS Traffic Awareness Operations  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado Muñoz, Luis
    International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences Congress
    Presentation's date: 2010-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Technology evolution in the field of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) will affect the Air Traffic Management (ATM) performance regarding to new military and civil applications. UAS, as new airspace users, will represent new challenges and opportunities to design the ATM system of the future. The goal of this future ATM network is to keep intact (or improve) the network in terms of security, safety, capacity and efficiency level. On the other hand, most UAS are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. Therefore, UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Moreover, the systematic development of UAS missions leads to many other operational risks that need to be addressed. All this elements may delay, increase the risk and cost in the implementation of a new UAS application.

  • Formal Mission Specification and Execution Mechanisms for Unmanned Aircraft Systems  Open access

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard
    Department of Computer Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are rapidly gaining attention due to the increasing potential of their applications in the civil domain. UAS can provide great value performing environmental applications, during emergency situations, as monitoring and surveillance tools, and operating as communication relays among other uses. In general, they are specially well suited for the so-called D-cube operations (Dirty, Dull or Dangerous).Most current commercial solutions, if not remotely piloted, rely on waypoint based flight control systems for their navigation and are unable to coordinate UAS flight with payload operation. Therefore, automation capabilities and the ability for the system to operate in an autonomous manner are very limited. Some motivators that turn autonomy into an important requirement include limited bandwidth, limits on long-term attention spans of human operators, faster access to sensed data, which also results in better reaction times, as well as benefits derived from reducing operators workload and training requirements.Other important requirements we believe are key to the success of UAS in the civil domain are reconfigurability and cost-effectiveness. As a result, an affordable platform should be able to operate in different application scenarios with reduced human intervention.To increase capabilities of UAS and satisfy the aforementioned requirements, we propose adding flight plan and mission management layers on top of a commercial off-the-shelf flight control system. By doing so, a high level of autonomy can be achieved while taking advantage of available technologies and avoiding huge investments. Reconfiguration is made possible by separating flight and mission execution from its specification.The flight and mission management components presented in this thesis integrate into a wider hardware/software architecture being developed by the ICARUS research group.This architecture follows a service oriented approach where UAS subsystems are connected together through a common networking infrastructure. Components can be added and removed from the network in order to adapt the system to the target mission.The first contribution of this thesis consists, then, in a flight specification language that enables the description of the flight plan in terms of legs. Legs provide a higher level of abstraction compared to plain waypoints since they not only specify a destination but also the trajectory that should be followed to reach it. This leg concept is extended with additional constructs that enable specification of alternative routes, repetition and generation of complex trajectories from a reduced number of parameters.A Flight Plan Manager (FPM) service has been developed that is responsible for the execution of the flight plan. Since the underlying flight control system is still waypoint based, additional intermediate waypoints are automatically generated to adjust the flight to the desired trajectory.In order to coordinate UAS flight and payload operation a Mission Manager (MMa) service has also been developed. The MMa is able to adapt payload operation according to the current flight phase, but it can also act on the FPM and make modifications on the flight plan for a better adaption to the mission needs. To specify UAS behavior, instead of designing a new language, we propose using an in-development standard for the specification of state machines called State Chart XML.Finally, validation of the proposed specification and execution elements is carried out with two example missions executed in a simulation environment. The first mission mimics the procedures required for inspecting navigation aids and shows the UAS performance in a complex flight scenario. In this mission only the FPM is involved. The second example combines operation of the FPM with the MMa. In this case the mission consists in the detection of hotspots on a given area after a hypothetical wildfire. This second simulation shows how the MMa is able to modify the flight plan in order to adapt the trajectory to the mission needs. In particular, an eight pattern is flown over each of the dynamically detected potential hot spots.

  • An Open Architecture for the Integration of UAS Civil Appli

     Royo Chic, Pablo
    Department of Computer Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Helicopter-based wildfire monitoring system software architecture

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Solé Simó, Marc; López, Juan; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    IEEE Aerospace Conference
    p. 1-18
    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2010.5446807
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work introduces a flexible and reusable architecture designed to facilitate the development of remote sensing applications. Based on it, we are developing a helicopter system, called Red-Eye, devoted to the detection, control and analysis of wild land forest fires in the Mediterranean area. The design of the proposed system is composed of five main components. Each component will work collaboratively to constitute a platform of high added value. The general architecture designed for wildfire monitoring is being tailored for two relevant objectives within the particular Mediterranean scenario: tactical day/night fire front evolution, and post-fire hot-spot detection. The generalized integration of monitoring vehicles with the operation of other aerial resources (attack helicopter and airplanes) is an unsolved problem, both technically and methodologically. However, the operation of a monitoring helicopter during certain very well identified phases of the extinction process in highly plausible. High-level strategic monitoring is possible because no-conflicts will appear due to different flight levels; however, low-level tactical monitoring is a source of potentially dangerous in-flight traffic conflicts. In addition to monitoring the fire front evolution, detection of remaining post-fire hot-spots located at the perimeter of fire is the main application that has been foreseen. Just after a fire front is contained or even during the days following the fire extinction, the monitoring tasks have to be maintained because of the danger of fire reactivation. The cost of monitoring with ground teams or aerial means it is very expensive and consumes resources needed in other fronts or possibly concurrent fires. However, a helicopter equipped with thermal cameras, can flight over the area and generate a map of hot spots with higher precision at a smaller cost. It is crucial in this application that the hot spots are reported immediately to avoid having ground brigades wai- - ting for data for too long. Also, it is important to feedback the information in such a way it can be effectively consumed, not forcing ground brigades to walk around the forest without a clear operational scheme. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) a heliborne hot-spot detection system is being developed. This paper describes the global architecture of the system, including the air segment, the ground control segment, and the interface with the squads operating on the fire area, etc. We also demonstrate how the available pre-defined modules in the SOA architecture have been reused to design this particular application, the additional subsystems required to implement specific hot-spot mission requirements, and the overall system / end-user interface.

  • On the design of a UAS flight plan monitoring and edition system

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Royo Chic, Pablo; López Rubio, Juan; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    IEEE Aerospace Conference
    p. 1-20
    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2010.5446778
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper addresses various aspects of the design and development of the pilot interface for the exploitation of highly advanced flight plan capabilities specifically designed for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). This flight plan capabilities are built on top a flexible and reusable hardware/software architecture designed to facilitate the development of UAS-based applications. This flexibility is organized into an user-parameterizable UAS Service Abstraction Layer (USAL). The USAL defines a collection of standard services are their interrelations as a basic starting point for further development by UAS users. Previous research presented the advanced flying capabilities of a UAS as an extension of the Flight Control System (FCS) functionalities. Assuming a UAS with a FCS that ensures safe and stable maneuvers, we complement it with a highly capable flight plan management system. USAL flight plan is characterized by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopilots, which rely on simple lists of waypoints. This list of waypoints approach has several important limitations: it is difficult to specify complex trajectories and it does not support constructs such as conditional forks or iterations, small changes may imply having to deal with a considerable amount of waypoints and it provides no mechanism for adapting to mission time circumstances. To address these issues a new flight plan specification mechanism is proposed, that incorporates a leg concept extended to accommodate higher level constructs for specifying iterations and forks. Additional leg types, referred to as parametric leg, are also introduced. The trajectory defined by a parametric leg is automatically generated as a function of mission variables, enabling dynamic behavior and providing a very valuable means for adapting the flight to the mission evolution. Another level of adaption is provided by the conditions governing the decision-making in intersection le- - gs and the finalization of iterative legs. In this work we will focus on the development of the pilot interface for the exploitation of the introduced flight plan capabilities. The interface design requirements address an increase level of automated operation and support to react to unexpected requirements due to mission changes. Therefore, this interaction includes the available mechanisms to update the flight-plan according to UAS mission requirements, skip parts of it, react to operational contingencies, etc.

  • UAS pilot support for departure, approach and airfield operations

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard
    IEEE Aerospace Conference
    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2010.5446796
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of UAS into the civil market. The sophistication of existing FCS is also making these systems accessible to end users with little aeronautics expertise. However, much work remains to be done to deliver systems that can be properly integrated in standard aeronautical procedures used by manned aviation. In previous research advances have been proposed in the flight plan capabilities by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopilots. The introduced flight plan is organized as a set of stages, each one corresponding to a different flight phase. Each stage contains a structured collection of legs inspired by current practices in Area Navigation (RNAV). However, the most critical parts of any flight, the depart and approach operations in a integrated airspace remain mostly unexplored. This paper introduces an assessment of both operations for UAS operating in VFR and IFR modes. Problems and potential solutions are proposed, as well as an automating strategy that should greatly reduce pilot workload. Although the final objective is a full autonomous operation, the pilot is always kept in the control loop and therefore HMI aspects are also considered.

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    Helicopter-based wildfire monitoring system software architecture  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Solé Simó, Marc; López Rubio, Juan; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    IEEE Aerospace Conference
    p. 1-18
    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2010.5446807
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work introduces a flexible and reusable architecture designed to facilitate the development of remote sensing applications. Based on it, we are developing a helicopter system, called Red-Eye, devoted to the detection, control and analysis of wild land forest fires in the Mediterranean area. The design of the proposed system is composed of five main components. Each component will work collaboratively to constitute a platform of high added value. The general architecture designed for wildfire monitoring is being tailored for two relevant objectives within the particular Mediterranean scenario: tactical day/night fire front evolution, and post-fire hot-spot detection. The generalized integration of monitoring vehicles with the operation of other aerial resources (attack helicopter and airplanes) is an unsolved problem, both technically and methodologically. However, the operation of a monitoring helicopter during certain very well identified phases of the extinction process in highly plausible. High-level strategic monitoring is possible because no-conflicts will appear due to different flight levels; however, low-level tactical monitoring is a source of potentially dangerous in-flight traffic conflicts. In addition to monitoring the fire front evolution, detection of remaining post-fire hot-spots located at the perimeter of fire is the main application that has been foreseen. Just after a fire front is contained or even during the days following the fire extinction, the monitoring tasks have to be maintained because of the danger of fire reactivation. The cost of monitoring with ground teams or aerial means it is very expensive and consumes resources needed in other fronts or possibly concurrent fires. However, a helicopter equipped with thermal cameras, can flight over the area and generate a map of hot spots with higher precision at a smaller cost. It is crucial in this application that the hot spots are reported immediately to avoid having ground brigades wai- - ting for data for too long. Also, it is important to feedback the information in such a way it can be effectively consumed, not forcing ground brigades to walk around the forest without a clear operational scheme. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) a heliborne hot-spot detection system is being developed. This paper describes the global architecture of the system, including the air segment, the ground control segment, and the interface with the squads operating on the fire area, etc. We also demonstrate how the available pre-defined modules in the SOA architecture have been reused to design this particular application, the additional subsystems required to implement specific hot-spot mission requirements, and the overall system / end-user interface.

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    Dynamic flight plan design for UAS remote sensing applications  Open access

     Solé Simó, Marc; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition
    p. 1-23
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. In general, they are specially well suited for the so-called D-cube operations (Dirty, Dull or Dangerous). Current technology greatly facilitates the construction of UAS. Sophisticated flight con- trol systems also make them accessible to end users with little aeronautical expertise. How- ever, we believe that for its successful introduction into the civil market, progress needs to be made to deliver systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and with reduced operational costs. Most current flight plan specification mechanisms consist in a simple list of waypoints, an approach that has important limitations. This paper proposes a new specification mech- anism with semantically richer constructs that will enable the end user to specify more complex flight plans. The proposed formalism provides means for specifying iterative be- havior, conditional branching and other constructs to dynamically adapt the flight path to mission circumstances. Collaborating with the FCS, a new module on-board the UAS will be in charge of executing these plans. This research also studies how the proposed flight plan structure can be tailored to the specific needs of remote sensing. For these type of applications well structured and efficient area and perimeter scanning is mandatory. In this paper we introduce several strategies focused to optimize the scanning process for tactical or mini UAS. The paper also presents a prototype implementation of this module and the results obtained in simulations.

  • An electromagnetic interference reduction check list for unmanned aircraft system

     Tristancho Martinez, Joshua; Quilez Figuerola, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2010-01-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • PrepAEROSEC

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • PrepAAA-ICADS

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Projecte mima: valorización tecnológica sistema de mission management per uas

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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    NextGen trajectory approaches with air-air negotiation protocol  Open access

     Sariñena, David; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Tristancho Martinez, Joshua
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    p. 869-880
    DOI: 10.1109/DASC.2009.5347502
    Presentation's date: 2009-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A telemetry modeling for intelligent UAV monitoring  Open access

     Tristancho Martinez, Joshua; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pérez Mansilla, Sonia; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2009-10-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV for short, is able to fly autonomously during all phases of flight, but has to be monitored from an operator station. In this article a better avionic system is proposed to optimize this process reducing the channel usage without quality degradation. The information related to the aircraft position is called telemetry. This early avionic system is tested in the longitudinal mode of a high wing model unmanned aircraft system in an open source flight simulator.

  • Mission formalism for UAS based navaid flight inspections

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations
    p. 1-17
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In previous work UAS have been proposed as the platform of choice for performing Navaid Flight Inspections. It is expected that the use of these platforms will significantly reduce time and monetary costs, but a number of issues must be addressed for UAS to become a real alternative. An important requirement for flight inspection missions is to minimize their impact on other air traffic. In this paper we focus on provisioning UAS with a level of operational agility comparable to that provided by a human on-board pilot. To avoid conflicts, the unmanned vehicle must be able to momentarily interrupt and later on resume the inspection operations in an automated manner. In this paper we analyze the operational requirements for a specific inspection mission and design a flight plan for its execution. Afterwards, a flight plan specification formalism, that will enable us to perform the inspection mission in a highly automated manner, is presented. Finally, we demonstrate how the flight plan design is translated to a suitable representation using this formalism and how the required operational agility is achieved.

  • An Assessment for UAS depart and approach operations

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Ferraz, Carlos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    The 9th AIAA Aircraft Technology, Integration and Operations Conference
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An integrated mission management system for UAS civil applications

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Royo Chic, Pablo; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit
    p. 1-26
    Presentation's date: 2009-08-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents an Integrated Mission Management System for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The system consists in a number of mission and flight software modules that control the UAS path and the operation of its on-board payload in a coordinated manner. The overall system is called UAS Service Architecture Layer (USAL). An important requirement of the system is that it should be highly adaptable to perform a broad range of civil missions. To achieve this goal the flight plan and mission specifications are separated from the modules that perform its execution. The flight plan is described using a formalism speci fically designed for UAS civil applications. State Chart XML is used to provide a state based model for the UAS behavior during the mission. USAL o ers additional capabilities oriented to the automated reaction to contingencies. This paper describes the alternative aifi eld specifi cation mechanism and the contingency management architecture employed in the USAL.

  • Decision support system for hot spot detection

     Salamí San Juan, Esther; Pedre, Sol; Borensztejn, Patricia; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Stoliar, Andres; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Intelligent Environments 2009
    p. 277-284
    DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-034-6-277
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Forest fires are an important problem for many countries. Prevention, surveillance and extinguishing tasks are costly and sometimes risky. This paper focuses on the surveillance of the fire embers once the fire is extinguished. This is a post-fire task which requires an important amount of terrestrial resources, especially if the weather conditions may provoke the re-ignition of the fire. We propose the use of an Unmanned Aerial System to support fire fighters’ decisions. Our proposal is to develop an intelligent system which can make or suggest tactical decisions to firemen on hot-spot surveillance. The Unmanned Aerial System consists of a small unmanned aircraft, a ground control station and several personal devices for the firemen on ground. All system elements are wirelessly connected. On board data acquisition and fast processing, together with an intelligent transmission and interpretation are the targets of the system.

  • Programa Platino

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Decision Support Ystem for Hot Sopt Detection

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Intelligent Environments 2009
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Near Remote Sensing for Tactical Earth Protection  Open access

     Salamí San Juan, Esther; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Enviroment
    p. 1-4
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we present how to use an Unmanned Aerial System in remote sensing. The system is specifically designed for forest fire management, as a support tool for the Fire Services to improve their tactical decisions. The system payload includes two cameras: a thermal camera and a visual camera. A simple image processing algorithm is applied to the thermal images in order to detect hot areas. In case of detecting a hot spot, it raises an event and notifies the geographical position of the spot, so that the firemen manager can know the hot spot position as soon as possible. On demand, the system also provides the visual image of the area with the shape of the detected hot spot marked on it. The visual images of the surroundings of the fire can help experts to discard false positives and to make faster and more accurate decisions.

  • An event driven approach for increasing UAS mission automation

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    AIAA Unmanned Unlimited Conference
    p. 1-21
    Presentation's date: 2009-04-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    UAS have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the civil market. Despite the increasing number of COTS components becoming available, much effort is still required in order to make UAS a viable commercial solution for civil applications. We believe that for UAS to be successful in this context they must be flexible systems able to perform a wide variety of missions with minimal reconfiguration and reduced operational costs. In previous work, a flight plan specification formalism and its corresponding execution engine have been presented. These elementsmay suffice for simple applications but for more complex scenarios, we need a mechanism that specifies the vehicle behavior not only in flight plan terms but also taking into account payload operation. To provide this integration and, at the same time, increase the level of automation a mission management layer is added on top of the flight plan management facilities. The system flexibility requirement is satisfied by decoupling the mission description from its execution engine. This paper introduces an XML based mission specification mechanism for modeling the event-driven state-based behavior of the UAS. The Mission Manager is the software module responsible for its execution. The integration of the Mission Manager with other components that form part of our UAS distributed architecture is also described.