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  • Distributed MPC using reinforcement learning based negotiation: application to large scale systems

     Morcego Seix, Bernardo; Javalera Rincon, Valeria; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Vito, Raffaele
    Date of publication: 2014
    Book chapter

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    A systematic, practical, and accessible approach to distributed (and hierarchical) model predictive control (MPC) Provides step-by-step descriptions of computations/equations; theoretical results; and applications A consistent description of all approaches enables readers to assess the usefulness of these approaches for their respective applications The rapid evolution of computer science, communication, and information technology has enabled the application of control techniques to systems beyond the possibilities of control theory just a decade ago. Critical infrastructures such as electricity, water, traffic and intermodal transport networks are now in the scope of control engineers. The sheer size of such large-scale systems requires the adoption of advanced distributed control approaches. Distributed model predictive control (MPC) is one of the promising control methodologies for control of such systems. This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of distributed MPC approaches, while at the same time making clear directions of research that deserve more attention. The core and rationale of 35 approaches are carefully explained. Moreover, detailed step-by-step algorithmic descriptions of each approach are provided. These features make the book a comprehensive guide both for those seeking an introduction to distributed MPC as well as for those who want to gain a deeper insight in the wide range of distributed MPC techniques available.

  • Robust fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using constraint satisfaction and analytical redundancy relations

     Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa
    IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
    Date of publication: 2014-01-03
    Journal article

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  • Gain-scheduled Smith predictor PID-based LPV controller for open-flow canal control

     Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin
    IEEE transactions on control systems technology
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    In this paper, a gain-scheduled Smith Predictor PID controller is proposed for the control of an open flow canal system that allows to deal with large variation in operating conditions. A linear parameter varying (LPV) control oriented model for open-flow channel systems based on a Second Order Delay Hayami (SODH) model is proposed. Exploiting the second order structure of this model, an LPV PID controller is designed using and linear matrix inequalities (LMI) pole placement. The controller structure includes a Smith Predictor, real time estimated parameters from measurements (including the known part of the delay) that schedule the controller and predictor and unstructured dynamic uncertainty which covers the unknown portion of the delay. Finally, the proposed controller is validated in a case study based on a single real reach canal: the Lunax Gallery at Gascogne (France).

  • Linear parameter varying modeling and identification for real-time control of open-flow irrigation canals

     Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin
    Environmental modelling & software
    Date of publication: 2014-03
    Journal article

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    Irrigation canals are open-flow water hydraulic systems, whose objective is mainly to convey water from its source down to its final users. They are large distributed systems characterized by non-linearity and dynamic behavior that depends on the operating point. Moreover, in canals with multiple reaches dynamic behavior is highly affected by the coupling among them. The physical model for those systems leads to a distributed-parameter model whose description usually requires partial differential equations (PDEs). However, the solution and parameter estimation of those PDE equations can only be obtained numerically and imply quite time-consuming computations that make them not suitable for real-time control purposes. Alternatively, in this paper, it will be shown that open-flow canal systems can be suitably represented for control purposes by using linear parameter-varying (LPV) models. The advantage of this approach compared to the use of PDE equation is that allows simpler models which are suitable for control design and whose parameters can be easily identified from input-output data by means of classical identification techniques. In this paper, the well-known control-oriented, model named integral delay zero (IDZ), that is able to represent the canal dynamics around a given operating point by means of a linear time-invariant (LTI) model is extended to multiple operating points by means of an LPV model. The derivation of this LPV model for single-reach open-flow canal systems as well as its extension to multiple-reach open-flow canals is proposed. In particular, the proposed methodology allows deriving the model structure and estimating model parameters using data by means of identification techniques. Thus, a gray-box control model is obtained whose validation is carried out using single-pool and two-pool test canals obtaining satisfactory results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • BigData aplicada al consum d'aigua i eficiència de la xarxa

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Flooding management using hybrid model predictive control: Application to the Spanish Ebro River

     Romera Formiguera, Juli; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Journal of hydroinformatics
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    In this paper, the problem of flooding management using hybrid model predictive control is presented and applied to the Ebro River in Spain. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza during spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding in populated areas, some land outside the city is prepared for flooding. This paper presents a control approach to determine and fix the level of flooding in pre-established zones by controlling side gates that determine the water input to the land to be flooded. Finally, several scenarios are used to validate the performance of the proposed approach

  • Flowmeter data validation and reconstruction methodology to provide the annual efficiency of a water transport network: the ATLL case study in Catalonia

     Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Pascual Pañach, Josep; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Saludes Closa, Jordi; Sarrate Estruch, Ramon; Escobet Canal, Antoni; Espin, Santiago; Roquet, Jaume
    Water science and technology: water supply
    Date of publication: 2013-11-12
    Journal article

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    The object of this paper is to provide a flowmeter data validation/reconstruction methodology that determines the annual economic efficiency of a water transport network. In this paper, the case of Aigües Ter Llobregat (ATLL) company, which manages 80% of the overall water transport network in Catalonia (Spain), will be used for illustrating purposes. Economic network efficiency is based on daily data set collected by the company using about 200 flowmeters of the network. Data collected using these sensors are used by remote control and information storage systems and they are stored in a relational database. All information provided by ATLL is analysed to detect inconsistent data using an automatic data validation method deployed in parallel with the network efficiency evaluation. As a result of the validation process, corrections of flow measurements and of billed water volume are introduced. Results from ATLL water transport network corresponding to year 2010 will be used to illustrate the approach proposed in this paper.

  • A fault-tolerant control strategy for non-linear discrete-time systems: Application to the twin-rotor system

     Witczak, Marcin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Montes de Oca Armeaga, Saul
    International journal of control
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    In this paper, an active fault-tolerant control scheme is proposed in the case of actuator faults. In particular, the general idea of integrating fault identification and control schemes, which takes into account the fault estimation error is first presented in a linear context. As a result, the so-called separation principle for the controller and the fault identification scheme is developed. Subsequently, the proposed approach is extended to a class of non-linear systems. Similarly to the linear case, it is proven that using a suitable control strategy and a faulty identification scheme it is possible to obtain an integrated fault-tolerant control framework, which takes into account the fault identification error. As a result, a non-linear counterpart of the above-mentioned separation principle is developed. Finally, the last part of the paper shows the application results obtained using a twin-rotor system that confirm the high performance of the proposed approach

  • Adaptive threshold generation in robust fault detection using interval models: Time-domain and frequency-domain approaches

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Montes de Oca Armeaga, Saul; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin
    International journal of adaptive control and signal processing
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    In this paper, robust fault detection is addressed on the basis of evaluating the residual energy that it is compared against worst-case value (threshold) generated considering parametric modeling uncertainty using interval models. The evaluation of the residual/threshold energy can be performed either in the time or frequency domain. This paper proposes methods to compute such energy in the two domains. The first method generates the adaptive threshold in the time domain through determining the worst-case time evolution of the residual energy using a zonotope-based algorithm. The second method evaluates the worst-case energy evolution in the frequency domain using the Kharitonov polynomials. Results obtained using both approaches are related through the Parseval's theorem. Finally, two application examples (a smart servoactuator and a two DOFs helicopter) will be used to assess the validity of the proposed approaches and compare the results obtained.

  • Fault tolerant control for a second order LPV system using adaptive control methods

     Vargas Martinez, Adriana; Garza Castañon, Luis; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Morales Menendez, Ruben
    IFAC Symposium on System Structure and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) reconfigurable structure for a second order nonlinear process is developed. This structure is based on a Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) with a H, Gain Scheduling controller designed using an Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) system: MRAC-H GS-LPV. The MRAC-HGS-LPV was compared with a structure named MRAC-LPV that is based on an MRAC design using an LPV system. A coupled-tank system is used as testbed in which different types of faults (abrupt-additive fault, gradual-additive fault and multiplicative fault) with different magnitudes and different operating points were tested. Results showed that the use of an H, GS controller in combination with an MRAC improves the FTC performance because fault accommodation is faster. In addition, the structures based on Lyapunov theory were able to deal more efficiently with the faults and the changes in the operating points of the nonlinear model of the system

  • A shifting pole placement approach for the design of parameter-scheduled state-feedback controllers

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    European Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the problem of designing a parameter-scheduled state-feedback controller is investigated. The main novelty and contribution of this paper is the extension of the classical regional pole placement problem, that will be referred to as shifting pole placement, to the design of parameter scheduled controller taking advantage of polytopes and LMIs properties. By introducing some parameters, or using existing ones, the controller can be designed in such a way that different values of these parameters imply different regions where the closed-loop poles are situated. The problem is analyzed in both linear time-invariant (LTI) and parameter-varying (LPV) cases, and some results obtained in simulation are shown so as to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach

    In this paper, the problem of designing a parameter-scheduled state-feedback controller is investigated. The main novelty and contribution of this paper is the extension of the classical regional pole placement problem, that will be referred to as shifting pole placement, to the design of parameter scheduled controller taking advantage of polytopes and LMIs properties. By introducing some parameters, or using existing ones, the controller can be designed in such a way that different values of these parameters imply different regions where the closed-loop poles are situated. The problem is analyzed in both linear time-invariant (LTI) and parameter-varying (LPV) cases, and some results obtained in simulation are shown so as to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • Passive and active FTC comparison for polytopic LPV systems

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    European Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Fault-tolerant control (FTC) allows to preserve performance and stability despite the presence of faults. The literature considers two main groups of techniques: the passive and the active FTC techniques. In case of the passive techniques, the fault is taken into account as a system perturbation, so that the control law has fault capabilities that allow the system to cope with the fault presence. On the other hand, in the case of the active FTC techniques, the control law uses some information given by a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) module, so that through some automatic adjustment in the control loop, the fault is tolerated with minimum performance degradation. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV)/linear matrix inequalities (LMIs)-based technique is used to achieve fault tolerance and to compare benefits and drawbacks of passive and active FTC. The proposed approach is applied to a twowheel differential robot.

    Fault-tolerant control (FTC) allows to preserve performance and stability despite the pres nce of faults. The literature considers two main groups of techniques: the passive and the active FTC techniques. In case of the passive techniques, the fault is taken into account as a system perturbation, so that the control law has fault capabilities that allow the system to cope with the fault presence. On the other hand, in the case of the active FTC techniques, the control law uses some information given by a Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) module, so that through some automatic adjustment in the control loop, the fault is tolerated with minimum performance degradation. In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV)/linear matrix inequalities (LMIs)-based technique is used to achieve fault tolerance and to compare benefits and drawbacks of passive and active FTC. The proposed approach is applied to a twowheel differential robot.

  • Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro river

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Romera Formiguera, Juli; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Morales Hernández, Mario; González Sanchis, M.; Garcia Navarro, María del Pilar
    IWA conference  on Instrumentation, Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fault detection and isolation based on the combination of a bank of interval observers and invariant sets

     Xu, Feng; Stoican, Florin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Olaru, Sorin
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach using a bank of interval observers is developed. From the methodological point of view, a bank of interval observers is designed according to different dynamical models of the system under different modes (healthy or faulty). Each interval observer matches one system mode while all the interval observers monitor the system simultaneously. In order to guarantee FDI, a set of FDI conditions based on invariant set notions are established. These conditions ensure that the considered faults can be accurately isolated after a period of monitoring time. Finally, simulation results are used to present the effectiveness of the approach.

  • Access to the full text
    An ensemble approach to estimate the fault-time instant  Open access

     Alippi, Cesare; Boracchi, Giacomo; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Roveri, Manuel
    International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Since systems are prone to faults, fault detection and isolation are essential activities to be considered in safety-critical applications. In this direction, the availability of a sound estimate of the time instant the fault occurred is a precious information that a diagnosis system can fruitfully exploit, e.g., to identify information consistent with the faulty state. Unfortunately, any fault-detection system introduces a structural delay that, typically, increases in correspondence of subtle faults (e.g., those characterized by a small magnitude) with a consequence that the fault-occurrence time is overestimated. In this paper we propose an ensemble approach to estimate the time instant a fault occurred. We focus on systems that can be described as ARMA models and faults inducing an abrupt change in the model coefficients.

    Since systems are prone to faults, fault detection and isolation are essential activities to be considered in safety-critical applications. In this direction, the availability of a sound estimate of the time instant the fault occurred is a precious information that a diagnosis system can fruitfully exploit, e.g., to identify information consistent with the faulty state. Unfortunately,any fault-detection system introduces a structural delay that,typically, increases in correspondence of subtle faults (e.g., those characterized by a small magnitude) with a consequence that the fault-occurrence time is overestimated. In this paper we propose an ensemble approach to estimate the time instant a fault occurred. We focus on systems that can be described as ARMA models and faults inducing an abrupt change in the model coefficients.

  • Temporal/spatial model-based fault diagnosis vs. hidden Markov models change detection method: application to the Barcelona water network

     Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Alippi, Cesare; Cuguero Escofet, Miquel Àngel; Ntalampiras, Stavros; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Roveri, Manuel; Garcia Valverde, Diego
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fault tolerant control design for polytopic uncertain LPV systems

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a fault tolerant control (FTC) design for polytopic uncertain linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems. Depending on the information available about the fault, the FTC strategy could be passive FTC, active FTC without controller reconfiguration or active FTC with controller reconfiguration. The FTC strategy is designed taking into account the robust LPV polytopic framework extending known results from the robust polytopic and the traditional LPV polytopic control areas. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by its application to a two-tank system simulator.

    This paper presents a fault tolerant control (FTC) design for polytopic uncertain linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems. Depending on the information available about the fault, the FTC strategy could be passive FTC, active FTC without controller reconfiguration or active FTC with controller reconfiguration. The FTC strategy is designed taking into account the robust LPV polytopic framework extending known results from the robust polytopic and the traditional LPV polytopic control areas. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by its application to a two-tank system simulator.

  • A hierarchy of change-point methods for estimating the time instant of leakages in water distribution networks

     Boracchi, Giacomo; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Roveri, Manuel
    International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Leakages are a relevant issue in water distribution networks with severe effects on costs and water savings. While there are several solutions for detecting leakages by analyzing of the minimum night flow and the pressure inside manageable areas of the network (DMAs), the problem of estimating the time-instant when the leak occurred has been much less considered. However, an estimate of the leakage time-instant is useful for the diagnosis operations, as it may clarify the leak causes. We here address this problem by combining two change-point methods (CPMs) in a hierarchy: at first, a CPM analyses the minimum night flow providing an estimate of the day when the leakage started. Such an estimate is then refined by a second CPM, which analyzes the residuals between the pressure measurements and a network model in a neighborhood of the estimated leakage day. The proposed approach was tested on data from a DMA of a big European city, both on artificially injected and real leakages. Results show the feasibility of the proposed solution, also when leakages are very small. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013.

  • Nonlinear set-membership identification and fault detection using a Bayesian framework: appllication to the wind turbine benchmark

     Fernandez Canti, Rosa M.; Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013-12-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper deals with the problem of nonlinear set-membership identification and fault detection using a Bayesian framework. The paper presents how the set-membership model estimation can be reformulated from a Bayesian viewpoint in order to determine the feasible parameter set and, in a posterior fault detection stage, to check the consistency between the model and the data. The paper shows that the Bayesian approach, assuming uniform distributed measurement noise and flat model prior probability distribution, leads to the same feasible parameter set as the set-membership technique. To illustrate this point a comparison with the subpavings approach is included. Finally, by means of the application to the wind turbine benchmark problem, it is shown how the Bayesian fault detection test works successfully.

  • Optimal sensor placement for leak location in water distribution networks using genetic algorithms

     Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Garza Castañon, Luis; Rosich, Albert
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a new approach for sensor placement in water distribution networks (WDN) is proposed. The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the non-linear integer and largescale nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GA) are used as solution approach. To validate the results obtained, they are compared with exhaustive search methods with higher computational cost proving that GA allow to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. The proposed sensor placement algorithm is combined with a projection-based isolation scheme. However, the proposed methodology does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user and it could be easily adapted to any other isolation scheme. Experiments on a real network allow to evaluate the performance of such approach.

  • Robust H8 actuator fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control for a multi-tank system

     Luzar, Marcel; Witczak, Marcin; Buciakowski, Mariusz; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The paper deals with the problem of robust faulttolerant control (FTC) for non-linear systems. Main part of this paper describes a robust fault detection, isolation and identification scheme, which is based on the observer and H1 framework for a class of non-linear systems. The proposed approach is designed in such a way that a prescribed disturbance attenuation level is achieved with respect to the actuator fault estimation error while guaranteeing the convergence of the observer. Moreover, the controller parameters selection method of the considered system is presented. Final part of the paper shows the experimental results, which confirms the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  • Model-based leakage localization in drinking water distribution networks using structured residuals

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Rosich, Albert
    European Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a new model based approach to leakage localization in drinking water networks is propose based on generating a set of structured residuals. The residual evaluation is based on a numerical method based on an enhanced Newton-Raphson algorithm. The proposed method is suitable for water network systems because the non-linearities of the model make impossible to derive analytical residuals. Furthermore, the computed residuals are designed so that leaks are decoupled, which improves the localization of leaks with respect to other existing methods. Finally, the Hanoi water network benchmark is used to illustrate the results of the proposed approach.

  • Sensor-fault detection and Isolation using Interval Observers

     Xu, Feng; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Stoican, Florin; Olaru, Sorin
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an interval observer-based sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach for the closed-loop systems. In this proposed approach, residuals are defined in such a way that their components are independent of each other at the time instant after fault occurrence, namely kf + 1, where kf denotes the fault occurrence time instant. In this way, it is guaranteed that at kf + 1 the changes in each component of the residuals are only related to the fault in the corresponding sensor. By detecting the threshold violation of the corresponding residual interval components, the proposed method can detect and isolate sensor faults at that time instant. At the end of this paper, a numerical example is used to present the effectiveness of the approach.

  • Extended-horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities for leak detection in water distribution networks: Application to the Barcelona Network

     Casillas, Myrna V.; Garza Castañon, Luis; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    European Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a new approach for leak detection in water networks is proposed which considers an extended time horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities. Previous works based on pressure sensitivities analysis were developed by considering time instant evaluation. This fact makes them very sensitive to demand changes and noise in measurements. The proposed approach has been combined with five detection methods: the first is the binarization method, the second, third and fourth are based on the analysis of vectors with methods of correlation, vector angle and Euclidean distance respectively, and finally, the fifth is based on the least square optimization method. Another contribution of this paper is the performance comparison between the five detection methods in presence of single leaks in scenarios with noise in measurements and demands in each node. Results showed that in most of the methods efficiency is high, being the best the vector angle method, with efficiencies higher than 96%. The correlation and optimization method had similar behaviors with efficiencies superior to 90%. Finally, the binarization method is effective only in some scenarios but in presence of noise has a poor performance.

  • Set-membership Identification and Fault Detection using a Bayesian Framework

     Fernandez Canti, Rosa M.; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper deals with the problem of set-membership identification and fault detection using a Bayesian framework. The paper presents how the set-membership model estimation problem can be reformulated from a Bayesian viewpoint in order to determine the feasible parameter set and, in a posterior fault detection stage, to check the consistency between data and the model. The paper shows that, assuming uniform distributed measurement noise and flat model prior probability distribution, the Bayesian approach leads to the same feasible parameter set than the set-membership strips technique and, additionally, can deal with models nonlinear in the parameters. The procedure and results are illustrated by means of the application to a quadruple tank process.

  • Actuator-fault detection and isolation based on interval observers and invariant sets

     Xu, Feng; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Stoican, Florin; Olaru, Sorin
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an interval observer-based actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach. An interval observer matching the healthy system mode is designed to monitor the system. When the system is in different modes, state or output interval vectors predicted by the interval observer manifest different dynamical behaviors. To guarantee reliable FDI, a collection of invariant set-based FDI conditions are established. Under these conditions, actuator faults can be accurately detected and isolated during the transition between different modes. At the end, the effectiveness of this proposed approach is presented by using a numerical example.

  • Fault tolerant control design for polytopic uncertain LPV systems: application to a quadrotor

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Torren, Abel; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) design for polytopic uncertain Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) systems, applied to an aerospace application: a quadrotor. Depending on the information available about the fault, the FTC strategy could be passive FTC, active FTC without controller reconfiguration or active FTC with controller reconfiguration. The FTC strategy is designed taking into account the robust LPV polytopic framework. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by its application to a quadrotor.

  • Hybrid Automaton Incremental Construction for Online Diagnosis

     Vento Maldonado, Jorge I.; Travé-Massuyès, Louise; Sarrate Estruch, Ramon; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes a method to track the system mode and diagnose a hybrid system without building an entire diagnoser off-line. The method is supported by a hybrid automaton model that represents the hybrid system continuous and discrete behavioral dynamics. Diagnosis is performed by interpreting the events and measurements issued by the physical system directly on the hybrid automaton model. This interpretation leads to building the useful parts of the diagnoser incrementally, developing only the branches that are required to explain the occurrence of the incoming events. The resulting diagnoser adapts to the system operational life and is much less demanding in terms of memory storage. The proposed framework subsumes previous works in that it copes with both structural and non-structural faults. The method is validated on an application case study based on the sewer network of the Barcelona city.

  • FTC of LPV systems using a bank of visual sensors: application to wind turbines

     Rotondo, Damiano; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Acevedo Valle, Juan M.; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, an FTC strategy using Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) virtual sensors is proposed and applied to the IFAC wind turbine case study. The novelty of the proposed strategy consists in that virtual sensors are applied to the FTC problem in a new original fashion. Instead of hiding the fault, the virtual sensors are used to expand the set of available sensors. Then, the state observer is designed using LPV techniques based on Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) taking into account a varying parameter that is introduced in order to select which sensors are used by the observer among the physical and the virtual ones. In this sense, the proposed approach can be considered as a multisensor fusion strategy that integrates data provided by various sensors in order to obtain a better estimation.

  • On the relationship between interval observers and invariant sets in fault detection

     Xu, Feng; Stoican, Florin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Olaru, Sorin
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the relationship between two settheoretic fault detection (FD) approaches, the interval observerbased and the invariant set-based approaches, is investigated. In FD, interval observers monitor the system dynamic behavior in real time and generates adaptive intervals for system outputs. Invariant sets focus more on steady state behavior of the system rather than the transient behavior. This paper discusses these two approaches, presents the relationship between them and compares them in the FD task. At the end, a numerical example is used to illustrate the relation between these two approaches.

  • Limnimeter and rain gauge FDI in sewer networks using an interval parity equations based detection approach and an enhanced isolation scheme

     Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Control engineering practice
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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  • Quasi-LPV modeling, identification and control of a twin rotor MIMO system

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Control engineering practice
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the quasi-linear parameter varying (quasi-LPV) modeling, identification and control of a Twin Rotor MIMO System (TRMS). The non-linear model of the TRMS is transformed into a quasi-LPV system and approximated in a polytopic way. The unknown model parameters have been calibrated by means of the non-linear least squares identification approach and validated against real data. Finally, an LPV state observer and state-feedback controller have been designed using an LPV pole placement method based on LMI regions. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed control approach have been proved both in simulation and on the real set-up.

  • Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    IEEE control systems magazine
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Learning-based tuning of supervisory model predictive control for drinking water networks  Open access

     Grosso Perez, Juan Manuel; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Engineering applications of artificial intelligence
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for the management of drinking water networks (DWNs). The control system architecture consists in a multilayer controller with three hierarchical layers: learning and planning layer, supervision and adaptation layer, and feedback control layer. Results of applying the proposed approach to the Barcelona DWN show that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed adaptive predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexityof the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for the management of drinking water networks (DWNs). The control system architecture consists in a multilayer controller with three hierarchical layers: learning and planning layer, supervision and adaptation layer, and feedback control layer. Results of applying the proposed approach to the Barcelona DWN show that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed adaptive predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexity of the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

  • Optimal sensor placement for leak location in water distribution networks using genetic algorithms

     Casillas, Myrna V.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Garza Castañon, Luis; Rosich, Albert
    Sensors
    Date of publication: 2013-11-04
    Journal article

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    This paper proposes a new sensor placement approach for leak location in water distribution networks (WDNs). The sensor placement problem is formulated as an integer optimization problem. The optimization criterion consists in minimizing the number of non-isolable leaks according to the isolability criteria introduced. Because of the large size and non-linear integer nature of the resulting optimization problem, genetic algorithms (GAs) are used as the solution approach. The obtained results are compared with a semi-exhaustive search method with higher computational effort, proving that GA allows one to find near-optimal solutions with less computational load. Moreover, three ways of increasing the robustness of the GA-based sensor placement method have been proposed using a time horizon analysis, a distance-based scoring and considering different leaks sizes. A great advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not depend on the isolation method chosen by the user, as long as it is based on leak sensitivity analysis. Experiments in two networks allow us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  • A bayesian approach to robust identification. Application to fault detection  Open access

     Fernandez Canti, Rosa M.
    Defense's date: 2013-02-07
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    In the Control Engineering field, the so-called Robust Identification techniques deal with the problem of obtaining not only a nominal model of the plant, but also an estimate of the uncertainty associated to the nominal model. Such model of uncertainty is typically characterized as a region in the parameter space or as an uncertainty band around the frequency response of the nominal model. Uncertainty models have been widely used in the design of robust controllers and, recently, their use in model-based fault detection procedures is increasing. In this later case, consistency between new measurements and the uncertainty region is checked. When an inconsistency is found, the existence of a fault is decided. There exist two main approaches to the modeling of model uncertainty: the deterministic/worst case methods and the stochastic/probabilistic methods. At present, there are a number of different methods, e.g., model error modeling, set-membership identification and non-stationary stochastic embedding. In this dissertation we summarize the main procedures and illustrate their results by means of several examples of the literature. As contribution we propose a Bayesian methodology to solve the robust identification problem. The approach is highly unifying since many robust identification techniques can be interpreted as particular cases of the Bayesian framework. Also, the methodology can deal with non-linear structures such as the ones derived from the use of observers. The obtained Bayesian uncertainty models are used to detect faults in a quadruple-tank process and in a three-bladed wind turbine.

  • Disseny Automàtic de Controladors Robustos basat en QFT: Aplicació a l'Atenuació de Vibracions en Interferòmetres

     Comasolivas Font, Ramon; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa
    Jornades UPC de Investigación en Automática, Visión y Robótica
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Combining health monitoring and control

     Escobet Canal, Teresa; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    Date of publication: 2012-09
    Book chapter

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  • Methodology for actuator fault tolerance evaluation of linear constrained MPC: application to the Barcelona water network

     Robles, Deneb; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Garza Castañón, Luis E.
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the admissibility of actuator fault configurations (AFC) when Linear Constrained Model Predictive Control (LCMPC) is used. The methodology combines the use of structural and feasability analysis. Structural analysis allows to evaluate the loss of reachability after a fault occurrence. The results of the structural analysis can be complemented with the feasibility analysis of the MPC problem taking into account the effect of actuator constraints after the fault occurrence. Additionally, a degradation analysis of the system performance can also be included. The proposed methodology is tested in the Barcelona water network.

  • FTC design for polytopic LPV systems subject to actuator saturations

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) scheme using virtual actuators for discrete-time polytopic Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems subject to actuator saturations is proposed. The plant with the faulty actuator is augmented to take into account the saturations and modified adding the virtual actuator block that masks the fault. The elements of the FTC control loop are designed using Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) in order to achieve the Pole Placement and the H2 norm specifications. To assess the performance of the proposed approach an aeronautical application is used.

  • Health aware control and model-based prognosis

     Escobet Canal, Teresa; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hierarchical temporal multi-layer decentralised MPC strategy for drinking water networks: application to the Barcelona case study

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Montes de Oca, S.
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a hierarchical temporal multilayer decentralised model predictive control (HTML-DMPC) approach for drinking water networks (DWN) is proposed. The upper temporal layer works with a daily scale and is in charge of achieving the global objectives, which correspond with the optimal selection of the sources and the path to the reservoirs. On the other hand, the lower temporal layer is in charge of manipulating the set-point of the actuators to satisfy the local objectives, i.e., the minimisation of the energy needed for pumping water to the reservoirs. The system decomposition is based on graph partitioning theory, which considers the graph representation of the DWN topology. The obtained system decomposition allows to establish a hierarchical flow of information between the MPC controllers. Hence, the proposed DMPC strategy results in a hierarchical-like scheme. Results obtained when used selected simulation scenarios show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in terms of system modularity, reduced computational burden and, at the same time, the admissible loss of performance in contrast to a centralised MPC (CMPC) strategy.

  • Fault-tolerant control design for over-actuated system conditioned by reliability: A drinking water network application (I)

     Weber, P.; Simon, C.; Theilliol, D.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A control law synthesis conditioned by the reliability of actuators in the presence of failures is presented in this paper. The aim is to preserve the health of the actuators and the availability of overactuatued system both in the nominal situation and in the presence of some actuator failures. The reliability assessment is computed by Bayesian Network since it is well suited to model the reliability of complex systems with simple parameter matrices and also to compute actuators reliability given evidences through the bayesian inference. It is applied on a system to estimate its reliability and those of its components and provide the parameters to synthesize the control laws. The effectiveness and the performances of the developed method are illustrated on a subsystem of a drinking water network.

  • Extended-horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities for leak detection in water distribution networks

     Casillas Ponce, Myrna Violeta; Garza Castañón, Luís Eduardo; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a new approach for leak detection in water networks is proposed which considers an extended time horizon analysis of pressure sensitivities. Previous works based on pressure sensitivities analysis were developed by considering time instant evaluation. This fact makes them very sensitive to demand changes and noise in measurements. The proposed approach has been combined with five detection methods: the first is the binarization method, the second, third and fourth are based on the comparison of measured pressure vectors with leak sensitivity matrix using methods of correlation, vector angle and Euclidean distance respectively. And, finally, the fifth is based on the least square optimization method. Another contribution of this paper is the performance comparison between the five detection methods in presence of single leaks in scenarios with noise in measurements and nodal demands. Results showed that in most of the methods effectiveness is high, being the best the vector angle method, with effectiveness higher than 96%. The correlation and optimization method had similar behaviors with effectiveness superior to 90%. Finally, the binarization method is effective only in some scenarios but in presence of noise has a poor performance.

  • Adaptive multilevel neuro-fuzzy model predictive control for drinking water networks

     Grosso, J.M.; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for drinking water transport network management. The system is a multilevel controller with three hierarchical layers: neural level, fuzzy level, MPC level. Results in the Barcelona Water Network have shown that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexity of the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

  • Robust MRAC-based fault tolerant control for additive and multiplicative faults in nonlinear systems

     Vargas Martínez, Adriana; Garza Castañón, Luís; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Morales Menéndez, Rubén
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, three different types of faults (abrupt-additive, gradual-additive and multiplicative) are introduced to two new reconfigurable structures for Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) of a Single Input- Single Output (SISO) non-linear process. The first FTC structure, named MRAC-LPV, is based on an MRAC design using an LPV system, while the second FTC structure is based on an MRAC with a H∞ Gain Scheduling Controller (MRAC-H∞GS-LPV) also designed by using an LPV system. Both MRAC controllers were implemented using the Lyapunov theory methodology because it guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed schemes were tested using the nonlinear model of the system. To compare the performance of these schemes, a Coupled-Tank system is used as testbed in which the different types of faults with different magnitudes and different operating points were tested. Results showed that the use of an H∞ Gain Scheduling Controller in combination with an MRAC improves the FTC performance because the controller was able to deal in an efficient manner with the faults and the changes in the operating points of the nonlinear model of the system.

  • Interval LPV identification and fault diagnosis of a real wind turbine

     Negre, Pep Lluís; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Pineda, Isaac
    IFAC Symposium on System Identification
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The purpose of this paper is to present the application of interval Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) identification and fault diagnosis approaches to a real wind turbine. Since wind turbines are highly non-linear systems when operating in their whole range of operation, a LPV model is used. Real field data and system identification techniques are used to identify the nominal model as well as its uncertainty. Fault detection is based on interval LPV observers that are used to generate an adaptive threshold to enhance the robustness of the fault detection test. Finally, fault isolation is based on an algorithmthat uses the residual fault sensitivity. Several fault scenarios are used to show the performance of the proposed approach.

  • Design of an unknown input observer for fault diagnosis of non-linear systems with state constraints

     Witczak, Marcin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Dziekan, L.
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The paper deals with the problem of designing observers for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with an unknown input. In particular, with the use of the Lyapunov method, a design procedure of an asymptotically convergent observer is proposed. Moreover, the e ect of decoupling an unknown input is investigated in the light of an undesirable decoupling of possible faults. As a result, a condition for checking an undesirable fault decoupling is provided. Subsequently, it is shown how to employ the proposed robust fault diagnosis observer for the non-linear systems with state constraints. The final part of the paper shows experimental results that confirm the e ectiveness of the proposed approach and the potential profits that can be achieved while applying the proposed approach in the fault diagnosis scheme.

  • Robust gain-scheduled Smith PID controllers for second order LPV systems with time varying delay

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin
    IFAC Conference on Advances in PID Control
    Presentation's date: 2012-03-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a new approach to design a robust gain scheduled linear parameter varying (LPV) PID controller with pole placement constraints (through LMI regions) is proposed for LPV systems with second order structure and time-varying delay. The controller structure includes a Smith predictor, real time estimated parameters that schedule the controller and Smith predictor (using the known part of the delay) and unstructured dynamic uncertainty which covers the delay uncertainty. Finally, the proposed control technique is validated in a real case study based on a piece of a sewer system.

  • Fault estimation and virtual actuator FTC approach for LPV systems

     Rotondo, Damiano; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) strategy using a virtual actuator for Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems is proposed. The main idea of this FTC method is to reconfigure the control loop such that the nominal controller could still be used without need of retuning it. The plant with the faulty actuator is modified adding the virtual actuator block that masks the fault. The suggested strategy is an active FTC strategy that reconfigures the virtual actuator on-line taking into account faults and operating point changes. In order to implement the virtual actuator approach, a fault estimation is required. In this work, the fault estimation is formulated as a parameter estimation problem. The LPV virtual actuator is designed using polytopic LPV techniques and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). To assess the performance of the proposed approach an aeronautical application is used.