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  • Analysis of muscle coupling during isokinetic endurance contractions by means of nonlinear prediction

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Chaler Vilaseca, Joaquim Lluís; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Isokinetic exercises have been extensively used in order to analyze muscle imbalances and changes associated with fatigue. It is known that such changes are difficult to assess from EMG signals during dynamic contractions, especially, using linear signal processing tools. The aim of this work was to use nonlinear prediction in order to analyze muscle couplings and interactions in this context and to assess the load-sharing of different muscles during fatigue. Results show promising for detecting interaction strategies between muscles and even for the interaction between muscles and the output torque during endurance tests.

  • A cross-sectional study comparing strength profile of dorsal and palmar flexor muscles of the wrist in epicondylitis and healthy men

     Carme, Unyó; Chaler Vilaseca, Joaquim Lluís; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Pujol Medina, Eduard; Müller, Bertram; Garreta, Roser; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
    Date of publication: 2013-08
    Journal article

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    Background: Strength training has been proposed by several authors to treat Lateral Epicondylitis. However, there is still a lack of information concerning muscle weakness and its relationship to imbalances and fatigability of forearm muscles during dynamic conditions in subjects after epicondylitis recovery. Aim: To analyze the relationship between lateral humeral epicondylitis, and forearm muscle strength and fatigue. Setting: Rehabilitation specialized center Population: Cross-sectional study in eight former epicondylitis men free of symptoms and actively working at the moment of the evaluation and eight healthy men volunteers. Methods: Isokinetic tests were performed at different velocities in order to assess strength in concentric and eccentric contractions. Additionally, a long-term concentric test was carried out in order to analyze strength during endurance. The following variables were analyzed: Average torque of dorsal and palmar flexors of the wrist and ratio of agonist/antagonist for non-endurance contractions; length of initial and final plateaus and the slope of average torque decay during the endurance test. Results: In both groups, average torque produced by palmar flexor muscles was higher than that produced by dorsal flexor muscles. Patients showed higher strength in palmar flexor muscles, whereas dorsal flexor strength was similar for both populations. Palmar flexor vs. dorsal flexor ratio was significantly higher in patients for eccentric contractions. Regarding fatigue, results showed that torque decreased earlier in patients. Conclusions and clinical rehabilitation impact: Both palmar flexor force and palmar/dorsal ratio in eccentric exercise were significantly higher in patients. This finding indicates a muscular imbalance in patients underlying the epicondylitis condition. Additionally, former patients fatigued earlier. Findings indicate that muscle imbalances and fatigability might be related to lateral epicondylitis. [¿]

  • 2o Concurso de planes de negocio de comercialización de una patente/tecnologia

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Ramos Castro, Juan Jose
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  • A synchronization system for the analysis of biomedical signals recorded with different devices from mechanically ventilated patients

     Camacho, Alejandro; Hernandez Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio; Londoño, Zulma; Serna Higuita, Leidy Yanet; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    Presentation's date: 2012-08-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Conducting research associated with mechanically ventilated patients often requires the recording of several biomedical signals to dispose of multiple sources of information to perform a robust analysis. This is especially important in the analysis of the relationship between pressure, volume and flow, signals available from mechanical ventilators, and other biopotentials such as the electromyogram of respiratory muscles, intrinsically related with the ventilatory process, but not commonly recorded in the clinical practice. Despite the usefulness of recording signals from multiple sources, few medical devices include the possibility of synchronizing its data with other provided by different biomedical equipment and some may use inaccurate sampling frequencies. Even thought a variant or inaccurate sampling rate does not affect the monitoring of critical patients, it restricts the study of simultaneous related events useful in research of respiratory system activity. In this article a device for temporal synchronization of signals recorded from multiple biomedical devices is described as well as its application in the study of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with research purposes

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    Electromiografía de superficie multicanal como herramienta no invasiva en la rehabilitación neuromuscular  Open access

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Simposio CEA de Bioingeniería
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La señal EMG de superficie permite analizar cuantitativamente los cambios fisiológicos ocasionados por diferentes patologías ya sea sobre la Médula espinal, las Motoneuronas, la unión neuromuscular o los músculos propiamente dichos. Por tratarse de una técnica no invasiva, facilita el proceso de diagnóstico y monitorización de dichas enfermedades. Por otra parte, la EMG multicanal permite estudiar directamente los determinantes fisiológicos de la fatiga muscular, relacionados con cambios a nivel celular que ocasionan variaciones en la conducción de los potenciales de acción sobre las fibras musculares. En este estudio se introducen los mecanismos de la contracción muscular, su relación con la señal EMG y se presentan dos ejemplos de aplicación en el estudio de patologías de la extremidad superior.

  • Outlier detection in high-density surface electromyographic signals

     Marateb, HR; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mansourian, Marjan; Merletti, R.; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Medical and biological engineering and computing
    Date of publication: 2012-01
    Journal article

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    Recently developed techniques allow the analysis of surface EMG in multiple locations over the skin surface (high-density surface electromyography, HDsEMG). The detected signal includes information from a greater proportion of the muscle of interest than conventional clinical EMG. However, recording with many electrodes simultaneously often implies bad-contacts, which introduce large power-line interference in the corresponding channels, and short-circuits that cause nearzero single differential signals when using gel. Such signals are called ‘outliers’ in data mining. In this work, outlier detection (focusing on bad contacts) is discussed for monopolar HDsEMG signals and a new method is proposed to identify ‘bad’ channels. The overall performance of this method was tested using the agreement rate against three experts’ opinions. Three other outlier detection methods were used for comparison. The training and test sets for such methods were selected from HDsEMG signals recorded in Triceps and Biceps Brachii in the upper arm and Brachioradialis, Anconeus, and Pronator Teres in the forearm. The sensitivity and specificity of this algorithm were, respectively, 96.9 ± 6.2 and 96.4 ± 2.5 in percent in the test set (signals registered with twenty 2D electrode arrays corresponding to a total of 2322 channels), showing that this method is promising.

  • High-density surface EMG maps from upper-arm and forearm muscles

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Alonso López, Joan Francesc
    Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation
    Date of publication: 2012-12
    Journal article

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    sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG), these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels.

  • Identification of isometric contractions based on High Density EMG maps

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Merletti, R.
    Journal of electromyography and kinesiology
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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    Identification of motion intention and muscle activation strategy is necessary to control human–machine interfaces like prostheses or orthoses, as well as other rehabilitation devices, games and computer-based training programs. Pattern recognition from sEMG signals has been extensively investigated in the last decades, however, most of the studies did not take into account different strengths and EMG distributions associated to the intended task. The identification of such quantities could be beneficial for the training of the subject or the control of assistive devices. Recent studies have shown the need to improve patternrecognition classification by reducing sensitivity to changes in the exerted strength, muscle-electrode shifts and bad contacts. Surface High Density EMG (HD-EMG) obtained from 2-dimensional arrays can provide much more information than electrode pairs for inferring not only motion intention but also the strategy adopted to distribute the load between muscles as well as changes in the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials within a single muscle because of it. The objectives of this study were: (a) the automatic identification of four isometric motor tasks associated with the degrees of freedom of the forearm: flexion–extension and supination–pronation and (b) the differentiation among levels of voluntary contraction at low-medium efforts. For this purpose, monopolar HD-EMG maps were obtained from five muscles of the upper-limb in healthy subjects. An original classifier is proposed, based on: (1) Two steps linear discriminant analysis of the EMG information for each type of contraction, and (2) features extracted from HD-EMG maps and related to its intensity and distribution in the 2D space. The classifier was trained and tested with different effort levels. Spatial distribution-based features by themselves are not sufficient to classify the type of task or the effort level with an acceptable accuracy; however, when calculated with the ‘‘isolated masses’’ method proposed in this study and combined with intensity-base features, the performance of the classifier is improved. The classifier is capable of identifying the tasks even at 10% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction, in the range of effort level developed by patients with neuromuscular disorders, showing that intention end effort of motion can be estimated from HD-EMG maps and applied in rehabilitation.

  • Analysis of forearm muscles activity by means of new protocols of multichannel EMG signal Recording and processing  Open access

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica
    Defense's date: 2012-12-20
    Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Los movimientos voluntarios del cuerpo son controlados por el sistema nervioso central y periférico a través de la contracción de los músculos esqueléticos. La contracción se inicia al liberarse un neurotransmisor sobre la unión neuromuscular, iniciando la propagación de un biopotencial sobre la membrana de las fibras musculares que se desplaza hacia los tendones: el Potencial de Acción de la Unidad Motora (MUAP). La señal electromiográfica de superficie registra la activación continua de dichos potenciales sobre la superficie de la piel y constituye una valiosa herramienta para la investigación, diagnóstico y seguimiento clínico de trastornos musculares, así como para la identificación de la intención movimiento tanto en términos de dirección como de potencia. En el estudio de las enfermedades del sistema neuromuscular es necesario analizar el nivel de actividad, la capacidad de producción de fuerza, la activación muscular conjunta y la predisposición a la fatiga muscular, todos ellos asociados con factores fisiológicos que determinan la resultante contracción mioeléctrica. Además, el uso de matrices de electrodos facilita la investigación de las propiedades periféricas de las unidades motoras activas, las características anatómicas del músculo y los cambios espaciales en su activación, ocasionados por el tipo de tarea motora o la potencia de la misma. El objetivo principal de esta tesis es el diseño e implementación de protocolos experimentales y algoritmos de procesado para extraer información fiable de señales sEMG multicanal en 1 y 2 dimensiones del espacio. Dicha información ha sido interpretada y relacionada con dos patologías específicas de la extremidad superior: Epicondilitis Lateral y Lesión de Esfuerzo Repetitivo. También fue utilizada para identificar la dirección de movimiento y la fuerza asociada a la contracción muscular, cuyos patrones podrían ser de utilidad en aplicaciones donde la señal electromiográfica se utilice para controlar interfaces hombre-máquina como es el caso de terapia física basada en robots, entornos virtuales de rehabilitación o realimentación de la actividad muscular. En resumen, las aportaciones más relevantes de esta tesis son: * La definición de protocolos experimentales orientados al registro de señales sEMG en una región óptima del músculo. * Definición de índices asociados a la co-activación de diferentes músculos * Identificación de señales artefactuadas en registros multicanal * Selección de los canales mas relevantes para el análisis  Extracción de un conjunto de características que permita una alta exactitud en la identificación de tareas motoras Los protocolos experimentales y los índices propuestos permitieron establecer que diversos desequilibrios entre músculos extrínsecos del antebrazo podrían desempeñar un papel clave en la fisiopatología de la epicondilitis lateral. Los resultados fueron consistentes en diferentes ejercicios y pueden definir un marco de evaluación para el seguimiento y evaluación de pacientes en programas de rehabilitación motora. Por otra parte, se encontró que las características asociadas con la distribución espacial de los MUAPs mejoran la exactitud en la identificación de la intención de movimiento. Lo que es más, las características extraídas de registros sEMG de alta densidad son más robustas que las extraídas de señales bipolares simples, no sólo por la redundancia de contacto implicada en HD-EMG, sino también porque permite monitorizar las regiones del músculo donde la amplitud de la señal es máxima y que varían con el tipo de ejercicio, permitiendo así una mejor estimación de la activación muscular mediante el análisis de los canales mas relevantes.

    Voluntary movements are achieved by the contraction of skeletal muscles controlled by the Central and Peripheral Nervous system. The contraction is initiated by the release of a neurotransmitter that promotes a reaction in the walls of the muscular fiber, producing a biopotential known as Motor Unit Action Potential (MUAP) that travels from the neuromuscular junction to the tendons. The surface electromyographic signal records the continuous activation of such potentials over the surface of the skin and constitutes a valuable tool for the diagnosis, monitoring and clinical research of muscular disorders as well as to infer motion intention not only regarding the direction of the movement but also its power. In the study of diseases of the neuromuscular system it is necessary to analyze the level of activity, the capacity of production of strength, the load-sharing between muscles and the probably predisposition to muscular fatigue, all of them associated with physiological factors determining the resultant muscular contraction. Moreover, the use of electrode arrays facilitate the investigation of the peripheral properties of the active Motor Units, the anatomical characteristics of the muscle and the spatial changes induced in their activation of as product of type of movement or power of the contraction.The main objective of this thesis was the design and implementation of experimental protocols, and algorithms to extract information from multichannel sEMG signals in 1 and 2 dimensions of the space. Such information was interpreted and related to pathological events associated to two upper-limb conditions: Lateral Epicondylitis and Repetitive Strain Injury. It was also used to identify the direction of movement and contraction strength which could be useful in applications concerning the use of biofeedback from EMG like in robotic- aided therapies and computer-based rehabilitation training.In summary, the most relevant contributions are:§The definition of experimental protocols intended to find optimal regions for the recording of sEMG signals. §The definition of indices associated to the co- activation of different muscles. §The detection of low-quality signals in multichannel sEMG recordings.§ The selection of the most relevant EMG channels for the analysis§The extraction of a set of features that led to high classification accuracy in the identification of tasks.The experimental protocols and the proposed indices allowed establishing that imbalances between extrinsic muscles of the forearm could play a key role in the pathophysiology of lateral epicondylalgia. Results were consistent in different types of motor task and may define an assessment framework for the monitoring and evaluation of patients during rehabilitation programs.On the other hand, it was found that features associated with the spatial distribution of the MUAPs improve the accuracy of the identification of motion intention. What is more, features extracted from high density EMG recordings are more robust not only because it implies contact redundancy but also because it allows the tracking of (task changing) skin surface areas where EMG amplitude is maximal and a better estimation of muscle activity by the proper selection of the most significant channels.

  • Cross-conditional entropy and coherence analysis of pharmaco-EEG changes induced by alprazolam

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Riba Serrano, Jordi
    Psychopharmacology
    Date of publication: 2012-03
    Journal article

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    Rationale Quantitative analysis of electroencephalographic signals (EEG) and their interpretation constitute a helpful tool in the assessment of the bioavailability of psychoactive drugs in the brain. Furthermore, psychotropic drug groups have typical signatures which relate biochemical mechanisms with specific EEG changes. Objectives To analyze the pharmacological effect of a dose of alprazolam on the connectivity of the brain during wakefulness by means of linear and nonlinear approaches. Methods EEG signals were recorded after alprazolam administration in a placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Nonlinear couplings assessed by means of corrected cross-conditional entropy were compared to linear couplings measured with the classical magnitude squared coherence. Results Linear variables evidenced a statistically significant drug-induced decrease, whereas nonlinear variables showed significant increases. All changes were highly correlated to drug plasma concentrations. The spatial distribution of the observed connectivity changes clearly differed from a previous study: changes before and after the maximum drug effect were mainly observed over the anterior half of the scalp. Additionally, a new variable with very low computational cost was defined to evaluate nonlinear coupling. This is particularly interesting when all pairs of EEG channels are assessed as in this study. Conclusions Results showed that alprazolam induced changes in terms of uncoupling between regions of the scalp, with opposite trends depending on the variables: decrease in linear ones and increase in nonlinear features. Maps provided consistent information about the way brain changed in terms of connectivity being definitely necessary to evaluate separately linear and nonlinear interactions.

  • Método con bio-retroalimentacion para entrenamiento de la musculatura del suelo pelvico

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Ramos Castro, Juan Jose; Espuña Pons, Montserrat; Perez Gonzalez, Amelia
    Date of request: 2012-07-16
    Invention patent

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    Método con bio-retroalimentación para entrenamiento de la musculatura del suelo pélvico.

    Aplicable al tratamiento de incontinencia urinaria, incontinencia fecal y prolapso de órganos pélvicos, utilizando un dispositivo electrónico portátil para captura mediante sensores de señales EMG de actividad abdominal y de la zona a tratar durante unos ejercicios musculares presentando visual y/o acústicamente unos resultados comprendiendo el método: la colocación de un sensor vaginal o rectal (10) y de dos sensores (11) en la zona baja abdominal, la ejecución de ejercicios trabajando la musculatura del suelo pélvico, la indicación de evaluaciones sobre los ejercicios realizados y el almacenamiento de resultados. La colocación de los sensores la realiza la propia usuaria, evaluando el dispositivo la correcta colocación de sensores con indicación mediante dichos medios acústicos y/o visuales, a la usuaria de que se ha alcanzado un posicionado adecuado, y realizando una etapa previa a los ejercicios de adquisición del tono muscular.

  • The chain value process and knowledge transfer in a bioengineering case

     González Piñeiro, Manel; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Ramos Castro, Juan Jose; Caminal Magrans, Pedro
    European Conference on Knowledge Management
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • MEG Connectivity Analysis in Patients with Alzheimer¿s Disease Using Cross Mutual Information and Spectral Coherence

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Poza Crespo, Jesús; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Fernández Lucas, Alberto; Hornero Sánchez, Roberto
    Annals of biomedical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    Interfaces y sistemas en rehabilitación y compensación funcional para la autonomía personal y la terapia clínica  Open access

     Ceres, Ramón; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Azorín, José María
    Revista iberoamericana de automática e informática industrial
    Date of publication: 2011-04-01
    Journal article

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    La Bioingeniería constituye un área de trabajo e investigación multidisciplinar entre las ingenierías y la medicina que resulta de un interés humano, social y económico creciente. La automática en particular, en sus aspectos de percepción, modelado, control, monitorización, actuación e interacción, entre otros, ofrece importantes conocimientos y herramientas para abordar los problemas relacionados con el diagnóstico y el seguimiento de patologías, con las necesidades funcionales especiales e igualmente con las diferentes terapias a aplicar. Este tutorial presenta aspectos relacionados con el estado del arte y últimos avances en los siguientes campos: Interfaces para la interacción y comunicación de personas con discapacidad, robótica para la rehabilitación y compensación funcional, y sistemas para la mejora de la terapia clínica

  • Interacción en sistemas biológicos mediante nuevos índices basados en la dinámica no lineal  Open access  awarded activity

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc
    Defense's date: 2011-09-29
    Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Most biological systems are complex and consist of several interconnected parts whose links can contain additional information which can be hidden from the observer. As a result of the interactions between elements, emergent properties that cannot be explained by the characteristics of isolated elements can arise. Current clinical applications record a high number of different signals that contain information about these physiological systems, providing multichannel data whose interactions can be studied by classical reference methods, generally linear, as the correlation analysis and spectral coherence, and other nonlinear methods that are being defined and developed during recent years, such as nonlinear prediction, entropies, mutual information and phase synchronization. The development, improvement and application of new analytical techniques is a field with obvious social and technological interest, especially when performed by noninvasive techniques, which can improve the processes of rehabilitation and clinical therapy, and also help the development of new diagnostic tools. In this thesis new indexes have been defined in order to evaluate: * The coordination of respiratory muscles in healthy subjects and patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during an effort ventilatory protocol. * The effect on functional connectivity of the brain after administration of a psychoactive drug. * The changes caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the connectivity of the brain. Respiratory muscles provide the mechanical energy that supports respiration. The evaluation of interactions between electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomiographic (MMG) signals of different respiratory muscles, genioglossus, sternomastoid and diaphragm, has allowed the discrimination of coordination patterns of OSAS patients with respect to healthy subjects at low, medium and high respiratory effort during while awake. Analysis and characterization of the electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals allows the understanding of brain function to assist in the process of clinical diagnosis of disorders in neurology, psychiatry and pharmacology. In this thesis the interactions within and between different brain regions have been assessed, using new nonlinear indexes which have managed to reflect changes over time in the brain after administration of alprazolam, and to characterize andto differentiate brain connectivity of AD patients with respect to healthy subjects.

    La mayoría de sistemas biológicos son sistemas complejos que constan de diversas partes interconectadas cuyos vínculos pueden contener información adicional y oculta al observador. Como resultado de estas interacciones entre elementos surgen propiedades emergentes, que no pueden explicarse a partir de las características de los elementos aislados. Las aplicaciones clínicas actuales registran un elevado número de señales diferentes que contienen información sobre estos sistemas fisiológicos, cosa que permite disponer de datos multicanal, cuyas interacciones pueden ser estudiadas mediante métodos clásicos de referencia generalmente lineales, como el análisis de correlación y la coherencia espectral, u otros métodos no lineales que están siendo definidos y desarrollados durante los últimos años, como la predicción no lineal, las entropías, la información mutua o la sincronización de fase. El desarrollo, mejora y aplicación de nuevas técnicas de análisis constituye un campo con evidente interés social y tecnológico, en especial cuando se realiza mediante técnicas no invasivas, que puede proporcionar mejoras en los procesos de rehabilitación y terapia clínica, así como contribuir a desarrollar herramientas de ayuda al diagnóstico. En esta tesis se han definido nuevos índices no lineales que han permitido evaluar: * La coordinación de los músculos respiratorios en sujetos sanos y pacientes con síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) durante un protocolo ventilatorio de esfuerzo. * El efecto en la conectividad funcional del cerebro tras la administración de un fármaco psicoactivo. * Los cambios provocados por la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) en la conectividad del cerebro. La musculatura respiratoria proporciona la energía mecánica que soporta la respiración. La evaluación de las interacciones entre señales electromiográficas (EMG) y mecanomiográficas (MMG) de diferentes músculos respiratorios -geniogloso, esternocleidomastoideo y diafragma- ha permitido diferenciar el patrón de coordinación de los pacientes con SAOS de los sujetos sanos a niveles bajos, medios y altos de esfuerzo respiratorio durante vigilia. El análisis y caracterización de las señales electroencefalográficas (EEG) y magnetoencefalográficas (MEG) permite la comprensión de la función cerebral para ayudar en el proceso de diagnóstico clínico de disfunciones en neurología, psiquiatría y farmacología. En esta tesis se han evaluado las interacciones en y entre diferentes regiones cerebrales mediante nuevos índices no lineales que han conseguido reflejar los cambios producidos a lo largo del tiempo en el cerebro tras la administración del fármaco alprazolam, así como caracterizar y diferenciar la conectividad cerebral de los pacientes con EA con respecto a sujetos sanos. Las herramientas utilizadas en las aplicaciones mencionadas se basan en las siguientes técnicas de análisis no lineal: * La función de información mutua cruzada, el equivalente no lineal de la función de correlación cruzada, que cuantifica la información compartida entre dos variables aleatorias. * La entropía condicional corregida cruzada, una medida que cuantifica la información restante contenida en una variable aleatoria cuando se conoce totalmente otra variable relacionada, y por lo tanto es una medida complementaria de la información mutua. * La predicción no lineal basada en modelos localmente lineales, una herramienta matemática que permite deducir la evolución de una serie temporal en función de muestras anteriores. Los nuevos índices desarrollados han demostrado la necesidad de evaluar las interacciones en los sistemas biológicos y fisiológicos tanto con métodos lineales como no lineales, para obtener una evaluación más completa de la dinámica subyacente y ayudar en los procesos de diagnóstico de patologías y en el procedimiento de evaluación psicofarmacológica.

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    Virtual laboratory for simulation and learning of cardiovascular system function in BME studies  Open access

     Hernández Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio; Salazar Sánchez, Maria Bernarda; Urrego Higuita, David Alexander; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Revista Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad de Antioquía
    Date of publication: 2011-09
    Journal article

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    The application of engineering system analysis is a very important field in biomedical engineering (BME) studies: modeling, simulation and control of the most important physiological systems. A virtual laboratory for the analysis and the study of human circulatory system is presented in this paper. This laboratory is based on the compilation of several mathematical models described in the literature. In addition, some model parameters have been tuned by means of experimental data under caffeine stimulus. The computational tool has been built using MATLAB/SIMULINK and EJS, so it combines good computation capabilities with interactivity. The virtual laboratory has been designed in order to understand the operation of the circulatory system under normal conditions, and to predict circulatory variables at different types and levels of stimuli and conditions.

  • Evaluation of Neuromuscular Function on the forearm during isometric contractions by Multichannel Surface Electromyography

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Garcia, M.; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Marín Sánchez, Jesús; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Revista iberoamericana de automática e informática industrial
    Date of publication: 2011-04-08
    Journal article

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  • Coordination of respiratory muscles assessed by means of nonlinear forecasting of demodulated myographic signals

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Bruce, E.N.
    Journal of electromyography and kinesiology
    Date of publication: 2011-12
    Journal article

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  • Waking and sleep electroencephalogram variables as human sleep homeostatic process biomarkers after drug administration

     Giménez Badia, Sandra; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Barbanoj Rodriguez, Manel J.
    Neuropsychobiology
    Date of publication: 2011-04-13
    Journal article

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  • Interfaces and systems of rehabilitation and functional compensation for personal autonomy and clinical therapy

     Ceres, R.; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Azorín, J.M.
    Revista iberoamericana de automática e informática industrial
    Date of publication: 2011-04-08
    Journal article

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  • Computational tool for modeling and simulation of mechanically ventilated patients

     Serna Higuita, Leidy Yanet; Hernandez, Alher Mauricio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The mechanical ventilator se ttings in patients with respiratory diseases like chronic obstr ructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during episodes of acute r respiratory failure (ARF) is not a simple task that in most cases is successful based on the experience of physicians. This pa per describes an interactive tool based in mathematical models, developed to make easier the study of the interaction bet ween a mechanical ventilator and a patient. It describes all stages of system development, including simulated ventilatory modes, the pathologies of interest and interaction betwe en the user and the system through a graphical interface develo ped in Matlab and Simulink. The developed computational tool allows the study of most widely used ventilatory modes and its advantages in the treatment of different kind of patients. The graphical interface displays all variables and parameters in the common way of last generation mechanical ventilators do and it is totally interactive, making possible its use by clinic al personal, hiding the complexity of implemented mathemati cal models to the user. The evaluation in different clinical simulated scenes adjusts properly with recent findings in mechanical ventilation scientific literature.

  • Evaluación de la Función Neuromuscular mediante Electromiografía Multicanal en Procesos de Rehabilitación motora

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica
    III International Congress on Domotics, Robotics and Remote-Assistance for All
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Robust outlier detection in high density surface electromyographic signals

     Marateb, HR; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Merletti, R.
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    High Density surface Electromyography (HDsEMG) has been applied in both research and clinical applications for non-invasive neuromuscular assessment in several different fields using 2-D array. Proper interpretation of HDsEMG signals requires identifying “good” channels (where there is no short-circuit or bad-contact or major power line interference problem). Recording with many channels usually implies bad-contacts (that introduces large power line interference) and short-circuits (when using gels). In addition to online monitoring the electrode-contact quality, it is necessary to identify “bad” channels, or outliers, prior to the analysis of HDsEMG signal. In this paper we introduce a robust method to identify outliers in a set of monopolar HDsEMG signals recorded from Biceps and Triceps Brachii,Anconeus, Brachioradialis and Pronator Teres. The sensitivity and precision of this method show that this approach is promising.

  • Filtrado ocular de señales EEG en el análisis de fármacos mediante topografía y tomografía cerebral

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Barbanoj Rodriguez, Manel J.; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Simposio de Bioingeniería (Redes REDINBIO y RETADIM)
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Drug effect on EEG connectivity assessed by linear and nonlinear couplings

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Hoyer, Dirk; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj Rodriguez, Manel J.
    Human brain mapping
    Date of publication: 2010-03
    Journal article

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    Quantitative analysis of human electroencephalogram (EEG) is a valuable method for evaluating psychopharmacological agents. Although the effects of different drug classes on EEG spectra are already known, interactions between brain locations remain unclear. In this work, cross mutual information function and appropriate surrogate data were applied to assess linear and nonlinear couplings between EEG signals. The main goal was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of alprazolam on brain connectivity during wakefulness in healthy volunteers using a cross-over, placebo-controlled design. Eighty-five pairs of EEG leads were selected for the analysis, and connectivity was evaluated inside anterior, central, and posterior zones of the scalp. Connectivity between these zones and interhemispheric connectivity were also measured. Results showed that alprazolam induced significant changes in EEG connectivity in terms of information transfer in comparison with placebo. Trends were opposite depending on the statistical characteristics: decreases in linear connectivity and increases in nonlinear couplings. These effects were generally spread over the entire scalp. Linear changes were negatively correlated, and nonlinear changes were positively correlated with drug plasma concentrations; the latter showed higher correlation coefficients. The use of both linear and nonlinear approaches revealed the importance of assessing changes in EEG connectivity as this can provide interesting information about psychopharmacological effects.

  • Reducción de artefactos en señales electroencefalográficas mediante nuevas técnicas de filtrado automático basadas en separación ciega de fuentes  Open access

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio
    Defense's date: 2010-06-21
    Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El análisis cuantitativo y la interpretación de las señales electroencefalográficas (EEG) permiten la comprensión de la función cerebral, ayudando al diagnóstico de estados disfuncionales. Sin embargo, es conocido que cierta actividad de origen no cortical contribuye también en los registros de EEG, siendo el caso más crítico y relevante el producido por la contaminación debida a la actividad ocular. El método considerado gold standard en neuropsicofarmacología para la reducción de artefactos oculares en señales EEG está basado en la regresión lineal. Sin embargo, esta técnica no sólo reduce la contaminación ocular sino que también elimina cierta actividad cerebral. Por tanto, el desarrollo de nuevos métodos automáticos para la reducción de la actividad ocular presente en las señales EEG, que superen las limitaciones presentadas por los métodos actualmente más utilizados, constituye un paso definitivo en los ensayos clínicos dedicados a evaluar los efectos de un fármaco en el sistema nervioso central. El objetivo principal de la tesis es el diseño y evaluación objetiva de métodos automáticos de filtrado de artefactos oculares en señales EEG espontáneas para la mejora cuantitativa en los estudios de fármaco-EEG. Para ello, se estudian las diferentes situaciones de contaminación ocular en las señales EEG y su problemática bajo la situación de vigilia, mediante bases de datos de registros adquiridos en voluntarios sanos tras la administración de fármacos. Se describen los métodos clásicos de filtrado ocular y la implementación del nuevo método de filtrado automático basado en BSS. La situación más propicia para una evaluación objetiva de los diferentes métodos de filtrado ocular precisa la utilización de señales electrooculográficas (EOG) y EEG simuladas, donde las actividades ocular y cerebral puedan ser conocidas de antemano. Se generan señales simuladas a partir de la mezcla de las actividades ocular y cerebral (extraídas de señales EOG y EEG reales) mediante dos estrategias: mezclas instantáneas y mezclas convolutivas. Se realiza un análisis comparativo de la eficacia de los métodos de filtrado ocular en las señales simuladas. A continuación, se determina el impacto del filtrado ocular en la evaluación de los efectos inducidos por un fármaco en el cerebro, comparando el método propuesto basado en BSS con el procedimiento considerado gold standard.A partir de los resultados obtenidos se puede concluir que el método para la reducción de artefactos oculares basado en BSS propuesto en esta tesis doctoral muestra un mejor comportamiento que el método gold standard tanto en señales simuladas [Romero et al, 2008] [Romero et al, 2009a] como en señales reales [Romero et al, 2009b].Las aportaciones más relevantes de esta tesis son: 1) La implementación de un nuevo método completamente automático para el filtrado de la contaminación ocular en señales EEG. Este método está basado en los algoritmos de BSS AMUSE o SOBI indistintamente, se aplica a segmentos de corta duración, e incluye la detección automática de las componentes fuente asociadas a la actividad ocular. 2) La estimación de modelos MISO que reflejan la propagación de las actividades ocular y cerebral a lo largo del cuero cabelludo. Dichos modelos han permitido aportar información para aclarar la discusión acerca de la dependencia o independencia de la frecuencia en la propagación ocular. Estos resultados afirman que ambas propagaciones de la actividad ocular y cerebral pueden considerarse independientes de la frecuencia, y por tanto totalmente de acuerdo con lo esperado a partir del conocimiento biofísico existente. 3) La realización de una herramienta informática para el procesado de señales EEG en estudios de fármaco-EEG. Esta interfaz gráfica interactiva ya ha empezado a ser utilizada en diversos estudios de evaluación del efecto de un fármaco en el sistema nervioso central [Alonso et al., 2010], por el CIM del Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau de Barcelona.

    Quantitative analysis and interpretation of electroencefalographic (EEG) signals are useful methods to study functional states of the brain, to evaluate drug effects and to diagnose psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, it is known that non-cortical interferences contribute to EEG recordings. Ocular artifacts are the most relevant and critical interference. The gold standard method in neuropsychopharmacology for reducing ocular contamination is based on linear regression. Nevertheless, this technique not only reduces the ocular contamination, but also cancels relevant cerebral information contained in the electrooculographic (EOG) recordings. In this way, the development of new automatic methods for reducing ocular artifacts in EEG signals, that solve the drawbacks shown by most common used techniques, is a crucial step in the clinical trials that assess the effects of a drug in the central nervous system. The aim of this PhD thesis is the design and the objective evaluation of automatic ocular filtering methods in spontaneous EEG signals in order to quantitatively improve the results and conclusions obtained in pharmaco-EEG studies. Thus, different ocular contamination situations in EEG signals are evaluated in order to understand this problematic situation during wakefulness by means of databases acquired from healthy volunteers after drug administration. The classical ocular filtering methods and the implementation of a new automatic procedure based on blind source separation (BSS) are described. The best situation for an objective evaluation of the different ocular reduction methods needs the use of simulated EOG and EEG signals, where ocular and cerebral activities can be known a priori. Simulated signals are generated from a linear mixture between ocular and cerebral activities (extracted from real EOG and EEG signals) by means of two strategies: instantaneous and convolutive mixing models. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the filtering methods on the simulated signals is performed. Next, the influence of ocular filtering procedures in the conclusions drawn from a pharmaco-EEG trial is assessed, comparing the method proposed in this PhD thesis based on BSS with the gold standard procedure.From the results obtained in time and frequency domain, it can be concluded that the method for reducing ocular artifacts based on BSS, developed in this PhD thesis, shows a better performance than the gold standard procedure in simulated signals [Romero et al, 2008] [Romero et al, 2009a] as much as in real signals [Romero et al, 2009b].The most relevant contributions of this thesis are: 1) The implementation of a new completely automatic method for reducing ocular contamination in EEG signals. This procedure is based on the BSS algorithms, AMUSE or SOBI indistinctly, it is applied in short duration segments, and it includes the automatic detection of the source components related to ocular activity. 2) The estimation of MISO models corresponding to the propagation of ocular and cerebral activities across the scalp. These models have contributed with interesting information about the discussion if ocular propagation is frequency dependent or independent. These results conclude that ocular and cerebral propagation can be considered practically frequency independent which is consistent to what would be expected from the biophysics knowledge. 3) The development of a computer tool for EEG signals processing in pharmaco-EEG studies. The Drug Research Center (CIM) of the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau of Barcelona has started to use this interactive graphical user interface for evaluating the effect of a drug on the brain in several pharmaco-EEG studies [Alonso et al, 2010].

  • RENOVACION DE LA RED TEMATICA EN INGENIERIA BIOMEDICA (REDINBIO)

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Giraldo Giraldo, Beatriz F.; Gomis Román, Pedro; Jane Campos, Raimon; Vallverdú Ferrer, Montserrat; Perera Lluna, Alexandre; Caminal Magrans, Pedro
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Evaluación de la Función Neuromuscular Mediante Electromiografía Multicanal en Procesos de Rehabilitación Motora

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica
    Workshop de R+D+I en tecnologies per a l¿autonomia de les persones amb discapacitat
    Presentation's date: 2009-10-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Aplicación de la entropía condicional para el análisis del EEG bajo terapia farmacológica

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Martínez Vera, Naira Pilar; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Barbanoj Rodriguez, Manel J.
    Jornadas de Automática
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El análisis del electroencefalograma humano constituye una herramienta muy útil para la evaluación de la biodisponibilidad de un fármaco en el cerebro. Se ha aplicado el calculo de entropía condicional a señales electroencefalográficas para la evaluación del acoplamiento cerebral tras la administración de un fármaco. El principal objetivo fue analizar el efecto farmacológico de una dosis de alprazolam en el cerebro durante vigilia. Los resultados preliminares que se presentan en este trabajo muestran diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los estados correspondientes a placebo y fármaco. Las variables no lineales mostraron una buena correlación con la evolución temporal de efectos esperados.

  • MV-Trainer: Sistema para el Entrenamiento En Ventilación Mecánica

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Serna Higuita, Leidy Yanet; Hernández Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio
    Seminario Internacional de Ingeniería Biomédica
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Ocular Reduction in EEG Signals Based on Adaptive Filtering, Regression and Blind Source Separation  Open access

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Barbanoj, Mj
    Annals of biomedical engineering
    Date of publication: 2009-01
    Journal article

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    Quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis is very useful for diagnosing dysfunctional neural states and for evaluating drug effects on the brain, among others. However, the bidirectional contamination between electrooculographic (EOG) and cerebral activities can mislead and induce wrong conclusions from EEG recordings. Different methods for ocular reduction have been developed but only few studies have shown an objective evaluation of their performance. For this purpose, the following approaches were evaluated with simulated data: regression analysis, adaptive filtering, and blind source separation (BSS). In the first two, filtered versions were also taken into account by filtering EOG references in order to reduce the cancellation of cerebral high frequency components in EEG data. Performance of these methods was quantitatively evaluated by level of similarity, agreement and errors in spectral variables both between sources and corrected EEG recordings. Topographic distributions showed that errors were located at anterior sites and especially in frontopolar and lateral–frontal regions. In addition, these errors were higher in theta and especially delta band. In general, filtered versions of time-domain regression and of adaptive filtering with RLS algorithm provided a very effective ocular reduction. However, BSS based on second order statistics showed the highest similarity indexes and the lowest errors in spectral variables.

  • ANALISIS DE LAS INTERACCIONES DINAMICAS EN BIOSEÑALES NO INVASIVAS MULTICANAL

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Marín Sánchez, Jesús; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Cardiolab: A Virtual Laboratory for the analysis of Human Circulatory System  Open access

     Hernandez, Alher Mauricio; Pierfranco Herrera, Gino; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    One of the career areas included in the field of Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering system analysis: physiological modelling, simulation and control. This paper describes a Virtual Laboratory for the analysis and the study of Human circulatory system. The Virtual Laboratory is based on the compilation of several mathematical models described in the literature. Presented application has been build using MATLAB/ Simulink and EJS, so it combines good computation capabilities and it is completely interactive. The Virtual Laboratory is designed in order to understand the operation of the circulatory system under normal conditions, and to predict circulatory variables at different levels of stimuli and conditions.

  • EJS-Based Laboratory for Learning the Function of the Cardiovascular System

     Hernandez, Alher Mauricio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    IFAC Symposium on Advances in Control Education
    Presentation's date: 2009-10-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Influence of ocular filtering in EEG data on the assessment of drug-induced effects on the brain

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Barbanoj Rodriguez, Manel J.
    Human brain mapping
    Date of publication: 2009-06
    Journal article

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    A comparative study of automatic techniques for ocular artifact reduction in spontaneous EEG signals based on clinical target variables: a simulation case  Open access

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Barbanoj, M J
    Computers in biology and medicine
    Date of publication: 2008-03
    Journal article

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    Eye movement artifacts represent a critical issue for quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) analysis and a number of mathematical approaches have been proposed to reduce their contribution in EEG recordings. The aim of this paper was to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the performance of ocular filtering methods with respect to spectral target variables widely used in clinical and functional EEG studies. In particular the following methods were applied: regression analysis and some blind source separation (BSS) techniques based on second-order statistics (PCA, AMUSE and SOBI) and on higher-order statistics (JADE, INFOMAX and FASTICA). Considering blind source decomposition methods, a completely automatic procedure of BSS based on logical rules related to spectral and topographical information was proposed in order to identify the components related to ocular interference. The automatic procedure was applied in different montages of simulated EEG and electrooculography (EOG) recordings: a full montage with 19 EEG and 2 EOG channels, a reduced one with only 6 EEG leads and a third one where EOG channels were not available. Time and frequency results in all of them indicated that AMUSE and SOBI algorithms preserved and recovered more brain activity than the other methods mainly at anterior regions. In the case of full montage: (i) errors were lower than 5% for all spectral variables at anterior sites; and (ii) the highest improvement in the signal-to-artifact (SAR) ratio was obtained up to 40 dB at these anterior sites. Finally, we concluded that second-order BSS-based algorithms (AMUSE and SOBI)

  • Learning Respiratory System Function in BME Studies by means of a Virtual Laboratory: RespiLab

     Hernandez Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    IEEE transactions on education
    Date of publication: 2008-02
    Journal article

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  • Aprendizaje del Sistema de Control Respiratorio en un Entorno ECTS

     Hernández Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Costa Castelló, Ramon
    Educación en ingeniería
    Date of publication: 2008-06
    Journal article

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  • Análisis de señales EMG de superfície mediante matrices lineales de electrodos

     Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica
    Date of publication: 2008-10
    Book chapter

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  • Viabilidad de la Electromiografía Multicanal en pacientes con Lesión Medular Incompleta

     Pérez, M; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Vidal, J
    Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica
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  • Evaluation of Respiratory Muscles Activity by means of Cross Mutual Information Function at Different Levels of Ventilatory Effort

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Hoyer, D; Topor, Z L; Bruce, E N
    IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering
    Date of publication: 2007-09
    Journal article

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  • Análisis del sistema de control respiratorio ante estímulos y patologías ventilatorias.

     Hernandez Valdivieso, Alher Mauricio
    Defense's date: 2007-07-31
    Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Estudio comparativo de técnicas automáticas para el filtrado ocular en señales EEG simuladas

     Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Barbanoj, M
    Jornadas de Automática
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  • Análisis de la conectividad cerebral en sujetos análisis de la conectividad cerebral en sujetos sometidos a terapia farmacológica

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Jordi, Riba; Barbanoj, Manel; Hoyer, Dirk
    Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica
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  • Posibilidades de aplicación de minería de datos

     Gibert Oliveras, Karina; García Rudolph, Alejandro; Gomez Melis, Guadalupe; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Rojas Martínez, Mónica
    Date of publication: 2007
    Book chapter

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  • Activación de los músculos del antebrazo para la extensión de muñeca en pacientes con epicondilitis lateral

     Rojas Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Carme, Unyó; Eduard, Pujol; Joaquim, Chaler
    Congreso Anual de la Sociedad Española de Ingeniería Biomédica
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  • Connectivity analysis of EEG under drug theraphy

     Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Angel; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Riba, J; Barbanoj, M J; Hoyer, D
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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