Chicken feathers waste from poultry industry was incorporated in poly(lactic acid) matrix to obtain an environmental friendly biocomposite taking advantage of the unique properties of chicken feathers, such as low density, biodegradability and good thermal and acoustic properties, and of the biodegradability of the poly(lactic acid). The effect of manufacturing conditions on the final properties of the composite and on the matrix–fiber compatibility was studied. Optimal manufacturing conditions, in order to obtain the best mechanical results, were found at a temperature of 170–180¿ for a processing time of 5¿min and a speed of mixing of 50¿r/min. Young’s modulus was not very affected by the chicken feather’s content showing a maximal variation of less than 8%, indicating that is possible to include chicken feathers in a composite maintaining its stiffness. However, tensile strength and elongation decreased up to 58 and 12%, respectively, when chicken feather content was 25% because of the restraining effect of the fibers. Moreover, dimensional stability was negatively affected with the inclusion of chicken feathers. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies show that fiber–matrix interaction exists but it is weak
The feasibility of using Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS)/ethanol mixtures as a benign solvent to electrospin three types of gelatin was studied. Gelatins with different chemical properties, such as Bloom, were selected and the effect of the gelatin nature and its concentration on the electrospinnability of the dope solution and on the fiber diameter of the electrospun mats were studied. Viscosity of the gelatin solution, which follows a power law relationship with the gelatin concentration, was found to significantly influence the morphology of the mats and the fiber diameter. It was demonstrated that the PBS/ethanol solvent interacted with the gelatins as a good solvent with a Flory exponent of 0.65. In addition, the effect of the solvent composition on the fiber formation process was evaluated corroborating that the ionic strength of the medium and the PBS/ethanol ratio significantly affected the morphology and the diameter of the electrospun fibers. Chemical structure and thermal stability of the electrospun gelatin mats were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Finally, cytotoxicity of the electrospun mats was analyzed by the Alamar Blue assay, using human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-5ta), resulting in a high cell viability (80-90%) regardless the type of gelatin
Chicken feathers (CFs), waste from the poultry industry, were tested as biosorbent for colour removal of synthetic coloured water. Biosorption kinetics and isotherms were determined to provide an explanation to the physicochemical behaviour of the biosorption process of C.I. Acid Blue 80 dye on CFs. Up to 80% of the dye was biosorbed at 50°C demonstrating the biosorbent potential of the waste for the removal of organic dyes. Moreover, two mathematical approaches have been used to estimate the thermodynamic parameters such as the enthalpy, the entropy and the affinity of sorption. The first approach uses the Langmuir equation (affinity of sorption of 27,514 J/mol at 50°C) whereas the second approach calculates the affinity directly using the chemical potentials. In both cases, the affinity of the system is positive indicating that the biosorption process occurs spontaneously. In addition, the infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results shown that the chemical structure and the morphology of the fibres were not significantly affected by the biosorption step
Actualmente, los materiales compuestos de matriz polimérica reforzados con fibras sintéticas han adquirido una importancia significativa en numerosas áreas por sus excelentes propiedades. Sin embargo, el uso de polímeros sintéticos está siendo considerado de una forma más crítica ya que su disposición después de su uso supone un serio problema medioambiental. Debido a la creciente demanda para la utilización de materiales más respetuosos con el medio ambiente y con el objetivo industrial de reducir el coste de las fibras utilizadas tradicionalmente como refuerzo para materiales compuestos, el uso de fibras naturales ha ido ganando importancia durante estos últimos años. En este sentido una de las líneas importantes de investigación es la fabricación de nuevos materiales compuestos biodegradables como una alternativa frente a los polímeros tradicionales. El objetivo del trabajo de mi tesis consiste en obtener y caracterizar nuevos materiales compuestos de menor impacto ambiental cargados con fibras de queratina procedentes de las plumas de pollo. Se pretende la revalorización de este residuo con el objetito de reducir el impacto ambiental del mismo.Para ello, se propone el estudio de la procesabilidad y de las propiedades de los materiales compuestos de matriz termoplástica reforzados con fibras queratínica (F0). Así se utilizarán las matrices termoplásticas de polietileno de alta densidad (HDPE), polipropileno (PP) y Etilo Acetato de vinilo (EVA) como polímeros no biodegradables ya que son las matrices de mayor consumo en la fabricación de materiales compuestos reforzados con fibras naturales. En relación al estudio de las propiedades del material compuesto se propone la realización de una caracterización estructural y mecánica de los materiales compuestos obtenidos. Así mismo, se prepararán y caracterizarán materiales compuestos biodegradables obtenidos utilizando plumas en combinación con una matriz biodegradable de Poli-ácido láctico (PLA).En este sentido, se utilizaron las plumas procedentes de mataderos de pollos, que se lavaron, trituraron y se clasificaron por tamaños de fibras (fibras largas y fibras cortas). Las fibras cortas se clasificaron por tamizado en diferentes categorías de tamaño de partículas de la fibra. Posteriormente, se procedió al mezclado de las fibras con las matrices seleccionadas para diferentes concentraciones de pluma obteniendo el material compuesto. Una vez obtenido el material compuesto se procedió a la determinación de las propiedades físicas, mecánicas, térmicas, morfológicas, de biodegradabilidad y estructurales. Mediante los ensayos físicos se determinaron la densidad, la estabilidad dimensional, mientras que con los ensayos mecánicos de tracción-deformación, se analizaron el Módulo de Young, la resistencia a la tracción, la elongación a rotura y la tenacidad. Con los ensayos termogravimétricos (TGA) se determinaron las temperaturas de degradación de los componentes y se analizó la estabilidad térmica del material compuesto, su morfología y el grado de compatibilidad entre la matriz y el refuerzo mediante observación de la superficie de fractura de las muestras por microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM). Además, se realizó una caracterización estructural mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo por transformada de Fourier (FTIR) para estudiar las posibles interacciones químicas entre los componentes del compuesto. Finalmente, se realizó un estudio de envejecimiento de los compuestos en el que se evaluaron sus propiedades después de someter los materiales a un proceso de degradación natural a la intemperie y artificial en cámara de UV (Xenotest).
Bin Musidin, A.; Cañavate, J.; Carrillo, F.; Macanás, J.; Lis, M.; Colom, X. Mediterranean Conference on Calorimetry and Thermal Analysis p. 177-178 Presentation's date: 2015-06-16 Presentation of work at congresses
In this work the phenomena involved with the microwave devulcanization of ground tyre rubber (GTR) were investigated. During studies three types of GTR characterized by different content of organic compounds (elastomers, plasticizers, etc..), carbon black and ash have been analyzed. The chemical structure of GTR before and after microwave devulcanization process was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, efficiency of microwave devulcanization conducted at different time was evaluated based on the crosslinking density and sol fraction content values. FTIR spectroscopy results shown that devulcanization of GTR causes a decrease in carbon black with generation of CO2 due to its thermo oxidation, a decrease in structural groups of elastomeric components (mainly methylene and methine) and a breaking of C-S groups and S-S bridges. The presented results indicate the strong correlation between content of SiO2 in GTR and its degree of devulcanization. It was observed that GTR with a high content of SiO2 are easier devulcanized than samples with low content of SiO2, which suggest the presence of silica fillers improve microwave devulcanization efficiency
Gelatin fibers were prepared by electrospinning of gelatin/acetic acid/water ternary mixtures with the aim of studying the feasibility of fabricating gelatin nanofiber mats at room temperature using an alternative benign solvent by significantly reducing the acetic acid concentration. The results showed that gelatin nanofibers can be optimally electrospun with low acetic acid concentration (25% v/v) combined with gelatin concentrations higher than 300 mg/ml. Both gelatin solutions and electrospun gelatin mats (prepared with different acetic acid aqueous solutions) were analyzed by FTIR and DSC techniques in order to determine the chemical and structure changes
of the polymer. The electrospun gelatin mats fabricated from solutions with low acetic acid content showed some advantages as the maintenance of the decomposition temperature of the pure gelatin (~230ºC) and the reduction of the acid content on electrospun mats, which allowed to reach a cell viability upper than 90% (analyzed by
cell viability test using human dermal fibroblast and embryonic kidney cells). This study has also analyzed the influence of gelatin and acetic acid concentration both on the solution viscosity and the electrospun fiber diameter, obtaining a clear relationship between these parameters
The aim of this study was the analysis and characterization of composites based on thermoplastics (ethylene vinyl acetate, polypropilene and high-density polyethylene) and chicken feathers. Several composite samples with a content of 20% v/v of chicken feathers have been studied to determine the optimal manufacturing conditions of temperature, mixing time, and mixing speed to achieve the best tensile properties. The results have shown that the addition of micronized chicken feather (20% v/v) to thermoplastic matrices increases stiffness and provides a more brittle behavior. Ethylene vinyl acetate matrix also shows an ability to participate in second-order intermolecular interactions with chicken feathers, providing better tensile properties (tensile strength and toughness) than polypropilene and high-density polyethylene. Optimal manufacturing conditions were found for a mixing time of around 5min; a mixing speed of 50rmin 1 ; and temperature values of 160 C in case of high-density polyethylene, 120 C for ethylene vinyl acetate, and 170 C for polypropilene. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy analysis have been performed in order to provide further understanding of the compatibility and microstructural features that support the tensile properties of the materials
Colom, X.; Cañavate, J.; Rahhali, A.; Macanás, J.; Carrillo, F. Annual International Conference on Composites/Nano Enginnering p. 75-77 Presentation's date: 2014-07-17 Presentation of work at congresses
The development of suitable biomimetic scaffolds is a fundamental requirement of tissue engineering. Although electrospinning has emerged as an effective method for producing such scaffolds of nanometer-sized fibers, the influence of solution characteristics on the morphology of the resulting nanofibers depends on each polymer solution system. In this study, gelatin nanofibers and microfibers were prepared via electrospinning using mixtures of water and acetic acid at different ratios as solvents. The viscosities of gelatin solutions before electrospinning were analyzed and two different behaviors were found as a function of the solvent composition, taking into account classic models of polymer science. A power law relationship between viscosity and gelatin concentration was found for each solvent system, and an empirical model including the influence of acetic acid was obtained for aqueous systems. Moreover, a ternary diagram considering gelatin, water, and acetic acid mass fractions was constructed as a tool to establish the electrospinnability domains in terms of fiber occurrence and morphology. Also, the isodiametric curves were defined in the fibers region. Finally, in order to correlate the diameter of electrospun nanofibers and the electrospinnability zones, the Berry number was used. However, as its only allows the range of electrospinnability to be established for a fixed solvent composition, a new dimensionless parameter (Bemod) was suggested to take into account all the acetic acid aqueous solutions as a single solvent
Macanás, J.; Domènech, B.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Carrillo, F.; Lahitte, J-F.; Remigy, J. Intégration des membranes dans les procédés p. 176 Presentation's date: 2014-04-09 Presentation of work at congresses
In order to provide another way of reducing the stock of used tyres and polyvinyl chloride waste, a new material is developed and studied. Formulation includes a matrix constituted by a compound of recycled polyvinyl chloride with plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a reinforcement of ground tyre rubber. Acoustic and mechanical properties of different compositions of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber were tested in order to determine their suitability for applications fulfilling industry requirements. Sound absorption has been analyzed, showing interesting results at frequencies higher than 2500 Hz. The obtained values are found to be depending on the thickness of the sample, the content of the ground tyre rubber and the existence of gaps, pores and voids either between layers or in the interphase between the matrix and reinforcement. From the study of the mechanical properties, we may observe that the ground tyre rubber act as filler, improving stiffness of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites with an increase of Young Modulus. The tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness decrease slowly. The decrease of these mechanical properties is observed to be lower than in the case of composites made by using high-density polyethylene as a matrix.
In order to provide another way of reducing the stock of used tyres and polyvinyl chloride waste, a new material is developed and studied. Formulation includes a matrix constituted by a compound of recycled polyvinyl chloride with plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a reinforcement of ground tyre rubber. Acoustic and mechanical properties of different compositions of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber were tested in order to determine their suitability for applications fulfilling industry requirements. Sound absorption has been analyzed, showing interesting results at frequencies higher than 2500¿Hz. The obtained values are found to be depending on the thickness of the sample, the content of the ground tyre rubber and the existence of gaps, pores and voids either between layers or in the interphase between the matrix and reinforcement. From the study of the mechanical properties, we may observe that the ground tyre rubber act as filler, improving stiffness of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites with an increase of Young Modulus. The tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness decrease slowly. The decrease of these mechanical properties is observed to be lower than in the case of composites made by using high-density polyethylene as a matrix.
The thermosensitive properties of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) together with the good mechanical properties of lyocell fibres make a combination of the two to be thought of as a smart textile. In the present study the optimal values of various parameters that control the grafting process of pNIPAAm onto lyocell fibres were determined considering the influence of the interaction between them. The copolymerization of pNIPAAm hydrogel onto lyocell fibres was performed in aqueous acidic medium using cerium(IV) as initiator. An experimental design was planned in order to study the effect of the interactions between some variables that affect the kinetics of the graft copolymerization: the cerium(IV) initiator concentration, the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer concentration and the liquor fibre-to-bath ratio. The results show that the interaction between the concentrations of NIPAAm and the initiator significantly affects the degree of grafting (DG), the optimum values being 1250 and 12.25 mmol L-1, respectively. In contrast, the liquor ratio parameter shows no significant interaction with the other two variables studied, meaning that it acts independently but showing a proportional relationship with respect to the DG obtained. In addition, the presence of pNIPAAm in the copolymer obtained was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Moreover, the water sorption capacity, depending on the temperature, of the lyocell/pNIPAAm copolymer was studied, with an increase being observed when the DG is higher than 60% and also increasingwith the temperature
The thermosensitive properties of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) together with the good mechanical properties of lyocell fibres make a combination of the two to be thought of as a smart textile. In the present study the optimal values of various parameters that control the grafting process of pNIPAAm onto lyocell fibres were determined considering the influence of the interaction between them. The copolymerization of pNIPAAm hydrogel onto lyocell fibres was performed in aqueous acidic medium using cerium(IV) as initiator. An experimental design was planned in order to study the effect of the interactions between some variables that affect the kinetics of the graft copolymerization: the cerium(IV) initiator concentration, the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer concentration and the liquor fibre-to-bath ratio. The results show that the interaction between the concentrations of NIPAAm and the initiator significantly affects the degree of grafting (DG), the optimum values being 1250 and 12.25 mmol L−1, respectively. In contrast, the liquor ratio parameter shows no significant interaction with the other two variables studied, meaning that it acts independently but showing a proportional relationship with respect to the DG obtained. In addition, the presence of pNIPAAm in the copolymer obtained was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Moreover, the water sorption capacity, depending on the temperature, of the lyocell/pNIPAAm copolymer was studied, with an increase being observed when the DG is higher than 60% and also increasing with the temperature
Plastic composites are made of polymers and different reinforcements that originally were synthetic and non-biodegradable. Since 1990’s, many biodegradable composites, formed by a biodegradable matrix and natural fibers, have been proposed. In spite of the advantages of biocomposites, it is important to ponder the technical drawbacks of these natural fibers, mainly from a vegetable origin, and their environmental impacts (EIs). Vegetable fibers imply a land use that can compete with food production. Chicken feathers (CFs), made of keratin fibers, are a potential alternative as they are a waste material, produced in large quantities (800,000 ton/year in EU-27), do not compete with human food production and have been scarcely used up to now. Taking on board these premises, a biocomposite made of PLA and CFs was fabricated at lab-scale as new material. However, before using CFs as reinforcement, sanitizing pretreatments have been envisaged before, due to their quick decay. The EIs of these treatments were experimentally quantified and a cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate altogether the impacts of manufacturing a technical panel with different content of CFs (up to 35% v/v). As main results, the avoided burdens of the CF waste treatment and the energy consumption for the drying step must be optimized to achieve lower EIs for the preparation of CFs/PLA composites
This study deals with the preparation and characterization of thermoplastic composites using polypropylene, high-density polyethylene and polylactic acid matrices and including whole chicken feathers as reinforcement. The behaviour of the composites was determined in terms of physical and mechanical properties, which were related to the fibre–matrix compatibility analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of chicken feathers into the thermoplastic matrices results in a slight increase in the stiffness when small amounts of chicken feathers (5–10% vol/vol) were incorporated into the composites. Tensile strength at maximum load, elongation at break and toughness properties decreased when the chicken feather concentration was increased. Results for chicken feather–polypropylene composites were analogous to chicken feather–high-density polyethylene and chicken feather–polylactic acid composites. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study and the scanning electron micrographs suggest that the insufficient compatibility of chicken feather and polymer matrices is the main reason for the decrease in tensile properties
Over the last years, the demand of textile products with enhanced functionalities, such as antibacterial, antistatic, stain resistant, or UV protective has grown considerably. These materials must satisfy not only the final costumer needs, yet the manufacturer economic aspects, but also the growing ecological concerns. In this sense, intensive development of Nanotechnology in the field of the nano-structures generation has contributed with a new interesting insight. With the application of the nanotechnology to textile fibers, new products with totally new or far improved functions with protective properties for humans and the environment can be easily obtained, without modifying the intrinsic textile properties.
In this work we present the Inter-Matrix Synthesis (IMS) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in different polymeric textile fibers such as polyacrylonitrile and polyamide fibers.
In order to achieve a suitable and useful composite material, one of the most important aspects is the study of its behavior in terms of mechanical properties and in terms of its dimensional stability. This study is aimed to the analysis and characterization of composites based on thermoplastics (EVA, PP and HDPE) including chicken feathers (CFs). Several composite samples with a content of 20% of CFs have been characterized and the results have shown that: the addition of micronized chicken feather to different matrices in small-middle quantities as a filler, improves the stiffness and provides a more brittle behavior and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) matrix shows better mechanical properties because of the ability to interact with chicken feather, thus providing better tensile properties (tensile strength and toughness) than polyolephinic matrix FTIR spectroscopy analysis show that few interactions appear between polyolephinic matrices and CF’s reinforcement and carbonyl group of acetate matrix component (EVA), interacts with amine group assigned to CFs reinforcement, improving the ability to establish a link between the material’s components.
SEM micrographs show differences depending on the matrix used. Chemical composition in EVA defines suitable conditions to create chemical interactions and improve the compatibility with chicken feather. The fracture surfaces indicate that there is interfacial adhesion of the matrix to the chicken feather particles due mainly to the described interaction of the carbonyl group of acetate component of matrix and amine group of keratin constituent of feather. On the other hand SEM microphotographs show that polyolefinic matrices don’t seem to achieve a good compatibility with CF. The results obtained for mechanical properties are justified in the light of these considerations.
Domènech, B.; Ziegler, K.; Carrillo, F.; Muñoz, M.; Muraviev, D.; Macanás, J. Nanoscale research letters Vol. 8, num. 1, p. 238-243 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-238 Date of publication: 2013 Journal article
In this paper, we report the intermatrix synthesis of Ag nanoparticles in different polymeric matrices such as polyurethane foams and polyacrylonitrile or polyamide fibers. To apply this technique, the polymer must bear functional groups able to bind and retain the nanoparticle ion precursors while ions should diffuse through the matrix. Taking into account the nature of some of the chosen matrices, it was essential to try to activate the support material to obtain an acceptable value of ion exchange capacity. To evaluate the catalytic activity of the developed nanocomposites, a model catalytic reaction was carried out in batch experiments: the reduction of pnitrophenol by sodium borohydride