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  • Acoustic and mechanical properties of recycled polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites

     Colom Fajula, Xavier; Cañavate Avila, Francisco Javier; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Lis Arias, Manuel Jose
    Journal of composite materials
    Vol. 48, num. 9, p. 1061-1069
    DOI: 10.1177/0021998313482154
    Date of publication: 2014-04-01
    Journal article

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    In order to provide another way of reducing the stock of used tyres and polyvinyl chloride waste, a new material is developed and studied. Formulation includes a matrix constituted by a compound of recycled polyvinyl chloride with plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a reinforcement of ground tyre rubber. Acoustic and mechanical properties of different compositions of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber were tested in order to determine their suitability for applications fulfilling industry requirements. Sound absorption has been analyzed, showing interesting results at frequencies higher than 2500 Hz. The obtained values are found to be depending on the thickness of the sample, the content of the ground tyre rubber and the existence of gaps, pores and voids either between layers or in the interphase between the matrix and reinforcement. From the study of the mechanical properties, we may observe that the ground tyre rubber act as filler, improving stiffness of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites with an increase of Young Modulus. The tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness decrease slowly. The decrease of these mechanical properties is observed to be lower than in the case of composites made by using high-density polyethylene as a matrix.

    In order to provide another way of reducing the stock of used tyres and polyvinyl chloride waste, a new material is developed and studied. Formulation includes a matrix constituted by a compound of recycled polyvinyl chloride with plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a reinforcement of ground tyre rubber. Acoustic and mechanical properties of different compositions of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber were tested in order to determine their suitability for applications fulfilling industry requirements. Sound absorption has been analyzed, showing interesting results at frequencies higher than 2500¿Hz. The obtained values are found to be depending on the thickness of the sample, the content of the ground tyre rubber and the existence of gaps, pores and voids either between layers or in the interphase between the matrix and reinforcement. From the study of the mechanical properties, we may observe that the ground tyre rubber act as filler, improving stiffness of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites with an increase of Young Modulus. The tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness decrease slowly. The decrease of these mechanical properties is observed to be lower than in the case of composites made by using high-density polyethylene as a matrix.

  • Resolving the electrospinnability zones and diameter prediction for the electrospinning of the gelatin/water/acetic acid system

     Erencia Millan, Maria Salud; Cano Casas, Francisco; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Langmuir
    Vol. 30, num. 24, p. 7198-7205
    DOI: 10.1021/la501183f
    Date of publication: 2014-05-28
    Journal article

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    The development of suitable biomimetic scaffolds is a fundamental requirement of tissue engineering. Although electrospinning has emerged as an effective method for producing such scaffolds of nanometer-sized fibers, the influence of solution characteristics on the morphology of the resulting nanofibers depends on each polymer solution system. In this study, gelatin nanofibers and microfibers were prepared via electrospinning using mixtures of water and acetic acid at different ratios as solvents. The viscosities of gelatin solutions before electrospinning were analyzed and two different behaviors were found as a function of the solvent composition, taking into account classic models of polymer science. A power law relationship between viscosity and gelatin concentration was found for each solvent system, and an empirical model including the influence of acetic acid was obtained for aqueous systems. Moreover, a ternary diagram considering gelatin, water, and acetic acid mass fractions was constructed as a tool to establish the electrospinnability domains in terms of fiber occurrence and morphology. Also, the isodiametric curves were defined in the fibers region. Finally, in order to correlate the diameter of electrospun nanofibers and the electrospinnability zones, the Berry number was used. However, as its only allows the range of electrospinnability to be established for a fixed solvent composition, a new dimensionless parameter (Bemod) was suggested to take into account all the acetic acid aqueous solutions as a single solvent

    The development of suitable biomimetic scaffolds is a fundamental requirement of tissue engineering. Although electrospinning has emerged as an effective method for producing such scaffolds of nanometer-sized fibers, the influence of solution characteristics on the morphology of the resulting nanofibers depends on each polymer solution system. In this study, gelatin nanofibers and microfibers were prepared via electrospinning using mixtures of water and acetic acid at different ratios as solvents. The viscosities of gelatin solutions before electrospinning were analyzed and two different behaviors were found as a function of the solvent composition, taking into account classic models of polymer science. A power law relationship between viscosity and gelatin concentration was found for each solvent system, and an empirical model including the influence of acetic acid was obtained for aqueous systems. Moreover, a ternary diagram considering gelatin, water, and acetic acid mass fractions was constructed as a tool to establish the electrospinnability domains in terms of fiber occurrence and morphology. Also, the isodiametric curves were defined in the fibers region. Finally, in order to correlate the diameter of electrospun nanofibers and the electrospinnability zones, the Berry number was used. However, as its only allows the range of electrospinnability to be established for a fixed solvent composition, a new dimensionless parameter (Bemod) was suggested to take into account all the acetic acid aqueous solutions as a single solvent

  • Membranes catalytiques contenant de nano-particules métalliques pour le traitement quaternaire des eaux usées

     Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Domènech Garcia, Berta; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Lahitte, Jean-François; Remigy, Jean-Christophe
    Intégration des membranes dans les procédés
    p. 176
    Presentation's date: 2014-04-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Biocomposites using waste whole chicken feathers and thermoplastic matrices

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Rahhali, Ahmed; Cañavate Avila, Francisco Javier; Colom Fajula, Xavier
    Journal of reinforced plastics and composites
    Vol. 32, num. 19, p. 1419-1429
    DOI: 10.1177/0731684413500546
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    This study deals with the preparation and characterization of thermoplastic composites using polypropylene, high-density polyethylene and polylactic acid matrices and including whole chicken feathers as reinforcement. The behaviour of the composites was determined in terms of physical and mechanical properties, which were related to the fibre¿matrix compatibility analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of chicken feathers into the thermoplastic matrices results in a slight increase in the stiffness when small amounts of chicken feathers (5¿10% vol/vol) were incorporated into the composites. Tensile strength at maximum load, elongation at break and toughness properties decreased when the chicken feather concentration was increased. Results for chicken feather¿polypropylene composites were analogous to chicken feather¿high-density polyethylene and chicken feather¿polylactic acid composites. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study and the scanning electron micrographs suggest that the insufficient compatibility of chicken feather and polymer matrices is the main reason for the decrease in tensile properties

    This study deals with the preparation and characterization of thermoplastic composites using polypropylene, high-density polyethylene and polylactic acid matrices and including whole chicken feathers as reinforcement. The behaviour of the composites was determined in terms of physical and mechanical properties, which were related to the fibre–matrix compatibility analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of chicken feathers into the thermoplastic matrices results in a slight increase in the stiffness when small amounts of chicken feathers (5–10% vol/vol) were incorporated into the composites. Tensile strength at maximum load, elongation at break and toughness properties decreased when the chicken feather concentration was increased. Results for chicken feather–polypropylene composites were analogous to chicken feather–high-density polyethylene and chicken feather–polylactic acid composites. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study and the scanning electron micrographs suggest that the insufficient compatibility of chicken feather and polymer matrices is the main reason for the decrease in tensile properties

  • Thermosensitive fibres of lyocell/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide): multiparametric analysis for studying the graft copolymerization

     Erencia Millan, Maria Salud; López Mesas, Montserrat; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Polymer international
    Vol. 62, num. 9, p. 1316-1323
    DOI: 10.1002/pi.4423
    Date of publication: 2013-12-17
    Journal article

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    The thermosensitive properties of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) together with the good mechanical properties of lyocell fibres make a combination of the two to be thought of as a smart textile. In the present study the optimal values of various parameters that control the grafting process of pNIPAAm onto lyocell fibres were determined considering the influence of the interaction between them. The copolymerization of pNIPAAm hydrogel onto lyocell fibres was performed in aqueous acidic medium using cerium(IV) as initiator. An experimental design was planned in order to study the effect of the interactions between some variables that affect the kinetics of the graft copolymerization: the cerium(IV) initiator concentration, the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer concentration and the liquor fibre-to-bath ratio. The results show that the interaction between the concentrations of NIPAAm and the initiator significantly affects the degree of grafting (DG), the optimum values being 1250 and 12.25 mmol L-1, respectively. In contrast, the liquor ratio parameter shows no significant interaction with the other two variables studied, meaning that it acts independently but showing a proportional relationship with respect to the DG obtained. In addition, the presence of pNIPAAm in the copolymer obtained was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Moreover, the water sorption capacity, depending on the temperature, of the lyocell/pNIPAAm copolymer was studied, with an increase being observed when the DG is higher than 60% and also increasingwith the temperature

    The thermosensitive properties of the hydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) together with the good mechanical properties of lyocell fibres make a combination of the two to be thought of as a smart textile. In the present study the optimal values of various parameters that control the grafting process of pNIPAAm onto lyocell fibres were determined considering the influence of the interaction between them. The copolymerization of pNIPAAm hydrogel onto lyocell fibres was performed in aqueous acidic medium using cerium(IV) as initiator. An experimental design was planned in order to study the effect of the interactions between some variables that affect the kinetics of the graft copolymerization: the cerium(IV) initiator concentration, the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer concentration and the liquor fibre-to-bath ratio. The results show that the interaction between the concentrations of NIPAAm and the initiator significantly affects the degree of grafting (DG), the optimum values being 1250 and 12.25 mmol L−1, respectively. In contrast, the liquor ratio parameter shows no significant interaction with the other two variables studied, meaning that it acts independently but showing a proportional relationship with respect to the DG obtained. In addition, the presence of pNIPAAm in the copolymer obtained was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis. Moreover, the water sorption capacity, depending on the temperature, of the lyocell/pNIPAAm copolymer was studied, with an increase being observed when the DG is higher than 60% and also increasing with the temperature

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    Development of novel catalytically active polymer-metal-nanocomposites based on activated foams and textile fibers  Open access

     Domènech Garcia, Berta; Ziegler, Kharla; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Macanás de Benito, Jorge
    Nanoscale research letters
    Vol. 8, num. 1, p. 238-243
    DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-238
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    In this paper, we report the intermatrix synthesis of Ag nanoparticles in different polymeric matrices such as polyurethane foams and polyacrylonitrile or polyamide fibers. To apply this technique, the polymer must bear functional groups able to bind and retain the nanoparticle ion precursors while ions should diffuse through the matrix. Taking into account the nature of some of the chosen matrices, it was essential to try to activate the support material to obtain an acceptable value of ion exchange capacity. To evaluate the catalytic activity of the developed nanocomposites, a model catalytic reaction was carried out in batch experiments: the reduction of pnitrophenol by sodium borohydride

  • Determinación de la tendencia a la formación de pelusilla y de bolitas

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2013-02-22
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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire del tejido

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-02-11
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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire de los tejidos

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-03-01
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  • Grado de blanco, tanto base como óptico. Resistencia a la tracción en seco y en mojado. Incrustación inorgánica. Determinación cualitativa de hierro. pH del extracto acuoso

     Cayuela Marin, Diana; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2013-01-30
    Report

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  • Valoración del grado de polimerización de una sábana

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana
    Date: 2013-02-12
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  • Descrudado y acabado impermeable de un tejido tipo lona

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-02-15
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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire del tejido

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-03-08
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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire de los tejidos

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-01-09
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  • Eliminación de arrugas

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-01-21
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  • Determinación de la causa de la rotura de las servilletas

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2013-03-05
    Report

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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire del tejido

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-02-14
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  • Determinación de la permeabilidad al aire de los tejidos

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Prieto Fuentes, M. Remedios; Duran Serra, Aïda
    Date: 2013-01-31
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  • Chicken feathers based biocomposites: a new sustainable product?

     Molins Duran, Gemma; Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores; Garrido Soriano, Nuria; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    LCA Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Plastic composites are made of polymers and different reinforcements that originally were synthetic and non-biodegradable. Since 1990¿s, many biodegradable composites, formed by a biodegradable matrix and natural fibers, have been proposed. In spite of the advantages of biocomposites, it is important to ponder the technical drawbacks of these natural fibers, mainly from a vegetable origin, and their environmental impacts (EIs). Vegetable fibers imply a land use that can compete with food production. Chicken feathers (CFs), made of keratin fibers, are a potential alternative as they are a waste material, produced in large quantities (800,000 ton/year in EU-27), do not compete with human food production and have been scarcely used up to now. Taking on board these premises, a biocomposite made of PLA and CFs was fabricated at lab-scale as new material. However, before using CFs as reinforcement, sanitizing pretreatments have been envisaged before, due to their quick decay. The EIs of these treatments were experimentally quantified and a cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate altogether the impacts of manufacturing a technical panel with different content of CFs (up to 35% v/v). As main results, the avoided burdens of the CF waste treatment and the energy consumption for the drying step must be optimized to achieve lower EIs for the preparation of CFs/PLA composites

    Plastic composites are made of polymers and different reinforcements that originally were synthetic and non-biodegradable. Since 1990’s, many biodegradable composites, formed by a biodegradable matrix and natural fibers, have been proposed. In spite of the advantages of biocomposites, it is important to ponder the technical drawbacks of these natural fibers, mainly from a vegetable origin, and their environmental impacts (EIs). Vegetable fibers imply a land use that can compete with food production. Chicken feathers (CFs), made of keratin fibers, are a potential alternative as they are a waste material, produced in large quantities (800,000 ton/year in EU-27), do not compete with human food production and have been scarcely used up to now. Taking on board these premises, a biocomposite made of PLA and CFs was fabricated at lab-scale as new material. However, before using CFs as reinforcement, sanitizing pretreatments have been envisaged before, due to their quick decay. The EIs of these treatments were experimentally quantified and a cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate altogether the impacts of manufacturing a technical panel with different content of CFs (up to 35% v/v). As main results, the avoided burdens of the CF waste treatment and the energy consumption for the drying step must be optimized to achieve lower EIs for the preparation of CFs/PLA composites

  • Textile nanocomposites: The role of the glass transition temperature during the synthesis

     Domènech Garcia, Berta; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Muñoz Tapia, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.
    International Symposium Frontiers in Polymer Science
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Over the last years, the demand of textile products with enhanced functionalities, such as antibacterial, antistatic, stain resistant, or UV protective has grown considerably. These materials must satisfy not only the final costumer needs, yet the manufacturer economic aspects, but also the growing ecological concerns. In this sense, intensive development of Nanotechnology in the field of the nano-structures generation has contributed with a new interesting insight. With the application of the nanotechnology to textile fibers, new products with totally new or far improved functions with protective properties for humans and the environment can be easily obtained, without modifying the intrinsic textile properties. In this work we present the Inter-Matrix Synthesis (IMS) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in different polymeric textile fibers such as polyacrylonitrile and polyamide fibers.

  • A new approach of chicken feathers thermoplastic composites

     Colom Fajula, Xavier; Rahalli, Ahmmed; Cañavate Avila, Francisco Javier; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Frontiers in Polymer Science
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In order to achieve a suitable and useful composite material, one of the most important aspects is the study of its behavior in terms of mechanical properties and in terms of its dimensional stability. This study is aimed to the analysis and characterization of composites based on thermoplastics (EVA, PP and HDPE) including chicken feathers (CFs). Several composite samples with a content of 20% of CFs have been characterized and the results have shown that: the addition of micronized chicken feather to different matrices in small-middle quantities as a filler, improves the stiffness and provides a more brittle behavior and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) matrix shows better mechanical properties because of the ability to interact with chicken feather, thus providing better tensile properties (tensile strength and toughness) than polyolephinic matrix FTIR spectroscopy analysis show that few interactions appear between polyolephinic matrices and CF¿s reinforcement and carbonyl group of acetate matrix component (EVA), interacts with amine group assigned to CFs reinforcement, improving the ability to establish a link between the material¿s components. SEM micrographs show differences depending on the matrix used. Chemical composition in EVA defines suitable conditions to create chemical interactions and improve the compatibility with chicken feather. The fracture surfaces indicate that there is interfacial adhesion of the matrix to the chicken feather particles due mainly to the described interaction of the carbonyl group of acetate component of matrix and amine group of keratin constituent of feather. On the other hand SEM microphotographs show that polyolefinic matrices don¿t seem to achieve a good compatibility with CF. The results obtained for mechanical properties are justified in the light of these considerations.

  • Development of new materials including ground tyre rubber

     Cañavate Avila, Francisco Javier; Casas Carné, M. del Pilar; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Colom Fajula, Xavier
    International Conference on Rubber & Rubber-Like Materials
    p. 25-26
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Colour fastness

     Valldeperas Morell, Jose; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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  • Determinar la causa de la rotura del tejido

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen
    Date: 2012-06-04
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  • Análisis cualitativo del tejido de la chaqueta negra

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana
    Date: 2012-03-02
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  • Solidez de las tinturas al agua de mar

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-03-09
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  • Grado de blanco expresado en berger

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-06-22
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  • Grado de blanco tanto base, como óptico. Resistencia a la tracción

     Cayuela Marin, Diana; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen
    Date: 2012-02-17
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  • Factor de protección ultravioleta de cuatro tejidos

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-02-17
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  • FeatherTech: development of an innovative technology for the valorisation of feather waste into a new resource material

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio; Macanás de Benito, Jorge; Domenech Trujillo, Maria Carmen
    Date: 2012-10-16
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  • Determinar diferentes solideces

     Cayuela Marin, Diana; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-10-16
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  • Solidez al lavado de dos chandals

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-02-23
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  • Resistencia a la tracción en seco y mojado. Grado de blanco

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-05-16
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  • Naturaleza de las manchas de dos sábanas

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-03-09
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  • Informe técnico de seguimiento de calidad de las prendas

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2012-06-05
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  • To develop a procedure to improve light fastness

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-03-26
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  • Composición cuantitativa

     Cayuela Marin, Diana; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-06-21
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  • Informe técnico sobre la bondad del proceso de lavado

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana; Gutierrez Bouzan, Maria Carmen; Tornero Garcia, Jose Antonio
    Date: 2012-06-13
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  • Solidez al lavado doméstico y comercial

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando
    Date: 2012-07-04
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  • Causa de la pérdida de resistencia del tejido: influencia del producto humectante

     Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Cayuela Marin, Diana
    Date: 2012-06-13
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