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    Vulnerability of sandy coasts to climate variability  Open access

     Idier, Deborah; Castelle, Bruno; Poumadère, Marc; Balouin, Yann; Bohn Bertoldo, Raquel; Bouchette, Fréderic; Boulahya, Faiza; Brivois, Olivier; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Capo, Sylvain; Certain, Raphael; Charles, Elodie; Chateauminois, Eric; Delvallée, Etienne; Falques Serra, Alberto; Fattal, Paul; Garcin, Manuel; Garnier, Roland Charles; Héquette, Arnaud; Larroudé, Philippe; Lecacheux, Sophie; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Maanan, Mohamed; Mallet, Cyril; Maspataud, Aurélie; Oliveros, Carlos; Paillart, Martin; Parisot, Jean-Paul; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Robin, Nicolas; Robin, Marc; Romieu, Emmanuel; Ruz, Marie-Hélène; Thiebot, Jerome; Vinchon, Charlotte
    Climate research
    Date of publication: 2013-06-13
    Journal article

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    The main objective of the VULSACO (VULnerability of SAndy COasts to climate change and anthropic pressure) project was to investigate present day and potential future vulnerability of sandy coasts at the 2030 horizon, i.e. on a time scale related to climate variability. The method, based on a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geologists, geographers, physicists, social psychologists, engineers and stakeholders, was structured around 4 axes: field data analysis; numerical modelling; analysis of governance and stakeholder perceptions; and development of vulnerability indexes. This approach was designed to investigate vulnerability at a local scale and was applied to 4 contrasting beaches located in France: Sète Lido (Mediterranean Sea), Truc Vert and La Tresson beaches (Atlantic Ocean), and Dewulf (English Channel). The results focus on decadal and multi-annual beach trends at the Truc Vert beach site. There is almost no trend in beach volume at Truc Vert beach, although there is a variation in this parameter on a cycle of 2 to 3 yr, with variations related to wave energy and probably to indexes of climate variability. Numerical modelling identified the sensitivity of beach responses to changes in wave height and direction, especially in terms of subtidal morphology and the potential development of shoreline instability. Together with the observed offshore wave angle at the Biscay Buoy, these model results suggest that a potential change in wave angle due to climate variability could significantly modify the bars¿ morphology. The combination of data analysis and numerical modelling contributed to the development of vulnerability indexes designed for sandy coasts, which take into account climate-dependant variables such as waves. This allowed the differentiation of the sites in terms of vulnerability to erosion: Sète Lido and Truc Vert beach were the most and least vulnerable sites, respectively.

    The main objective of the VULSACO (VULnerability of SAndy COasts to climate change and anthropic pressure) project was to investigate present day and potential future vulnerability of sandy coasts at the 2030 horizon, i.e. on a time scale related to climate variability. The method, based on a multidisciplinary approach bringing together geologists, geographers, physicists, social psychologists, engineers and stakeholders, was structured around 4 axes: field data analysis; numerical modelling; analysis of governance and stakeholder perceptions; and development of vulnerability indexes. This approach was designed to investigate vulnerability at a local scale and was applied to 4 contrasting beaches located in France: Sète Lido (Mediterranean Sea), Truc Vert and La Tresson beaches (Atlantic Ocean), and Dewulf (English Channel). The results focus on decadal and multi-annual beach trends at the Truc Vert beach site. There is almost no trend in beach volume at Truc Vert beach, although there is a variation in this parameter on a cycle of 2 to 3 yr, with variations related to wave energy and probably to indexes of climate variability. Numerical modelling identified the sensitivity of beach responses to changes in wave height and direction, especially in terms of subtidal morphology and the potential development of shoreline instability. Together with the observed offshore wave angle at the Biscay Buoy, these model results suggest that a potential change in wave angle due to climate variability could significantly modify the bars’ morphology. The combination of data analysis and numerical modelling contributed to the development of vulnerability indexes designed for sandy coasts, which take into account climate-dependant variables such as waves. This allowed the differentiation of the sites in terms of vulnerability to erosion: Sète Lido and Truc Vert beach were the most and least vulnerable sites, respectively. These indexes help in identifying the dominant components of beach vulnerability, and provide potential for the study of how anthropogenic factors affect vulnerability. The study of stakeholder perceptions and decision-making with regard to climate-related risk also highlighted potential anthropogenic effects on beach vulnerability, and identified possible site-specific outcomes.

  • On the predictability of mid-term cross-shore profile evolution

     Fernandez Mora, Maria de Los Angeles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Ribas Prats, Francesca; Idier, Deborah
    Journal of coastal research
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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  • A mechanism for sandbar straightening by oblique wave incidence

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Thiebot, Jerome; Ribas Prats, Francesca
    Geophysical research letters
    Date of publication: 2013-06-06
    Journal article

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    Breaker bars in the surf zone of sandy beaches generally evolve between straight bars parallel to the shore and meandering crescentic bars associated with intense (dangerous) currents flowing seaward through rip channels. Understanding the behavior of such systems is fundamental as they control the entire surf zone dynamics, the shape of the coastline, and the exchange of floating material with the shoreface. Although the mechanisms behind the meandering of an originally straight bar have been studied extensively, a clear physical explanation on the crescentic bar straightening was missing. Recent field observations have highlighted that this morphological reset can be due to wave obliquity. By using a two-dimensional horizontal morphological model, we show that the bar straightening by oblique waves occurs because the rip current is both weakened in intensity and shifted downdrift from the channel deepest section. The technique employed is useful for the study of other types of bed forms.

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    Effect of surface rollers on the formation of crescentic bars: large angles of incidence  Open access

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Falques Serra, Alberto
    International Conference on Coastal Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The formation of crescentic bars is examined using a morphodynamic model based in linear stability analysis. The effect of surface rollers for off-normal wave conditions is examined. The effect of the rollers is to increase the e-folding times with increasing the angle of incidence. For angles large enough the formation of crescentic bars is even inhibit. The main effect of the rollers it be through hydrodynamics. The longitudinal changes in current produced by the rollers cause the maximum of sediment concentration to be shifted towards the coast with the final effect of prevent the formation of crecscentic bars.

  • Modeling and analyzing observed transverse sand bars in the surf zone

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2012-04-25
    Journal article

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  • Modelling the dynamics of large scale shoreline sand waves  Open access

     Van den Berg, Niels
    Defense's date: 2012-05-11
    Department of Applied Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Shoreline sand waves are shoreline undulations with a length scale of several kilometres and a time scale of years to decades. They occur on many coasts, migrating in the direction of the dominant littoral drift and they introduce a variability into the shoreline position that can be greater than the long term coastal trend. The objective of this thesis is to provide more insight into the formation and dynamics of shoreline sand waves and, in particular, to explore the role of the so called high angle wave instability. Previous studies showed that the shoreline can be unstable under very oblique wave incidence. This high angle wave instability develops due to the feedback of shoreline changes and the associated changes in the bathymetry into the wave field. Wave propagation over this perturbed bathymetry leads to specific gradients in the alongshore transport that can cause the growth and migration of shoreline sand waves. In this thesis a quasi 2D non-linear morphodynamical model is improved and used to explore high angle wave instability and predict the formation and evolution of shoreline sand waves. The model assumes that the large scale and long term shoreline dynamics is controlled by the wave driven alongshore transport so that the details of the surfzone morphodynamics are not resolved. It overcomes some of the limitations of previous modelling studies on high angle wave instability. The wave field is computed with a simple wave module over the evolving bathymetry and an empirical formula is used to compute the alongshore transport. Cross-shore dynamics is described in a parameterized way and the model is capable of describing shoreline perturbations with a finite and dynamic cross-shore extent. The conditions under which shoreline instability can lead to the formation of shoreline sand waves are refined. Generic simulations with constant wave conditions and random initial perturbations show that the shoreline becomes unstable when the wave incidence angle at the depth of closure (i.e., the most offshore extent of the shoreline perturbations) is larger than a critical angle of about 42 degrees and shoreline sand waves develop in unison. The cross-shore dynamics plays an essential role because it determines the offshore extent of the shoreline perturbations. Using default model parameters, wave conditions and cross-shore profile, the sand waves develop with wavelengths between 2 and 5 km, the time scale for their formation is between 5 and 10 years and they migrate downdrift at about 0.5 km/yr. Simulations with a localized large scale perturbation trigger the formation of a downdrift sand wave train. Larger wave obliquity, higher waves and shorter wave periods strengthen the shoreline instability. A more realistic wave climate, with alternating high and low angle wave incidence reduces the potential for shoreline instability. A percentage of about 80% of high angle waves is required for sand wave formation. It is demonstrated that the range of low wave angles that can occur on a coast is larger than the range of high wave angles, and that the stabilizing effect produced by low angle waves (causing diffusion) is bigger than the destabilizing effect produced by high angle waves (causing growth and migration). Even if high angle waves are not dominant, the instability mechanism might still play a role in the persistence and downdrift migration of large scale shoreline perturbations. The model results are in qualitative agreement with observations of shoreline sand waves. The quasi 2D approach provides new insight into the physical mechanisms behind high angle wave instability and the occurrence of a minimal and optimal length scale for sand wave formation. Essential physical processes are wave energy dispersion due to wave refraction, wave energy focusing near the crest of a sand wave and the monotonic decrease of the gradients in alongshore transport for increasing length scales.

    Les ones de sorra a la línia de costa són ondulacions de la línia de costa amb una escala espacial de kilòmetres i una escala temporal d’anys a dècades. Ocorren a moltes costes, migren en la direcció del transport litoral i introdueixen una variabilitat a la línia de costa que pot ser major que la seva tendència a llarg termini. L’objectiu d’aquesta tesi és estudiar amb més profunditat la formació i la dinàmica de les ones de sorra i, més concretament, explorar el rol de l’anomenada inestabilitat d’angle gran. Estudis previs van demostrar que la línia de costa pot ser inestable en cas d’onades obliqües que incideixen amb un angle gran. Aquesta inestabilitat d’angle gran es produeix degut a la retroalimentació entre els canvis a la línia de costa (i els que conseqüentment ocorren a la batimetria) i els canvis al camp d’onades. La propagació de les onades sobre la batimetria pertorbada crea gradients del transport de sediment longitudinal que causen el creixement i la migració de les ones de sorra. En aquesta tesi s’ha millorat un model morfodinàmic quasi 2D i no lineal per usar-lo per explorar la inestabilitat d’angle gran i predir la formació i evolució de les ones de sorra. El model assumeix que la dinàmica a gran escala i llarg termini està dominada pel transport de sediment longitudinal produït per les onades de manera que la morfodinàmica de la zona de rompents no es detalla. S’han superat algunes de les limitacions dels estudis anteriors de modelat de la inestabilitat d’angle gran. El camp d’onades es calcula amb un mòdul senzill de propagació sobre la batimetria canviant i el transport longitudinal s’estima usant una fórmula empírica. La dinàmica transversal es parametritza per descriure pertorbacions de la línia de costa amb una extensió transversal finita i dinàmica. S’han refinat les condicions sota les quals la inestabilitat d’angle gran produeix la formació d’ones de sorra. Les simulacions amb condicions constants d’onades i pertorbacions inicials aleatòries mostren que la línia de costa esdevé inestable quan l’angle d’incidència a la profunditat de tancament és major que un angle de 42 graus i les ones de sorra es desenvolupen a l’uníson. La dinàmica transversal té un rol essencial al determinar l’extensió transversal de les pertorbacions. Usant els valors per defecte dels paràmetres del model, les ones de sorra tenen espaiats d’entre 2 i 5 km i temps de creixement d’entre 5 i 10 anys, i migren en la direcció del transport a uns 0.5 km/any. Les simulacions també mostren que una pertorbació inicial localitzada desencadena la formació d’un tren d’ones de sorra. Com més obliqües i grans són les onades i com menor és el seu període major és la inestabilitat. Un clima d’onatge més realista, alternant onades d’angle d’incidència gran i petit, redueix el potencial de la inestabilitat d’angle gran. Calen almenys un 80% d’onades d’angle gran perquè es formin ones de sorra. El rang d’onades d’angle petit que poden succeir en una costa és major que el d’onades d’angle gran, i l’efecte estabilitzador de les onades d’angle petit (que produeix difusió) és més important que l’efecte desestabilitzador de les onades d’angle gran (que produeix creixement i migració). Fins i tot si les onades d’angle gran no dominen, el mecanisme d’inestabilitat pot tenir un paper important en la persistència i migració de pertorbacions de la línia de costa a gran escala. Els resultats s’assemblen qualitativament a les observacions d’ones de sorra. L’enfocament quasi 2D permet estudiar més detalls del mecanisme físic que hi ha darrere de la inestabilitat d’angle gran i del fet que existeixin longituds d’ona mínima i òptima per la formació d’ones de sorra. Els processos físics essencials són la dispersió de l’energia de l’onatge degut a la refracció, la concentració d’energia de les onades a les crestes de les ones de sorra i el decreixement monòton del transport litoral quan augmenta l’escala espacial.

  • On the use of linear stability model to characterize the morphological behaviour of a double bar system. Application to Truc Vert beach (France)

     Brivois, Olivier; Idier, Déborah; Thiébot, Jérôme; Castelle, Bruno; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Comptes rendus géoscience
    Date of publication: 2012-05-22
    Journal article

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    Modelling the formation of transverse sand bars: application to Duck beach, USA  Open access

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A morphodynamic model has been applied to explain the formation of transverse sand bars at Duck beach, USA. The model describes the feedback between waves, rollers, depth-averaged currents and bed evolution, so that self-organized processes can develop. The wave and bathymetric conditions measured at Duck are used to perform the simulations. Subsequently, modelled bar characteristics are compared with those observed there. Realistic positive feedback leading to formation of the observed bars only occurs if the resuspension of sediment due to bore turbulence is included in the model. Also, the offshore root mean square wave height must be larger than 0.5 m and the offshore wave incidence angle larger than 15o (offshore boundary is at 8 m depth), conditions that occur at Duck only 25% of the time. The modelled shape (wavelength, cross-shore extent and crest orientation) and growth rate agree with data, but the model overestimates the migration rates.

  • Formation of shoreface-connected sand ridges: effects of rigid-lid approach, quasi-steady approach and wave-topography feedbacks

     Nnafie, Abdel; de Swart, H.E.; Garnier, Roland Charles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The initial- and long-term evolution of shoreface-connected sand ridges (sfcr) is investigated with a new nonlinear model (MORFO56) that employs finite difference methods, rather than spectral methods. MORFO56 uses depth-averaged shallow water equations, including sediment transport and bed updating. Moreover, it includes full wave-topography feedbacks, wave shoaling and refraction, and wave radiation stresses. First, effects of relaxing the rigid-lid assumption and quasi-steadiness on the initial growth and migration of sfcr are quantified, by conducting a series of short-term runs. It turns out that assuming a free lid and unsteady flow results in larger wavelengths and larger migration speeds of sfcr. Furthermore, the new model is able to simulate the finite amplitude behaviour of sfcr for more realistic bottom slopes than earlier spectral models. Finally, the role of wave-topography feedbacks in the initial formation of sfcr is examined. Model simulations show that sfcr in the presence of these feedbacks are more trapped to the shoreface, with an offshore extent of approximately 1 km. Moreover, growth of sfcr is enhanced considerably by wave-topography feedbacks. The specific inclusion of radiation stresses does not affect this result.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Effect of surface rollers on the formation crescentic bars

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; de Swart, H.E.; Ribas Prats, Francesca; Falques Serra, Alberto
    River Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The effect of surface rollers on the formation of crescentic bars/rip channel systems is examined with a morphodynamic model. A linear stability analysis is applied to find the fastest growing bottom patterns that develop as a result of morphodynamics self-organization. Explorations of sensitivity of model results to varying wave conditions have been performed. Special attention has been paid to off-normal wave conditions. There are noticeable differences in growth rates for large/intermediate angles of wave incidence with respect to shore normal conditions. The effect of the rollers is to increase the e-folding times with increasing the angle of incidence. For angles large enough the formation of crescentic bars is even inhibit. The effect of the rollers in wavelengths, migration velocities of the bedforms and bed morphologies of the FGM is minor. Flow velocities on the rips are a factor 2 smaller in the models with rollers than in the model without rollers.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Modeling waves, currents and sandbars on natural beaches: The effect of surface rollers

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    Journal of marine systems
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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  • Shoreline instability due to very oblique wave incidence: some remarks on the physics

     Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Ribas Prats, Francesca
    Journal of coastal research
    Date of publication: 2011-03
    Journal article

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  • Modeling sandbar morphodynamics by linear stability analysis: application to the Lido de Sete beach

     Thiebot, Jerome; Idier, Deborah; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Certain, Raphael; Garnier, Roland Charles
    Houille blanche
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    Mechanisms controlling crescentic bar amplitude  Open access

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Dodd, Nicholas; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2010-04-15
    Journal article

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    The formation of crescentic bars from self-organization of an initially straight shore-parallel bar for shore-normal incident waves is simulated with a two-dimensional horizontal morphodynamical model. The aim is to investigate the mechanisms behind the saturation process defined as the transition between the linear regime (maximum and constant growth of the crescentic pattern) and the saturated state (negligible growth). The global properties of the morphodynamical patterns over the whole computational domain are studied (“global analysis”). In particular, consideration of the balance of the potential energy of the emerging bar gives its growth rate from the difference between a production term (related to the positive feedback leading to the instability) and a damping term (from the gravity-driven downslope transport). The production is approximately proportional to the average over the domain of the cross-shore flow velocity times the bed level perturbation. The damping is essential for the onset of the saturation, but it remains constant while the production decreases. Thus, it is notable that the saturation occurs because of a weakening of the instability mechanism rather than an increase of the damping. A reason for the saturation of the crescentic bar growth is the change in bar shape from its initial stage rather than the growth in amplitude itself. This change is mainly characterized by the narrowing of the rip channels, the onshore migration of the crests, and the change in the mean beach profile due to alongshore variability. These properties agree with observations of mature rip channel systems in nature.

  • A field test of a linear stability model for crescentic bars

     Tiessen, M C H; Leeuwen, S M Van; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Dodd, N
    Coastal engineering
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Journal article

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    A morphodynamical linear stability analysis is used to predict the natural development of crescentic bed patterns and rip channels. The purpose is to investigate whether this technique, which is useful for understanding the physics of emerging bed-forms, can be used to make quantitative predictions in the field, which may then be of use for coastal engineers. To this end a morphodynamical linear stability model (Morfo60) is used to describe the development of crescentic bed patterns at the coast at the USACE Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, USA. Wave, tide and alongshore-averaged bathymetry data recorded at Duck over a 2 month period in 1998 are used to model the development of these morphodynamical patterns at an open coast. The model predictions are compared with field observations by van Enckevort et al. (2004) made at Duck using the Argus imaging technique, over the same 2 month period. Field observations and model predictions show similar length scales of the crescentic bed patterns. Immediately after a storm, large length scales of around 500 to 800 m are predicted and observed, which in a couple of days decrease to around 150 to 400 m, until the next storm occurs. The model predictions show more fluctuations in the predicted length scale than those observed in the field. These fluctuations are due to variations in the wave conditions and tidal level and the lack of pre-existing bed patterns in a linear stability analysis. An algorithm is developed to identify the more physically significant model predictions based on large growth rates and consistency in length scales. The presented algorithm, referred to as a Physically Significant Development (PSD) algorithm, is able systematically to identify the more physically representative model results. These compare better with field observations, as shown by the good agreement between predicted and observed crescentic bed pattern length scales. Accordingly, the conclusion is that linear stability analysis in combination with an appropriate physically based significant development algorithm may be of use to coastal engineers.

  • MODELIZACIÓN Y MONITARIZACIÓN INTEGRADAS EN MORFODINAMICA DE PLAYAS NATURALES Y REGENERADAS

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Ribas Prats, Francesca; Caballeria Suriñach, Miquel; Garnier, Roland Charles; Guillén Aranda, Jorge; Van den Berg, Niels; Fernández Mora, Mª Àngels; Falques Serra, Alberto
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • The role of the depth-averaged concentration in coastal morphodynamics

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; de Swart, H.E.; Dodd, Nicholas; Ribas Prats, Francesca; Garnier, Roland Charles
    International Conference on Coastal Dynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this contribution a discussion is presented on the development of self-organized coastal morphodynamic patterns which are due to the joint action of gradients in the depth-integrated concentration and the flow. This is done in the context of a depth-averaged shallow water model. Two physical mechanisms produce deposition-erosion patterns. Deposition either occurs where the current flows from high to low depth-averaged concentrations (1) or where the flow diverges (2). If flow conditions are quasi steady (i.e., the time scale on which bedforms evolve is much larger than the hydrodynamic time scales) only the former mechanism contributes to the formation of bottom patterns.

  • The use of linear stability analysis to characterize the variability of multiple sandbar systems

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Coco, Giovanni
    International Conference on Coastal Dynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The development and evolution of crescentic patterns in double-barred systems is explored using a morphodynamic stability model. The description of the surf zone hydrodynamics is based on depth and wave averaged conditions while sediment transport is calculated using a total load formula. The linear stability analysis predicts that an initially rectilinear coast, subject to infinitesimal perturbations and under normal wave incidence, is unstable and can result in the development of crescentic shapes that can be coupled either in-phase (highs and lows of both sandbars are at the same alongshore position) or out-of-phase (highs and lows of one sandbar correspond to lows and highs of the other sandbar). Results of numerical simulations are sensitive to some of the parameterizations used in the description of hydrodynamics. Changes in the breaker index can have an effect not only on the spacing and growth rate of the pattern but also on the type of pattern that develops. An increase in the breaker index leads to a faster growth of the pattern but also to a smaller alongshore spacing. The role of parameterizations in lateral mixing and roughness length appear to be limited.

  • A mechanism inhibiting rip channel formation for oblique waves

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Dodd, Nicholas; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    International Conference on Coastal Dynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Previous numerical modelling studies based on 2DH morphodynamical model show that oblique waves tend to inhibit the formation of rip channel systems, but the mechanisms were not investigated. Field observations do not always agree with this model result, thus, understanding the mechanisms seems essential. To this end, the global analysis technique, originally developed to describe the long term behavior of bars (saturation of the bar growth), is also applied here to the initial stage of the bar evolution (formation of the bars). As a result, rip channels grow slower for larger wave angle because of the weakening of the instability mechanism -that only depends on the cross-shore current- rather than the increase of the damping due to the diffusive bedslope transport.

  • Effect of wave-bedform feedbacks on the formation of, and grain sorting over shoreface-connected sand ridges

     Vis-Star, Nc; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; de Swart, H.E.
    Ocean dynamics
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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    The influence of wave–bedform feedbacks on both the initial formation of shoreface-connected sand ridges (sfcr) and on grain size sorting over these ridges on micro-tidal inner shelves is studied. Also, the effect of sediment sorting on the growth and the migration of sfcr is investigated. This is done by applying a linear stability analysis to an idealized process-based morphodynamic model, which simulates the initial growth of sfcr due to the positive coupling between waves, currents, and an erodible bed. The sediment consists of sand grains with two different sizes. New elements with respect to earlier studies on grain sorting over sfcr are that wave-topography interactions are explicitly accounted for, entrainment of sediment depends on bottom roughness, and transport of suspended sediment involves settling lag effects. The results of the model indicate that sediment sorting causes a reduction of the growth rate and migration speed of sfcr, whereas the wavelength is only slightly affected. In the case where the entrainment of suspended sediment depends on bottom roughness, the coarsest sediment is found in the troughs; otherwise, the finest sediment occurs in the troughs. Compared to previous work, modeled maximum variations in the mean grain size over the topography are in better agreement with field observations. Settling lag effects are important for the damping of high-wavenumber mode instabilities such that a preferred wavelength of the bedforms is obtained.

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    The role of surface rollers on the formation of surfzone transverse sand bars  Open access

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    International Conference on Coastal Dynamics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Modelling the formation and the long-term behavior of rip channel systems from the deformation of a longshore bar  Open access

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Dodd, N
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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    A nonlinear numerical model based on a wave- and depth-averaged shallow water equation solver with wave driver, sediment transport, and bed updating is used to investigate the long-term evolution of rip channel systems appearing from the deformation of a longshore bar. Linear and nonlinear regimes in the morphological evolution have been studied. In the linear regime, a crescentic bar system emerges as a free instability. In the nonlinear regime, merging/splitting in bars and saturation of the growth are obtained. In spite of excluding undertow and wave-asymmetry sediment transport, the initial crescentic bar system reorganizes to form a large-scale and shore-attached transverse or oblique bar system, which is found to be a dynamical equilibrium state of the beach system. Thus the basic morphological transitions “Longshore Bar and Trough” → “Rhythmic Bar and Beach” → “Transverse Bar and Rip” described by earlier conceptual models are here reproduced. The study of the physical mechanisms allows us to understand the role of the different transport modes: The advective part induces the formation of crescentic bars and megacusps, and the bedslope transport damps the instability. Both terms contribute to the attachment of the megacusps to the crescentic bars. Depending on the wave forcing, the bar wavelength ranges between 180 and 250 m (165 and 320 m) in the linear (nonlinear) regime.

  • Rhythmic surf zone bars and morphodynamic self-organization

     Falques Serra, Alberto; Dodd, N; Garnier, Roland Charles; Ribas Prats, Francesca; Machardy, L C; Larroude, Philippe; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Sancho, F
    Coastal engineering
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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  • Modelling the formation and the nonlinear evolution of crescentic bars of the Aquitanian coast

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Bonneton, P; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Houille blanche
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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    Crescentic bars emerge as free instabilities of the coupling between topography and water motion. Their long term behaviour will be studied in the real case of the French Aquitaine beaches by using the 2DH numerical model MORFO55. For the first time, the equilibrium state of a crescentic bar system is obtained, in the case of steady incident wave conditions. Due to non linear interactions, the final wave length of the system does not inevitably increase with the incident wave height. Finally, the study of variable incident wave conditions suggests that the equilibrium state may depend on the initial conditions.

  • Nonlinear modelling of shoreface-connected ridges; impact of grain sorting and interventions

     de Swart, H.E.; Walgreen, M; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Vis-Star, N C
    Coastal engineering
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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    The evolution of shoreface-connected sand ridges on micro-tidal inner shelves and the variations in the mean grain size over these ridges are investigated with process-based models. A review of previous studies is presented, as well as new results that concern the influence of grain sorting on the finite-amplitude behaviour of the ridges, the application of the model to La Barrosa beach and the role of wave-topography feedbacks. The ridges initially form due to morphodynamic self-organisation, in which the presence of waves and a storm-driven current are crucial. Predicted growth time scales, migration speeds, topography and spatial pattern of the mean grain size agree with field data collected on micro-tidal shelves in the case that both bedload and suspended load sediment transport are accounted for, together with spatially non-uniform wave orbital motion. The model can not successfully explain the presence of large-scale ridges observed on La Barrosa inner shelf, because strong and complex behaving tidal currents occur in that area. Nonlinear model simulations show that on the long term the height of the ridges evolves towards a finite, constant value, whilst their migration speed hardly changes during the evolution. In the saturated stage the ridges have asymmetrical profiles, with steep slopes on the downstream sides. The maximum variation in mean grain size also tends to a constant value and during the evolution the spatial lag between the patterns in the mean grain size and topography decreases. The processes that cause these changes are identified and explained. Model results can be obtained for transverse bottom slopes up to 50% of their observed values on micro-tidal shelves. Extrapolation of results to realistic values of the inner shelf slope yields, in case of Long Island shelf, a final height that agrees with observed ridge heights, but the modelled variation in mean grain size is small compared to field data. Finally, the response of ridges to large-scale interventions is considered. Experiments reveal that extraction of sand on the inner shelf causes a decrease of the sand volume stored in the surf zone.

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    On beach cusp formation  Open access

     Dodd, N; Stoker, A M; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Sriariyawat, A
    Journal of fluid mechanics
    Date of publication: 2008-02
    Journal article

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    A system of shallow water equations and a bed evolution equation are used to examine the evolution of perturbations on an erodible, initially plane beach subject to normal wave incidence. Both a permeable (under Darcy's law) and an impermeable beach are considered. It is found that alongshore-periodic morphological features reminiscent of swash beach cusps form after a number of incident wave periods on both beaches. On the permeable (impermeable) beach these patterns are accretional (erosional). In both cases flow is ‘horn divergent’. Spacings of the cusps are consistent with observations, and are close to those provided by a standing synchronous linear edge wave. An analysis of the processes leading to bed change is presented. Two physical mechanisms are identified: concentration gradient and flow divergence, which are dominant in the lower and upper swash respectively, and their difference over a wave cycle leads to erosion or deposition on an impermeable beach. Infiltration enters this balance in the upper swash. A bed wave of elevation is shown to advance up the beach at the tip of the uprush, with a smaller wave of depression on the backwash. It is found that cusp horns can grow by a positive feedback mechanism stemming from decreased (increased) backwash on positive (negative) bed perturbations.

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    Patch behaviour and predictability propierties of modelled finite-amplitude sand ridges on the inner shelf  Open access

     Vis-Star, Nc; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Nonlinear processes in geophysics
    Date of publication: 2008-12
    Journal article

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    The long-term evolution of shoreface-connected sand ridges is investigated with a nonlinear spectral model which governs the dynamics of waves, currents, sediment transport and the bed level on the inner shelf. Wave variables are calculated with a shoaling-refraction model instead of using a parameterisation. The spectral model describes the time evolution of amplitudes of known eigenmodes of the linearised system. Bottom pattern formation occurs if the transverse bottom slope of the inner shelf, β, exceeds a critical value βc. For fixed model parameters the sensitivity of the properties of modelled sand ridges to changes in the number (N−1) of resolved subharmonics (of the initially fastest growing mode) is investigated. For any N the model shows the growth and subsequent saturation of the height of the sand ridges. The saturation time scale is several thousands of years, which suggests that observed sand ridges have not reached their saturated stage yet. The migration speed of the ridges and the average longshore spacing between successive crests in the saturated state differ from those in the initial state. Analysis of the potential energy balance of the ridges reveals that bed slope-induced sediment transport is crucial for the saturation process. In the transient stage the shoreface-connected ridges occur in patches. The overall characteristics of the bedforms (saturation time, final maximum height, average longshore spacing, migration speed) hardly vary with N. However, individual time series of modal amplitudes and bottom patterns strongly depend on N, thereby implying that the detailed evolution of sand ridges can only be predicted over a limited time interval. Additional experiments show that the critical bed slope βc increases with larger offshore angles of wave incidence, larger offshore wave heights and longer wave periods, and that the corresponding maximum height of the ridges decreases whilst the saturation time increases.

  • The role of cross-shore profile dynamics on shoreline instability due to high-angle waves

     Falques Serra, Alberto; van den Berg, Niels; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    International Conference on Coastal Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2008-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    If the wave climate is dominated by a wave approach in deep water that is very oblique with respect to the shoreline, the littoral drift may render the rectilinear trend of the shoreline unstable. This instability causes large scale shoreline sand waves (L ~ 1-10 km, T~ 1-10 yr) that grow and propagate along the coast, implying erosional hot spots. This was known to be primarily due to gradients in alongshore transport rate. However, it is here shown that the cross-shore transport is also essential to the instability, the faster the relaxation to the equilibrium profile, the stronger the instability. Furthermore, it is found that the cross-shore location of the initial bathymetric perturbation is very important. The maximum efficiency in triggering the instability corresponds to perturbations spread across both the surf and shoaling zones. In contrast, for a perturbation confined only in the surf zone, the development may be so slow that the instability is hardly relevant to coastal engineering. Preliminary implications for beach nourishments are discussed.

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  • Nonlinear dynamics and predictability properties of sand ridges on the inner shelf.

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Dynamics Days Europe 2008
    Presentation's date: 2008-08-25
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  • Modelling the interaction between transverse and crescentic bar systems.

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Dynamics Days Europe 2008
    Presentation's date: 2008-08-25
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  • Análisis de la aplicación de nuevas metodologias docentes en ingenieria

     Bruna Escuer, Pere; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Crespo Artiaga, Daniel; Pilar, Gil; Gutierrez, Jordi; Torres Gil, Santiago; Alonso Maleta, Maria Aranzazu
    VI Taller Iberoamericano de Educación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (TIECIM)
    Presentation's date: 2008-12-02
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  • Modelling the characteristics and dynamics of surfzone transverses sand bars observed at Noordwijk beach.

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Dynamics Days Europe 2008
    Presentation's date: 2008-08-25
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  • Modelling the formation and the long term behaviour of rip channel systems from the deformation of a longshore bar

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Dodd, N
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2007-12
    Journal article

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    (Un)predictability in rip channel systems  Open access

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Coco, Giovanni; Falques Serra, Alberto; Dodd, N
    Geophysical research letters
    Date of publication: 2007-03
    Journal article

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    Predicting the development of rip channel systems on beaches is relevant for beach safety, nearshore mixing and dispersion, and has been puzzling researchers for decades. Field observations and computer simulations have focused on predicting the spacing and growth time of rip channels as a function of wave characteristics. A satisfactory predictor of rip channel spacing and growth time has not yet been proposed. Here, we show that the lack of predictability of rip channels is an inherent property of the system related to the high sensitivity to the bathymetry prior to pattern development. Sensitivity to the initial cross-shore profile appears to be as important as sensitivity to wave height. Although we might be able to predict rip channel characteristics, the information required by such predictors will need to account for the underlying bathymetry. Implications arising from this study are that other geomorphic patterns could display similar sensitivity.

  • Linear evolution of a shoreface nourishment

     Leeuwen, Van S; Dodd, N; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    Coastal engineering
    Date of publication: 2007-05
    Journal article

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    The morphological evolution of a shoreface nourishment is investigated by interpreting the nourishment as a linear perturbation of the natural system. The nourishment is projected onto the subset of linear eigenmodes with negative growth rates of the morphodynamical system. The evolution of these linear modes then determines the temporal behaviour of the shoreface nourishment. The method is presented, and results are shown for shoreface nourishments of different length scales on a straight coast and subject to normal incidence. Shoreface nourishments are represented by their expansions according to the projection method on a 1:50 plane beach profile. All nourishments are shown primarily to be diffusive features, with long scale nourishments diffusing more slowly than shorter length scale nourishments. Long scale nourishments also exhibit a shoreward movement during their decay. This all indicates that long length scale nourishments may be more beneficial in coastal engineering projects. This study is a first step towards nonlinear projection to study shoreface nourishment behaviour.

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    Effect of wave-topography interactions on the formation of sand ridges on the shelf  Open access

     Vis-Star, N C; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2007-06
    Journal article

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    The role of wave-topography interactions in the formation of sand ridges on microtidal inner shelves is investigated with an idealized morphodynamic model. The latter uses the two-dimensional shallow water equations to describe a storm-driven flow on an inner shelf with an erodible bottom and a transverse slope. Both bed load and suspended load sediment transport are included. New are the incorporation of a wave module based on physical principles and a critical shear-stress for erosion. A linear stability analysis is used to study the initial growth of bed forms, by analyzing the initial growth of small perturbations evolving on an alongshore uniform basic state, which describes a storm-driven flow on a microtidal inner shelf. Model simulations show that wave-topography interactions cause the ridges to become more trapped to the coast. Both growth and migration of the ridges are controlled by suspended load transport. The physical mechanism responsible for ridge growth is related to transport by the storm-driven current of sediment that is entrained due to wave orbital motions induced by bed forms. This new mechanism even acts in absence of a transverse bottom slope. The orientation, spacing and shape of the modeled ridges agree well with field observations from different shelves.

  • Observation and Modeling of Crescentic Bars in Barcelona Embayed Beaches

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; Garnier, Roland Charles; Ojeda, E; Falques Serra, Alberto; Guillén Aranda, Jorge; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Sixth International Symposium on Coastal Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes. Coastal Sediments 07
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  • Limited predictability properties of modelled sand ridges on the inner shelf

     de Swart, H.E.; Vis-Start, NC; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
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  • Comparing observed surfzone transverse finger bars with model results.

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; de Swart, H.E.; Kroon, A.
    Date of publication: 2007-09
    Book chapter

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  • Observation and modelling of crescentic bars in Barcelona embayed beaches.

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    Date of publication: 2007-05
    Book chapter

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  • Modelling the interaction between transverse and crescentic bar systems

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Dodd, N; Falques Serra, Alberto
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • The role of initial bathymetry on rip channel formation

     Coco, Giovanni; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Dodd, N
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
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  • Finite amplitude dynamics of shoreface-connected ridges: Role of waves

     Vis-Star, N C; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Comparing observed surfzone transverse finger bars with model results

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; de Swart, H.E.; Kroon, A
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Analysis of the morphodynamical development of crescentic bed patterns at Duck over two months in 1998

     Tiessen, M C H; Leeuwen, S M Van; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Dodd, N; Falques Serra, Alberto
    5th IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics (RCEM 2007)
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    Physics of nearshore bed pattern formation under regular or random waves  Open access

     Leeuwen, S M Van; Dodd, N; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2006-03
    Journal article

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    We present an investigation into the growth of nearshore, rhythmic patterns. A comprehensive linear stability model of the surf and shoaling zones is used to examine which type of pattern, transverse or crescentic bar, is likely to form under different wave conditions. In contrast to earlier studies we examine normal and near-normal incidence on a plane beach. In doing so we reproduce results of earlier, more restricted studies and thereby identify the physical mechanisms leading to the growth of different patterns. This paper also focuses on the role of random wave height distribution compared with regular waves and identifies conditions likely to lead to pattern growth. To this end, an amended wave height dissipation function is presented, which allows us to move between random and regular regimes. It is found that a sharply defined surf breakpoint leads to larger growth rates and crescentic-bar-type features. In contrast, a large spread in breaking gives rise to transverse bar patterns with reduced growth rates. Transverse bar alongshore spacing is typically about 1/4 to 1/2 the width of the surf zone, while crescentic bar spacing is larger, up to twice this width. It is also shown that pattern types are influenced by the wave height to depth ratio in the surf zone. This indicates that sites with substantial inner surf zone wave energy and thus greater energy available to move sediment will give rise to transverse bar patterns. A new, propagating mode is identified in such cases, which exists for normal wave incidence. Finally, the role of wave shoaling and wave refraction, either on the bed or on the currents is examined. Crescentic bars seem to be a very robust feature as they stem from the model even if those three effects are ignored. Thus the only essential feedback for their formation is the coupling between depth-controlled breaking and the evolving bathymetry. In contrast, transverse bar formation is very sensitive to wave refraction being enhanced by refraction over the bed and weakened by refraction over the current.

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    Generation and nonlinear evolution os shore-oblique/transverse sand bars  Open access

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Caballeria, M
    Journal of fluid mechanics
    Date of publication: 2006-11
    Journal article

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    The coupling between topography, waves and currents in the surf zone may self-organize to produce the formation of shore-transverse or shore-oblique sand bars on an otherwise alongshore uniform beach. In the absence of shore-parallel bars, this has been shown by previous studies of linear stability analysis, but is now extended to the finite-amplitude regime. To this end, a nonlinear model coupling wave transformation and breaking, a shallow-water equations solver, sediment transport and bed updating is developed. The sediment flux consists of a stirring factor multiplied by the depth-averaged current plus a downslope correction. It is found that the cross-shore profile of the ratio of stirring factor to water depth together with the wave incidence angle primarily determine the shape and the type of bars, either transverse or oblique to the shore. In the latter case, they can open an acute angle against the current (up-current oriented) or with the current (down-current oriented). At the initial stages of development, both the intensity of the instability which is responsible for the formation of the bars and the damping due to downslope transport grow at a similar rate with bar amplitude, the former being somewhat stronger. As bars keep on growing, their finite-amplitude shape either enhances downslope transport or weakens the instability mechanism so that an equilibrium between both opposing tendencies occurs, leading to a final saturated amplitude. The overall shape of the saturated bars in plan view is similar to that of the small-amplitude ones. However, the final spacings may be up to a factor of 2 larger and final celerities can also be about a factor of 2 smaller or larger. In the case of alongshore migrating bars, the asymmetry of the longshore sections, the lee being steeper than the stoss, is well reproduced. Complex dynamics with merging and splitting of individual bars sometimes occur. Finally, in the case of shore-normal incidence the rip currents in the troughs between the bars are jet-like while the onshore return flow is wider and weaker as is observed in nature.

  • Modelling ridge and runnel system developmemt from an intertidal shore parallel bar

     Garnier, Roland Charles; Falques Serra, Alberto; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Caballeria Suriñach, Miquel
    30th International Conference on Coastal Engineering (ICCE 2006)
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  • Sensivity of modeled nearshore morphology to wave and sediment transport formulations.

     Ribas Prats, Francesca; de Swart, H.E.; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Leeuwen, N Dodd y S M van
    Date of publication: 2006-09
    Book chapter

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  • CTM2006-08875 MORFODINÁMICA DE PLAYAS: PREDICCIONES EN LAS GRANDES ESCALAS ESPACIO-TEMPORALES

     Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Falques Serra, Alberto; Ribas Prats, Francesca
    Participation in a competitive project

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