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  • Adaptive multimesh for solving transport-reaction in porous media. Application to 3D simulation with the CW2D model

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Monforte, LLuís; Sánchez, Pablo
    International African Conference on Computational Mechanics
    p. 55-56
    Presentation's date: 2015-01-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Local scale air quality model with several pollutant sources

     Oliver, Albert; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Montero, Gustavo; Montenegro, Rafael
    International African Conference on Computational Mechanics
    p. 49-50
    Presentation's date: 2015-01-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La dimensión global en los estudios tecnológicos (Vol 2). Los elementos clave para afrontar la dimensión global de la ingeniería  Open access

    Date of publication: 2014-12
    Book

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    Obra formada per: Bloque A "El ingeniero global" (Vol. 1. La necesidad del ingeniero global. Vol. 2. Los elementos clave para afrontar la dimensión global de la ingeniería. Vol. 3. El ingeniero global en el desarrollo humano y sostenible)

    Publicació realitzada amb el suport financer de la Unió Europea i de l'Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo. Forma part del programa www.compromisoydesarrollo.org, finançat per AECID i executat per ONGAWA - Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Humano

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    La dimensión global en los estudios tecnológicos (Vol 1). La necesidad del ingeniero global  Open access

    Date of publication: 2014-12
    Book

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    Obra formada per: Bloque A "El ingeniero global" (Vol. 1. La necesidad del ingeniero global. Vol. 2. Los elementos clave para afrontar la dimensión global de la ingeniería. Vol. 3. El ingeniero global en el desarrollo humano y sostenible)

    Publicació realitzada amb el suport financer de la Unió Europea i de l'Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo. Forma part del programa www.compromisoydesarrollo.org, finançat per AECID i executat per ONGAWA - Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Humano

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    Integrar el Desenvolupament Humà i Sostenible a l’ensenyament tècnic  Open access

    Date of publication: 2014-12
    Book

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    Aquesta publicació ha estat realitzada amb el finançament de la Unió Europea i de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (Programa Barcelona Solidària, 2013)

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    L'aula de ciències i tecnologia com a espai per a l'educació per al desenvolupament humà  Open access

    Date of publication: 2014-12
    Book

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    Aquesta publicació ha estat realitzada amb el finançament de la Unió Europea i de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (Programa Barcelona Solidària, 2013)

  • Assessment of water resources management in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley: environmental conservation and poverty reduction

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Codony, Jordi; Raventós, Ester; Candela, Lucila
    International journal of water resources development
    Vol. 30, num. 3, p. 572-587
    DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2013.843410
    Date of publication: 2014-09-01
    Journal article

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    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods.

    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods

  • Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo: contribuciones de las universidades al desarrollo humano

    Date of publication: 2014-09-01
    Book

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    Este estudio analiza la acción colectiva en torno al recurso hídrico en dos microcuencas de características geográficas similares ubicadas en los departamentos de Jinotega y Matagalpa,en el norte de Nicaragua. Para ello, se examinan 185 encuestas de hogares realizadas en 13 comunidades con el objetivo de caracterizar las distintas acciones colectivas existentes según los usos múltiples del recurso identificados en la zona. El hogar ha sido considerado como la unidad de análisis debido a que se pretendeestudiar la acción colectiva desde la visión que las propias familias tienen de la misma. El estudio muestra que la acción colectiva en la zona de estudio se concentra fundamentalmente en torno al uso de agua para consumo humano y preparación de alimentos. Para este uso, el nivel de participación que se observa en la puesta en marcha de los sistemas colectivos es en general bastante bajo y ésta no se relaciona necesariamente con un mayor grado de formalidad de la acción colectiva. La muestra del estudio refleja la escasa acción colectiva en torno al agua para actividadesagropecuarias, lo cual es relevante en un contexto de incertidumbre respecto a la disponibilidad de recurso.

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    Caracterización de la acción colectiva para la gestión de los recursos hídricos en la región central de Nicaragua  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Novo Núñez, Paula; Rojas Meza, Jairo; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto
    Date of publication: 2014-09-01
    Book chapter

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    Este estudio analiza la acción colectiva en torno al recurso hídrico en dos microcuencas de características geográficas similares ubicadas en los departamentos de Jinotega y Matagalpa,en el norte de Nicaragua. Para ello, se examinan 185 encuestas de hogares realizadas en 13 comunidades con el objetivo de caracterizar las distintas acciones colectivas existentes según los usos múltiples del recurso identificados en la zona. El hogar ha sido considerado como la unidad de análisis debido a que se pretendeestudiar la acción colectiva desde la visión que las propias familias tienen de la misma. El estudio muestra que la acción colectiva en la zona de estudio se concentra fundamentalmente en torno al uso de agua para consumo humano y preparación de alimentos. Para este uso, el nivel de participación que se observa en la puesta en marcha de los sistemas colectivos es en general bastante bajo y ésta no se relaciona necesariamente con un mayor grado de formalidad de la acción colectiva. La muestra del estudio refleja la escasa acción colectiva en torno al agua para actividadesagropecuarias, lo cual es relevante en un contexto de incertidumbre respecto a la disponibilidad de recurso.

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    Sistemas de información e instrumentos técnicos para la gestión del agua  Open access

     Ampuero, Raúl; Bustamante Zenteno, Rocio; Cossio, Vladimir; Delgadillo, Oscar; Durán, Alfredo; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Iriarte, Jorge; Mecerreyes, Cristina; Ortiz, Jhylmar; Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Pérez, Luis Fernando; Rocha, Rígel; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina
    Date of publication: 2014-08
    Book

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    Characterization of local wind patterns in complex mountain valleys  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International journal of climatology
    Vol. 34, num. 6, p. 1741-1759
    DOI: 10.1002/joc.3798
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    In this work, the wind patterns in high mountain areas with complex orography are characterized using hourly data provided by a network of weather stations. The key novelty of the study is the methodology. Data are grouped separately by wind speed and wind direction using two cluster analyses. The groups are analysed and described according to measurements at key stations in the network and their hourly presence. Both classifications are subsequently compared using contingency tables, and the main wind patterns are identified. The uncertainties associated with the average values of each wind pattern are quantified by principal component analysis of the wind vectors at each station. One year of data from nine stations located in the area of La Oroya, Peru was used to validate the proposed method. The local wind behaviour was characterized, the wind patterns were compared with respect to the seasons, and the winter morning transitions were analysed in detail. The methodology allows quantitative description of the local wind patterns and their temporal dynamics in complex mountain valleys. Both wind speed and direction were found to be relevant in wind pattern characterization. In particular, both parameters have proven helpful in identifying and quantifying the prevailing winds during cold dawns and thermal inversion periods.

  • Impacts on effluent contaminants from mine sites : risk assessment, fate, and distribution of pollution at basin scale

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Environmental science and pollution research
    Vol. 21, num. 9, p. 5960-5971
    DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    The environmental implications of mining activities are of worldwide concern. An environmental evaluation at the basin level was conducted because of widespread mining in Cajamarca in Northern Peru. A sediment monitoring program was developed at the Jequetepeque basin, located in Cajamarca. A total of 16 sites were monitored at three different times between June 2009 and July 2010, and a total of 42 samples were collected. All samples were analyzed by microwave digestion and by a sequential extraction scheme following the three-stage European Community Bureau of Reference (three-stage BCR) protocol. Trace element mobilization from the sediments to the water column was assessed by the risk assessment code (RAC). Spatial and temporal distribution of trace elements was evaluated by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd, Zn, As, and Pb showed the highest concentrations independent of season. Notably, Cu concentration and mobility increased during the wet season for all samples. Additionally, Hg concentration and mobility increased during the wet season near the mine sites. According to the enrichment factor, the highest enrichments of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As were related to mine runoff. The effect of trace elements near the mine sites at the Jequetepeque basin was considered a significant threat to the environment due to Cd, Zn, Pb, and As, and the concentrations of Cu and Hg were also considered a concern. This work establishes a baseline for the environmental quality status of the Jequetepeque basin that may support water quality management in Peru.

    Electronic supplementary material The online Electronic supplementary material: the on-line version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Engineering and Global Development (EGD)

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Van Wunnik, Lucas Philippe; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Competitive project

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  • Adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection - Diffusion problems

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Revista internacional de métodos numéricos para cálculo y diseño en ingeniería
    Vol. 30, num. 1, p. 60-67
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rimni.2012.11.003
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    We present an adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection-diffusion problems discretized by the Finite Element Method. The adaptive scheme is based on a remeshing strategy that applies a maximum volume constraint to the elements of a reference mesh. The remeshing can increase or decrease drastically the size of the elements in a single step automatically. With this strategy, the mesh quality does not deteriorate; as a consequence, the number of iterations required to solve the system of linear equations using iterative algorithms is kept constant. Two examples of very different characteristics are presented in order to analyze the proposal for a wide range of situations. The first is a three-dimensional extension of the Smolarkiewicz problem and the second is a simplified version of a point source pollutant trans-port problem. The results show the flexibility of the proposal. An optimal remeshing frequency, from a computational cost and accuracy of the results point of view, can be defined for both kinds of problems. © 2011 CIMNE (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

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    A multimesh adaptive scheme for air quality modeling with the finite element method  Open access

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International journal for numerical methods in fluids
    Vol. 74, p. 387-405
    DOI: 10.1002/fld.3855
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    A multimesh adaptive scheme for convection–diffusion–reaction problems for a large number of components is presented. The problem is solved by splitting transport and reaction processes. This way, the evaluation of the nonreactive part for each component and the reaction at each node constitute independent tasks. This allows to discretize each component of the solution on a distinct computational mesh, adapted on the basis of its error indicator. The standard single-mesh strategy is used for comparison. Simulations of a point emis- sion in a 3D domain are presented. Low remeshing periods of the adaptive scheme are found to be optimal, in terms of computational cost and accuracy, for the nonreactive problem. Examples with several reaction terms, with an increase of the complexity, are then presented. Results show that the accuracy of single-mesh and multimesh strategies are similar. Instead, the computational cost of the multimesh strategy is lower than the single-mesh in the majority of the examples; this process is controlled by the stiff behavior of the reactive term. The problem size of the multimesh scheme is much lower, and therefore, larger spatial discretizations can be simulated for a given available memory. The efficiency of the multimesh strategy increases with the number of species and the number of species that develop a plume. Finally, an example of a punctual emission considering realistic values of the initial concentrations and using the Community Multiscale Air Quality-CBO5 reaction model, which involves 62 components, is presented; the small-scale structure of the different nitrogen components near the emitter is capture

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    Esquema adaptativo para problemas tridimensionales de convección-difusión  Open access

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Revista internacional de métodos numéricos para cálculo y diseño en ingeniería
    Vol. 30, num. 1, p. 60-67
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rimni.2012.11.003
    Date of publication: 2014
    Journal article

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    We present an adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection-diffusion problems discretized by the Finite Element Method. The adaptive scheme is based on a remeshing strategy that applies a maximum volume constraint to the elements of a reference mesh. The remeshing can increase or decrease drasti- cally the size of the elements in a single step automatically. With this strategy, the mesh quality does not deteriorate; as a consequence, the number of iterations required to solve the system of linear equations using iterative algorithms is kept constant. Two examples of very different characteristics are presented in order to analyze the proposal for a wide range of situations. The first is a three-dimensional extension of the Smolarkiewicz problem and the second is a simplified version of a point source pollutant trans- port problem. The results show the flexibility of the proposal. An optimal remeshing frequency, from a computational cost and accuracy of the results point of view, can be defined for both kinds of problems.

    We present an adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection-diffusion problems discretized by the Finite Element Method. The adaptive scheme is based on a remeshing strategy that applies a maximum volume constraint to the elements of a reference mesh. The remeshing can increase or decrease drastically the size of the elements in a single step automatically. With this strategy, the mesh quality does not deteriorate; as a consequence, the number of iterations required to solve the system of linear equations using iterative algorithms is kept constant. Two examples of very different characteristics are presented in order to analyze the proposal for a wide range of situations. The first is a three-dimensional extension of the Smolarkiewicz problem and the second is a simplified version of a point source pollutant transport problem. The results show the flexibility of the proposal. An optimal remeshing frequency, from a computational cost and accuracy of the results point of view, can be defined for both kinds of problems.

  • Slope effects on SWAT modeling in a mountainous basin

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Journal of hydrologic engineering
    Vol. 18, num. 12, p. 1663-1673
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000756
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a distributed basin model that includes the option of defining spatial discretization in terms of terrain slope. Influence of terrain slope in runoff results from mountain basins is a determining factor in its simulation results; however, its use as a criterion for basin discretization and for the parameter calibration has not yet been analyzed. In this study, this influence is analyzed for calibrations using two different cases. Ten discretization cases were carried out to evaluate the relative importance of slope discretization compared with other discretization criteria. Data from 1999-2005 were used for model calibration, and those from 2006-2009, for model validation. Parameter identification and specification were performed with the combined latin hypercube and one-factor-at-a-time (LH-OAT) and the shuffled complex evolution-uncertainty analysis methods (SCE-UA), respectively. All cases resulted in very good statistical values, with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.82-0.85, a bias of 2-10%, and the observations standard deviation ratio of 0.4-0.3. More realistic calibrated parameters were found when terrain slope variation was not included in the spatial discretization criteria. The inclusion of slope did not significantly improve simulations results when a good set of parameters was used, but it did enhance the calibration when a reduced number of subbasins was used.

    The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a distributed basin model that includes the option of defining spatial discretization in terms of terrain slope. Influence of terrain slope in runoff results from mountain basins is a determining factor in its simulation results; however, its use as a criterion for basin discretization and for the parameter calibration has not yet been analyzed. In this study, this influence is analyzed for calibrations using two different cases. Ten discretization cases were carried out to evaluate the relative importance of slope discretization compared with other discretization criteria. Data from 1999–2005 were used for model calibration, and those from 2006–2009, for model validation. Parameter identification and specification were performed with the combined latin hypercube and one-factor-at-a-time (LH-OAT) and the shuffled complex evolution-uncertainty analysis methods (SCE-UA), respectively. All cases resulted in very good statistical values, with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.82–0.85, a bias of 2–10%, and the observations standard deviation ratio of 0.4–0.3. More realistic calibrated parameters were found when terrain slope variation was not included in the spatial discretization criteria. The inclusion of slope did not significantly improve simulations results when a good set of parameters was used, but it did enhance the calibration when a reduced number of subbasins was used.

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    Post-2015 WASH targets and indicators: a review from a Human Rights Perspective  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro
    Date: 2013-11
    Report

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    Metas e indicadores post 2015 en agua y saneamiento: una revisión desde un enfoque de derechos humanos  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Date: 2013-11
    Report

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  • Water–sanitation–hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 463-464, p. 700-711
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.005
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

  • The issue of the design effect in water, sanitation and hygiene studies  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delivering water, sanitation and hygiene services in an uncertain environment Cluster sampling is commonly used in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) surveys, as in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for the assessment of development-related goals. In cluster survey techniques, despite a good approximation of the design effect is essential for efficient sample size determination and for obtaining accurate precision of survey estimates; the assessment of this parameter has often been overlooked. This study computes the design effects for three core WASH outcomes at two different administrative scales. We use the database of a Kenyan case study for this purpose. We show that design effects differ greatly, and large differences have been found for different variables, different regional setting, and different scale of analysis. We recommend that survey planners should keep in mind such differences when defining the objectives of the survey and the required precision of survey estimates.

  • Introducing hygiene elements into sanitation monitoring

     Craven, Joanne; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach’s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

  • Local scale finite element modelling of stack pollutant emissions

     Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Oliver Serra, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Conference on Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering
    p. a658
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Developing tools to evaluate the environmental status of Andean basins with mining activities  Open access

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Se ha caracterizado el estado de la calidad del agua de una cuenca andina y evaluado las presiones procedentes de actividades antropogénicas, con el propósito de incrementar el conocimiento sobre el estado del medio ambiente con un enfoque ecosistémico en Perú. Esta investigación ha sido desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de ríos, específicamente programas de calidad de agua. Para ello se han desarrollado dos herramientas teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos de la directiva marco del agua de la Unión Europea: un modelo de simulación continuo, y un programa de monitoreo ambiental.El modelo the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) es un modelo medioambiental aplicado que ha sido utilizado en la investigación con el objetivo de priorizar los planes de gestión integrada de recursos hídricos. El modelo ha sido calibrado y validado para la cuenca del Jequetepeque (Perú), usando el algoritmo SCE-UA y una cantidad de datos meteorológicos y de flujo relativamente pequeña (de un periodo de 11 años). Se evaluaron cinco discretizaciones diferentes, comparando el efecto de la pendiente como criterio de discretización, obteniendo en todos los casos buenos resultados, tanto a nivel de hidrográficos como de coeficientes estadísticos.Para la evaluación de la calidad del agua en la cuenca, se han aplicado métodos y herramientas de monitoreo medioambiental, identificando y cuantificando las fuentes de contaminación, el riesgo asociado y los efectos potenciales sobre la vida acuática y la salud humana han sido adicionalmente considerados. Se han realizado monitoreos de agua, sedimentos y un monitoreo ecológico. Además se ha recogido y analizado los datos disponibles a escala de cuenca. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las cuatro campañas de agua y sedimentos, resaltan la contaminación por los elementos traza en lugares cercanos a los emplazamientos mineros, permitiendo así la cuantificación de los impactos mineros en la cuenca del Jequetepeque. El análisis de las muestras de agua indica el lugar más contaminado en la cuenca se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Sipán SL. Los niveles de As y Cr encontrados señalaron efectos adversos para la salud mientras que los niveles de Al, Cd, Cu, Fe y Pb muestraron efectos significativos, principalmente en zonas cercanas a las minas. Teniendo en cuenta la falta de plantas de tratamiento de agua y de remediación, se debe recalcar la importancia de políticas y medidas de regulación y control. El análisis de las muestras de sedimentos indica que el lugar de mayor contaminación se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Yanacocha SRL, siendo una amenaza para el medio ambiente, independientemente de la estación del año, debido a las concentraciones de Cd, Zn, Pb y As. El análisis de la extracción secuencial indicó que los elementos traza más móviles son Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni y Zn, los cuales pueden ser liberados del sedimento al agua en función a las condiciones medioambientales del río.Adicionalmente se evaluaron las cinéticas de los metales traza de mayor interés. Se utilizaron los modelos de difusión y de ¿two first order¿ para describir la cinética de Cu, Pb y Zn. Estos elementos pueden ser significativos bajo condiciones extremadamente acidas (pH=1). Esto debe tenerse en cuenta para un análisis de riesgo debido al potencial del drenaje acido de minas.Se ha utilizado el protocolo de calidad ecológica de ríos andinos para evaluar la parte alta de la cuenca del Jequetepeque para el análisis del estado ecológico. Todos los lugares establecidos como referenciales obtuvieron un estado de calidad bueno o muy bueno. Únicamente en los puntos ubicados aguas abajo las minas presentaron alteraciones, confirmando los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de agua y sedimentos. Así se muestra que este protocolo, que resulta sencillo y económico, es una herramienta útil para la evaluación de contaminación ecológica a nivel de cuenca.

    The water quality status of an Andean river basin was characterised and the pressures from anthropogenic activities were evaluated to enhance the available knowledge of the environment within an ecosystem in Peru. This investigation was conducted to assess the environmental status of the basin as a first step to introducing river management plans and specific water quality programmes. A continuous simulation model and an environmental monitoring program were developed, taking into account the European water framework directive (WFD) requirements. To prioritise the integrated water resources management (IWRM), an applied environmental model, the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) was used. The model was calibrated and validated for the Jequetepeque river basin using the SCE-UA algorithm and a relatively small amount of data (11 years). Five different cases of sub-basin discretisation were evaluated with and without a slope criterion. Very good hydrographs and statistics (NSE, RSR and PBIAS) were obtained for all cases. Environmental monitoring methods and tools for water quality evaluation were developed. The sources of contamination were identified and levels of contamination were quantified to evaluate pollution emissions. The degree of pollution by different substances, the associated risks, and the potential effects on aquatic life and human health were considered in the development of the tools and environmental monitoring methods. Water monitoring, sediment monitoring, and ecological monitoring, including a complementary effort to collect available data at the basin scale, were conducted in this study. The concentrations of trace elements were determined from the results of four water and sediment monitoring campaigns conducted between November 2008 and June 2010, and an ecological survey was evaluated. The results obtained from analysis of the water and sediment data indicated trace element pollution near mine sites, enabling us to quantify the impact of the mines on the Jequetepeque basin. Analysis of the water samples indicated that the most polluted water in the basin was located downstream from the Sipán SL Mine. The levels of Cr and As indicated adverse effects, whereas the levels of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb indicated significant effects on human health, mainly near the mining areas. Considering the lack of water facilities and trace element remediation in the region, special attention should be paid to regulatory policies and palliative countermeasures. Analysis of the sediment samples indicated that the most polluted sediment was located downstream from the Yanacocha Mine site and poses a significant threat to the environment in terms of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As pollution, regardless of the season. The sequential extraction analysis indicated higher mobility for Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn. Those trace elements are released to the water column depending on the environmental conditions. The kinetics of the most prevalent trace elements in the basin were also evaluated. A diffusion model and two first-order models were used successfully to describe the kinetic extraction of Cu, Pb, and Zn. These trace elements can be significant only under extremely acidic conditions (pH=1); this should be taken into account in the potential scenario of acid mine drainage. The Ecological Status of Andean Rivers protocol was used to assess the upper part of the Jequetepeque river basin. At all the reference sites, the water quality status was very good or good. Only the sites located near mines exhibited alterations in the water quality, confirming the trends observed in the water and sediment monitoring. This protocol, which is an easy-to-use and economical qualitative tool, has proven to be very useful in assessing significant trends in ecological pollution of the basin.

    Estado de la calidad del agua fue caracterizado y las presiones de las actividades antropogénicas fueron evaluadas en una cuenca andina con el fin de promover y mejorar el conocimiento del medio ambiente dentro de un enfoque eco-sistémico en el Perú. Esta investigación fue desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de programas, específicamente de calidad del agua. Para ello, un modelo de simulación continua y un programa de vigilancia ambiental se han desarrollado teniendo en cuenta las exigencias de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA). La dinámica de la cuenca se caracteriza por la Herramienta de Evaluación de Suelo y Agua (SWAT). Los resultados obtenidos a partir del agua y datos de sedimentos visualizan la contaminación de elementos traza cerca de las minas y cuantificar el impacto en la cuenca, principalmente para As, Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn. El estado ecológico reportado fue bueno o muy bueno para todas las muestras. Sin embargo, los puntos localizados cerca de las minas mostraron alteraciones con las mismas tendencias observadas en los monitoreos de agua y sedimento.

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    Dimensionless analysis of HSDM and application to simulation of breakthrough curves of highly adsorbent porous media  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Casoni Rero, Eva; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio
    Journal of environmental engineering (ASCE)
    Vol. 139, num. 5, p. 667-676
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000665
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    The homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) is widely used for adsorption modeling of aqueous solutions. The Biot number is usually used to characterize model behavior. However, some limitations of this characterization have been reported recently, and the Stanton number has been proposed as a complement to be considered. In this work, a detailed dimensionless analysis of HSDM is presented and limit behaviors of the model are characterized, confirming but extending previous results. An accurate and efficient numerical solver is used for these purposes. The intraparticle diffusion equation is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations, the transport-reaction equation is discretized by using a discontinuous Galerkin method, and the overall system evolution is integrated with a time-marching scheme. This approach facilitates the simulation of HSDM with a wide range of dimensionless numbers and with a correct treatment of shocks, which appear with nonlinear adsorption isotherms and with large Biot numbers and small surface diffusivity modulus. The approach is applied to simulate the breakthrough curves of granular ferric hydroxide. Published experimental data is adequately simulated.

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    Caracterización de la acción colectiva para la gestión de los recursos hídricos en la Región Central de Nicaragua  Open access

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Novo Núñez, Paula; Rojas Meza, Jairo; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 649-663
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Este estudio analiza la acción colectiva en torno al recurso hídrico en dos microcuencas de características geográficas similares ubicadas en los departamentos de Jinotega y Matagalpa , en el norte de Nicar a gua . Para ello , se examinan 185 encuestas de hogares realizadas en 13 comunidades con el objetivo de caracterizar las distintas acciones colectivas existentes según los usos múltiples de l recurso identificados en la zona . El hogar ha sido considerado como l a unidad de a nálisis debido a que se pretende estudia r la acción colectiva d e sde la visión que las propias familias tienen de la misma . El estudio muestra que la acción colectiva en la zona de estudio se concentra fundamentalmente en torno al uso de agua para consumo humano y preparación de alimentos. Para este uso, el nivel de participación que se observa en la puesta en marcha de los sistemas colectivos es en general bastante bajo y ésta no se relaciona necesariamente con un mayor grado de formalidad de la acción colectiva . La muestra del estudio refleja la escasa acción colectiva en torno a l agua para actividades agropecuarias , lo cual es relevante en un contexto de incertidumbre resp ecto a la disponibilidad de recurso

  • Piloting new indicators and methodologies to measure the human right to water in rural Nicaragua

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fdez de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    There is a growing interest internationally to recalibrate the monitoring framework used to measure access to basic water services. There are drives to move on from the current technological and binary approach (improved - vs. - unimproved water supply technologies). Several initiatives have been applied to support the processes of resource allocation, targeting and prioriti s ation in development policies. These approaches consider the level of service delivered by taking into account aspects such as water quality, quantity, and continuity. The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation is a milestone that should contribute to the evolution of this work in progress. It brings in other issues such as affordability, physical accessibility and acceptability. To incorporate all these human rights criteria in monitoring initiatives is undoubtedly a complex task. It involves the definition of new indicators, design of field data collection methodol ogies, statistical analysis of collected data, and use of information generated in policy formation and decision - making. The research presented in this paper has tried to tackle this emerging challenge. It has developed and piloted indicators that measure access to water from a human rights perspective. The proposed indicators have been applied to two different groups within communities in northern Nicaragua: people using a water system managed by a rural water committee against those vulnerable groups char acteri s ed by self - provision. The research concludes that data needs to be well analysed , information needs to be adequately post - processed, aggregated and disseminated to promote its use in decision - making.

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    An improved evaluation framework to support local level planning  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

  • Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS and ArcSWAT

     Pascual-Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: desafios y oportunidades para mejorar el seguimiento del acceso a los servicios básicos  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Los expertos han reconocido la necesidad de rediseñar el marco conceptual utilizado para la medición del acceso a los servicios básicos de agua y saneamiento tanto a nivel local como nacional e internacional. Así mismo, se reconoce la necesidad de avanzar en la definición de los indicadores utilizados de forma que se pueda superar el enfoque estándar, basado en la intervención tecnológica: Acceso mejorado frente al no mejorado. Existen diversas iniciativas sectoriales que han sido utilizadas de forma eficiente para apoyar los procesos de asignación de recursos y priorización en las políticas de desarrollo. Estos trabajos definen un determinado nivel de servicio tomando en consideración distintos aspectos como es el caso de la cantidad, calidad ó continuidad. El reconocimiento del derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento es un hito que contribuye en la evolución de los indicadores de acceso, incluyendo nuevas dimensiones como es el caso de la asequibilidad, la accesibilidad física o la aceptabilidad. Incorporar estos “nuevos” elementos en el seguimiento es sin duda una tarea compleja que exige la definición de nuevos indicadores, el diseño de metodologías para la recolección de datos en el terreno, el análisis estadístico de los mismos y el desarrollo de herramientas de fácil manejo para los tomadores de decisiones. La investigación tiene como objetivo aportar elementos para este reto y desarrolla un marco para el seguimiento del acceso a estos servicios básicos desde un enfoque de derechos. Se proponen indicadores apropiados para el abastecimiento de agua y se aplica el marco conceptual a la caracterización de los grupos vulnerables (no servidos) a nivel comunitario, ejemplificando en un caso de la zona norte de Nicaragua. Finalmente y debido a que es necesario el manejo de abundantes datos y de distintos tipos de indicadores, se concluye que la información debe ser procesada, agregada y difundida de forma apropiada para asegurar su correcta utilización en los procesos de toma de decisiones.

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    Desarrollo de herramientas de gestión socio-ambiental para cuencas andinas con actividades mineras = Development of socio-environmental management tools for Andean basins with mining activities  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    We present an analysis of three socio-environmental management tools developed and applied to an example of Andean basin with mining activities of significant importance. Socio-environmental conflicts related to mining activities are of increasing interest in the region. Most of them include water quality or quantity issues as a central part of the disputes. On the other hand, environmental regulations are changing from a paradigm focused on pollution control to a paradigm based on the health of the ecosystems, much more related with sustainable development and well-being than before. Some authors defend the participatory use of technical and scientific knowledge with local stakeholders in these contexts, while others report some boomerang effects of these practices. The work presented here shows that it is possible to develop and adapt management tools such as hydrological modeling, environmental monitoring and sustainability indices, to support the public debate and informed opinion to these particular contexts; and, at the same time, innovate within the water resources sector. The experience also shows the limits and requirements of the proposal. Political leadership is needed to overcome conflicts by promoting public structures for supporting water governance; technical and managerial tools and capacities of private sector are not enough. There are local initiatives that accumulate valuable knowledge and practice these processes of change from conflict to technical cooperation and public participation in the region

  • Spatial and temporal trace metal distribution of a Peruvian basin: recognizing trace metal sources and assessing the potential risk

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Blazquez Pallí, Natalia; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Environmental monitoring and assessment
    Vol. 185, p. 7961-7978
    DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3147-x
    Date of publication: 2013-03-13
    Journal article

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    Abstract Recent efforts have been made to determine the environmental impact of mining over the past 11 years in the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. We have now analyzed data from two studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal trace metal distribu- tions and to assess the sources of contamination. These two studies were carried out from 2003 to 2008 by a Peruvian government administration and from 2008 to 2010 by us. We analyzed 249 samples by principal component analysis, measuring: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chloride, weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, total cyanide, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and trace metals and metalloids (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Within the spatial distribution of the basin, the highest Al, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb concentrations were found at the closest point to the mine sites for both periods of time, with the higher peaks measured during the first years of the sampling data. Temporal trends showed higher con- centrations of Cu and Fe in samples taken before 2005, at which point the two mines were closed. Risk assessment was quantified by the hazard quotient as related to water ingestion. The risk for human health posed by the concentrations of several trace metals and metalloids was found to be highly adverse (As and Cr), significant (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb), or minimal (Ni and Zn)

    Recent efforts have been made to determine the environmental impact of mining over the past 11 years in the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. We have now analyzed data from two studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal trace metal distribu- tions and to assess the sources of contamination. These two studies were carried out from 2003 to 2008 by a Peruvian government administration and from 2008 to 2010 by us. We analyzed 249 samples by principal component analysis, measuring: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chloride, weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, total cyanide, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and trace metals and metalloids (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Within the spatial distribution of the basin, the highest Al, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb concentrations were found at the closest point to the mine sites for both periods of time, with the higher peaks measured during the first years of the sampling data. Temporal trends showed higher con- centrations of Cu and Fe in samples taken before 2005, at which point the two mines were closed. Risk assessment was quantified by the hazard quotient as related to water ingestion. The risk for human health posed by the concentrations of several trace metals and metalloids was found to be highly adverse (As and Cr), significant (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb), or minimal (Ni and Zn

  • Cross-cutting development education into technology studies

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris
    Competitive project

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    Monitoring access to water in rural areas based on the human right to water framework: a local level case study in Nicaragua  Open access

     Flores, O.; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, A.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International journal of water resources development
    Vol. 29, num. 4, p. 1-16
    DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2012.757017
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    Much effort has gone into the recognition of the human right to water. Without doubt, this milestone influences governance and decision making processes at many scales so it is essential now to shift the discussion from the legal and conceptual framework to practice. Along this line, the article proposes a methodology for monitoring access to water in rural areas using the framework of this human right. The practicality of the approach is demonstrated by a case study carried out in Nicaragua. Different criteria of the right to water were included in surveys and structured interviews that were conducted in rural households and water committees, respectively. A discussion analyzes the advantages and challenges of using this framework. Finally, the approach provides elements for policy making that can be used by different stakeholders in the development and human rights sectors.

  • Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water policy: official journal of the World Water Council
    Vol. 15, num. 6, p. 1018-1045
    DOI: 10.2166/wp.2013.037
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developing world. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study produces misleading results, which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMP indicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery.

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study producesmisleading results,which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMPindicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery

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    Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: The WASH poverty index  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water resources management
    Vol. 27, num. 5, p. 1501-1515
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0251-6
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Many studies have reported the effect of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in improving health and ultimately alleviating poverty. Current coverage estimates show however that a large proportion of people in the world still do not have access to a simple pit latrine or a source of safe drinking water, and this situation worsens in rural areas. To help end these appalling figures, much effort has gone into the development of policy instruments which support decision-making, i.e. planning, targeting and prioritization. Indices and indicators are increasingly recognised as powerful tools for such purposes. This paper details the theoretical framework and development of a multidimensional, WASH-focused, thematic indicator: the WASH Poverty Index (WASH PI). It describes the methodology in index construction and disseminates achieved results in a variety of forms to promote the utility of the tool for the integrated analysis of WASH and poverty linkages. The article uses Kenya as initial case study to illustrate the application of the index. Overall, WASH PI helps identify priority areas and guide appropriate action and policy-making towards improved service delivery.

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    Adaptive finite element simulation of stack pollutant emissions over complex terrains  Open access

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Rodriguez Barrera, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Energy
    Vol. 49, num. 12, p. 47-60
    DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2012.10.051
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    A three-dimensional finite element model for the pollutant dispersion is presented. In these environmental processes over a complex terrain, a mesh generator capable of adapting itself to the topographic characteristics is essential. The first stage of the model consists on the construction of an adaptive tetrahedral mesh of a rectangular region bounded in its lower part by the terrain and in its upper part by a horizontal plane. Once the mesh is constructed, an adaptive local refinement of tetrahedra is used in order to capture the plume rise. Wind measurements are used to compute an interpolated wind field, that is modified by using a mass-consistent model and perturbing its vertical component to introduce the plume rise effect. Then, we use an Eulerian convection–diffusion–reaction model to simulate the pollutant dispersion. In this work, the transport of pollutants is considered and dry deposition is formulated as a boundary condition. The discretization of the stack geometry allows to define the emissions as boundary conditions. The proposed model uses an adaptive finite element space discretization, a Crank-Nicolson time scheme, and a splitting operator. This approach has been applied in La Palma island. Finally, numerical results and conclusions are presented.

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for air quality modeling with the finite element method  Open access

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    World Congress on Computational Mechanics
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for convection-diffusion-reaction problems is presented. The proposal is applied to air quality modeling, especifically to the simulation of a pollutant punctual emissions. The performance of the proposal is analyzed with different nonlinear reaction models, including the photochemical model CB05 implmented within the Comunity Multiscale Air Quality model, which involves sixty-two species and very different characteristic reaction times. The problem is solved with splitting of transport and reaction processes. This allows to discretize the species in distinct computational meshes, adapted to the distribution of the error indicator of each case. A common reference mesh is used for all species and during all problem evolution. A remeshing technique based on imposing the volume of new elements is used to define and update the computational meshes. An error indicator well suited for problems involving large variation of the unknowns is used. A single-mesh strategy, with remeshing adapted to the most demanding specie in each part of the domain, is used for comparison. The results of the examples presented show that the accuracy of single and multi-mesh strategies are similar. Instead, computational cost of multi-mesh is lower than single-mesh in most cases. Reduction increases with the number of species and the number of plumes. An example of a punctual emissor in a three-dimensional domain, with realistic values of CB05 components, is presented.

  • Local scale air quality modelling based on CMAQ forecast data

     Oliver, Albert; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    EMS Annual Meeting & European Conference on Applied Climatology
    p. 1
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Three-dimensional finite element modelling of stack pollutant emissions  Open access

     Oliver, Albert; Montenegro, Rafael; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar, José María; Montero, Gustavo; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper we propose a finite element method approach formodelling the air quality in a local scale over complex terrain. The area of interest is up to tens of kilometres and it includes pollutant sources. The proposed methodology involves the generation of an adaptive tetrahedral mesh, the computation of an ambient wind field, the inclusion of the plume rise effect in the wind field, and the simulation of transport and reaction of pollutants. The methodology is used to simulate a fictitious pollution episode in La Palma island (Canary Island, Spain).

  • Parcería de apoio técnico á consolidación da Administração Rexional de Áugas do norte (ARA-Norte)

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Flores Baquero, Oscar
    Competitive project

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    Finite element simulation of a local scale air quality model over complex terrain  Open access

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Advances in science and research (ASR)
    Vol. 8, p. 105-113
    DOI: 10.5194/asr-8-105-2012
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    In this paper we propose a finite element method approach for modelling the air quality in a local scale over complex terrain. The area of interest is up to tens of kilometres and it includes pollutant sources. The proposed methodology involves the generation of an adaptive tetrahedral mesh, the computation of an ambient wind field, the inclusion of the plume rise effect in the wind field, and the simulation of transport and reaction of pollutants. We apply our methodology to simulate a fictitious pollution episode in La Palma island (Canary Island, Spain).

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    Trace metal content of sediments close to mine sites in the andean region  Open access

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    The scientific world journal
    num. 732519, p. 1-12
    DOI: 10.1100/2012/732519
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    This study is a preliminary examination of heavy metal pollution in sediments close to two mine sites in the upper part of the Jequetepeque River Basin, Peru. Sediment concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn were analyzed. A comparative study of the trace metal content of sediments shows that the highest concentrations are found at the closest points to the mine sites in both cases. The sediment quality analysis was performed using the threshold effect level of the Canadian guidelines (TEL). The sediment samples analyzed show that potential ecological risk is caused frequently at both sites by As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The long-term influence of sediment metals in the environment is also assessed by sequential extraction scheme analysis (SES). The availability of metals in sediments is assessed, and it is considered a significant threat to the environment for As, Cd, and Sb close to one mine site and Cr and Hg close to the other mine site. Statistical analysis of sediment samples provides a characterization of both subbasins, showing low concentrations of a specific set of metals and identifies the main characteristics of the different pollution sources. A tentative relationship between pollution sources and possible ecological risk is established.

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    Quality and year-round availability of water delivered by improved water points in rural Tanzania: effects on coverage  Open access

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water policy: official journal of the World Water Council
    Vol. 14, num. 3, p. 509-523
    DOI: 10.2166/wp.2011.026
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    This paper reports the findings of three water point mapping (WPM) studies carried out in three rural districts of Tanzania covering 3,363 water points. The methodology was designed to estimate the influence that consideration of the quality of the water supplied and the year-round functionality of each water point would have on each district's coverage figures. To this end, the study included measurements of basic quality parameters (692 analyses) and characterisation of the year-round continuity of service, in addition to the data collected in standard WPM campaigns. Both the quality and year-round continuity results were analysed in a disaggregated form by water point technology. The results show that 22% of the improved water points analysed had more than 10 CFU (colony-forming units)/100 ml of water and 19% were seasonal. Moreover, water service coverage in the districts studied fell 40% on average when quality and year-round continuity were considered. There is a strong need to include these basic factors in the minimum standards to be delivered and monitored in rural areas. Simple and efficient methodologies for including quality and year-round continuity measurements in the information routines, such as the one presented here, are a necessary step to this end.

  • Premi a la millor tesi doctoral en Enginyeria i Arquitectura 2011

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Award or recognition

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    Local government decision-making : from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress & Exhibition
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assumption that decentralized governments are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article examines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific approach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicators as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and comprehensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Analyzing water poverty in basins  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Water resources management
    Vol. 25, num. 14, p. 3595-3612
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-011-9872-4
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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    Inadequate provision of water-related services in developing countries continues to undermine strategies for poverty alleviation. The root lies in the inability of policy makers to tackle resource development in a holistic and integrated manner. This requires a multi-faceted approach to combine physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created. However, water resources are dynamic, and the linkages between water scarcity and poverty incorporate complex cause-effect relationships. Water poverty should thus be addressed in a more systemic way. This would allow a comprehensive understanding of the crosscutting nature of water issues and impacts. In this paper, a system approach has been adopted to develop a structured framework for a multi-dimensional evaluation of water poverty in basins. It is an attempt to assess the diverse, interacting components of catchment processes, societal pressures, and policy actions. An enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. To exemplify the utilisation of the index, and to test its applicability and validity, eWPI has been piloted in a Peruvian watershed as initial case study. Results highlight the likely utility of the tool to identify areas for improvement, and ultimately guide appropriate action towards better service delivery and sustainable management of water resources.

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    UPC’s institutional transformation towards sustainability  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Cruz López, Yazmín
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Book chapter

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