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  • Engineering and Global Development (EGD)

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Van Wunnik, Lucas Philippe; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
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  • The issue of the design effect in water, sanitation and hygiene studies

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delivering water, sanitation and hygiene services in an uncertain environment Cluster sampling is commonly used in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) surveys, as in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for the assessment of development-related goals. In cluster survey techniques, despite a good approximation of the design effect is essential for efficient sample size determination and for obtaining accurate precision of survey estimates; the assessment of this parameter has often been overlooked. This study computes the design effects for three core WASH outcomes at two different administrative scales. We use the database of a Kenyan case study for this purpose. We show that design effects differ greatly, and large differences have been found for different variables, different regional setting, and different scale of analysis. We recommend that survey planners should keep in mind such differences when defining the objectives of the survey and the required precision of survey estimates.

  • Introducing hygiene elements into sanitation monitoring

     Craven, Joanne; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach¿s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach’s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

  • Local Scale Finite Element Modelling of Stack Pollutant Emissions

     Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Oliver Serra, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Conference on Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering
    p. a658
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Developing tools to evaluate the environmental status of Andean basins with mining activities  Open access

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Se ha caracterizado el estado de la calidad del agua de una cuenca andina y evaluado las presiones procedentes de actividades antropogénicas, con el propósito de incrementar el conocimiento sobre el estado del medio ambiente con un enfoque ecosistémico en Perú. Esta investigación ha sido desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de ríos, específicamente programas de calidad de agua. Para ello se han desarrollado dos herramientas teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos de la directiva marco del agua de la Unión Europea: un modelo de simulación continuo, y un programa de monitoreo ambiental.El modelo the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) es un modelo medioambiental aplicado que ha sido utilizado en la investigación con el objetivo de priorizar los planes de gestión integrada de recursos hídricos. El modelo ha sido calibrado y validado para la cuenca del Jequetepeque (Perú), usando el algoritmo SCE-UA y una cantidad de datos meteorológicos y de flujo relativamente pequeña (de un periodo de 11 años). Se evaluaron cinco discretizaciones diferentes, comparando el efecto de la pendiente como criterio de discretización, obteniendo en todos los casos buenos resultados, tanto a nivel de hidrográficos como de coeficientes estadísticos.Para la evaluación de la calidad del agua en la cuenca, se han aplicado métodos y herramientas de monitoreo medioambiental, identificando y cuantificando las fuentes de contaminación, el riesgo asociado y los efectos potenciales sobre la vida acuática y la salud humana han sido adicionalmente considerados. Se han realizado monitoreos de agua, sedimentos y un monitoreo ecológico. Además se ha recogido y analizado los datos disponibles a escala de cuenca. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las cuatro campañas de agua y sedimentos, resaltan la contaminación por los elementos traza en lugares cercanos a los emplazamientos mineros, permitiendo así la cuantificación de los impactos mineros en la cuenca del Jequetepeque. El análisis de las muestras de agua indica el lugar más contaminado en la cuenca se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Sipán SL. Los niveles de As y Cr encontrados señalaron efectos adversos para la salud mientras que los niveles de Al, Cd, Cu, Fe y Pb muestraron efectos significativos, principalmente en zonas cercanas a las minas. Teniendo en cuenta la falta de plantas de tratamiento de agua y de remediación, se debe recalcar la importancia de políticas y medidas de regulación y control. El análisis de las muestras de sedimentos indica que el lugar de mayor contaminación se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Yanacocha SRL, siendo una amenaza para el medio ambiente, independientemente de la estación del año, debido a las concentraciones de Cd, Zn, Pb y As. El análisis de la extracción secuencial indicó que los elementos traza más móviles son Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni y Zn, los cuales pueden ser liberados del sedimento al agua en función a las condiciones medioambientales del río.Adicionalmente se evaluaron las cinéticas de los metales traza de mayor interés. Se utilizaron los modelos de difusión y de ¿two first order¿ para describir la cinética de Cu, Pb y Zn. Estos elementos pueden ser significativos bajo condiciones extremadamente acidas (pH=1). Esto debe tenerse en cuenta para un análisis de riesgo debido al potencial del drenaje acido de minas.Se ha utilizado el protocolo de calidad ecológica de ríos andinos para evaluar la parte alta de la cuenca del Jequetepeque para el análisis del estado ecológico. Todos los lugares establecidos como referenciales obtuvieron un estado de calidad bueno o muy bueno. Únicamente en los puntos ubicados aguas abajo las minas presentaron alteraciones, confirmando los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de agua y sedimentos. Así se muestra que este protocolo, que resulta sencillo y económico, es una herramienta útil para la evaluación de contaminación ecológica a nivel de cuenca.

    The water quality status of an Andean river basin was characterised and the pressures from anthropogenic activities were evaluated to enhance the available knowledge of the environment within an ecosystem in Peru. This investigation was conducted to assess the environmental status of the basin as a first step to introducing river management plans and specific water quality programmes. A continuous simulation model and an environmental monitoring program were developed, taking into account the European water framework directive (WFD) requirements. To prioritise the integrated water resources management (IWRM), an applied environmental model, the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) was used. The model was calibrated and validated for the Jequetepeque river basin using the SCE-UA algorithm and a relatively small amount of data (11 years). Five different cases of sub-basin discretisation were evaluated with and without a slope criterion. Very good hydrographs and statistics (NSE, RSR and PBIAS) were obtained for all cases. Environmental monitoring methods and tools for water quality evaluation were developed. The sources of contamination were identified and levels of contamination were quantified to evaluate pollution emissions. The degree of pollution by different substances, the associated risks, and the potential effects on aquatic life and human health were considered in the development of the tools and environmental monitoring methods. Water monitoring, sediment monitoring, and ecological monitoring, including a complementary effort to collect available data at the basin scale, were conducted in this study. The concentrations of trace elements were determined from the results of four water and sediment monitoring campaigns conducted between November 2008 and June 2010, and an ecological survey was evaluated. The results obtained from analysis of the water and sediment data indicated trace element pollution near mine sites, enabling us to quantify the impact of the mines on the Jequetepeque basin. Analysis of the water samples indicated that the most polluted water in the basin was located downstream from the Sipán SL Mine. The levels of Cr and As indicated adverse effects, whereas the levels of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb indicated significant effects on human health, mainly near the mining areas. Considering the lack of water facilities and trace element remediation in the region, special attention should be paid to regulatory policies and palliative countermeasures. Analysis of the sediment samples indicated that the most polluted sediment was located downstream from the Yanacocha Mine site and poses a significant threat to the environment in terms of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As pollution, regardless of the season. The sequential extraction analysis indicated higher mobility for Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn. Those trace elements are released to the water column depending on the environmental conditions. The kinetics of the most prevalent trace elements in the basin were also evaluated. A diffusion model and two first-order models were used successfully to describe the kinetic extraction of Cu, Pb, and Zn. These trace elements can be significant only under extremely acidic conditions (pH=1); this should be taken into account in the potential scenario of acid mine drainage. The Ecological Status of Andean Rivers protocol was used to assess the upper part of the Jequetepeque river basin. At all the reference sites, the water quality status was very good or good. Only the sites located near mines exhibited alterations in the water quality, confirming the trends observed in the water and sediment monitoring. This protocol, which is an easy-to-use and economical qualitative tool, has proven to be very useful in assessing significant trends in ecological pollution of the basin.

    Estado de la calidad del agua fue caracterizado y las presiones de las actividades antropogénicas fueron evaluadas en una cuenca andina con el fin de promover y mejorar el conocimiento del medio ambiente dentro de un enfoque eco-sistémico en el Perú. Esta investigación fue desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de programas, específicamente de calidad del agua. Para ello, un modelo de simulación continua y un programa de vigilancia ambiental se han desarrollado teniendo en cuenta las exigencias de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA). La dinámica de la cuenca se caracteriza por la Herramienta de Evaluación de Suelo y Agua (SWAT). Los resultados obtenidos a partir del agua y datos de sedimentos visualizan la contaminación de elementos traza cerca de las minas y cuantificar el impacto en la cuenca, principalmente para As, Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn. El estado ecológico reportado fue bueno o muy bueno para todas las muestras. Sin embargo, los puntos localizados cerca de las minas mostraron alteraciones con las mismas tendencias observadas en los monitoreos de agua y sedimento.

  • Caracterización de la acción colectiva para la gestión de los recursos hídricos en la Región Central de Nicaragua

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 649-663
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An improved evaluation framework to support local level planning

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

  • El derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: desafios y oportunidades para mejorar el seguimiento del acceso a los servicios básicos

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 48-49
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Desarrollo de herramientas de gestión socio-ambiental para cuencas andinas con actividades mineras

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 80-81
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Cross-cutting development education into technology studies

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris
    Competitive project

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for air quality modeling with the finite element method  Open access

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for convection-diffusion-reaction problems is presented. The proposal is applied to air quality modeling, especifically to the simulation of a pollutant punctual emissions. The performance of the proposal is analyzed with different nonlinear reaction models, including the photochemical model CB05 implmented within the Comunity Multiscale Air Quality model, which involves sixty-two species and very different characteristic reaction times. The problem is solved with splitting of transport and reaction processes. This allows to discretize the species in distinct computational meshes, adapted to the distribution of the error indicator of each case. A common reference mesh is used for all species and during all problem evolution. A remeshing technique based on imposing the volume of new elements is used to define and update the computational meshes. An error indicator well suited for problems involving large variation of the unknowns is used. A single-mesh strategy, with remeshing adapted to the most demanding specie in each part of the domain, is used for comparison. The results of the examples presented show that the accuracy of single and multi-mesh strategies are similar. Instead, computational cost of multi-mesh is lower than single-mesh in most cases. Reduction increases with the number of species and the number of plumes. An example of a punctual emissor in a three-dimensional domain, with realistic values of CB05 components, is presented.

  • Parcería de apoio técnico á consolidación da Administração Rexional de Áugas do norte (ARA-Norte)

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Flores Baquero, Oscar
    Competitive project

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  • Medalla de plata de la UPC

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Award or recognition

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  • Premi a la millor tesi doctoral en Enginyeria i Arquitectura 2011

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Award or recognition

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    Local government decision-making : from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assumption that decentralized governments are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article examines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific approach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicators as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and comprehensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

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    A closer look at the sanitation ladder: issues of monitoring the sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 18-
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Enhancing the water point mapping: a WASH approach

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    National Young Water Professionals Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Simulación 3D de la calidad del aire en un valle andino con condiciones atmosféricas estables y viento en calma

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso en Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia
    p. 1-17
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Water resources management in the central rift valley: modelling for the water poor  Open access

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Kebede, S
    International Congress Smallwat
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Achieving a sustainable development is crucial, but is even more important in developing countries, where a wide number of people does not have a safe and secure access to water and relay on the environment to sustain their lives. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin is already a degraded basin from the environmental point of view: ecosystems are endangered due to human activities there developed. Moreover, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population is mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. In order to achieve sustainable development to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment and Integrated Water Resources Management approach shall be applied. First step has been to model the basin water resources, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which, after calibration and validation of the model, has given correct results. In order to follow deepening in the IWRM approach, more information on actual and future water demand and specifically water applied to agriculture will be needed.

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    Application of bayesian networks to assess water poverty  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Molina, J. L.; Bromley, John
    International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling
    p. 1-24
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, an integrated and holistic framework is required to capture the wide range of aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created, as an interdisciplinary policy tool to assess water stress that links physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. In parallel, in light of the investments envisaged for the next decade to reach the sector targets set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), appropriate Decision Support Systems (DSS) are required to inform about the expected impacts to be achieved throughout these interventions. This would provide water managers with adequate information to define strategies that are efficient, effective, and sustainable. The paper explores the use of object oriented Bayesian networks (ooBn) as a valid approach for supporting decision making in water resource planning and management. On the basis of the WPI, a simple ooBn model has been designed and applied to reflect the main issues that determine access to safe water and improved sanitation. A pilot case study is presented for the Turkana district, in Kenya, where the Government has launched a national program to meet sector targets set out in the MDGs. Main impacts of this initiative are evaluated and compared with respect to the present condition. The study concludes that this new approach is able to accommodate local conditions and represent an accurate reflection of the complexities of water issues. Such a tool helps decision-makers to assess the effects of sector-related development policies on the variables of the index, as well as to analyse different future scenarios.

  • High-order discontinuous galerkin for unsteady problems in highly absorvent media

     Casoni Rero, Eva; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio
    International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources
    p. 42
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Key challenges in the governance of rural water supply: Lessons learnt from Tanzania  Open access  awarded activity

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Department of Applied Mathematics III, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el ensayo de nuevas herramientas y mecanismos institucionales para la mejora de la eficiencia, equidad y sostenibilidad en la provisión de agua en las zonas rurales, con especial énfasis en el nivel de gobierno descentralizado. Para ello, se desarrollaron experiencias piloto así como procesos de investigación-acción. En el capítulo 1 se estudia el papel desempeñado por los diferentes actores internacionales en la financiación del sector del agua en los países en desarrollo durante la década 1995-2004. En el capítulo 2 se analizan los indicadores existentes para el seguimiento del sector del agua a nivel internacional, específicamente los utilizados para valorar el cumplimiento de los Objetivos del Milenio, así como el Índice de Pobreza Hídrica (Water Poverty Index). Se detallan algunos limitantes en cuanto al alcance y metodología de cálculo de estos indicadores, y se proponen las características básicas que los indicadores deben tener para apoyar la toma de decisiones a nivel gubernamental. En el capítulo 3 se presenta una metodología para el desarrollo de indicadores más completos de acceso al agua, basándose en el Mapeo de Puntos de Agua (Water Point Mapping-WPM). La metodología propuesta, denominada Mapeo Mejorado de Puntos de Agua, incluye la medición de parámetros básicos de calidad del agua y estacionalidad de los servicios. La factibilidad y pertinencia de la adopción de esta metodología a nivel nacional se desarrolló satisfactoriamente a modo de experiencia piloto en dos distritos de Tanzania, con una población rural aproximada de 840.000 personas (capítulo 4). En el capítulo 5 se analiza la sostenibilidad de los servicios de agua rural en relación al tipo de tecnología utilizada para el abastecimiento. El análisis se basa en los datos de 6814 puntos de agua, sobre una población equivalente al 15% de la población rural de Tanzania. El capítulo 6 se analiza el proceso de toma de decisiones, desde el nivel central al nivel comunitario, para la asignación de recursos en el sector del agua rural. Los resultados en los 4 distritos estudiados muestran que menos de la mitad de los proyectos asignados se destinan a zonas con baja cobertura de servicios. Las incoherencias entre el diseño y la implementación de los planes nacionales, y la influencia de los poderes políticos locales son los mayores obstáculos para una equitativa distribución de los recursos. El capítulo 7 detalla el caso de investigación-acción ejecutado a nivel de gobierno local entre 2006 y 2009 con el gobierno del distrito de Same, Tanzania. La mejora de la equidad y la sostenibilidad se fomentaron mediante el desarrollo de herramientas de planificación basadas en el WPM y de mecanismos institucionales para el apoyo a largo plazo a los sistemas de agua rurales. En el capítulo 8 se detallan las conclusiones generales y líneas de investigación futuras. La resolución de los desafíos principales encontrados implican la adopción de paradigmas diferentes: i) la aceptación del agua rural como un servicio responsabilidad del gobierno y no de las comunidades; ii) las actuaciones deben decidirse en función de las necesidades de las comunidades, y no de su capacidad de demanda, iii) el establecimiento de sistemas de información internos que partan desde el nivel local y estén adaptados a las capacidades de actualización disponibles, iv) el desarrollo de mecanismos para la orientación y el seguimiento cercano de los procesos de toma de decisión a nivel local

    The first objective of this thesis is the identification and analysis of key issues in the governance of rural water services in countries that suffer from a lack of rural water access, high levels of poverty, are under decentralization processes and receive significant donor support. This is a common situation for many Sub-Saharan countries. To address the relevant aspects, Tanzania was taken as a case study and was analyzed in depth. The second objective was to test tools and propose institutional arrangements at that can improve efficiency, equity and sustainability in the provision of water for the rural areas, with special focus at the local government level. This was made through pilot experiences and an action research case study. In Chapter 1 we analyse the role played by the international actors in the financing of the water sector of developing countries, in the period 1995-2004. In Chapter 2 we study existing indicators for international monitoring, specifically the ones used by the Joint Monitoring Programme for the monitoring of the MDGs, as well as the Water Poverty Index (WPI). Some drawbacks are found the indicators’ scope and methodology, which prevents them from being used as policy drivers at national level. The chapter concludes by proposing the main characteristics that those indicators must entail to be useful for governmental decision making. In Chapter 3, a methodology to define water access indicators, based on GIS-based Water Point Mapping (WPM) is proposed. The methodology, named Enhanced Water Point Mapping (EWPM), includes the measurement of basic parameters of quality of water and seasonality of the service. The feasibility and relevance of adopting this methodology at national level was tested with success in two districts in Tanzania, covering a rural population of approximately 840,000 people, as described in Chapter 4. In chapter 5, we analyze the sustainability of systems over time, and the relation between sustainability and technology; this chapter is based on the study of 6814 water points, covering 15% of the rural population in the country. Chapter 6 analyses the aspects affecting financial resource allocation for rural water in Tanzania at all levels, from central government to village level. Results in four districts studied showed that less than half of allocated projects go to underserved areas. Incoherencies between the design and the implementation of the plans and political influences at local level are highlighted as major obstacles to the effective, equitable allocation of resources. In chapter 7, we describe an action research process that was carried out at local government level, together with Same District Council, between 2006 and 2009. The improvement of equity and sustainability was supported through the development of EWPM based planning tools and new institutional arrangements for the long-term support of community managed water supplies. In Chapter 8 the overall conclusions and future research lines are presented. We propose some new paradigms in the sector: i) rural water supply must be considered as a service, with government and not communities as main duty bearers; ii) the adoption of a needs-based approach to projects planning at community level, instead of the current demand driven, iii) the establishment of bottom-up internal information systems adapted to available updating capacities and iv) the development of mechanisms for the guidance and close monitoring of local government decision-making.

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    The enhanced Water Poverty Index: targeting the water poor at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    WISA Biennial Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    For a large proportion of the world's population, the provision of a reliable, sustained and safe water supply has become a top priority. As water stress increases, the need for effective water management becomes more pressing. However, the conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, a multi-faceted approach is required to achieve real water poverty reduction. In order to link the biophysical, social, economic and environmental aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. A pressure – state – response function is combined with the original Water Poverty Index (WPI) framework to produce a holistic tool for policy making. In particular, the index is aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making. It highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales, and two different case studies are presented: in Bolivia, at local scale; and in Peru, at watershed scale.

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    Post-processing data from management information system through a water poverty index in East Africa  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper highlights the relevance of the use of the Water Poverty Index as an effective water management tool in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Nevertheless, three conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index, including redundancy among variables, the decision of assigning weights to them, and the aggregation method. Based on a post process of readily available but sector relevant data, a revised method to construct the index has been developed through a case study in Kenya, at local scale. The paper discusses the results of this application. In particular, different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool are presented, with the aim of enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the water sector constraints and challenges, and thus enhance related decision-making accordingly.

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    Consequences of low sustainability in the effectiveness of national strategies to increase water access in the rural areas: evidence from three central regions of Tanzania  Open access

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tanzania, as many other countries, has designed an ambitious Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Plan (RWSSP) to improve increase access to rural water: from 53% in 2005, up to 74% in 2015 and 90% in 2025. Emphasis is placed on the production of new schemes and only 6% of investment is foreseen for rehabilitation. This paper presents an analysis of the current functionality-time relationship for water points found in en extensive water point mapping study made in three regions of Tanzania, covering 15% of the total rural population of the country. Results show very low performance over time, since only between 35% and 47% of water points are working 15 years after installation. Consequences for the accomplishment of the RWSSP are discussed and some measures proposed.

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  • MÈTODES NUMÈRICS EN CIÈNCIES APLICADES I ENGINYERIA

     Roca Navarro, Francisco Javier; Giorgiani, Giorgio; Zlotnik, Sergio; Fernandez Mendez, Sonia; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Muñoz Romero, Jose Javier; Arias Vicente, Irene; de Villardi de Montlaur, Adeline; Sarrate Ramos, Jose; Diez Mejia, Pedro; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino; Sevilla Cardenas, Ruben; Parés Mariné, Núria; Casoni Rero, Eva; Ruiz Girones, Eloi; Modesto Galende, David; Millan, Raul Daniel; Abdollahi Hosnijeh, Amir; Steffens, Lindaura Maria; Discacciati, Marco; Shen, Yongxing; Rahimi Lenji, Mohammad; Tamayo Mas, Elena; Diaz Cereceda, Cristina; Prat Robles, David; Verdugo Rojano, Francesc; Zhang, Kuan; Estela Carbonell, M. Rosa; Peco Regales, Christian; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Gargallo Peiró, Abel; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio
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  • The Water Poverty Index : assessing water scarcity at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congrés UPC Sostenible 2015
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    An assessment of water stress and scarcity requires a multi-faceted approach to achieve real water poverty reduction. Several issues impact the ability of people to access to and properly use water and improved sanitation facilities. Among them are the availability of water resources, the capacity of communities to manage the schemes, the economic aspects of services affordability, and the environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. In order to integrate these biophysical, social, economic and environmental issues, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index, which uses a pressure¿state¿response function, has been developed and is proposed in this study. It is primarily designed to produce a holistic tool for policy making, aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales. It is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making

    An assessment of water stress and scarcity requires a multi-faceted approach to achieve real water poverty reduction. Several issues impact the ability of people to access to and properly use water and improved sanitation facilities. Among them are the availability of water resources, the capacity of communities to manage the schemes, the economic aspects of services affordability, and the environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. In order to integrate these biophysical, social, economic and environmental issues, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index, which uses a pressure–state–response function, has been developed and is proposed in this study. It is primarily designed to produce a holistic tool for policy making, aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales. It is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making.

  • Análisis de impactos ambientales en la cuenca del Jequetepeque, Perú, producidos por actividades mineras  Open access

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Congrés UPC Sostenible 2015
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El objetivo general es el estudio de la movilización de los metales pesados bajo distintas condiciones medioambientales así como la relación existente entre la movilización y las características químicas en el agua superficial de la cuenca alta del Jequetepeque, Perú, evaluando las distintas aportaciones de metales pesados por las empresas mineras ubicadas en la parte de recarga de la cuenca. La cuenca del Jequetepeque es fuente de conflictos debido a la percepción de la población local de escasez y mala calidad del agua, asociada a la minería, frente a la ausencia del estado y la manipulación de la información por parte de los medios de comunicación Para ello, se desarrolla una etapa inicial que consta de un programa de control medio ambiental así como la caracterización hidromorfológica de la cuenca. Se ha realizado la primera campaña del programa de control en los puntos seleccionados por estimarse lugares de mayor concentración de metales pesados, que incluye el análisis de la calidad de agua y sedimentos mediante extracción química selectiva propuesta por BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) Por otra parte la caracterización hidrológica de la cuenca se ha realizado mediante el modelo de simulación ¿Soil and Water Assessment Tool¿ (ArcSWAT 2005) confiriendo una visión integral del recurso hídrico, puesto que permite simular la gestión de la cuenca. Es decir, mediante el modelo se pueden estimar las aportaciones de los distintos usos de suelo y actividades productivas a la cuenca. Además resulta posible tratar la contaminación difusa en el modelo, permitiendo así evaluar los impactos en los distritos hidrográficos. Finalmente, se prevé estimar los riesgos en la salud y medio ambiente a partir de la estimación de la movilidad de metales de los sedimentos al agua mediante los datos de los análisis y las aportaciones del SWAT, así como el diseño de medidas aplicadas para la eliminación de metales en el agua de abastecimiento en zonas rurales. El estudio se sustenta bajo la premisa de que los estudios técnicos no se presentan únicamente como herramientas para el conocimiento, sino como base de un trabajo de difusión y denuncia de acciones realizadas sobre el medio ambiente de forma fundamentada. En este sentido, y gracias a la actuación de la ONGD GRUFIDES (Grupo de Formación e Intervención para un Desarrollo Sostenible, es una de las instituciones asociadas al proyecto de investigación de agua y saneamiento a escala rural del GRECDH), se están llevando a cabo procesos divulgativos y de desarrollo de capacidades por parte de la población afectada, especialmente en la campaña de recogida de muestras e interpretación de resultados, confiriendo un mayor énfasis al conocimiento de los riesgos existentes.

    El objetivo general es el estudio de la movilización de los metales pesados bajo distintas condiciones medioambientales así como la relación existente entre la movilización y las características químicas en el agua superficial de la cuenca alta del Jequetepeque, Perú, evaluando las distintas aportaciones de metales pesados por las empresas mineras ubicadas en la parte de recarga de la cuenca. La cuenca del Jequetepeque es fuente de conflictos debido a la percepción de la población local de escasez y mala calidad del agua, asociada a la minería, frente a la ausencia del estado y la manipulación de la información por parte de los medios de comunicación Para ello, se desarrolla una etapa inicial que consta de un programa de control medio ambiental así como la caracterización hidromorfológica de la cuenca. Se ha realizado la primera campaña del programa de control en los puntos seleccionados por estimarse lugares de mayor concentración de metales pesados, que incluye el análisis de la calidad de agua y sedimentos mediante extracción química selectiva propuesta por BCR (European Community Bureau of Reference) Por otra parte la caracterización hidrológica de la cuenca se ha realizado mediante el modelo de simulación “Soil and Water Assessment Tool” (ArcSWAT 2005) confiriendo una visión integral del recurso hídrico, puesto que permite simular la gestión de la cuenca. Es decir, mediante el modelo se pueden estimar las aportaciones de los distintos usos de suelo y actividades productivas a la cuenca. Además resulta posible tratar la contaminación difusa en el modelo, permitiendo así evaluar los impactos en los distritos hidrográficos. Finalmente, se prevé estimar los riesgos en la salud y medio ambiente a partir de la estimación de la movilidad de metales de los sedimentos al agua mediante los datos de los análisis y las aportaciones del SWAT, así como el diseño de medidas aplicadas para la eliminación de metales en el agua de abastecimiento en zonas rurales. El estudio se sustenta bajo la premisa de que los estudios técnicos no se presentan únicamente como herramientas para el conocimiento, sino como base de un trabajo de difusión y denuncia de acciones realizadas sobre el medio ambiente de forma fundamentada. En este sentido, y gracias a la actuación de la ONGD GRUFIDES (Grupo de Formación e Intervención para un Desarrollo Sostenible, es una de las instituciones asociadas al proyecto de investigación de agua y saneamiento a escala rural del GRECDH), se están llevando a cabo procesos divulgativos y de desarrollo de capacidades por parte de la población afectada, especialmente en la campaña de recogida de muestras e interpretación de resultados, confiriendo un mayor énfasis al conocimiento de los riesgos existentes.

  • Acoplamiento del modelo CMAQ con un modelo de Elementos Finitos para el transporte de contaminantes de plumas de chimeneas

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Oliver, Albert
    Congreso de Métodos Numéricos en Ingeniería
    p. 516
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to safe and year round functionalwater: an estimation of coverage for three central regions in Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 401-409
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
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    Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 286-295
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic and user-friendly tool for policy making. The study is based on a comprehensive record of the water sources developed by UNICEF in Turkana District, in Kenya. The main conclusion is that such an index allows decision-makers to determine and target priority needs for interventions in the water sector, while assessing the impacts of sector-related development policies.

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    A support information system for data management during project implementation: application in Tanzania  Open access

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 678-695
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Water and Sanitation programmes normally involve big amounts of information and several years of implementation; these are facts that justify the need of a proper monitoring. In this paper a Support Information System (SIS) for WatSan programmes monitoring is presented. SIS is based on a database system where relevant data of the programme can be easily stored and processed through user-friendly interfaces. Graphical representation has been included, facilitating the analysis and allowing for a better response on real time while programme is being implemented. The Logical Framework has been used as the starting point to define the tool. Experience has shown that it is crucial to create it with a participatory approach together with professionals working directly on the project. After its application in two programmes in Tanzania it has been seen that the tool allows both for a day-to-day monitoring as well as for a long-term analysis, improving knowledge of the staff working on project implementation, researchers and development planners.

  • MODELOS NUMERICOS PREDICTORES PARA LA GESTION MEDIOAMBIENTAL

     Roca Navarro, Francisco Javier; Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Fernandez Mendez, Sonia; Sala Lardies, Esther; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Competitive project

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    GRECDH-UPC una experiencia en investigación aplicada, multidisciplinar y transversal desde la universidad  Open access

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Magrinya Torner, Francesc; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La UPC cuenta desde hace tiempo con investigadores sensibles a las demandas de investigación científica y tecnológica relacionadas con la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Humano. En 2006, fruto de la demanda interna de la universidad y de los agentes externos, se crea el grupo de investigación Grup de Recerca en Cooperació i Desenvolupament Humà (GRECDH). La presente comunicación pretende exponer el camino recorrido por el GREDH desde su creación (oportunidades y resultados), así como la discusión sobre el tipo de conocimiento generado y su adecuación a los canales clásicos de la investigación universitaria.

  • Promoción y aprendizaje de tecnologías para el desarrollo humano a través de la formación online

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Aragón, Sonia Pérez; Xavier, Alonso Sanz; Ferrenbach, David Vilar
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-13
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    Enhancing the Water Poverty Index: towards a meaningful indicator  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-21
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Several issues impact the ability of people to access safe water and improved sanitation. Among them are the social, economic, and environmental issues. However, they are often treated separately, and not as an integrated, dynamic process. This paper is concerned with the development and underlying methodology of an aggregated index which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic tool for policy making. It will be first tested at basin level in Peru (International Catamayo – Chira Basin), and main results will be presented and discussed. Furthermore, and in the light of its implementation, the need to promote additional research will be evaluated, so as to apply same index at different scales (at least regional and community scale).

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    Sustainability issues of MDG-focussed programmes in the rural water sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    By 2015, to halve the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation has become a top priority in many developing countries (Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals -MDGs-). International concern towards water sector is rapidly increasing and significant investments are envisaged for the next decade. Sector-related policies and strategies aspire to increase prevalent low water supply coverage, particularly in rural areas. Nevertheless, rural water supply programs in developing countries frequently fail to deliver benefits to society in the long run. There is thus a strong need to focus on sustainability issues to prevent new water infrastructure which has to be built from breaking down. In this study we evaluate the rural water sector along this dimension. Its particular aim is twofold. The research first seeks to deepen into the analysis of all key factors which affect long-term functionality of rural water interventions. Second, the authors highlight the need to foster academic debate around relative influence of all these interelated aspects on sustainability of community water supplies. Aimed at identifying the most costeffective alternative, debate should focus on differentiating the essential aspects required to guarantee functionality of water supplies from those which are important but not indispensable.

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    Support Information Systems, a tool which enhance learning and monitoring  Open access

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A Support Information System (SIS) has been created in order to monitor water and sanitation (WatSan) programs and improve their efficiency. SIS is based on a database system where relevant data of the program can be easily stored and processed through user-friendly interfaces. Definition of the information to be introduced in the database shall be done according to the needs of the profesionals working directly on the project and to the data needed to observe the evolution of the program indicators, as those defining the Logical Framework. As long as the information is georeferenced, information can be automatically displayed on a Geographical Information System (GIS), and therefore its spatial evolution can be easily analyzed. Graphical representation facilitates the analysis and allows for a better response on real time while the programme is being implemented. The use of SIS enables for hindsight research, helping to improve efficiency and, therefore program extension/replication.

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    Ciencia y tecnología para el desarrollo: una inversión necesaria  Open access

     Lopez Codina, Daniel; Ortega Roig, Xavier; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Vendrell, Eva
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-7
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • La transversalización del DHS en asignaturas técnicas: proyecto piloto en la UPC

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Lobera, Josep
    Congreso Nacional Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 1-9
    Presentation's date: 2008-11-12
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    International investments in the water sector: last decade evolution and way forward towards MDG  Open access

     Jiménez, A.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWRA World Water Congress
    p. 1-14
    Presentation's date: 2008-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Effective allocation of investments is crucial to achieve the Water and Sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The present paper exposes the main results of a detailed study made about the Official Development Assistance (ODA) and the international private investment in the water sector from 1995 to 2004. Public available data sets from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), the World Bank, and from the Human Development Reports (population and water and sanitation access’ figures) have been collected in a specific database. ODA programmes have been analyzed individually, in order to separate water and sanitation subsectors, since DAC reporting system does not make it directly. The study includes a comparative analysis of public and private international investment; it analyzes the coherence, both geographical and sub sectorial of aid allocation, as well as the terms and conditions of the ODA delivered. Special focus was made on the sanitation subsector. Finally it assesses private participation success in the sector and evaluates cross cutting issues in ODA water programmes. Results of ODA’s analysis show how far donors lag behind their own commitments both in terms of quantity and quality of aid. Data show big geographical inequalities, comparing the share of aid received by regions related to the number of people without access living there. Regardless extremely low coverage in sanitation, donors are not really committed to improve it. Results from international private participation in water and sanitation projects show a little contribution to the achievement of the MDG, as well as a decrease tendency in participation. Complementarities between private and public sector were not significant, if MDG are to be achieved. As a main conclusion of the analysis, we can affirm that there is room for improvements in the water sector’s aid. A global coordination mechanism among donors is needed to ensure more efficient sector’s resources allocation; at the same time, donors should fulfil their own recommendations on terms and conditions of aid. International water and sanitation funds should add on existing national funds in order to effectively increase sector investment. Consideration of private sector’s investments could improve ODA’s allocations. The tiny amount of ODA resources dedicated to sanitation represents a huge contradiction with actual needs.

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    Methodology for the reporting of small scale rural water and sanitation programmes' outputs  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWRA World Water Congress
    p. 1-5
    Presentation's date: 2008-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Quality and sustainability aspects in water access indicators: an example from Same District, Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 455-462
    Presentation's date: 2008-07-01
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  • Análisis de datos y clasificación del transporte interurbano en Catalunya

     Burgos Campo, F.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    VIII Congreso de Ingeniería del Transporte. Superando Finisterres
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2008-07-02
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  • Numerical modeling of biochemical transport processes with heterogeneous source terms. Dimensionless analysis with the Activated Sludge Model ASM1

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    World Congress on Computational Mechanis and European Congres on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering
    p. 1-2
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  • Finite element local air quality modeling of punctual emissions

     Oliver, Albert; Escobar, José María; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    World Congress on Computational Mechanis and European Congres on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering
    p. 1-2
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  • Coupling regional and local air quality models for short-time prediction around punctual pollutant sources using finite elements

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Oliver, Albert
    World Congress on Computational Mechanis and European Congres on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering
    p. 1-2
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