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  • Engineering and Global Development (EGD)

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Van Wunnik, Lucas Philippe; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Arranz Piera, Pol; Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Lazzarini, Boris; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Competitive project

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  • Impacts on effluent contaminants from mine sites : risk assessment, fate, and distribution of pollution at basin scale

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Valderrama Angel, Cesar Alberto; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Environmental science and pollution research
    Vol. 21, num. 9, p. 5960-5971
    DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    The environmental implications of mining activities are of worldwide concern. An environmental evaluation at the basin level was conducted because of widespread mining in Cajamarca in Northern Peru. A sediment monitoring program was developed at the Jequetepeque basin, located in Cajamarca. A total of 16 sites were monitored at three different times between June 2009 and July 2010, and a total of 42 samples were collected. All samples were analyzed by microwave digestion and by a sequential extraction scheme following the three-stage European Community Bureau of Reference (three-stage BCR) protocol. Trace element mobilization from the sediments to the water column was assessed by the risk assessment code (RAC). Spatial and temporal distribution of trace elements was evaluated by principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Cd, Zn, As, and Pb showed the highest concentrations independent of season. Notably, Cu concentration and mobility increased during the wet season for all samples. Additionally, Hg concentration and mobility increased during the wet season near the mine sites. According to the enrichment factor, the highest enrichments of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As were related to mine runoff. The effect of trace elements near the mine sites at the Jequetepeque basin was considered a significant threat to the environment due to Cd, Zn, Pb, and As, and the concentrations of Cu and Hg were also considered a concern. This work establishes a baseline for the environmental quality status of the Jequetepeque basin that may support water quality management in Peru.

    Electronic supplementary material The online Electronic supplementary material: the on-line version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-014-2559-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  • Characterization of local wind patterns in complex mountain valleys

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International journal of climatology
    Vol. 34, num. 6, p. 1741-1759
    DOI: 10.1002/joc.3798
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    In this work, the wind patterns in high mountain areas with complex orography are characterized using hourly data provided by a network of weather stations. The key novelty of the study is the methodology. Data are grouped separately by wind speed and wind direction using two cluster analyses. The groups are analysed and described according to measurements at key stations in the network and their hourly presence. Both classifications are subsequently compared using contingency tables, and the main wind patterns are identified. The uncertainties associated with the average values of each wind pattern are quantified by principal component analysis of the wind vectors at each station. One year of data from nine stations located in the area of La Oroya, Peru was used to validate the proposed method. The local wind behaviour was characterized, the wind patterns were compared with respect to the seasons, and the winter morning transitions were analysed in detail. The methodology allows quantitative description of the local wind patterns and their temporal dynamics in complex mountain valleys. Both wind speed and direction were found to be relevant in wind pattern characterization. In particular, both parameters have proven helpful in identifying and quantifying the prevailing winds during cold dawns and thermal inversion periods.

  • Adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection - Diffusion problems

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Revista internacional de métodos numéricos para cálculo y diseño en ingeniería
    Vol. 30, num. 1, p. 60-67
    DOI: 10.1016/j.rimni.2012.11.003
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    We present an adaptive scheme for three-dimensional convection-diffusion problems discretized by the Finite Element Method. The adaptive scheme is based on a remeshing strategy that applies a maximum volume constraint to the elements of a reference mesh. The remeshing can increase or decrease drastically the size of the elements in a single step automatically. With this strategy, the mesh quality does not deteriorate; as a consequence, the number of iterations required to solve the system of linear equations using iterative algorithms is kept constant. Two examples of very different characteristics are presented in order to analyze the proposal for a wide range of situations. The first is a three-dimensional extension of the Smolarkiewicz problem and the second is a simplified version of a point source pollutant trans-port problem. The results show the flexibility of the proposal. An optimal remeshing frequency, from a computational cost and accuracy of the results point of view, can be defined for both kinds of problems. © 2011 CIMNE (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  • Assessment of water resources management in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley: environmental conservation and poverty reduction

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Codony, Jordi; Raventós, Ester; Candela, Lucila
    International journal of water resources development
    Vol. 30, num. 3, p. 572-587
    DOI: 10.1080/07900627.2013.843410
    Date of publication: 2014-09-01
    Journal article

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    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods.

    This article assesses the relation between water management, environmental degradation and poverty through a stakeholder analysis focused on the status and management of water resources. It draws from the situation observed in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley, an endorheic basin south of Addis Ababa where human activities have resulted in the degradation of most freshwater ecosystems and where the vast majority of the population lives in poverty. It proposes a shift in water governance that focuses on improving economic and social welfare and enhancing environmental sustainability. This shift can help overcome some of the problems affecting the Central Rift Valley, namely: (1) the overexploitation of water resources; (2) poor water quality; and (3) the high dependency of the population on water resources to sustain their livelihoods

  • Cross-cutting development education into technology studies

     Velo Garcia, Enrique; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Competitive project

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  • Dimensionless analysis of HSDM and application to simulation of breakthrough curves of highly adsorbent porous media

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Casoni Rero, Eva; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio
    Journal of environmental engineering (ASCE)
    Vol. 139, num. 5, p. 667-676
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000665
    Date of publication: 2013-05
    Journal article

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    The homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) is widely used for adsorption modeling of aqueous solutions. The Biot number is usually used to characterize model behavior. However, some limitations of this characterization have been reported recently, and the Stanton number has been proposed as a complement to be considered. In this work, a detailed dimensionless analysis of HSDM is presented and limit behaviors of the model are characterized, confirming but extending previous results. An accurate and efficient numerical solver is used for these purposes. The intraparticle diffusion equation is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations, the transport-reaction equation is discretized by using a discontinuous Galerkin method, and the overall system evolution is integrated with a time-marching scheme. This approach facilitates the simulation of HSDM with a wide range of dimensionless numbers and with a correct treatment of shocks, which appear with nonlinear adsorption isotherms and with large Biot numbers and small surface diffusivity modulus. The approach is applied to simulate the breakthrough curves of granular ferric hydroxide. Published experimental data is adequately simulated.

  • Water¿sanitation¿hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Science of the total environment
    Vol. 463-464, p. 700-711
    DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.06.005
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District ¿Kenya¿; Kibondo District ¿Tanzania¿; and Municipality of Manhiça ¿Mozambique¿) are presented.

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District –Kenya–; Kibondo District –Tanzania–; and Municipality of Manhiça –Mozambique–) are presented.

  • Access to the full text
    Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water policy
    Vol. 15, num. 6, p. 1018-1045
    DOI: 10.2166/wp.2013.037
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developing world. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study produces misleading results, which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMP indicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery.

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developingworld. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and producing consistent evidence are diverse. To influence policy, data have to be easily and meaningfully interpreted. In addition, the evaluation framework needs to capture the complexity inherent in the delivery of rural services. And with limited resources, the neediest must be prioritized. In this paper we compare three different monitoring and evaluation approaches: health impact indicators, standard indicators of the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP), and one multidimensional, WASH-focused indicator. From a policy-making perspective, the likely utility of the outcomes produced by each approach is discussed. The epidemiological study producesmisleading results,which do not help draw relevant conclusions. JMPindicators provide reasonable quality basic estimates of coverage across different contexts, but are inappropriate to build up a complete picture of such context. The index approach takes into account a broader view of service level, and proves useful as a policy tool to guide action towards improved service delivery

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Slope effects on SWAT modeling in a mountainous basin

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Journal of hydrologic engineering
    Vol. 18, num. 12, p. 1663-1673
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000756
    Date of publication: 2013-12
    Journal article

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    The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a distributed basin model that includes the option of defining spatial discretization in terms of terrain slope. Influence of terrain slope in runoff results from mountain basins is a determining factor in its simulation results; however, its use as a criterion for basin discretization and for the parameter calibration has not yet been analyzed. In this study, this influence is analyzed for calibrations using two different cases. Ten discretization cases were carried out to evaluate the relative importance of slope discretization compared with other discretization criteria. Data from 1999-2005 were used for model calibration, and those from 2006-2009, for model validation. Parameter identification and specification were performed with the combined latin hypercube and one-factor-at-a-time (LH-OAT) and the shuffled complex evolution-uncertainty analysis methods (SCE-UA), respectively. All cases resulted in very good statistical values, with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.82-0.85, a bias of 2-10%, and the observations standard deviation ratio of 0.4-0.3. More realistic calibrated parameters were found when terrain slope variation was not included in the spatial discretization criteria. The inclusion of slope did not significantly improve simulations results when a good set of parameters was used, but it did enhance the calibration when a reduced number of subbasins was used.

    The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a distributed basin model that includes the option of defining spatial discretization in terms of terrain slope. Influence of terrain slope in runoff results from mountain basins is a determining factor in its simulation results; however, its use as a criterion for basin discretization and for the parameter calibration has not yet been analyzed. In this study, this influence is analyzed for calibrations using two different cases. Ten discretization cases were carried out to evaluate the relative importance of slope discretization compared with other discretization criteria. Data from 1999–2005 were used for model calibration, and those from 2006–2009, for model validation. Parameter identification and specification were performed with the combined latin hypercube and one-factor-at-a-time (LH-OAT) and the shuffled complex evolution-uncertainty analysis methods (SCE-UA), respectively. All cases resulted in very good statistical values, with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.82–0.85, a bias of 2–10%, and the observations standard deviation ratio of 0.4–0.3. More realistic calibrated parameters were found when terrain slope variation was not included in the spatial discretization criteria. The inclusion of slope did not significantly improve simulations results when a good set of parameters was used, but it did enhance the calibration when a reduced number of subbasins was used.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Unravelling the linkages between water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: The WASH poverty index

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water resources management
    Vol. 27, num. 5, p. 1501-1515
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0251-6
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Many studies have reported the effect of water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in improving health and ultimately alleviating poverty. Current coverage estimates show however that a large proportion of people in the world still do not have access to a simple pit latrine or a source of safe drinking water, and this situation worsens in rural areas. To help end these appalling figures, much effort has gone into the development of policy instruments which support decision-making, i.e. planning, targeting and prioritization. Indices and indicators are increasingly recognised as powerful tools for such purposes. This paper details the theoretical framework and development of a multidimensional, WASH-focused, thematic indicator: the WASH Poverty Index (WASH PI). It describes the methodology in index construction and disseminates achieved results in a variety of forms to promote the utility of the tool for the integrated analysis of WASH and poverty linkages. The article uses Kenya as initial case study to illustrate the application of the index. Overall, WASH PI helps identify priority areas and guide appropriate action and policy-making towards improved service delivery.

  • Adaptive finite element simulation of stack pollutant emissions over complex terrains

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Rodriguez, E; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Energy
    Vol. 49, num. 12, p. 47-60
    DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2012.10.051
    Date of publication: 2013-01-01
    Journal article

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  • Spatial and temporal trace metal distribution of a Peruvian basin: recognizing trace metal sources and assessing the potential risk

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Blazquez Pallí, Natalia; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Environmental monitoring and assessment
    Vol. 185, p. 7961-7978
    DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3147-x
    Date of publication: 2013-03-13
    Journal article

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    Abstract Recent efforts have been made to determine the environmental impact of mining over the past 11 years in the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. We have now analyzed data from two studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal trace metal distribu- tions and to assess the sources of contamination. These two studies were carried out from 2003 to 2008 by a Peruvian government administration and from 2008 to 2010 by us. We analyzed 249 samples by principal component analysis, measuring: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chloride, weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, total cyanide, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and trace metals and metalloids (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Within the spatial distribution of the basin, the highest Al, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb concentrations were found at the closest point to the mine sites for both periods of time, with the higher peaks measured during the first years of the sampling data. Temporal trends showed higher con- centrations of Cu and Fe in samples taken before 2005, at which point the two mines were closed. Risk assessment was quantified by the hazard quotient as related to water ingestion. The risk for human health posed by the concentrations of several trace metals and metalloids was found to be highly adverse (As and Cr), significant (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb), or minimal (Ni and Zn)

    Recent efforts have been made to determine the environmental impact of mining over the past 11 years in the Jequetepeque River basin, in northern Peru. We have now analyzed data from two studies to elucidate the spatial and temporal trace metal distribu- tions and to assess the sources of contamination. These two studies were carried out from 2003 to 2008 by a Peruvian government administration and from 2008 to 2010 by us. We analyzed 249 samples by principal component analysis, measuring: pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chloride, weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, total cyanide, nitrite and nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and trace metals and metalloids (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Within the spatial distribution of the basin, the highest Al, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb concentrations were found at the closest point to the mine sites for both periods of time, with the higher peaks measured during the first years of the sampling data. Temporal trends showed higher con- centrations of Cu and Fe in samples taken before 2005, at which point the two mines were closed. Risk assessment was quantified by the hazard quotient as related to water ingestion. The risk for human health posed by the concentrations of several trace metals and metalloids was found to be highly adverse (As and Cr), significant (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb), or minimal (Ni and Zn

  • Developing tools to evaluate the environmental status of Andean basins with mining activities  Open access

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Se ha caracterizado el estado de la calidad del agua de una cuenca andina y evaluado las presiones procedentes de actividades antropogénicas, con el propósito de incrementar el conocimiento sobre el estado del medio ambiente con un enfoque ecosistémico en Perú. Esta investigación ha sido desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de ríos, específicamente programas de calidad de agua. Para ello se han desarrollado dos herramientas teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos de la directiva marco del agua de la Unión Europea: un modelo de simulación continuo, y un programa de monitoreo ambiental.El modelo the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) es un modelo medioambiental aplicado que ha sido utilizado en la investigación con el objetivo de priorizar los planes de gestión integrada de recursos hídricos. El modelo ha sido calibrado y validado para la cuenca del Jequetepeque (Perú), usando el algoritmo SCE-UA y una cantidad de datos meteorológicos y de flujo relativamente pequeña (de un periodo de 11 años). Se evaluaron cinco discretizaciones diferentes, comparando el efecto de la pendiente como criterio de discretización, obteniendo en todos los casos buenos resultados, tanto a nivel de hidrográficos como de coeficientes estadísticos.Para la evaluación de la calidad del agua en la cuenca, se han aplicado métodos y herramientas de monitoreo medioambiental, identificando y cuantificando las fuentes de contaminación, el riesgo asociado y los efectos potenciales sobre la vida acuática y la salud humana han sido adicionalmente considerados. Se han realizado monitoreos de agua, sedimentos y un monitoreo ecológico. Además se ha recogido y analizado los datos disponibles a escala de cuenca. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las cuatro campañas de agua y sedimentos, resaltan la contaminación por los elementos traza en lugares cercanos a los emplazamientos mineros, permitiendo así la cuantificación de los impactos mineros en la cuenca del Jequetepeque. El análisis de las muestras de agua indica el lugar más contaminado en la cuenca se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Sipán SL. Los niveles de As y Cr encontrados señalaron efectos adversos para la salud mientras que los niveles de Al, Cd, Cu, Fe y Pb muestraron efectos significativos, principalmente en zonas cercanas a las minas. Teniendo en cuenta la falta de plantas de tratamiento de agua y de remediación, se debe recalcar la importancia de políticas y medidas de regulación y control. El análisis de las muestras de sedimentos indica que el lugar de mayor contaminación se encuentra aguas abajo de la minera Yanacocha SRL, siendo una amenaza para el medio ambiente, independientemente de la estación del año, debido a las concentraciones de Cd, Zn, Pb y As. El análisis de la extracción secuencial indicó que los elementos traza más móviles son Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni y Zn, los cuales pueden ser liberados del sedimento al agua en función a las condiciones medioambientales del río.Adicionalmente se evaluaron las cinéticas de los metales traza de mayor interés. Se utilizaron los modelos de difusión y de ¿two first order¿ para describir la cinética de Cu, Pb y Zn. Estos elementos pueden ser significativos bajo condiciones extremadamente acidas (pH=1). Esto debe tenerse en cuenta para un análisis de riesgo debido al potencial del drenaje acido de minas.Se ha utilizado el protocolo de calidad ecológica de ríos andinos para evaluar la parte alta de la cuenca del Jequetepeque para el análisis del estado ecológico. Todos los lugares establecidos como referenciales obtuvieron un estado de calidad bueno o muy bueno. Únicamente en los puntos ubicados aguas abajo las minas presentaron alteraciones, confirmando los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de agua y sedimentos. Así se muestra que este protocolo, que resulta sencillo y económico, es una herramienta útil para la evaluación de contaminación ecológica a nivel de cuenca.

    The water quality status of an Andean river basin was characterised and the pressures from anthropogenic activities were evaluated to enhance the available knowledge of the environment within an ecosystem in Peru. This investigation was conducted to assess the environmental status of the basin as a first step to introducing river management plans and specific water quality programmes. A continuous simulation model and an environmental monitoring program were developed, taking into account the European water framework directive (WFD) requirements. To prioritise the integrated water resources management (IWRM), an applied environmental model, the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) was used. The model was calibrated and validated for the Jequetepeque river basin using the SCE-UA algorithm and a relatively small amount of data (11 years). Five different cases of sub-basin discretisation were evaluated with and without a slope criterion. Very good hydrographs and statistics (NSE, RSR and PBIAS) were obtained for all cases. Environmental monitoring methods and tools for water quality evaluation were developed. The sources of contamination were identified and levels of contamination were quantified to evaluate pollution emissions. The degree of pollution by different substances, the associated risks, and the potential effects on aquatic life and human health were considered in the development of the tools and environmental monitoring methods. Water monitoring, sediment monitoring, and ecological monitoring, including a complementary effort to collect available data at the basin scale, were conducted in this study. The concentrations of trace elements were determined from the results of four water and sediment monitoring campaigns conducted between November 2008 and June 2010, and an ecological survey was evaluated. The results obtained from analysis of the water and sediment data indicated trace element pollution near mine sites, enabling us to quantify the impact of the mines on the Jequetepeque basin. Analysis of the water samples indicated that the most polluted water in the basin was located downstream from the Sipán SL Mine. The levels of Cr and As indicated adverse effects, whereas the levels of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe and Pb indicated significant effects on human health, mainly near the mining areas. Considering the lack of water facilities and trace element remediation in the region, special attention should be paid to regulatory policies and palliative countermeasures. Analysis of the sediment samples indicated that the most polluted sediment was located downstream from the Yanacocha Mine site and poses a significant threat to the environment in terms of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As pollution, regardless of the season. The sequential extraction analysis indicated higher mobility for Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn. Those trace elements are released to the water column depending on the environmental conditions. The kinetics of the most prevalent trace elements in the basin were also evaluated. A diffusion model and two first-order models were used successfully to describe the kinetic extraction of Cu, Pb, and Zn. These trace elements can be significant only under extremely acidic conditions (pH=1); this should be taken into account in the potential scenario of acid mine drainage. The Ecological Status of Andean Rivers protocol was used to assess the upper part of the Jequetepeque river basin. At all the reference sites, the water quality status was very good or good. Only the sites located near mines exhibited alterations in the water quality, confirming the trends observed in the water and sediment monitoring. This protocol, which is an easy-to-use and economical qualitative tool, has proven to be very useful in assessing significant trends in ecological pollution of the basin.

    Estado de la calidad del agua fue caracterizado y las presiones de las actividades antropogénicas fueron evaluadas en una cuenca andina con el fin de promover y mejorar el conocimiento del medio ambiente dentro de un enfoque eco-sistémico en el Perú. Esta investigación fue desarrollada como un primer paso para introducir planes de gestión de programas, específicamente de calidad del agua. Para ello, un modelo de simulación continua y un programa de vigilancia ambiental se han desarrollado teniendo en cuenta las exigencias de la Directiva Marco del Agua (DMA). La dinámica de la cuenca se caracteriza por la Herramienta de Evaluación de Suelo y Agua (SWAT). Los resultados obtenidos a partir del agua y datos de sedimentos visualizan la contaminación de elementos traza cerca de las minas y cuantificar el impacto en la cuenca, principalmente para As, Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn. El estado ecológico reportado fue bueno o muy bueno para todas las muestras. Sin embargo, los puntos localizados cerca de las minas mostraron alteraciones con las mismas tendencias observadas en los monitoreos de agua y sedimento.

  • An improved evaluation framework to support local level planning

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Water and Sanitation Centre Symposium
    p. 1-19
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

    Today, a vast proportion of people still lack a simple pit latrine and a source of safe drinking water. To help end this appalling state of affairs, there is a pressing need to provide policymakers with evidences in base-effective planning, targeting and prioritisation. Amongst others, two major challenges often hinder this process: i) lack of reliable data to identify which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for decision-making support. In tackling previous shortcomings, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to compile, analyse and disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) information. In an era of decentralisation, where decision-making moves to local governments, we apply such framework at the local level. The ultimate goal is to develop appropriate tools for decentralised planning support. To this end, the study first implements an innovative methodology for primary data collection, which combines the household and the water point as information sources. In so doing, we provide a complete picture of the context in which WASH services are delivered. Second, the collected data are analysed to underline the emerging development challenges. The use of simple planning indicators serves as the basis to 1.Reveal which areas require policy attention, and to 2.Identify the neediest. Various mechanisms are then proposed to translate previously identified development potentials into development initiatives, in which base the formulation of strategies to steer progress. Three different case studies from East and Southern African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique) are presented. Results indicate that accurate and comprehensive data, if adequately exploited through simple instruments, may be the basis of effective targeting and pri oritisation, which are central to sector planning. The application of the proposed framework in the real world, however, is to a certain extent elusive. We point out to conclude two specific challenges that remain unaddressed; namely the effective and cont inued use of these instruments in sector decision-making processes and the design of data updating mechanisms.

  • Introducing hygiene elements into sanitation monitoring

     Craven, Joanne; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach¿s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

    With the 2015 Millenium Development Goal deadline approaching, discussion has turned to how to improve monitoring strategies post-2015. Key aims are to find ways to include hygiene behaviour in sanitation monitoring, evaluate the sustainability of improvements and encourage the formulation of pro-poor policy. However, at present, no robust indicator of hygiene (particularly hand-washing) has been found, and it is unclear whether current methods encourage sustainable, pro-poor interventions. This study compared various potential indicators using a dataset collected through household surveys in Kenya, with a view to testing the current approach’s predictive ability in hygiene and recommend indicators which could be used to monitor hygiene directly. The results suggested that the current approach does not reliably predict a good standard of hygiene, but that the presence of a hand-washing facility with soap could be used as a practical, global hand-washing indicator.

  • The issue of the design effect in water, sanitation and hygiene studies

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delivering water, sanitation and hygiene services in an uncertain environment Cluster sampling is commonly used in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) surveys, as in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for the assessment of development-related goals. In cluster survey techniques, despite a good approximation of the design effect is essential for efficient sample size determination and for obtaining accurate precision of survey estimates; the assessment of this parameter has often been overlooked. This study computes the design effects for three core WASH outcomes at two different administrative scales. We use the database of a Kenyan case study for this purpose. We show that design effects differ greatly, and large differences have been found for different variables, different regional setting, and different scale of analysis. We recommend that survey planners should keep in mind such differences when defining the objectives of the survey and the required precision of survey estimates.

  • Local Scale Finite Element Modelling of Stack Pollutant Emissions

     Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Oliver Serra, Albert; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International Conference on Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering
    p. a658
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Caracterización de la acción colectiva para la gestión de los recursos hídricos en la Región Central de Nicaragua

     Flores Baquero, Oscar; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso Universidad y Cooperación al Desarrollo
    p. 649-663
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Desarrollo de herramientas de gestión socio-ambiental para cuencas andinas con actividades mineras

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 80-81
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • El derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: desafios y oportunidades para mejorar el seguimiento del acceso a los servicios básicos

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Flores Baquero, Oscar; Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Water Week Latinoamérica
    p. 48-49
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Medalla de plata de la UPC

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Award or recognition

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  • Quality and year-round availability of water delivered by improved water points in rural Tanzania: effects on coverage

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water policy
    Vol. 14, num. 3, p. 509-523
    DOI: 10.2166/wp.2011.026
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Trace Metal Content of Sediments Close to Mine Sites in the Andean Region

     Yacoub Lopez, Cristina; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Miralles Esteban, Nuria
    The scientific world journal
    num. 732519, p. 1-12
    DOI: 10.1100/2012/732519
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Finite element simulation of a local scale Air Quality Model over complex terrain

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Montero Garcia, Gustavo; Montenegro Armas, Rafael; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Escobar Sánchez, José M.; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Advances in science and research (ASR)
    Vol. 8, p. 105-113
    DOI: 10.5194/asr-8-105-2012
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for air quality modeling with the finite element method  Open access

     Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A multi-mesh adaptive scheme for convection-diffusion-reaction problems is presented. The proposal is applied to air quality modeling, especifically to the simulation of a pollutant punctual emissions. The performance of the proposal is analyzed with different nonlinear reaction models, including the photochemical model CB05 implmented within the Comunity Multiscale Air Quality model, which involves sixty-two species and very different characteristic reaction times. The problem is solved with splitting of transport and reaction processes. This allows to discretize the species in distinct computational meshes, adapted to the distribution of the error indicator of each case. A common reference mesh is used for all species and during all problem evolution. A remeshing technique based on imposing the volume of new elements is used to define and update the computational meshes. An error indicator well suited for problems involving large variation of the unknowns is used. A single-mesh strategy, with remeshing adapted to the most demanding specie in each part of the domain, is used for comparison. The results of the examples presented show that the accuracy of single and multi-mesh strategies are similar. Instead, computational cost of multi-mesh is lower than single-mesh in most cases. Reduction increases with the number of species and the number of plumes. An example of a punctual emissor in a three-dimensional domain, with realistic values of CB05 components, is presented.

  • Premi a la millor tesi doctoral en Enginyeria i Arquitectura 2011

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Award or recognition

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  • Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water science and technology
    Vol. 63, num. 6, p. 1099-1110
    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.347
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Analyzing Water Poverty in Basins

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    Water resources management
    Vol. 25, num. 14, p. 3595-3612
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-011-9872-4
    Date of publication: 2011-11
    Journal article

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  • Water point mapping for the analysis of rural water supply plans: case study from Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Journal of water resources planning and management (ASCE)
    Vol. 137, num. 5, p. 439-447
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000135
    Date of publication: 2011-09-09
    Journal article

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  • The Relationship between technology and functionality of rural water points: evidence from Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water science and technology
    Vol. 63, num. 5, p. 948-955
    DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.274
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    A closer look at the sanitation ladder: issues of monitoring the sector  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 18-
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Enhancing the water point mapping: a WASH approach

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    National Young Water Professionals Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Simulación 3D de la calidad del aire en un valle andino con condiciones atmosféricas estables y viento en calma

     Oliver Serra, Albert; Monforte, Lluis; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Congreso en Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia
    p. 1-17
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Local government decision-making : from data to action  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-18
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Decentralisation is built on the assumption that decentralized governments are more knowledgeable about and responsive to the needs of the poor. This article examines the role of local governments in Kenya and the ways in which they make their decisions about the allocation of resources to deliver water and sanitation services. Two major challenges are identified: i) lack of data that accurately reveal which areas are most in need; and ii) inadequate instruments for planning, monitoring and evaluation. In tackling previous shortcomings, this study i) adopts a new specific approach for data collection at community level, and ii) exploits these data through simple composite indicators as policy tools that assist local government with decision-making. It concludes that accurate and comprehensive data are the basis of effective targeting and prioritization, which are fundamental to sector planning.

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    Water resources management in the central rift valley: modelling for the water poor  Open access

     Pascual Ferrer, Jordi; Candela, Lucila; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Kebede, S
    International Congress Smallwat
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Achieving a sustainable development is crucial, but is even more important in developing countries, where a wide number of people does not have a safe and secure access to water and relay on the environment to sustain their lives. The Ethiopian Central Rift Valley basin is already a degraded basin from the environmental point of view: ecosystems are endangered due to human activities there developed. Moreover, poverty is widespread all over the basin, with population is mainly living from agriculture on a subsistence economy. In order to achieve sustainable development to increase population incomes without affecting lives of those who are highly dependent on the environment and Integrated Water Resources Management approach shall be applied. First step has been to model the basin water resources, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which, after calibration and validation of the model, has given correct results. In order to follow deepening in the IWRM approach, more information on actual and future water demand and specifically water applied to agriculture will be needed.

  • Building the role of local government authorities towards the achievement of the human right to water in rural Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Natural resources forum
    Vol. 34, num. 2, p. 93-105
    Date of publication: 2010-05
    Journal article

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  • Improved method to calculate a water poverty index at local scale

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Journal of environmental engineering (ASCE)
    Vol. 136, num. 11, p. 1287-1298
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000255
    Date of publication: 2010-11
    Journal article

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  • Key challenges in the governance of rural water supply: Lessons learnt from Tanzania  Open access  awarded activity

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro
    Department of Applied Mathematics III, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El primer objetivo de esta tesis es la identificación y análisis de aspectos clave para la gobernanza de los servicios de agua rural en países que adolecen de bajos niveles de cobertura, altos índices de pobreza, se encuentran en procesos de descentralización, reciben un importante apoyo de donantes internacionales. Esta situación es común para muchos países de África Sub-sahariana. Por ello, se eligió Tanzania como objeto de estudio. El segundo objetivo de esta tesis ha sido el ensayo de nuevas herramientas y mecanismos institucionales para la mejora de la eficiencia, equidad y sostenibilidad en la provisión de agua en las zonas rurales, con especial énfasis en el nivel de gobierno descentralizado. Para ello, se desarrollaron experiencias piloto así como procesos de investigación-acción. En el capítulo 1 se estudia el papel desempeñado por los diferentes actores internacionales en la financiación del sector del agua en los países en desarrollo durante la década 1995-2004. En el capítulo 2 se analizan los indicadores existentes para el seguimiento del sector del agua a nivel internacional, específicamente los utilizados para valorar el cumplimiento de los Objetivos del Milenio, así como el Índice de Pobreza Hídrica (Water Poverty Index). Se detallan algunos limitantes en cuanto al alcance y metodología de cálculo de estos indicadores, y se proponen las características básicas que los indicadores deben tener para apoyar la toma de decisiones a nivel gubernamental. En el capítulo 3 se presenta una metodología para el desarrollo de indicadores más completos de acceso al agua, basándose en el Mapeo de Puntos de Agua (Water Point Mapping-WPM). La metodología propuesta, denominada Mapeo Mejorado de Puntos de Agua, incluye la medición de parámetros básicos de calidad del agua y estacionalidad de los servicios. La factibilidad y pertinencia de la adopción de esta metodología a nivel nacional se desarrolló satisfactoriamente a modo de experiencia piloto en dos distritos de Tanzania, con una población rural aproximada de 840.000 personas (capítulo 4). En el capítulo 5 se analiza la sostenibilidad de los servicios de agua rural en relación al tipo de tecnología utilizada para el abastecimiento. El análisis se basa en los datos de 6814 puntos de agua, sobre una población equivalente al 15% de la población rural de Tanzania. El capítulo 6 se analiza el proceso de toma de decisiones, desde el nivel central al nivel comunitario, para la asignación de recursos en el sector del agua rural. Los resultados en los 4 distritos estudiados muestran que menos de la mitad de los proyectos asignados se destinan a zonas con baja cobertura de servicios. Las incoherencias entre el diseño y la implementación de los planes nacionales, y la influencia de los poderes políticos locales son los mayores obstáculos para una equitativa distribución de los recursos. El capítulo 7 detalla el caso de investigación-acción ejecutado a nivel de gobierno local entre 2006 y 2009 con el gobierno del distrito de Same, Tanzania. La mejora de la equidad y la sostenibilidad se fomentaron mediante el desarrollo de herramientas de planificación basadas en el WPM y de mecanismos institucionales para el apoyo a largo plazo a los sistemas de agua rurales. En el capítulo 8 se detallan las conclusiones generales y líneas de investigación futuras. La resolución de los desafíos principales encontrados implican la adopción de paradigmas diferentes: i) la aceptación del agua rural como un servicio responsabilidad del gobierno y no de las comunidades; ii) las actuaciones deben decidirse en función de las necesidades de las comunidades, y no de su capacidad de demanda, iii) el establecimiento de sistemas de información internos que partan desde el nivel local y estén adaptados a las capacidades de actualización disponibles, iv) el desarrollo de mecanismos para la orientación y el seguimiento cercano de los procesos de toma de decisión a nivel local

    The first objective of this thesis is the identification and analysis of key issues in the governance of rural water services in countries that suffer from a lack of rural water access, high levels of poverty, are under decentralization processes and receive significant donor support. This is a common situation for many Sub-Saharan countries. To address the relevant aspects, Tanzania was taken as a case study and was analyzed in depth. The second objective was to test tools and propose institutional arrangements at that can improve efficiency, equity and sustainability in the provision of water for the rural areas, with special focus at the local government level. This was made through pilot experiences and an action research case study. In Chapter 1 we analyse the role played by the international actors in the financing of the water sector of developing countries, in the period 1995-2004. In Chapter 2 we study existing indicators for international monitoring, specifically the ones used by the Joint Monitoring Programme for the monitoring of the MDGs, as well as the Water Poverty Index (WPI). Some drawbacks are found the indicators’ scope and methodology, which prevents them from being used as policy drivers at national level. The chapter concludes by proposing the main characteristics that those indicators must entail to be useful for governmental decision making. In Chapter 3, a methodology to define water access indicators, based on GIS-based Water Point Mapping (WPM) is proposed. The methodology, named Enhanced Water Point Mapping (EWPM), includes the measurement of basic parameters of quality of water and seasonality of the service. The feasibility and relevance of adopting this methodology at national level was tested with success in two districts in Tanzania, covering a rural population of approximately 840,000 people, as described in Chapter 4. In chapter 5, we analyze the sustainability of systems over time, and the relation between sustainability and technology; this chapter is based on the study of 6814 water points, covering 15% of the rural population in the country. Chapter 6 analyses the aspects affecting financial resource allocation for rural water in Tanzania at all levels, from central government to village level. Results in four districts studied showed that less than half of allocated projects go to underserved areas. Incoherencies between the design and the implementation of the plans and political influences at local level are highlighted as major obstacles to the effective, equitable allocation of resources. In chapter 7, we describe an action research process that was carried out at local government level, together with Same District Council, between 2006 and 2009. The improvement of equity and sustainability was supported through the development of EWPM based planning tools and new institutional arrangements for the long-term support of community managed water supplies. In Chapter 8 the overall conclusions and future research lines are presented. We propose some new paradigms in the sector: i) rural water supply must be considered as a service, with government and not communities as main duty bearers; ii) the adoption of a needs-based approach to projects planning at community level, instead of the current demand driven, iii) the establishment of bottom-up internal information systems adapted to available updating capacities and iv) the development of mechanisms for the guidance and close monitoring of local government decision-making.

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    The enhanced Water Poverty Index: targeting the water poor at different scales  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    WISA Biennial Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    For a large proportion of the world's population, the provision of a reliable, sustained and safe water supply has become a top priority. As water stress increases, the need for effective water management becomes more pressing. However, the conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, a multi-faceted approach is required to achieve real water poverty reduction. In order to link the biophysical, social, economic and environmental aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources, as well as the existing pressures and policy responses into one single, comparable, dynamic indicator, an enhanced Water Poverty Index (eWPI) has been developed and is proposed in this study. A pressure – state – response function is combined with the original Water Poverty Index (WPI) framework to produce a holistic tool for policy making. In particular, the index is aimed at allowing resource managers to determine and target priority needs in the water sector, while assessing development process. This paper is concerned not with the development or the underlying methodology of the index, but with how the tool can best be applied in practice to generate useful data, which then may be used to support decision-making. It highlights some of the applications of the index at different spatial scales, and two different case studies are presented: in Bolivia, at local scale; and in Peru, at watershed scale.

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    Application of bayesian networks to assess water poverty  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Molina, J. L.; Bromley, John
    International Conference on Sustainability Measurement and Modelling
    p. 1-24
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The conventional approaches to water assessment are inappropriate for describing the increasing complexity of water issues. Instead, an integrated and holistic framework is required to capture the wide range of aspects which are influencing sustainable development of water resources. It is with this in mind that the Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created, as an interdisciplinary policy tool to assess water stress that links physical estimates of water availability with the socio-economic drivers of poverty. In parallel, in light of the investments envisaged for the next decade to reach the sector targets set by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), appropriate Decision Support Systems (DSS) are required to inform about the expected impacts to be achieved throughout these interventions. This would provide water managers with adequate information to define strategies that are efficient, effective, and sustainable. The paper explores the use of object oriented Bayesian networks (ooBn) as a valid approach for supporting decision making in water resource planning and management. On the basis of the WPI, a simple ooBn model has been designed and applied to reflect the main issues that determine access to safe water and improved sanitation. A pilot case study is presented for the Turkana district, in Kenya, where the Government has launched a national program to meet sector targets set out in the MDGs. Main impacts of this initiative are evaluated and compared with respect to the present condition. The study concludes that this new approach is able to accommodate local conditions and represent an accurate reflection of the complexities of water issues. Such a tool helps decision-makers to assess the effects of sector-related development policies on the variables of the index, as well as to analyse different future scenarios.

  • High-order discontinuous galerkin for unsteady problems in highly absorvent media

     Casoni Rero, Eva; Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Huerta Cerezuela, Antonio
    International Conference on Computational Methods in Water Resources
    p. 42
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • MODELOS NUMERICOS PREDICTORES PARA LA GESTION MEDIOAMBIENTAL

     Rodriguez Ferran, Antonio; Sala Lardies, Esther; Fernandez Mendez, Sonia; Roca Navarro, Francisco Javier; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Competitive project

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    Enhancing sector data management to target the water poor  Open access

     Giné Garriga, Ricard; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 286-295
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Appropriate data management as the basis of effective performance reporting is crucial if sector institutions are to track whether they achieve their objectives. This paper shows how a post process of readily available data to construct water poverty maps can be used to identify effectively the most water poor communities, and thus improve the targeting of sector development policies and projects. To this end, water poverty takes its definition from the Water Poverty Index, which combines biophysical, social, economic and environmental data in one single and comparable number to produce a holistic and user-friendly tool for policy making. The study is based on a comprehensive record of the water sources developed by UNICEF in Turkana District, in Kenya. The main conclusion is that such an index allows decision-makers to determine and target priority needs for interventions in the water sector, while assessing the impacts of sector-related development policies.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Post-processing data from management information system through a water poverty index in East Africa  Open access

     Pérez Foguet, Agustí; Giné Garriga, Ricard
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-16
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper highlights the relevance of the use of the Water Poverty Index as an effective water management tool in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Nevertheless, three conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index, including redundancy among variables, the decision of assigning weights to them, and the aggregation method. Based on a post process of readily available but sector relevant data, a revised method to construct the index has been developed through a case study in Kenya, at local scale. The paper discusses the results of this application. In particular, different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool are presented, with the aim of enabling a more comprehensive understanding of the water sector constraints and challenges, and thus enhance related decision-making accordingly.

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  • Access to safe and year round functionalwater: an estimation of coverage for three central regions in Tanzania

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    Water, Engineering and Development Centre International Conference
    p. 401-409
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    International investments in the water sector: last decade evolution and perspectives  Open access

     Jiménez Fernández de Palencia, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    International journal of water resources development
    Vol. 25, num. 1, p. 1-14
    DOI: 10.1080/07900620802573759
    Date of publication: 2009-03
    Journal article

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    This paper presents the main results of a detailed study carried out on Official Development Assistance (ODA) and international private investment in the water sector from 1995 to 2004. Publicly available data sets from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), the World Bank, and the Human Development Reports were collected and stored in a database. ODA programmes were analysed individually to separate the water and sanitation subsectors. The study includes a comparative analysis of public and private international investment, focusing specifically on sanitation. It assesses the success of private participation in the sector and evaluates cross-cutting issues in ODA water programmes.

    Primera Mención en la categoría "Premio a la Mejor Investigación"; II Premio a la Calidad en la Investigación y a la Tesis Doctorales sobre Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo Humano. (Mayo 2009)

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    Consequences of low sustainability in the effectiveness of national strategies to increase water access in the rural areas: evidence from three central regions of Tanzania  Open access

     Jiménez, Alejandro; Pérez Foguet, Agustí
    IWA Development Congress
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tanzania, as many other countries, has designed an ambitious Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Plan (RWSSP) to improve increase access to rural water: from 53% in 2005, up to 74% in 2015 and 90% in 2025. Emphasis is placed on the production of new schemes and only 6% of investment is foreseen for rehabilitation. This paper presents an analysis of the current functionality-time relationship for water points found in en extensive water point mapping study made in three regions of Tanzania, covering 15% of the total rural population of the country. Results show very low performance over time, since only between 35% and 47% of water points are working 15 years after installation. Consequences for the accomplishment of the RWSSP are discussed and some measures proposed.

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