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  • Multi-instrumental analysis of large sprite events and their producing storm in southern France

     Soula, Serge; Iacovella, F.; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Füllekrug, M.; Farges, T.; Bór, J.; Georgis, J.-F.; NaitAmor, S.; Martin, J. M.
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2014-01-13
    Journal article

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    During the night of 01¿02 September, 2009, seventeen distinct sprite events including 3 halos were observed above a storm in north-western Mediterranean Sea, with a video camera at Pic du Midi (42.93N; 0.14E; 2877 m). The sprites occurred at distances between 280 and 390 km which are estimated based on their parent CG location. The MCS-type storm was characterized by a trailing-stratiform structure and a very circular shape with a size of about 70,000 km2 (cloud top temperature lower than - 35 °C) when the TLEs were observed. The cloud to ground (CG) flash rate was large (45 min- 1) one hour before the TLE observation and very low (< 5 min- 1) during it. Out of the 17 sprite events, 15 parent + CG (P + CG) strokes have been identified and their average peak current is 87 kA (67 kA for the 14 events without halo), while the associated charge moment changes (CMC) that could be determined, range from 424 to 2088 ± 20% C km. Several 2-second videos contain multiple sprite events: one with four events, one with three events and three with two events. Column and carrot type sprites are identified, either together or separately. All P + CG strokes are clearly located within the stratiform region of the storm and the second P + CG stroke of a multiple event is back within the stratiform region. Groups of large and bright carrots reach ~ 70 km height and ~ 80 km horizontal extent. These groups are associated with a second pulse of electric field radiation in the ELF range which occurs ~ 5 ms after the P + CG stroke and exhibits the same polarity, which is evidence for current in the sprite body. VLF perturbations associated with the sprite events were recorded with a station in Algiers.

  • Asymmetries in bidirectional leader development of lightning flashes

     Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2013-12-19
    Journal article

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  • X-rays from laboratory sparks in air: the relationship between runaway electrons and the electric field

     March Nomen, Víctor; Montaña Puig, Juan; Romero Duran, David; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This article presents an experiment in which the gap distance was varied between 46 and 84 cm. Series of 15 voltage impulses were applied for each distance and different peak voltages with a rise time of 600 ns. The results of a total of 20 series of impulse voltages show that emissions depend on the electric field derivative within the gap

  • Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Duran, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity. The paper also presents 3D mapping of leaders of two upward lightning

  • Study of single-flash thunderstorms over wind farms in the Basque Country

     López, Javier; Hernáez, Iñigo; Montaña Puig, Juan
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents six different thunderstorms affecting wind farms in the Basque Country. In this work, single-flash thunderstorms are discussed. The term single-flash is used in order to refer thunderstorms that leave very few or even only one lightning flash. Those flashes affected to the tall structures. The lightning impacts have been detected using different technologies in two separate lightning detection and location networks. Depending on the peak current estimated by the lightning detection sensors, most of the detections can be classified as upward leaders initiated by the wind turbines in presence of a thundercloud. Both cold and warm season thunderstorms are considered. A complete characterization of the thunderstorms using data from lightning detections networks and weather radar is provided

  • Total lightning observations to wind turbines

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Duran, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Senosiáin Miquélez, vicente
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In summer 2011 a new VHF Lightning Mapping Array was installed at the northeast of Spain. In that area a VHF interferometer and a VLFILF lightning detection networks are also operative. The close presence of wind farms in the area of the Lightning Mapping Array showed some lightning activity not reported before. This paper describes the observations and discusses the possible effects to the wind turbine lightning protection

  • Lightning Mapping Array in Ebre¿s Delta: campaign 2011 results. Comparison with other LLS

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau
    European Lightning Detection Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Detections and observations of upward discharges from wind turbines

     Montaña Puig, Juan
    International Conference on Lightning Physics and Effects
    Presentation's date: 2012-12-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Characteristics of lightning related to wildfire ignitions in Catalonia

     Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2012-07-21
    Journal article

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  • A propagative model for simulations of electric fields produced by downward leaders

     Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Montaña Puig, Juan; March Nomen, Victor; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Romero Duran, David; Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau
    Journal of lightning research
    Date of publication: 2012-07-13
    Journal article

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  • Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country

     López, Javier; Montaña Puig, Juan; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J.A.; Gaztelumendi, S.
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2012-11-01
    Journal article

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    Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site

  • High-speed video of lightning and x-ray pulses during the 2009¿2010 observation campaigns in northeastern Spain

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; March Nomen, Víctor; Romero Duran, David; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2012-11-01
    Journal article

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    This paper summarizes results obtained by the 2009–2010 field campaigns conducted in northeastern Spain using a high speed camera, VHF interferometer, VLF lightning location system and scintillation detectors for energetic radiation. The main purpose was to obtain new insight into the lightning processes which emit x/γ radiation. For just one (very close) lightning strike, 99 x-ray pulses were emittedwithin 0.86 ms and had an energy higher that 10 keV. This burst was associated with the final stages of a downward negative leader. The high-speed camera data also allowed to identify various previously unreported features in different types of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. At video frame rates of 10,000 fps, some branches of negative leaders of cloud-to-ground flashes were illuminated for the duration of only one frame. During positive cloud-to-ground flashes, the high speed videos showed an intense activity of recoil leaders. In the case of intra-cloud lightning, the VHF interferometer network did not present a clear relation between detections and visible leader. Instead, bursts of VHF detections corresponded visually to a long-lasting bright channel under the cloud base

  • El delta de l¿Ebre: mirador privilegiat per a l¿observació de llamps i d¿altres fenòmens elèctrics

     Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Duran, David
    SOLDÓ
    Date of publication: 2012-06-27
    Journal article

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  • Des jets géants au-dessus d¿un orage isolé proche de la Réunion

     Soula, Serge; Huet, Patrice; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Barthe, Christelle; Bór, József
    La Météorologie
    Date of publication: 2012-05-01
    Journal article

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  • Modelado y estudio del líder descendente negarivo en una descarga eléctrica atmosférica y su influencia en la localización del punto de impacto del rayo  Open access

     Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon
    Defense's date: 2012-07-17
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    In lightning protection techniques a basic aspect is the identification of the impact point possible, which is determined by the evolution of the initial phase of the lightning, known as the stepped leader, the ground geometry and structures on it. In general, the available theoretical models are consistent with ideal situations and do not include situations such as non-vertical trajectories, non-flat terrain or complex structures. This work reviews and compares the most outstanding models in the literature on this subject and proposes a model for the study of the stepped leader based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). With the intention of bringing the process to the real situation of progress of a downward negative leader, who can follow a trajectory 3D, several modeling aspects are contemplated, as: adjusting the charge density in the channel, the length and direction of jump, which can be modified depending on the height that is the leader, and the propagation delays caused by the distance from the observation point. On the other hand, the model allows the implementation of 3D geometries and the incorporation of complex structures and non-flat terrain, providing results in situations when it is not possible to have theoretical approaches. Simulations have been performed with different proposals for charge distribution in the channel, in situations of leader vertical, inclined and 3D trajectory. The model has been evaluated, comparing their results with theoretical ideal cases and reproducing some real situations from field measurements. The application of the model in simulating real cases for downward negative leader provides parameter values that are not available through the recorded measurements and are useful for studying this type of discharge. In this work we have focused on some of them, and we have obtained interesting results as: estimating the speed of the leader according of height (from the measures of ¿E (t)), the definition of new relationships between charge density in the channel, ¿Emax (leader close to ground), the return peak current and the observation point distance, as well as we can verify the conditions of inception for a discharge into a storm cloud. Finally, we use the model to evaluate the striking distance, a basic concept on protection techniques. It is inferred a new equation for its calculus and the results are compared with proposals available in the literature, showing good agreement with the recommendation of IEC 62305-1. The results encourage to continue the study and they open the possibility to extend the method to other stages, not only on the downward leader, but also on other phenomena related to the formation and evolution of storm situations.

    En las técnicas de protección contra el rayo un aspecto básico es la identificación del posible punto de impacto, que viene determinado por la evolución de la fase inicial de la descarga atmosférica, conocida como líder escalonado (stepped leader), y por la geometría del terreno y estructuras sobre él. En general, los modelos teóricos disponibles se ajustan a situaciones ideales y no contemplan situaciones como trayectorias no verticales, terreno no plano o estructuras complejas. En este trabajo se revisan y comparan los modelos más destacados en la bibliografía sobre el tema y se propone un modelo para el estudio del stepped leader basado en el Método de los Elementos Finitos (FEM). Con la intención de aproximar el proceso a la situación real de avance de un líder negativo descendente, que puede seguir una trayectoria 3D, en el modelado se contemplan aspectos como: el ajuste de la densidad de carga en el canal, la longitud y dirección del salto, que pueden ser modificadas en función de la altura a la que se encuentre el líder, y los retardos de propagación provocados por la distancia del punto de observación. Por otra parte, el modelo permite la implementación de geometrías en 3D y la incorporación de estructuras complejas y terreno no plano, facilitando obtener resultados en situaciones en las que no es posible disponer de aproximaciones teóricas. Se han realizado simulaciones con diferentes propuestas de distribución de carga en el canal y para situaciones de líder vertical, inclinado y con trayectoria 3D. El modelo ha sido evaluado, contrastando sus resultados con casos teóricos ideales y reproduciendo situaciones reales a partir de diversas medidas de campo. La aplicación del modelo en la simulación de casos reales para líder negativo descendente nos proporciona valores de parámetros que no están disponibles a través de las medidas registradas y que son de utilidad para el estudio de las descargas negativas descendentes. En este trabajo nos hemos centrado en algunos de ellos y se han obtenido resultados de interés como: una estimación de la velocidad de avance del líder en función de la altura (a partir de medidas disponibles de ΔE(t)), la definición de nuevas relaciones entre densidad de carga en el canal, ΔEmax (líder próximo a tierra), la corriente de pico de retorno y la distancia del punto de observación, además de verificar las condiciones de inicio de descargas en una nube de tormenta. Por último, se utiliza el modelo para la evaluación de la distancia de cebado (striking distance), concepto básico en técnicas de protección. Se infiere una nueva ecuación para su cálculo y se comparan los resultados con las propuestas disponibles en la literatura, mostrando una buena concordancia con la recomendación de la norma IEC 62305-1. Los resultados obtenidos animan a continuar con el estudio y abren la posibilidad de ampliar la aplicación del método a otras etapas, no sólo en la descarga descendente, sino también de otros fenómenos relacionados con la formación y evolución de las situaciones de tormenta.

    En les tècniques de protecció contra el llamp, un aspecte bàsic és la identificació del possible punt d’impacte, que ve determinat per l’evolució de la fase inicial de la descàrrega atmosfèrica, coneguda com a líder esglaonat (stepped leader), i per la geometria del terreny i les estructures que hi ha a sobre d’ell. En general, els models teòrics dsiponibles s’ajusten a situacions ideals i no contemplen situacions com trajectòries no verticals, terreny no pla o estructures complexes. En aquest treball es revisen i comparen els models més destacats en la bibliografia sobre el tema i es proposa un model per a l’estudi del stepped leader basat en el Mètode dels Elements Finits (FEM). Amb la intenció d’apropar el procés a la situació real d’avançament d’un líder negatiu descendent, el qual pot seguir una trajetòria 3D, en el modelat es contemplemn aspectes com: l’ajustament de la densitat de càrrega al canal, la longitud i la direcció del salt, que poden ser modificades en funció a l’altura on es trobi el líder i als retards de propagació provocats per la distància del punt d’observació. D’una altra banda, el model permet la implementació de geometries en 3D i la incorporació d’estructures complexes i terreny no pla, facilitant així l’obtenció de resultats en situacions on no es possible disposar d’aproximacions teòriques. S’han realitzat simulacions amb diferents propostes de distribució de càrrega al canal i per a situacions de líder vertical, inclinat i amb trajectòria 3D. El model ha estat avaluat, contrastant els seus resultats amb casos teòrics ideals i reproduint situacions reals a partir de diferents mesures de camp. L’aplicació del model en la simulació de casos reals per a líder negatiu descendent ens proporciona valors de paràmetres que no estan disponibles a travès de les mesures registrades i que són d’utilitat per a l’estudi de les descàrregues negatives descendents. En aquest treball ens n’hem centrat en alguns i s’han obtingut resultats d’interès com: una estimació de la velocitat d’avançament del líder en funció d’altura (només a partir de mesures disponibles de ΔE(t)), la definició de les noves relacions entre densitat de càrrega al canal, ΔEmax (líder proper a terra), el corrent del pic de retorn i la distància del punt d’observació, a més de verificar les condicions d’inici de descàrregues en un núvol de tempesta. Per últim, s’utilitza el model per a l’avaluació de la distància de d'encebament (striking distance), concepte bàsic en tècniques de protecció. S’infereix una nova equació per al seu càlcul i es comparen els resultats amb les propostes disponibles en la literatura, mostrant una bona concordància amb la recomanació de la norma IEC 62305-1. Els resultats obtinguts animen a continuar amb l’estudi i obren la posibilitat d’ampliar l’aplicació del mètode a d’altres etapes, no només en la descàrrega descendent, sinó també d’altres fenòmens relacionats amb la formació i evolució de les situacions de tempesta.

  • ATMOSPHERE-SPACE INTERACTIONS MONITOR

     Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Duran, David; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • A mediterranean nocturnal heavy rainfall and tornadic event. Part I: overview, damage survey and radar analysis

     Bech Rustullet, Joan; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Aran, Montserrat; Amaró, Jésica; Gayà, M; Arús, J; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2011-01-03
    Journal article

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    This study presents an analysis of a severe weather case that took place during the early morning of the 2nd of November 2008, when intense convective activity associated with a rapidly evolving low pressure system affected the southern coast of Catalonia (NE Spain). The synoptic framework was dominated by an upper level trough and an associated cold front extending from Gibraltar along the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula to SE France, which moved north-eastward. South easterly winds in the north of the Balearic Islands and the coast of Catalonia favoured high values of 0-3 km storm relative helicity which combined with moderate MLCAPE values and high shear favoured the conditions for organized convection. A number of multicell storms and others exhibiting supercell features, as indicated by Doppler radar observations, clustered later in a mesoscale convective system, and moved north-eastwards across Catalonia. They produced ground-level strong damaging wind gusts, an F2 tornado, hail and heavy rainfall. Total lightning activity (intra-cloud and cloud to ground flashes) was also relevant, exhibiting several classical features such as a sudden increased rate before ground level severe damage, as discussed in a companion study. Remarkable surface observations of this event include 24 h accumulations exceeding 100 mm in four different observatories and 30 minute rainfall amounts up to 40 mm which caused local flash floods. As the convective system evolved northward later that day it also affected SE France causing large hail, ground level damaging wind gusts and heavy rainfall.

  • El Campo Eléctgrico Asociado a la Nube de Tormenta. Estudio Operacional de Molinos de Campo

     Aranguren Fino, Harby Daniel
    Defense's date: 2011-10-14
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Emisiones de rayos X en impulsos de alta tensión. Caracterización del mecanismo de producción de electrones de escape.

     March Nomen, Victor
    Defense's date: 2011-10-14
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Gigantic jets produced by an isolated tropical thunderstorm near Réunion Island

     Soula, Serge; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Huet, Patrice; Barthe, Christelle; Bor, Jozsef
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • X-rays from laboratory sparks in air: the role of the cathode in the production of runaway electrons

     March Nomen, Victor; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Geophysical research letters
    Date of publication: 2011-02-18
    Journal article

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  • A case of winter lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country

     López, Javier; Montaña Puig, Juan; Maruri, M; Aranda, José Antonio; Gaztelumendi, S
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Lightning research is usually focused on the most active months of the year, those corresponding to the summer season. These thunderstorms produce most of the lightning records during a year in the Basque Country, and they are recorded for further research. In this paper winter lightning is under study. After the dramatic descent in the number of strokes recorded with the end of the summer season, a number of winter thunderstorms crossed the territory. Two different episodes (one in November 7th and 8th, and a thunderstorm in November 30th) left evidence of lightning in the weather radar tower located at Kapildui Mountain. In this paper the research carried out from the first evidence of electrical activity in the tower to the final conclusions of being upward negative flashes initiated by the tower is presented.

  • Estudi de l'episodi tornàdic nocturn amb precipitacions intenses del 2 de novembre de 2008 a Catalunya

     Bech Rustullet, Joan; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Aran, Montserrat; Amaró, Jésica; Gayà, M; Arús, J; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    Jornades de Meteorologia i Climatologia de la Mediterrània Occidental
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Aquest estudi presenta una anàlisi d’un episodi de temps sever que va tenir lloc la matinada del 2 de novembre de 2008, quan la costa sud de Catalunya va estar afectada per una intensa depressió que va dur associada una important activitat convectiva. El marc i temps sever, igual que en diversos casos anteriors estudiats a la zona (Bech et al. 2007, Aran et al. 2009, Mateo et al. 2009). L’objectiu és documentar les condicions sinòptiques i mesoescalars de l’episodi així com una anàlisi amb dades radar i d’observacions de sinòptic estava dominat per una extens solc, a nivells mitjans i alts, que s’estenia des de Gibraltar al llarg de la costa del llevant peninsular fins al SE de França.

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    Comparison between high-speed video recordings of lightning and the detections of the Catalan Lightning Location Network (XDDE)  Open access

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Romero Duran, David; Aranguren Fino, Daniel; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    International Lightning Detection Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Lightning detections of the Catalan Lightning Location Network (XDDE) are compared with high speed video recordings carried out in Spain during summer 2009. At that time the XDDE was composed by four sensors: two SAFIR 3000 type and two LS8000 type. The comparison showed good agreement in the observations at the center and at the south of the network. However, the observations recorded at the north of the network showed a poorer detection efficiency and location accuracy. On the other hand, the fine comparison between frame by frame of video recordings and network detections reveals that the network often detects mostly intra-cloud (IC) sources which probably belong to the preliminary breakdown in downward cloud-to-ground flashes. In some cases few sources are detected during steeped leaders toward to the ground. In the case of our observed IC flashes, the detected sources never corresponded to observations of propagation leaders, if not, small burst of detections were linked to permanent illuminated channels or permanent visible luminosity from the cloud.

  • High-speed observations of transient luminous events and lightning (The 2008/2009 Ebro Valley campaign)

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Soula, Serge; Romero Duran, David; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; March Nomen, Victor
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Analysis of lightning activity and electromagnetic radiations associated with large TLEs

     Soula, Serge; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Fargues, Thomas; Bor, Jozsef; Waysand, Georges
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    High-speed video recordings of lightning, electric fields and high-energy detections during thunderstorms in Catalonia Spain  Open access

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Duran, David; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Betz, H.D.; March Nomen, Victor; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    High-speed video recordings of natural lightning flashes show amazing details of this phenomenon. The paper summarizes the results of the 2009 measurement campaign where the combination of electric fields, total lightning, high-energy detections and high-speed videos provided a valuable data. The paper describes the visible differences between the recorded negative, positive and upward cloudto- ground flashes. Thanks to the precise time synchronization of each video frame we investigated which processes are detected by the lightning location networks (VHF and VLF). We suggest that the VHF interferometer network detects mostly those processes of intra-cloud flashes where substantial charge is transferred during few milliseconds. The study of the detections of intra-cloud events provided by the VLF network were related to high and fast (less than a millisecond) charge transfers within the cloud that saturated the camera in the same manner as return strokes in cloud-to-ground flashes. In other hand, the paper discusses the high-energy detections related to a very close cloud-to-ground lightning flash.

  • A propagative model for simulations of electric fields produced by downward leaders

     Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon; Montaña Puig, Juan; March Nomen, Victor; Romero Duran, David; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Characteristics and conditions of production of TLEs observed over a maritime storm

     Soula, Serge; Palmiéri, J; Chanrion, Olivier; Montaña Puig, Juan; Lefeuvre, F; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    AGU Chapman Conference on Effects of Thunderstorms and Lightning in the Upper Atmosphere
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The coordinated European campaign of TLE observation in 2007 involved several cameras in southern France and northern Spain and lasted several months of summer, fall, and winter. Thanks to good conditions of observation at the camera locations and to several periods of long-duration storm activity, a large proportion of the TLEs (~90%) were observed from October to January over the Mediterranean Sea. Different types of TLEs (sprites, halos, elves) were produced by these maritime storms.

  • Draft IEC 61400-24 wind turbines: lightning protection blades

     Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Montaña Puig, Juan
    CIGRE SC C4 Meeting & Colloquium in Japan
    Presentation's date: 2010-08-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Lightning attachement test on a scale aircraft model as subject for educational purposes

     Romero Duran, David; March Nomen, Victor; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new subject on lightning protection of aircraft has been developed at the Technical University of Catalonia. This elective subject is implemented according to project-based learning (PBL). In this way, during the subject, students face up to a design and validation of a lightning protection system of an aircraft.

  • Catalonia (Spain) railway traction DC system project to limit lightning transient overvoltage

     Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Montaña Puig, Juan; Garnacho, Fernando; Carmona, Manuel; Segovia, Eloy
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Due to a lightning storm, during the last August 2007, the Catalonia Railway Electrical System (Spain) was victim of several disturbances and malfunctions. To give response to these problems a project has been established to reduce the risk by transient overvoltage. The project has different steps, and concern from the traction system DC, until the low voltage systems. To get these goals it was established a work plan covering (1) the study of the lightning occurrence in the area, (2) the transient analysis of the electrical system implemented in ATP (Alternative Transient Program), (3) the influence of pole earthing, (4) the influence of the distance between arrester, and (5) the influence of other services.

  • Access to the full text
    High-speed videos of laboratory leaders emerging from wind turbine blade tips  Open access

     Montaña Puig, Juan; March Nomen, Victor; Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Hermoso Costa, Juan Ramon
    International Conference on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents some observation results of the attachment test of a wind turbine blade as described in the upgrade of the IEC-61400-24. The optical observations were performed by means of high-speed video and UV-sensitive photo camera. This study investigates the effects on the leaders emerging from the blade comparing three different air-terminals: discrete receptors, discrete receptors with diverter strips and metallic tip. In the first two types, salt mist pollution was applied to the blade. For non polluted tips positive leaders appeared from receptors towards the ground avoiding the blade surface. When the blade was polluted additional leaders emerged moving horizontally. Moreover, in this situation the leader progressed on the blade surface. Pollution also produced the inception of more leaders when the blade was equipped with discrete receptors and diverter strips.

  • High-speed intensified video recordings of sprites and elves over the western Mediterranean Sea during winter thunderstorms

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Romero Duran, David; March Nomen, Victor; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda, Nicolau; Arrayas, M.; Trueba, Jose Luis; Reglero, V.; Soula, Serge
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2010-04-17
    Journal article

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  • The influence of the voltage-time derivative in X-rays emission from laboratory sparks  Open access

     March Nomen, Victor; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Geophysical research letters
    Date of publication: 2010-08-23
    Journal article

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    X-ray produced by laboratory sparks in air at atmospheric pressure for rod-rod and rod-plane configurations were observed. A total of 585 sparks were applied with both polarities. The paper shows the effects of the voltage rise time and the peak voltage in the generation of x-rays. It is found here that shorter rise times and high peak voltages tend to produce more x-rays emissions with higher energies than longer front waveforms or lower peak voltages. In a similar way, higher voltage variations produce more energetic emissions. This finding suggests that the variation of the electric field before the breakdown can play a fundamental role in the x-ray production. The results are similar with the observations of x-rays produced in natural lightning where detections have been associated to leader steps before the return stroke.

  • A mediterranean nocturnal heavy rainfall and tornadic event. Part II: total lightning analysis

     Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Bech Rustullet, Joan; Rigo, Tomeu; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2010-11-09
    Journal article

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    On the night from 1st to 2nd of November 2008, a multi-cell storm coming from the Mediterranean produced severe weather in the coastal area of Catalonia (NE Spain): groundlevel strong damaging wind gusts, a tornado – which caused F2 damage – and heavy rainfall. A general overview of the synoptic framework, damage observed and a radar analysis is given in the first part of the study. This second part is mostly centered on the detailed analysis of the total lightning behavior, its relationship with radar-derived storm parameters, and total lightning correlation with hazardous weather. The purpose is to bring more evidence about the outstanding role of total lightning in severe weather surveillance tasks. The analysis of the storm cells life cycle has showed similar trends between the total lighting flash rates and radarderived parameters like the area of reflectivity above 30 dBZ at 7-km. Regarding lightning trends, a lightning “jump” pattern – an abrupt increase of the total lightning rate in a short period of time – has been related to severe weather. On the contrary, cloud-to-ground lightning data did not show any pattern related to severe weather. In comparison to other parameters, like the IC:CG ratio, the lightning “jump” pattern seems more robust to forecast in a short-term basis the possible occurrence of severe weather.

  • Characteristics and conditions of production of transient luminous events observed over a maritime storm

     Soula, Serge; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Palmierí, J; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Montaña Puig, Juan; Gangneron, F; Meyerfeld, Y; Lefeuvre, F; Lointier, G
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2010-07-08
    Journal article

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    On the night of 15/16 November 2007, cameras in southern France detected 30 transient luminous events (TLEs) over a storm located in the Corsican region (France). Among these TLEs, 19 were sprites, 6 were halos, and 5 were elves. For 26 of them, a positive “parent” cloud-to-ground lightning (P+CG) flash was identified. The peak current of the P+CG flashes for the sprites had an average value of 63 kA and had a maximum value of 125 kA. The flashes for the halos and the elves had average values of 272 and 351 kA, respectively, and they had maximum values of 312 and 384 kA, respectively. No TLEs were detected after negative CG flashes with very large peak currents. Among the 26 P+CG flashes, 23 were located in a stratiform region with reflectivity values lower than 45 dBZ. The CG flashes in this region were classified into two groups according to the time interval separating them from the following flash: one group with values less than 2 s and one with values greater than 2 s. About 79% of all CGs were produced in a sequence of at least two flashes less than 2 s apart. For 65.5% of the sequences, the first flash was positive with an average peak current of 73 kA, while the later +CG flashes in a sequence had much lower peak currents. Several triangulated sprites were found to be shifted from their P+CG flashes by about 10 to 50 km and preferentially downstream. The observations suggest that the P+CG flashes can initiate both sprites and other CG flashes in a storm.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Observations of Western Mediterranean TLE: LS8000 intracloud lightning and high-speed video

     Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Romero Duran, David; Soula, Serge; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Bech Rustullet, Joan; Reglero, V.
    European Conference on Severe Storms
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Transient luminous events (TLE) are electrical phenomena occurring between the ionosphere and the tops of thunderstorms. First discovered in 1989, the family of TLE now consists of different members: sprites, sprite halos, elves, jets, gigantic jets, trolls, and palm trees.

  • Total lightning analysis of a tornadic severe weather event

     Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Bech Rustullet, Joan; Rigo, Tomeu; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    European Conference on Severe Storms
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study presents an analysis of total lightning and radar data of a severe weather event that took place in the early morning of 2nd November 2008 in Catalonia (NE Spain). A general overview of the synoptic framework and damage observed, including local flash floods, strong wind gusts and an F2-tornado, is given in a companion study

  • Lightning on blades surface of wind mill power generators

     Hermoso Alameda, Blas; Montaña Puig, Juan
    CIGRE SC C4 Meeting & Colloquium in Japan
    Presentation's date: 2009-08-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Mesures de camp de descàrregues elèctriques a Catalunya

     Montaña Puig, Juan
    Seminari de primavera: ELECTRICITAT ATMOSFÈRICA (ACAM)
    Presentation's date: 2009-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Actividades de investigación de rayos en España

     Montaña Puig, Juan
    Simposio Internacional Sobre la Calidad de la Energía Eléctrica
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Research activities on lightning protection of wind turbines by the Spanish group

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Hermoso Alameda, Blas
    CIGRE SC C4 Meeting & Colloquium in Japan
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An observational description of a tornadic severe weather event

     Bech Rustullet, Joan; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Aran, M; Amaro, J; Gayà, M; Arús, J; Montaña Puig, Juan; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud
    European Conference on Severe Storms
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study presents an analysis of a severe weather case study that took place during the early morning of the 2nd of November 2008, when intense convective activity associated to a rapidly evolving low pressure system affected the southern coast of Catalonia (NE Spain).

  • Analysis of lightning forecats in Colombia based on the lightning detection network data

     Inampués, Juan; Aranguren Fino, Daniel; Torres, Horacio; Montaña Puig, Juan; Santoyo, Israel; Olarte, Edison; Younes, Camilo
    International Symposium on Lightning Protection
    Presentation's date: 2009-11-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Spatial and temporal evolution of horizontally extensive lightning discharges associated with sprite-producing positive cloud-to-ground flashes in northeastern Spain

     Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Soula, Serge; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Bech Rustullet, Joan
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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  • UPC LIGHTNING RESEARCH GROUP UPC-LRG

     Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; March Nomen, Victor; Romero Duran, David; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Analysis of thunderstorm and lightning activity associated with sprites observed during the EuroSprite campaigns: Two case studies

     Soula, Serge; Van Der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Montaña Puig, Juan; Ganot, Michal; Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier
    Atmospheric research
    Date of publication: 2009-02
    Journal article

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  • Estimation of charge neutralized by negative cloud-to-ground flashes in Catalonia thunderstorms

     Montaña Puig, Juan; Soula, S; Murphy, M; March Nomen, Victor; Aranguren, D; Sola De Las Fuentes, Gloria; Romero Duran, David
    Journal of electrostatics
    Date of publication: 2009-05
    Journal article

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