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  • Degradation of sulphamethazine by means of an improved photo-Fenton process involving a hydrogen peroxide systematic dosage

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Pérez González, Lydia; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Environmental technology
    Date of publication: 2014-07-03
    Journal article

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    Despite being acknowledged as an emerging contaminant, sulphamethazine (SMT) degradation has received scarce attention in the advanced oxidation processes field. Thus, this work addresses the degradation of SMT in water solutions (12L of 25mgL(-1) samples) by means of a photo-Fenton process and a systematic H2O2 dosage protocol that enhances its performance. A conventional photo-Fenton process led to 86% mineralization after 120min treatment when adding the Fenton reactants at once (initial concentrations were 10mgL(-1) Fe(II) and 200mgL(-1)H(2)O(2)). Conversely, the process achieved the total mineralization of the samples in less than 75min when the same amount of H2O2 was continuously dosed according to a conveniently tuned dosage protocol. In both cases, total SMT degradation was achieved within 10min. Hence, this work's aim is to determine the efficient dosage conditions of H2O2. The results show that a significant improvement of the photo-Fenton mineralization of SMT solutions is possible by adjusting the dosage of H2O2.

  • A rolling horizon rescheduling strategy for flexible energy in a microgrid

     Marietta, Martín Pablo; Graells Sobre, Moises; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria
    IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this work an Energy Management System (EMS) prototype for an isolated renewable-based microgrid is presented. The proposed management model not only considers the management of energy sources (generation) but also includes the possibility of flexible timing of energy consumptions (demand management) by modelling controllable and uncontrollable loads. The EMS consists of two stages: first a deterministic management model is formulated and subsequently is integrated into a rolling horizon control strategy, in which the actions on microgrid devices respond to an optimization criterion related to the estimation of the future system behaviour that is continually predicted by updatable forecasts in order to reduce uncertainty in both, production capacity and energy demand. Finally, this contribution presents and discusses a case study where the results of the operation with and without optimal demand management for the same group of loads are evaluated.

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    Gestió de projectes experimentals al laboratori  Open access

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Bernal, Fernando; Boada Altarriba, Enric; Borras Cristofol, Nuria; Calvet Tarragona, Aurelio; Carral Mahia, Mª Eva; Dosta Parcerisa, Jordi; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; López Mesas, Montserrat; de Miguel Gisbert, Leopoldo; Pujol, Carme; Sánchez, Margarita; Del Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier; Capon Garcia, Elisabeth; Nadal Cabezas, Sergi; Pérez, Mar; Yélamos, Ignacio; Bello, M. Camino; Ortega, Esther; San Antonio, Virginia
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2014-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Towards automatic construction of domain ontologies: Application to ISA88  Open access

     Farreres De La Morena, Javier; Graells Sobre, Moises; Rodriguez Hontoria, Horacio; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Process Systems Engineering has shown a growing interest on ontologies to develop knowledge models, organize information, and produce software accordingly. Although software tools supporting the structure of ontologies exist, developing a PSE ontology is a creative procedure to be performed by human experts from each specific domain. This work explores the opportunities for automatic construction of domain ontologies. Specialised documentation can be selected and automatically parsed; next pattern recognition methods can be used to extract concepts and relations; finally, supervision is required to validate the automatic outcome, as well as to complete the task. The bulk of the development of an ontology is expected to result from the application of systematic procedures, thus the development time will be significantly reduced. Automatic methods were prepared and applied to the development of an ontology for batch processing based on the ISA88 standard. Methods are described and commented, and results are discussed from the comparison with a previous ontology for the same domain manually developed.

    Process Systems Engineering has shown a growing interest on ontologies to develop knowledge models, organize information, and produce software accordingly. Although software tools supporting the structure of ontologies exist, developing a PSE ontology is a creative procedure to be performed by human experts from each specific domain. This work explores the opportunities for automatic construction of domain ontologies. Specialised documentation can be selected and automatically parsed; next pattern recognition methods can be used to extract concepts and relations; finally, supervision is required to validate the automatic outcome, as well as to complete the task. The bulk of the development of an ontology is expected to result from the application of systematic procedures, thus the development time will be significantly reduced. Automatic methods were prepared and applied to the development of an ontology for batch processing based on the ISA88 standard. Methods are described and commented, and results are discussed from the comparison with a previous ontology for the same domain manually developed.

  • Evaluating the new control structure for the promotion of grid connected photovoltaic systems in Spain: Performance analysis of the period 2008¿2010

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Ballart Prunell, Jordi; Corcoles Lopez, Felipe; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Renewable and sustainable energy reviews
    Date of publication: 2013-03-01
    Journal article

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  • Enhanced photo-fenton process for tetracycline degradation using efficient hydrogen peroxide dosage

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Jaen Flores, Esther; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A. Chemistry
    Date of publication: 2013-09-01
    Journal article

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    The remediation of water solutions containing tetracycline antibiotic (TC) using photo-Fenton treatments has received scarce attention in the literature. However TC deserves attention due to its condition of emerging contaminant. In this work, TC oxidation in water solutions (12 L, 40 mg L-1) by means of photo- Fenton reaction under variable hydrogen peroxide dosage is investigated. This shows a more efficient use of the hydroxyl radicals produced in the reaction medium and enhances treatment performance. First, a suitable range of Fenton reagent loads is determined in a preliminary study. The hydrogen peroxide dosage is parameterized through two variables: The initial release of the total load, y0 (kick-off), and the time tini at which the continuous dosage of the rest of the load starts. Hence, a design of experiments (22) can be used to characterize the performance of the process under different hydrogen peroxide dosage protocols. The results obtained this way show that total TC remediation is attained in all the cases studied, but alike amounts of hydrogen peroxide lead to total mineralization only when the dosage scheme is conveniently tuned. Therefore, the photo-Fenton treatment has proved to be effective in removing TC from water solutions, and the opportunity for an efficient dosage to reduce the requirements of hydrogen peroxide has also been confirmed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Efficient Operation of photo-Fenton Process for the Treatment of Emerging Contaminants in Water Solutions  Open access

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn
    Defense's date: 2013-10-24
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El aumento de la densidad poblacional en algunas zonas del planeta y los cada vez más rápidos avances en las áreas tecnológicasy energéticas han traído como consecuencia un crecimiento notable en los requerimientos de bienes y servicios, lo que a su vez haocasionado una sobreexplotación y una consecuente contaminación de los recursos ambientales. El agua, un recurso norenovable, no escapa de los efectos nocivos de la actividad humana y los crecientes niveles de contaminación que la afectanamenazan con interferir con el desarrollo normal de los ecosistemas y, eventualmente, de la vida misma.En las últimas décadas, se ha detectado la presencia de una nueva generación de contaminantes en aguas residuales,superficiales, subterráneas e incluso potables. Estos contaminantes, llamados ¿contaminantes emergentes¿, no son aún objeto deregulación, pero su carácter recalcitrante y sus efectos como disruptores endocrinos sugieren que su bio-acumulación tendrágraves consecuencias. Al no ser biodegradables, no es posible removerlos en las plantas de tratamiento de aguas convencionales,por lo que se requiere de un proceso químico que los oxide al menos a contaminantes más biodegradables y/o no tóxicos. Losprocesos de oxidación avanzada han demostrado ser particularmente útiles en la degradación y eventual mineralización decontaminantes emergentes, pero la complejidad de sus mecanismos y los altos costos de reactivos y energía que involucranobligan a investigar opciones para mejorar su desempeño.El objetivo de esta tesis consiste en investigar y proponer alternativas para mejorar el desempeño del proceso foto-Fenton, unproceso de oxidación avanzada ampliamente utilizado que ha demostrado ser eficiente en la degradación de contaminantesorgánicos recalcitrantes. Para tal fin, se cumplieron los siguientes objetivos específicos: un estudio detallado de las variablesinvolucradas en el proceso, la mejora del proceso a través de una dosificación sistemática del peróxido de hidrógeno, la simulacióndel proceso bajo las condiciones de adición propuestas y la investigación de una alternativa de optimización para la reducción decostos operativos.En la primera fase de la investigación, a través del mencionado enfoque experimental, se estudian las variables involucradas en elproceso y se propone un protocolo de adición de peróxido de hidrógeno novedoso, flexible y de fácil implementación que mejora demanera considerable la mineralización de soluciones acuosas de tres contaminantes emergentes, llegando en algunos casoshasta la total eliminación del carbono orgánico total. Sin embargo, la efectividad del protocolo de adición propuesto se vefuertemente influenciada por el efecto cruzado entre los parámetros involucrados.En una etapa posterior, de carácter computacional, se simula el proceso con el protocolo de adición propuesto, de modo que puedepredecirse fácilmente la mejora del desempeño del proceso cuando los parámetros del protocolo se ajustan de maneraconveniente. En un paso más allá, en la búsqueda de una herramienta que permita identificar la mejor combinación de losparámetros que controlan la adición del peróxido de hidrógeno, se investiga la optimización de la operación batch, demostrándoseque es posible reducir los costos del proceso sin desmejora de la calidad del producto.Para concluir, esta tesis supone un paso hacia adelante en el mejoramiento de los procesos de oxidación avanzada y abre laspuertas a continuar investigando propuestas de modelaje, simulación y optimización de estos complejos procesos.

    The growth of population density in some areas of the planet and the increasing fast advances in technology and energy issues, have resulted in a remarkable increment in the necessity for goods and services, with a subsequent over-exploitation and pollution of the environmental resources. Water, a non-renewable resource, does not escape from the harmful effects of human activity and its increasing pollution levels threaten the normal development of ecosystems and life as well. In the last decades, the occurrence of a new generation of contaminants has been detected in wastewaters, surface and underground waters, and even in drinking water. These substances, called "emerging contaminants" or "emerging pollutants", are not subject to regulation, but their recalcitrant character and their effects as endocrine disruptors suggest that their bio-accumulation will have severe consequences to the environment. These non-biodegradable compunds cannot be removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants, and there is a need for chemical processes to oxidize them at least to bio-degradable or non-toxic species. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have demonstrated to be particularly useful in degrading and eventually mineralizing emerging contaminants, but the complexity of their mechanisms and the high reagent and energy costs involved, make necessary to develop options to improve their performance. This thesis specifically addresses the photo-Fenton process, an advanced oxidation process which has been widely applied and has demonstrated to be efficient in the degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants. The objective of this thesis is to investigate and to propose operating alternatives to improve the performance of photo-Fenton process. For that aim, it was necessary to fulfill some specific objectives: to perform a detailed study of the variables involved in the process, propose its enhancement throughout a systematic dosage of hydrogen peroxide along the treatment span, simulate the process and to investigate opportunities to optimize the process batch recipe. In the first stage of the investigation, with a clear experimental approach, the variables involved in the process were studied and a novel, flexible and easy-to-implement hydrogen peroxide systematic dosage protocol was proposed, improving the mineralization of three emerging contaminants, reaching almost total mineralization in some of the cases. However, the effectiveness of the protocol is strongly influenced by the crossed effect between the involved parameters. In a subsequent stage, a computational approach, the process involving the proposed dosage protocol is simulated and the performance of the process was predicted at different operational conditions. The opportunities for improving process performance when the parameters concerning the dosage protocol are conveniently adjusted can be addressed. Finally, taking a step forward, a first attempt to investigate the alternatives for process optimization was investigated, demonstrating that operational costs can be reduced without diminishing the quality of the final product. As a final remark, this thesis supposes a step forward in the improvement of advanced oxidation processes and it opens the door to continue developing strategies to model, simulate and optimize these complex processes.

  • Docencia en inglés en la formación de grado: Valoración de las clases impartidas por profesores visitantes

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET)
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La incorporación de la lengua inglesa en la formación superior es algo que en el siglo XXI no admite discusión. Sin embargo, no parece que exista un único modelo para llevarlo a cabo, tanto en el fondo como en la forma. Este trabajo discute algunos modelos, ventajas e inconvenientes, y analiza y valora la experiencia de incluir en la formación clases en inglés impartidas por profesores visitantes, cuya principal ventaja estriba en el hecho de que la comunicación en inglés se convierte en una necesidad real para acceder a los conocimientos que viene a aportar a la clase un especialista de otro país. El programa Erasmus, además, es un medio poco explotado que facilita el intercambio de profesorado y fomenta el aprendizaje en inglés.

  • Optimal recipe design for paracetamol degradation by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a pilot plant

     Moreno Benito, Marta; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work addresses the optimization of the batch process recipe of an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) aimed at reducing paracetamol (PCT) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations from a given effluent. The kinetic model by Cabrera Reina et al. (2012) is adapted to model the treatment, the problem is next formulated as a dynamic optimization problem and dosage of hydrogen peroxide is addressed by means of a piecewise constant strategy, which is compared with other dosage protocols. Results show that cost reductions can be obtained when applying the model-based optimization techniques proposed, and hint new opportunites for AOPs enhancement.

  • Supervisory control for real time reactive power flow optimization in islanded microgrids

     Milczarek, Adam; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Malinowski, Mariusz; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A microgrid (MG) is a local energy system consisting of a number of energy sources, energy storage units and loads that operate connected to the main electrical grid or autonomously. MGs include wind, solar or other renewable energy sources. MGs provide flexibility, reduce the main electricity grid dependence and contribute to change the large centralized production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex management, advanced control and optimization. Interest on MGs hierarchical control has increased due to the availability of cheap online measurements. Similarly to any process system, MG hierarchical control is divided into three levels. However, an additional control algorithm is required to manage power transmission between sources and loads, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmission losses. This real-time optimization problem is addressed to locally readjust converters operation to attain global efficiency. An algorithm is presented...

  • An open source set-up for connecting a reactor model to experimental data open using Python with OPC

     Campanyà Gratacos, Gerard; Graells Sobre, Moises; Lie, Bernt
    European Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hybrid time representation for the scheduling of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Aguirre, Adrián; Crexells Domingo, Guillem; Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Méndez, Carlos A.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    A new optimization model is presented for the short-term management of the energy supply and demand in smart grids. The detailed model includes a flexible demand profile in order to manage the energy requirements by incorporating penalizations in the economic objective function for delays in satisfying energy demand. The MILP model for the optimization of deterministic scenarios is reformulated in order to incorporate discrete and hybrid time representations. This approach allows considering a different granularity of the problem. Finally, the improved performance of the hybrid approach introduced is shown by comparing the performance of these two time representations.

  • Optimal recipe design for paracetamol degradation by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a pilot plant

     Moreno Benito, Marta; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    This work addresses the optimization of the batch process recipe of an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) aimed at reducing paracetamol (PCT) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations from a given effluent. The kinetic model by Cabrera Reina et al. (2012) is adapted to model the treatment, the problem is next formulated as a dynamic optimization problem and dosage of hydrogen peroxide is addressed by means of a piecewise constant strategy, which is compared with other dosage protocols. Results show that cost reductions can be obtained when applying the model-based optimization techniques proposed, and hint new opportunites for AOPs enhancement

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    Photodegradation of paracetamol by photo-Fenton process  Open access

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Ortega, Esther; Graells Sobre, Moises; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Alfano, Orlando M.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Chemistry and applications of advanced oxidation processes for removal of contaminants of emerging concern
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Photodegradation of Paracetamol by photo-Fenton process E. Yamal-Turbay1, E. Ortega1, M. Graells1, H. D. Mansilla2, O. M. Alfano3, M. Pérez-Moya1 1Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Barcelona, España. (Montserrat.perez-moya@upc.edu) 2Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Concepción, Chile, PO BOX 160-C. 3INTEC, Universidad Nacional del Litoral and CONICET, Santa Fe, Argentina. The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water, sewage treatment plant effluents (STP) and groundwater waters has been recently reported to be an environmental issue of great significance because of its consequences over ecosystems and human health. Photo-Fenton process has shown to be effective as an alternative to remediate wastewaters containing this kind of contaminants and it can be used before or after conventional treatments. Although this process has been widely studied, a lot of work is still required in order to develop a practical understanding of its performance so that the operational conditions can be determined to exploit it efficiently in terms of economical and environmental costs. In this work, the photo-Fenton degradation of solutions pharmaceutical such as paracetamol (PCT) (15 L, 40 mg L-1) has been addressed. The treatment performance has been analyzed under a factorial design and the efficiency of the degradation process has been evaluated considering the decay of PCT and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the biological oxygen demand, BOD5. Light influence has also been assessed and the photonic efficiency for the photooxidation of paracetamol by photo-Fenton process has been determined. Finally, data obtained from the assays performed are discussed and compared. Results characterizing the treatment output dependence on factors such as hydrogen peroxide, iron (II) and photonic efficiency, allow determining enhanced conditions for the photo-Fenton degradation of paracetamol solutions. Acknowledgements The authors thank the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and the European Union (through the European Regional Development Fund) for supporting this research, which is part of the activities developed under the Project EHMAN (DPI2009-09386) and Project SIGERA (DPI2012-37154-C02-01). Evelyn Yamal appreciates financial support from Universidad de Carabobo (professorial grant CD-4352).

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water, sewage treatment plant effluents (STP) and groundwater waters has been recently reported to be an environmental issue of great significance because of its consequences over ecosystems and human health. Photo-Fenton process has shown to be effective as an alternative to remediate wastewaters containing this kind of contaminants and it can be used before or after conventional treatments. Although this process has been widely studied, a lot of work is still required in order to develop a practical understanding of its performance so that the operational conditions can be determined to exploit it efficiently in terms of economical and environmental costs. In this work, the photo-Fenton degradation of solutions pharmaceutical such as paracetamol (PCT) (15 L, 40 mg L-1) has been addressed. The treatment performance has been analyzed under a factorial design and the efficiency of the degradation process has been evaluated considering the decay of PCT and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the biological oxygen demand, BOD5. Light influence has also been assessed and the photonic efficiency for the photooxidation of paracetamol by photo-Fenton process has been determined. Finally, data obtained from the assays performed are discussed and compared. Results characterizing the treatment output dependence on factors such as hydrogen peroxide, iron (II) and photonic efficiency, allow determining enhanced conditions for the photo-Fenton degradation of paracetamol solutions.

  • Hybrid time representation for the scheduling of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Aguirre, Adrián; Crexells Domingo, Guillem; Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Méndez, Carlos A.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new optimization model is presented for the short-term management of the energy supply and demand in smart grids. The detailed model includes a flexible demand profile in order to manage the energy requirements by incorporating penalizations in the economic objective function for delays in satisfying energy demand. The MILP model for the optimization of deterministic scenarios is reformulated in order to incorporate discrete and hybrid time representations. This approach allows considering a different granularity of the problem. Finally, the improved performance of the hybrid approach introduced is shown by comparing the performance of these two time representations.

  • Photonic efficiency of the photodegradation of paracetamol in water by the photo-fenton process

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Ortega, Esther; Conte, L.O.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Alfano, Orlando M.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Congress of Environmental Application of Advanced Oxidation Technologies
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A novelty detection approach for detecting faulty batches in a photo-Fenton proces

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Systematic assessment of the influence of hydrogen peroxide dosage on caffeine degradation by the photo-fenton process

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Industrial and engineering chemistry research (Online)
    Date of publication: 2012-04-04
    Journal article

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  • Fault diagnosis of a benchmark fermentation process: a comparative study of feature extraction and classification techniques

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    Bioprocess and biosystems engineering
    Date of publication: 2012-06
    Journal article

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  • A promising OPC-based computer system applied to fault diagnosis

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Monroy Chora, Isaac; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Fault detection and diagnosis is a challenging problem for plant economics and safety. In this context, a promising OPC-based modular architecture for a Fault Diagnosis System (FDS) is designed and implemented. This FDS has been validated by performing on-line real-time diagnosis on a simulated process. The modular architecture allows openly connecting a simulator or a real process via OPC. The Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP) is used as data generator and case study, so that several abnormal operation conditions can be diagnosed by the system. The proposed architecture is discussed regarding the integration of future modules for the timely adoption of appropriate corrective actions.

  • An optimization model for the management of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Salas, Pep
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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  • An investigation on automatic systems for fault diagnosis in chemical processes  Open access

     Monroy Chora, Isaac
    Defense's date: 2012-02-03
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Plant safety is the most important concern of chemical industries. Process faults can cause economic loses as well as human and environmental damages. Most of the operational faults are normally considered in the process design phase by applying methodologies such as Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). However, it should be expected that failures may occur in an operating plant. For this reason, it is of paramount importance that plant operators can promptly detect and diagnose such faults in order to take the appropriate corrective actions. In addition, preventive maintenance needs to be considered in order to increase plant safety. Fault diagnosis has been faced with both analytic and data-based models and using several techniques and algorithms. However, there is not yet a general fault diagnosis framework that joins detection and diagnosis of faults, either registered or non-registered in records. Even more, less efforts have been focused to automate and implement the reported approaches in real practice. According to this background, this thesis proposes a general framework for data-driven Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD), applicable and susceptible to be automated in any industrial scenario in order to hold the plant safety. Thus, the main requirement for constructing this system is the existence of historical process data. In this sense, promising methods imported from the Machine Learning field are introduced as fault diagnosis methods. The learning algorithms, used as diagnosis methods, have proved to be capable to diagnose not only the modeled faults, but also novel faults. Furthermore, Risk-Based Maintenance (RBM) techniques, widely used in petrochemical industry, are proposed to be applied as part of the preventive maintenance in all industry sectors. The proposed FDD system together with an appropriate preventive maintenance program would represent a potential plant safety program to be implemented. Thus, chapter one presents a general introduction to the thesis topic, as well as the motivation and scope. Then, chapter two reviews the state of the art of the related fields. Fault detection and diagnosis methods found in literature are reviewed. In this sense a taxonomy that joins both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Process Systems Engineering (PSE) classifications is proposed. The fault diagnosis assessment with performance indices is also reviewed. Moreover, it is exposed the state of the art corresponding to Risk Analysis (RA) as a tool for taking corrective actions to faults and the Maintenance Management for the preventive actions. Finally, the benchmark case studies against which FDD research is commonly validated are examined in this chapter. The second part of the thesis, integrated by chapters three to six, addresses the methods applied during the research work. Chapter three deals with the data pre-processing, chapter four with the feature processing stage and chapter five with the diagnosis algorithms. On the other hand, chapter six introduces the Risk-Based Maintenance techniques for addressing the plant preventive maintenance. The third part includes chapter seven, which constitutes the core of the thesis. In this chapter the proposed general FD system is outlined, divided in three steps: diagnosis model construction, model validation and on-line application. This scheme includes a fault detection module and an Anomaly Detection (AD) methodology for the detection of novel faults. Furthermore, several approaches are derived from this general scheme for continuous and batch processes. The fourth part of the thesis presents the validation of the approaches. Specifically, chapter eight presents the validation of the proposed approaches in continuous processes and chapter nine the validation of batch process approaches. Chapter ten raises the AD methodology in real scaled batch processes. First, the methodology is applied to a lab heat exchanger and then it is applied to a Photo-Fenton pilot plant, which corroborates its potential and success in real practice. Finally, the fifth part, including chapter eleven, is dedicated to stress the final conclusions and the main contributions of the thesis. Also, the scientific production achieved during the research period is listed and prospects on further work are envisaged.

    La seguridad de planta es el problema más inquietante para las industrias químicas. Un fallo en planta puede causar pérdidas económicas y daños humanos y al medio ambiente. La mayoría de los fallos operacionales son previstos en la etapa de diseño de un proceso mediante la aplicación de técnicas de Análisis de Riesgos y de Operabilidad (HAZOP). Sin embargo, existe la probabilidad de que pueda originarse un fallo en una planta en operación. Por esta razón, es de suma importancia que una planta pueda detectar y diagnosticar fallos en el proceso y tomar las medidas correctoras adecuadas para mitigar los efectos del fallo y evitar lamentables consecuencias. Es entonces también importante el mantenimiento preventivo para aumentar la seguridad y prevenir la ocurrencia de fallos. La diagnosis de fallos ha sido abordada tanto con modelos analíticos como con modelos basados en datos y usando varios tipos de técnicas y algoritmos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no existe la propuesta de un sistema general de seguridad en planta que combine detección y diagnosis de fallos ya sea registrados o no registrados anteriormente. Menos aún se han reportado metodologías que puedan ser automatizadas e implementadas en la práctica real. Con la finalidad de abordar el problema de la seguridad en plantas químicas, esta tesis propone un sistema general para la detección y diagnosis de fallos capaz de implementarse de forma automatizada en cualquier industria. El principal requerimiento para la construcción de este sistema es la existencia de datos históricos de planta sin previo filtrado. En este sentido, diferentes métodos basados en datos son aplicados como métodos de diagnosis de fallos, principalmente aquellos importados del campo de “Aprendizaje Automático”. Estas técnicas de aprendizaje han resultado ser capaces de detectar y diagnosticar no sólo los fallos modelados o “aprendidos”, sino también nuevos fallos no incluidos en los modelos de diagnosis. Aunado a esto, algunas técnicas de mantenimiento basadas en riesgo (RBM) que son ampliamente usadas en la industria petroquímica, son también propuestas para su aplicación en el resto de sectores industriales como parte del mantenimiento preventivo. En conclusión, se propone implementar en un futuro no lejano un programa general de seguridad de planta que incluya el sistema de detección y diagnosis de fallos propuesto junto con un adecuado programa de mantenimiento preventivo. Desglosando el contenido de la tesis, el capítulo uno presenta una introducción general al tema de esta tesis, así como también la motivación generada para su desarrollo y el alcance delimitado. El capítulo dos expone el estado del arte de las áreas relacionadas al tema de tesis. De esta forma, los métodos de detección y diagnosis de fallos encontrados en la literatura son examinados en este capítulo. Asimismo, se propone una taxonomía de los métodos de diagnosis que unifica las clasificaciones propuestas en el área de Inteligencia Artificial y de Ingeniería de procesos. En consecuencia, se examina también la evaluación del performance de los métodos de diagnosis en la literatura. Además, en este capítulo se revisa y reporta el estado del arte correspondiente al “Análisis de Riesgos” y a la “Gestión del Mantenimiento” como técnicas complementarias para la toma de medidas correctoras y preventivas. Por último se abordan los casos de estudio considerados como puntos de referencia en el campo de investigación para la aplicación del sistema propuesto. La tercera parte incluye el capítulo siete, el cual constituye el corazón de la tesis. En este capítulo se presenta el esquema o sistema general de diagnosis de fallos propuesto. El sistema es dividido en tres partes: construcción de los modelos de diagnosis, validación de los modelos y aplicación on-line. Además incluye un modulo de detección de fallos previo a la diagnosis y una metodología de detección de anomalías para la detección de nuevos fallos. Por último, de este sistema se desglosan varias metodologías para procesos continuos y por lote. La cuarta parte de esta tesis presenta la validación de las metodologías propuestas. Específicamente, el capítulo ocho presenta la validación de las metodologías propuestas para su aplicación en procesos continuos y el capítulo nueve presenta la validación de las metodologías correspondientes a los procesos por lote. El capítulo diez valida la metodología de detección de anomalías en procesos por lote reales. Primero es aplicada a un intercambiador de calor escala laboratorio y después su aplicación es escalada a un proceso Foto-Fenton de planta piloto, lo cual corrobora el potencial y éxito de la metodología en la práctica real. Finalmente, la quinta parte de esta tesis, compuesta por el capítulo once, es dedicada a presentar y reafirmar las conclusiones finales y las principales contribuciones de la tesis. Además, se plantean las líneas de investigación futuras y se lista el trabajo desarrollado y presentado durante el periodo de investigación.

  • An optimization model for the management of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Salas, Pep
    IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Implementación de un sistema wireless de adquisición de datos en el laboratorio de Ingeniería Química para la mejora del aprendizaje implícito de tecnologías TIC

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Perez Poch, Antoni; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-18
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  • Proyecto Grado de Ingeniería de la Energía en la EUETIB en la asignatura Ordenación de los sectores energéticos

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Martins Rodriguez, Blanca Maria; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-18
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  • A novelty detection approach for detecting faulty batches in a photo-Fenton process

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A novelty detection approach for detecting novel faults has been developed and applied to a photo-Fenton process in a fully monitored pilot plant. The proposed approach consists of two stages: Fault Detection or binary classification stage, and Fault Diagnosis (FD) or multi-class classification stage. Batches under nominal operating conditions, where coffee samples are degraded, are defined according to an experimental design and three possible faults are found in the process. Experimental batches under such normal and abnormal conditions are used to construct the classification models and therefore, the novelty detection approach. Two faulty batches, not learned by the models, were used to validate the approach. The successful results obtained encourage performing potential models for other pollutants that allow further detecting novel contaminants in wastewater treatments.

  • H2O2 dosage evaluation in photo-fenton processes

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises
    International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Processes
    Presentation's date: 2012-10-06
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  • Efficient usage of hydrogen peroxide in tetracycline degradation via photo-Fenton process

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Meeting on Solar Chemistry & Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-18
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  • A promising OPC-based computer system applied to fault diagnosis

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Monroy Chora, Isaac; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-18
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  • Assessing the influence of hydrogen peroxide dosage in the performance of photo-fenton processes

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises
    International Conference on Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Treatment of Water, Air and Soil
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-13
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    Emergent contaminants, recently detected in wastewaters such as human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, have turn into an environmental and health concern [1]. Among pharmaceuticals, antibiotics need to be highlighted because they cause bacteria resistance and harmful effects to organisms [2]. In this context, the development and application of efficient treatment processes aimed at degrading antibiotics from wastewaters has arisen as a mean to reduce environmental impact and health risk. This communication presents some relevant results of the study of the degradation of two different emergent pollutants from the group of antibiotics recently detected in wastewaters: Tetracycline (TC) and Sulfamethazine (SMT) [3,4].

  • Efficient hydrogen peroxide usage in sulfamethazine remediation via advanced oxidation processes

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Graells Sobre, Moises
    EcoTechnologies for Wasterwater Treatment International Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-27
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  • Plataforma wireless para la instrumentación del laboratorio de ingeniería química de la EUETIB

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Perez Poch, Antoni; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Congreso de Innovación Docente en Ingeniería Química
    Presentation's date: 2012-01-26
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  • Gestión de proyectos experimentales: Una trayectoria metodológica en experimentación en ingeniería química

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Congreso de Innovación Docente en Ingeniería Química
    Presentation's date: 2012-01-27
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  • Plataforma wireless per a la instrumentació dels laboratoris d'Enginyeria Química de l'EUETIB

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Perez Poch, Antoni; Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Nougues, Jose Maria; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Albarracín Cristóbal, Francisco
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2012-02-07
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  • Dynamic process monitoring and fault detection in a batch fermentation process: comparative performance assessment between MPCA and BDPCA

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • A practical parametrical characterization of the fenton and the photo- fenton sulfamethazine treatment using semi-empirical modeling

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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  • Detailed operation scheduling and control for renewable energy powered microgrids

     Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Enhanced plant fault diagnosis based on the characterization of transient stages

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Benitez Iglesias, Raul; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computers & chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-12-05
    Journal article

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    This paper introduces a data-based fault diagnosis system that includes an enhanced characterization of faults during transient stages. First, data under abnormal operating conditions (AOC) is projected onto a reference PCA model constructed with data under normal operating conditions (NOC). T2 and Q-statistic measures of this first PCA model are both used to detect the fault and to estimate the duration and delay of its transient evolution. After a dimensionality reduction, a second NOC PCA model is used to process data before diagnosing the faults by standard classification methods such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) or Support Vector Machines (SVM). A quantitative validation of the procedure has been carried out using simulated on-line data sets of the Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP). Results indicate that the incorporation of transient data in models improves the overall diagnosis performance, regardless of the particular choice between the statistical methods or the classification methods.

  • Academic performance and success rate: a challenge problem for the PSE community

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Detailed operation scheduling and control for renewable energy powered microgrids

     Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Dynamic process monitoring and fault detection in a batch fermentation process. Comparative performance assessment between MPCA and BDPCA

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modelling the influence of hydrogen peroxide dosage on photo-Fenton treatment of caffeine

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises; Alfano, Orlando M.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    European Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-26
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  • Anomaly detection in a Photo-Fenton pilot plant

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-18
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  • An open architecture for the fault diagnosis of chemical processes

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Monroy Chora, Isaac; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-17
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  • Hydrogen peroxide dosage as influent factor in the tetracycline treatment by photo-fenton process

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Jaén, E.; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Photocatalytic and Advanced Oxidation Technologies for Treatment of Water, Air, Soil and Surfaces
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-07
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  • Hydrogen Peroxide Dosage As Influent Factor In The Photo-Fenton And Photolysis Process

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Jaén-Flores, E.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-02
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  • On-line inference of hydrogen peroxide concentration: a key parameter towards photo-fenton process enhancement

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Jaen Flores, Esther; Alfano, Orlando M.; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-17
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  • Micro-teaching: una herramienta integrada de formación-evaluación-realización

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Gallego Cidoncha, Rosalía
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-07
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  • Academic performance and success rate: A challenge problem for the PSE community

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Material docente en formato digital para asignaturas de experimentación en química de la UPC  Open access

     Grau Vilalta, Maria Dolors; Guaus Guerrero, Ester; Martínez Martínez, María R.; Calvet Tarragona, Aurelio; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gorchs Altarriba, Roser; Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores; Garrido Soriano, Nuria; Morillo Cazorla, Margarita; Almajano Pablos, Maria Pilar; Pardo Trafach, Patricia Teresa; Calafell Monfort, Margarita; Graells Sobre, Moises; Cardona Planes, Anna Maria
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
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