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  • Evaluating the new control structure for the promotion of grid connected photovoltaic systems in Spain: Performance analysis of the period 2008¿2010

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Ballart Prunell, Jordi; Corcoles Lopez, Felipe; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Renewable and sustainable energy reviews
    Date of publication: 2013-03-01
    Journal article

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  • Enhanced photo-fenton process for tetracycline degradation using efficient hydrogen peroxide dosage

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Jaen Flores, Esther; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A. Chemistry
    Date of publication: 2013-09-01
    Journal article

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    The remediation of water solutions containing tetracycline antibiotic (TC) using photo-Fenton treatments has received scarce attention in the literature. However TC deserves attention due to its condition of emerging contaminant. In this work, TC oxidation in water solutions (12 L, 40 mg L-1) by means of photo- Fenton reaction under variable hydrogen peroxide dosage is investigated. This shows a more efficient use of the hydroxyl radicals produced in the reaction medium and enhances treatment performance. First, a suitable range of Fenton reagent loads is determined in a preliminary study. The hydrogen peroxide dosage is parameterized through two variables: The initial release of the total load, y0 (kick-off), and the time tini at which the continuous dosage of the rest of the load starts. Hence, a design of experiments (22) can be used to characterize the performance of the process under different hydrogen peroxide dosage protocols. The results obtained this way show that total TC remediation is attained in all the cases studied, but alike amounts of hydrogen peroxide lead to total mineralization only when the dosage scheme is conveniently tuned. Therefore, the photo-Fenton treatment has proved to be effective in removing TC from water solutions, and the opportunity for an efficient dosage to reduce the requirements of hydrogen peroxide has also been confirmed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  • Hybrid time representation for the scheduling of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Aguirre, Adrián; Crexells Domingo, Guillem; Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Méndez, Carlos A.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new optimization model is presented for the short-term management of the energy supply and demand in smart grids. The detailed model includes a flexible demand profile in order to manage the energy requirements by incorporating penalizations in the economic objective function for delays in satisfying energy demand. The MILP model for the optimization of deterministic scenarios is reformulated in order to incorporate discrete and hybrid time representations. This approach allows considering a different granularity of the problem. Finally, the improved performance of the hybrid approach introduced is shown by comparing the performance of these two time representations.

  • Docencia en inglés en la formación de grado: Valoración de las clases impartidas por profesores visitantes

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas (CUIEET)
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La incorporación de la lengua inglesa en la formación superior es algo que en el siglo XXI no admite discusión. Sin embargo, no parece que exista un único modelo para llevarlo a cabo, tanto en el fondo como en la forma. Este trabajo discute algunos modelos, ventajas e inconvenientes, y analiza y valora la experiencia de incluir en la formación clases en inglés impartidas por profesores visitantes, cuya principal ventaja estriba en el hecho de que la comunicación en inglés se convierte en una necesidad real para acceder a los conocimientos que viene a aportar a la clase un especialista de otro país. El programa Erasmus, además, es un medio poco explotado que facilita el intercambio de profesorado y fomenta el aprendizaje en inglés.

  • Optimal recipe design for paracetamol degradation by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a pilot plant

     Moreno Benito, Marta; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work addresses the optimization of the batch process recipe of an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) aimed at reducing paracetamol (PCT) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations from a given effluent. The kinetic model by Cabrera Reina et al. (2012) is adapted to model the treatment, the problem is next formulated as a dynamic optimization problem and dosage of hydrogen peroxide is addressed by means of a piecewise constant strategy, which is compared with other dosage protocols. Results show that cost reductions can be obtained when applying the model-based optimization techniques proposed, and hint new opportunites for AOPs enhancement.

  • Supervisory control for real time reactive power flow optimization in islanded microgrids

     Milczarek, Adam; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Malinowski, Mariusz; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A microgrid (MG) is a local energy system consisting of a number of energy sources, energy storage units and loads that operate connected to the main electrical grid or autonomously. MGs include wind, solar or other renewable energy sources. MGs provide flexibility, reduce the main electricity grid dependence and contribute to change the large centralized production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex management, advanced control and optimization. Interest on MGs hierarchical control has increased due to the availability of cheap online measurements. Similarly to any process system, MG hierarchical control is divided into three levels. However, an additional control algorithm is required to manage power transmission between sources and loads, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmission losses. This real-time optimization problem is addressed to locally readjust converters operation to attain global efficiency. An algorithm is presented...

  • Hybrid time representation for the scheduling of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Aguirre, Adrián; Crexells Domingo, Guillem; Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Méndez, Carlos A.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    A new optimization model is presented for the short-term management of the energy supply and demand in smart grids. The detailed model includes a flexible demand profile in order to manage the energy requirements by incorporating penalizations in the economic objective function for delays in satisfying energy demand. The MILP model for the optimization of deterministic scenarios is reformulated in order to incorporate discrete and hybrid time representations. This approach allows considering a different granularity of the problem. Finally, the improved performance of the hybrid approach introduced is shown by comparing the performance of these two time representations.

  • Optimal recipe design for paracetamol degradation by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in a pilot plant

     Moreno Benito, Marta; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    This work addresses the optimization of the batch process recipe of an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) aimed at reducing paracetamol (PCT) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations from a given effluent. The kinetic model by Cabrera Reina et al. (2012) is adapted to model the treatment, the problem is next formulated as a dynamic optimization problem and dosage of hydrogen peroxide is addressed by means of a piecewise constant strategy, which is compared with other dosage protocols. Results show that cost reductions can be obtained when applying the model-based optimization techniques proposed, and hint new opportunites for AOPs enhancement

  • Efficient Operation of photo-Fenton Process for the Treatment of Emerging Contaminants in Water Solutions

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn
    Defense's date: 2013-10-24
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Integrated management of chemical processes in a competitive environment  Open access

     Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel
    Defense's date: 2013-07-01
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El objetivo general de esta Tesis es mejorar el proceso de la toma de decisiones en la gestión de cadenas de suministro, tomando en cuenta principalmente dos diferencias: ser competitivo considerando las decisiones propias de la cadena de suministro, y ser competitivo dentro de un entorno global. La estructura de ésta tesis se divide en 4 partes principales: La Parte I consiste en una introducción general de los temas cubiertos en esta Tesis (Capítulo 1). Una revisión de la literatura, que nos permite identificar las problemáticas asociadas al proceso de toma de decisiones (Capítulo 2). El Capítulo 3 presenta una introducción de las técnicas y métodos de optimización utilizados para resolver los problemas propuestos en esta Tesis. La Parte II se enfoca en la integración de los niveles de decisión, buscando mejorar la toma de decisiones de la propia cadena de suministro. El Capítulo 4 presenta una formulación matemática que integra las decisiones de síntesis de procesos y las decisiones operacionales. Además, este capítulo presenta un modelo integrado para la toma de decisiones operacionales incluyendo las características del control de procesos. El Capítulo 5 muestra la integración de las decisiones del nivel táctico y el operacional, dicha propuesta está basada en el conocimiento adquirido capturando la información relacionada al nivel operacional. Una vez obtenida esta información se incluye en la toma de decisiones a nivel táctico. Finalmente en el capítulo 6 se desarrolla un modelo simplificado para integrar múltiples cadenas de suministro. El modelo propuesto incluye la información detallada de las entidades presentes en una cadena de suministro (suministradores, plantas de producción, distribuidores y mercados) introduciéndola en un modelo matemático para su coordinación. La Parte III propone la integración explicita de múltiples cadenas de suministro que tienen que enfrentar numerosas situaciones propias de un mercado global. Asimismo, esta parte presenta una nueva herramienta de optimización basada en el uso integrado de métodos de programación matemática y conceptos relacionados a la Teoría de Juegos. En el Capítulo 7 analiza múltiples cadenas de suministro que cooperan o compiten por la demanda global del mercado. El Capítulo 8 incluye una comparación entre el problema resuelto en el Capítulo anterior y un modelo estocástico, los resultados obtenidos nos permiten situar el comportamiento de los competidores como fuente exógena de la incertidumbre típicamente asociada la demanda del mercado. Además, los resultados de ambos Capítulos muestran una mejora sustancial en el coste total de las cadenas de suministro asociada al hecho de cooperar para atender de forma conjunta la demanda disponible. Es por esto, que el Capítulo 9 presenta una nueva herramienta de negociación, basada en la resolución del mismo problema (Capítulo 7) bajo un análisis multiobjetivo. Finalmente, la parte IV presenta las conclusiones finales y una descripción general del trabajo futuro.

    This Thesis aims to enhance the decision making process in the SCM, remarking the difference between optimizing the SC to be competitive by its own, and to be competitive in a global market in cooperative and competitive environments. The structure of this work has been divided in four main parts: Part I: consists in a general introduction of the main topics covered in this manuscript (Chapter I); a review of the State of the Art that allows us to identify new open issues in the PSE (Chapter 2). Finally, Chapter 3 introduces the main optimization techniques and methods used in this contribution. Part II focuses on the integration of decision making levels in order to improve the decision making of a single SC: Chapter 4 presents a novel formulation to integrate synthesis and scheduling decision making models, additionally, this chapter also shows an integrated operational and control decision making model for distributed generations systems (EGS). Chapter 5 shows the integration of tactical and operational decision making levels. In this chapter a knowledge based approach has been developed capturing the information related to the operational decision making level. Then, this information has been included in the tactical decision making model. In Chapter 6 a simplified approach for integrated SCs is developed, the detailed information of the typical production‐distribution SC echelons has been introduced in a coordinated SC model. Part III proposes the explicit integration of several SC’s decision making in order to face several real market situations. As well, a novel formulation is developed using an MILP model and Game Theory (GT) as a decision making tool. Chapter 7 includes the tactical and operational analysis of several SC’s cooperating or competing for the global market demand. Moreover, Chapter 8 includes a comparison, based on the previous results (MILP‐GT optimization tool) and a two stage stochastic optimization model. Results from both Chapters show how cooperating for the global demand represent an improvement of the overall total cost. Consequently, Chapter 9 presents a bargaining tool obtained by the Multiobjective (MO) resolution of the model presented in Chapter 7. Finally, final conclusions and further work have been provided in Part IV.

  • An optimization model for the management of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Salas, Pep
    Date of publication: 2012
    Book chapter

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  • A promising OPC-based computer system applied to fault diagnosis

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Monroy Chora, Isaac; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • A novelty detection approach for detecting faulty batches in a photo-Fenton process

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A novelty detection approach for detecting novel faults has been developed and applied to a photo-Fenton process in a fully monitored pilot plant. The proposed approach consists of two stages: Fault Detection or binary classification stage, and Fault Diagnosis (FD) or multi-class classification stage. Batches under nominal operating conditions, where coffee samples are degraded, are defined according to an experimental design and three possible faults are found in the process. Experimental batches under such normal and abnormal conditions are used to construct the classification models and therefore, the novelty detection approach. Two faulty batches, not learned by the models, were used to validate the approach. The successful results obtained encourage performing potential models for other pollutants that allow further detecting novel contaminants in wastewater treatments.

  • An optimization model for the management of energy supply and demand in smart grids

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Salas, Pep
    IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition
    Presentation's date: 2012-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Implementación de un sistema wireless de adquisición de datos en el laboratorio de Ingeniería Química para la mejora del aprendizaje implícito de tecnologías TIC

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Perez Poch, Antoni; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Proyecto Grado de Ingeniería de la Energía en la EUETIB en la asignatura Ordenación de los sectores energéticos

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Martins Rodriguez, Blanca Maria; Martín Cañadas, María Helena; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Plataforma wireless per a la instrumentació dels laboratoris d'Enginyeria Química de l'EUETIB

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Perez Poch, Antoni; Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Nougues, Jose Maria; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Albarracín Cristóbal, Francisco
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2012-02-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Systematic assessment of the influence of hydrogen peroxide dosage on caffeine degradation by the photo-fenton process

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    Industrial and engineering chemistry research (Online)
    Date of publication: 2012-04-04
    Journal article

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  • Fault diagnosis of a benchmark fermentation process: a comparative study of feature extraction and classification techniques

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    Bioprocess and biosystems engineering
    Date of publication: 2012-06
    Journal article

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  • A novelty detection approach for detecting faulty batches in a photo-Fenton proces

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Modelado, análisis y control dinámico de un reformador de etanol en tres etapas para aplicaciones en pilas de combustible  Open access

     García, Vanesa Mariel
    Defense's date: 2012-04-16
    Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    This thesis presents results related to the design, modeling and control of a low temperature ethanol reformer as a source of hydrogen designed to feed a fuel cell (PEMFC). As fuel, ethanol has been selected as one of the renewable energy sources currently under study due to its interest for scientific and economic fields. The reformer has been separated into three stages in order to guarantee the maximum production of H2 and the minimum production of CO. SnO2 and Co(Fe)Na+/ZnO catalytic monoliths have been used, where in the first stage ethanol is dehydrogenated over SnO2 and, in the second stage, the reforming of acetaldehyde over Co(Fe)Na+/ZnO takes place under the presence of hydrogen, generated in stage 1. Then we add a third stage with a Fe2O3-Cr2O3 commercial catalyst to complete the WGS reaction. In addition to ensure a reducing environment in the reforming step, this configuration also allows optimizing the conditions of each stage of the reaction. Constant pressure has been imposed as a condition of the reformer design, but the variation of temperatures in each stage has been considered. In this thesis dynamic models have been developed for the reformer of ethanol with vapour at low temperatures described previously, the stationary and dynamic response has been analysed and controllers have been designed to meet the requirements of the system. Up until now there have only been a few works that address the design and implementation of controllers for fuel reformers, and none of these have used ethanol fuel. Some are in the area of automatic control and have been applied to tubular reformers but consider other type of fuel, not ethanol, for its alimentation In this thesis the mathematical model used to represent the state of the monolithic reformer has been presented, considered and implemented. Through a study of the stationary state one can validate the different hypothesis of assumed design and through an analysis of the parametric sensitivity the operational conditions for the reform process are discussed. This way the mathematic model of the reactor can be used to explore other alternatives for the operation of the reformer putting an emphasis on the influence of temperature in the second stage as this is a variable. Afterwards a study is made of the control of the models based on the balance of mass and linearised energy. In order to realise the control study the mathematic tools RGA, MRI and CN have been used. Through this analysis the control structures have been selected which will be most suitable for design controllers which can guarantee the requirements for the fuel cell.

  • An investigation on automatic systems for fault diagnosis in chemical processes  Open access

     Monroy Chora, Isaac
    Defense's date: 2012-02-03
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Plant safety is the most important concern of chemical industries. Process faults can cause economic loses as well as human and environmental damages. Most of the operational faults are normally considered in the process design phase by applying methodologies such as Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). However, it should be expected that failures may occur in an operating plant. For this reason, it is of paramount importance that plant operators can promptly detect and diagnose such faults in order to take the appropriate corrective actions. In addition, preventive maintenance needs to be considered in order to increase plant safety. Fault diagnosis has been faced with both analytic and data-based models and using several techniques and algorithms. However, there is not yet a general fault diagnosis framework that joins detection and diagnosis of faults, either registered or non-registered in records. Even more, less efforts have been focused to automate and implement the reported approaches in real practice. According to this background, this thesis proposes a general framework for data-driven Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD), applicable and susceptible to be automated in any industrial scenario in order to hold the plant safety. Thus, the main requirement for constructing this system is the existence of historical process data. In this sense, promising methods imported from the Machine Learning field are introduced as fault diagnosis methods. The learning algorithms, used as diagnosis methods, have proved to be capable to diagnose not only the modeled faults, but also novel faults. Furthermore, Risk-Based Maintenance (RBM) techniques, widely used in petrochemical industry, are proposed to be applied as part of the preventive maintenance in all industry sectors. The proposed FDD system together with an appropriate preventive maintenance program would represent a potential plant safety program to be implemented. Thus, chapter one presents a general introduction to the thesis topic, as well as the motivation and scope. Then, chapter two reviews the state of the art of the related fields. Fault detection and diagnosis methods found in literature are reviewed. In this sense a taxonomy that joins both Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Process Systems Engineering (PSE) classifications is proposed. The fault diagnosis assessment with performance indices is also reviewed. Moreover, it is exposed the state of the art corresponding to Risk Analysis (RA) as a tool for taking corrective actions to faults and the Maintenance Management for the preventive actions. Finally, the benchmark case studies against which FDD research is commonly validated are examined in this chapter. The second part of the thesis, integrated by chapters three to six, addresses the methods applied during the research work. Chapter three deals with the data pre-processing, chapter four with the feature processing stage and chapter five with the diagnosis algorithms. On the other hand, chapter six introduces the Risk-Based Maintenance techniques for addressing the plant preventive maintenance. The third part includes chapter seven, which constitutes the core of the thesis. In this chapter the proposed general FD system is outlined, divided in three steps: diagnosis model construction, model validation and on-line application. This scheme includes a fault detection module and an Anomaly Detection (AD) methodology for the detection of novel faults. Furthermore, several approaches are derived from this general scheme for continuous and batch processes. The fourth part of the thesis presents the validation of the approaches. Specifically, chapter eight presents the validation of the proposed approaches in continuous processes and chapter nine the validation of batch process approaches. Chapter ten raises the AD methodology in real scaled batch processes. First, the methodology is applied to a lab heat exchanger and then it is applied to a Photo-Fenton pilot plant, which corroborates its potential and success in real practice. Finally, the fifth part, including chapter eleven, is dedicated to stress the final conclusions and the main contributions of the thesis. Also, the scientific production achieved during the research period is listed and prospects on further work are envisaged.

    La seguridad de planta es el problema más inquietante para las industrias químicas. Un fallo en planta puede causar pérdidas económicas y daños humanos y al medio ambiente. La mayoría de los fallos operacionales son previstos en la etapa de diseño de un proceso mediante la aplicación de técnicas de Análisis de Riesgos y de Operabilidad (HAZOP). Sin embargo, existe la probabilidad de que pueda originarse un fallo en una planta en operación. Por esta razón, es de suma importancia que una planta pueda detectar y diagnosticar fallos en el proceso y tomar las medidas correctoras adecuadas para mitigar los efectos del fallo y evitar lamentables consecuencias. Es entonces también importante el mantenimiento preventivo para aumentar la seguridad y prevenir la ocurrencia de fallos. La diagnosis de fallos ha sido abordada tanto con modelos analíticos como con modelos basados en datos y usando varios tipos de técnicas y algoritmos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no existe la propuesta de un sistema general de seguridad en planta que combine detección y diagnosis de fallos ya sea registrados o no registrados anteriormente. Menos aún se han reportado metodologías que puedan ser automatizadas e implementadas en la práctica real. Con la finalidad de abordar el problema de la seguridad en plantas químicas, esta tesis propone un sistema general para la detección y diagnosis de fallos capaz de implementarse de forma automatizada en cualquier industria. El principal requerimiento para la construcción de este sistema es la existencia de datos históricos de planta sin previo filtrado. En este sentido, diferentes métodos basados en datos son aplicados como métodos de diagnosis de fallos, principalmente aquellos importados del campo de “Aprendizaje Automático”. Estas técnicas de aprendizaje han resultado ser capaces de detectar y diagnosticar no sólo los fallos modelados o “aprendidos”, sino también nuevos fallos no incluidos en los modelos de diagnosis. Aunado a esto, algunas técnicas de mantenimiento basadas en riesgo (RBM) que son ampliamente usadas en la industria petroquímica, son también propuestas para su aplicación en el resto de sectores industriales como parte del mantenimiento preventivo. En conclusión, se propone implementar en un futuro no lejano un programa general de seguridad de planta que incluya el sistema de detección y diagnosis de fallos propuesto junto con un adecuado programa de mantenimiento preventivo. Desglosando el contenido de la tesis, el capítulo uno presenta una introducción general al tema de esta tesis, así como también la motivación generada para su desarrollo y el alcance delimitado. El capítulo dos expone el estado del arte de las áreas relacionadas al tema de tesis. De esta forma, los métodos de detección y diagnosis de fallos encontrados en la literatura son examinados en este capítulo. Asimismo, se propone una taxonomía de los métodos de diagnosis que unifica las clasificaciones propuestas en el área de Inteligencia Artificial y de Ingeniería de procesos. En consecuencia, se examina también la evaluación del performance de los métodos de diagnosis en la literatura. Además, en este capítulo se revisa y reporta el estado del arte correspondiente al “Análisis de Riesgos” y a la “Gestión del Mantenimiento” como técnicas complementarias para la toma de medidas correctoras y preventivas. Por último se abordan los casos de estudio considerados como puntos de referencia en el campo de investigación para la aplicación del sistema propuesto. La tercera parte incluye el capítulo siete, el cual constituye el corazón de la tesis. En este capítulo se presenta el esquema o sistema general de diagnosis de fallos propuesto. El sistema es dividido en tres partes: construcción de los modelos de diagnosis, validación de los modelos y aplicación on-line. Además incluye un modulo de detección de fallos previo a la diagnosis y una metodología de detección de anomalías para la detección de nuevos fallos. Por último, de este sistema se desglosan varias metodologías para procesos continuos y por lote. La cuarta parte de esta tesis presenta la validación de las metodologías propuestas. Específicamente, el capítulo ocho presenta la validación de las metodologías propuestas para su aplicación en procesos continuos y el capítulo nueve presenta la validación de las metodologías correspondientes a los procesos por lote. El capítulo diez valida la metodología de detección de anomalías en procesos por lote reales. Primero es aplicada a un intercambiador de calor escala laboratorio y después su aplicación es escalada a un proceso Foto-Fenton de planta piloto, lo cual corrobora el potencial y éxito de la metodología en la práctica real. Finalmente, la quinta parte de esta tesis, compuesta por el capítulo once, es dedicada a presentar y reafirmar las conclusiones finales y las principales contribuciones de la tesis. Además, se plantean las líneas de investigación futuras y se lista el trabajo desarrollado y presentado durante el periodo de investigación.

  • A promising OPC-based computer system applied to fault diagnosis

     Silvente Saiz, Javier; Monroy Chora, Isaac; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Fault detection and diagnosis is a challenging problem for plant economics and safety. In this context, a promising OPC-based modular architecture for a Fault Diagnosis System (FDS) is designed and implemented. This FDS has been validated by performing on-line real-time diagnosis on a simulated process. The modular architecture allows openly connecting a simulator or a real process via OPC. The Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP) is used as data generator and case study, so that several abnormal operation conditions can be diagnosed by the system. The proposed architecture is discussed regarding the integration of future modules for the timely adoption of appropriate corrective actions.

  • Dynamic process monitoring and fault detection in a batch fermentation process. Comparative performance assessment between MPCA and BDPCA

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hydrogen Peroxide Dosage As Influent Factor In The Photo-Fenton And Photolysis Process

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Jaén-Flores, E.; Graells Sobre, Moises; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    IWA International Conference on Water Reclamation & Reuse
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Material docente en formato digital para asignaturas de experimentación en química de la UPC  Open access

     Grau Vilalta, Maria Dolors; Guaus Guerrero, Ester; Martínez Martínez, María R.; Calvet Tarragona, Aurelio; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Gorchs Altarriba, Roser; Alvarez Del Castillo, M. Dolores; Garrido Soriano, Nuria; Morillo Cazorla, Margarita; Almajano Pablos, Maria Pilar; Pardo Trafach, Patricia Teresa; Calafell Monfort, Margarita; Graells Sobre, Moises; Cardona Planes, Anna Maria
    Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Modelling the influence of hydrogen peroxide dosage on photo-Fenton treatment of caffeine

     Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Graells Sobre, Moises; Alfano, Orlando M.; Pérez Moya, Montserrat
    European Congress of Chemical Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Micro-teaching: una herramienta integrada de formación-evaluación-realización

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio; Gallego Cidoncha, Rosalía
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Academic performance and success rate: A challenge problem for the PSE community

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Detailed operation scheduling and control for renewable energy powered microgrids

     Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Academic performance and success rate: a challenge problem for the PSE community

     Graells Sobre, Moises; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Integrated Scheduling Decision Making in Enterprise Wide Optimization  Open access  awarded activity

     Capón García, Elisabet
    Defense's date: 2011-06-28
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    In the current environment of markets globalization and fierce competition, process industries must strive to remain competitive. In this sense, companies pursue decision integration among the different space and time levels of their organizational structure in order to improve their overall results. Indeed, several cases reported in the literature confirm the economic benefits derived from decision integration. Hence, much research is devoted to obtain improved models, integration and information tools as well as optimization algorithms which provide with decision support tools within a coherent framework for the enterprise design. From a plant level perspective, the short-term scheduling problem deals with the management of production orders in order to optimally fulfill customers' demands by assigning the available resources. This decision level is further related to other decision levels such as planning and control. The need for integration of these decision levels has been reported from the 60s, but the contributions in this area are still scarce. Therefore, further efforts have to be devoted to the integration within the operational level. This thesis aims at contributing to the integration of the short-term scheduling problem of batch process industries from a structural and functional point of view. The structural perspective refers to other decision levels from the managerial organization, specifically the basic process control in this work. As for the functional issues, the completion of the objective functions used at scheduling level may lead to integrated decisions from an overall perspective. Therefore, the inclusion of non-economic objectives in the decision making may lead to more concerned solutions from other problem perspectives, such as environmental. Thus, the extension of economic criteria to consider process variables costs may ease the integration approaches. First of all, an overview of the current global scenario, the relevance of scheduling problem and of its integration in the decision making, as well as the existing solution approaches are presented. The second part of this work is devoted to the description and extension of the immediate and general precedence formulations of the scheduling problem, in order to consider non-trivial problem features such as the batch cleaning operations, equipment transfer operations, variable processing rates, timing synchronization of operations and the introduction of process dynamics. Precisely, the third part of this thesis is devoted to the introduction of process dynamics at the scheduling level, which can be achieved either (i) indirectly: by considering cost functions of time; or (ii) directly: by combining discretized dynamic equations in the scheduling formulation. This part explores the adequacy of each integration method and

    En el entorno actual de globalización de los mercados las industrias de proceso deben esforzarse para seguir siendo competitivas. En este sentido, las empresas buscan la integración de decisiones dentro de su estructura organizativa con el fin de mejorar sus resultados globales. A nivel de planta, el problema de programación de operaciones a corto plazo busca la gestión óptima de las órdenes de producción mediante la asignación de los recursos disponibles con el fin de cumplir con las demandas de los clientes. Este nivel de decisión está además relacionado con otros niveles como la planificación y control. La necesidad de integración de estos niveles se ha citado ya desde los años 60, pero las contribuciones en esta área de investigación son escasas. El principal objetivo de esta tesis consiste en contribuir a la integración del problema de programación de operaciones a corto plazo de las industrias discontinuas de proceso desde un punto de vista estructural y funcional. La perspectiva estructural se refiere a la integración con otros niveles de decisión de la estructura organizativa de la empresa, que se limita en esta tesis al nivel de control básico. En cuanto a las cuestiones funcionales, la adopción de funciones objetivo que incluyan todos los aspectos del problema de programación de operaciones puede llevar a decisiones integradas desde un punto de vista global. En este sentido, la inclusión de los costes de las variables de proceso en la función objetivo del problema de programación de operaciones puede facilitar la integración de los niveles. Además, la inclusión de objetivos no económicos en la toma de decisiones puede generar soluciones más comprometidas desde otras perspectivas del problema como la medioambiental. En primer lugar, se presentan una visión general del panorama actual de la industria de proceso, la relevancia del problema de programación de operaciones y de su integración en la toma de decisiones, así como los enfoques existentes para la solución de dicho problema. La segunda parte de esta tesis está dedicado a la descripción y la extensión de las varias formulaciones del problema de programación de operaciones, a fin de considerar características no triviales del problema, tales como las operaciones de limpieza, las operaciones de transferencia de equipo, velocidades de proceso variables, la sincronización de operaciones y la introducción de la dinámica del proceso. Precisamente, la tercera parte de esta tesis está dedicada a la introducción de la dinámica del proceso dentro del nivel de programación de operaciones, que se puede lograr ya sea (i) indirectamente: considerando funciones de coste en función del tiempo, o (ii) directamente: mediante la discretización de las ecuaciones dinámicas del modelo de proceso y su incorporación a la formulación del problema. En esta parte, se analiza la idoneidad de cada método de integración y se evalúan los beneficios que pueden lograrse con la integración. Además, se estudia la repercusión de velocidades de proceso variables, en procesos semicontinuos con producción de un solo lote por campaña de producto. La última contribución de esta tesis se centra en la ampliación de la tradicional función objetivo económica del problema de programación de operaciones para examinar cuestiones medioambientales. En concreto, se estudian las soluciones de compromiso que aparecen entre los criterios ambientales y económicos mediante fronteras de Pareto, que proporcionan información sobre los compromisos existentes. En esta parte, se observa que cuando se consideran diferentes funciones objetivo, se puede llegar a soluciones de la frontera de Pareto completamente diferentes, tanto en términos de número como secuencia de los lotes de productos, así como en los métodos de limpieza. Por último, se presenta una estrategia híbrida de optimización, para poder resolver problemas de tamaño real, que consiste en un algoritmo genético combinado con una búsqueda local matemática rigurosa.

  • Knowledge management technology for integrated decision support systems in process industries

     Muñoz Mata, Edrisi
    Defense's date: 2011-12-12
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Techniques for the Efficient Solution of Large-scale Production Scheduling&Planning Problems inthe Process Industries  Open access  awarded activity

     Kopanos, Georgios
    Defense's date: 2011-04-14
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Nowadays, every company seeks to optimize its Supply Chain (SC) in response to competitive pressures or to acquire advantage of new flexibility in the restrictions on world trade. The process systems engineering research community has been aware of this change and is playing a key role in expanding the system boundaries from chemical process systems to business process systems. The global optimization of a SC network is an extremely complex task. For this reason, SC decisions are typically divided into three decision levels: the operational (scheduling), the tactical (planning), and the strategic (design). Since most academic developments are too distant from industrial environments, the aim of this thesis is to be a step forward in narrowing the gap between planning and scheduling theory and practice by devising efficient mathematical approaches for solving real-life industrial scheduling and planning problems. An overview of production planning and scheduling, an analysis of existing approaches, methods and tools used throughout this study are first presented. The second part of this thesis is focused on the development of mathematical models for production processes with continuous parallel units. In this part, a novel mathematical programming framework is developed based on elegant modeling of the underlying problem. This work addresses challenging problems in a highly complex real-life bottling facility. The proposed framework addresses appropriately important changeover aspects such as changeover carryover and crossover, thereby leading to solutions with resulting in higher utilization of resources. The third part is focused on semicontinuous industries, which combine continuous and batch operation modes. First, a mathematical programming framework and a solution strategy are presented for the optimal production scheduling of multiproduct multistage semicontinuous process industries. A problem in an ice-cream production line has been considered; and it has been successfully solved. Second, a general mathematical programming approach is developed for the resource-constrained production planning problem in semicontinuous processes. This work has been motivated by a challenging problem in food processing industries related to yogurt production lines, where labor constitutes the limited resource constraint. Third, a novel mathematical formulation for the simultaneous optimization of production and logistics operations planning in large-scale single- or multi-site semicontinuous process industries is proposed. Alternative transportation modes are considered. Two industrial-size case studies for a real-life dairy industry have been solved. The forth part of the thesis deals with scheduling in batch processes. First, a real-life multiproduct multistage pharmaceuticals production facility is considered. A systematic two-stage iterative solution strategy, based on mathematical programming, has been developed to address this problem. Additionally, a new precedence concept have been developed in order to cope with objectives containing changeover issues. A salient feature of the proposed approach is that the scheduler can maintain the number of decisions at a reasonable level, thus reducing the solution search space. This often ensures a more stable and predictable optimization model behavior. Finally, a preliminary two-layered decomposition method to the batch process scheduling problem in multipurpose production plants is developed. The procedure is tested on several instances of a benchmark scheduling problem that considers a polymers production plant.

    Hoy en día, debido a que las condiciones económicas y políticas cambian rápidamente, las empresas globales se enfrentan a un desafío continuo para reevaluar constantemente y configurar de forma óptima las operaciones de su cadena de suministro (CS) para alcanzar los índices de rendimiento clave, tales como la reducción de costes de rentabilidad y servicio al cliente. Las empresas buscan optimizar sus CSs en respuesta a presiones de la competencia o para adquirir ventaja de una mayor flexibilidad en las restricciones sobre todo en el comercio mundial. Las industrias de proceso también siguen esta tendencia. La comunidad que investiga la ingeniería de los sistemas de procesos ha sido consciente de este cambio y, hoy en día, está jugando un papel clave en la expansión de los límites de los sistemas más allá de los procesos químicos para incluir también los sistemas de negocio. La optimización global de una red CS es una tarea extremadamente compleja. Por esta razón, las decisiones CS por lo general contemplan tres niveles de decisión: operativo (programación de operaciones), táctico (planificación de la producción) y estratégico (diseño). La planificación de la producción y la programación de operaciones constituyen una parte crucial de los niveles de decisión jerarquizados de la CS completa. Las actividades de planificación y programación tratan de la asignación en el tiempo de los recursos escasos entre actividades que compiten para satisfacer de forma eficiente dichas necesidades. Más concretamente, la función de planificación tiene como objetivo optimizar el rendimiento económico de la empresa, ya que debe hacer coincidir la producción con la demanda de la mejor manera posible. El componente de programación de la producción es de vital importancia ya que es la capa que traduce los imperativos económicos del plan en una secuencia de acciones a ser ejecutadas en la planta, con el fin de ofrecer el rendimiento económico optimizado previsto por el plan de alto nivel. En general, las investigaciones recientes se dirigen a la búsqueda de soluciones que permitan un manejo eficiente y preciso de problemas de gran tamaño y de complejidad cada vez mayor. Sin embargo, queda mucho trabajo por hacer tanto en las mejoras del modelo como en las mejoras en los algoritmos de solución del problema, cuando se trata de abordar de manera rutinaria problemas relevantes para la industria, donde el software producido debe ser utilizado de manera regular por los profesionales en el campo. Además, los nuevos desarrollos académicos son en su mayoría de cierta complejidad, pero relativamente de pequeño tamaño comparados con los problemas industriales incluso de mediano tamaño. Por lo tanto, la aplicación de nuevas estrategias de producción y nuevos enfoques de programación en los estudios industriales en la vida real constituye un reto difícil. Como la mayoría de los desarrollos académicos están demasiado lejos del entorno de aplicabilidad industrial, el objetivo de esta tesis es dar un paso significativo en la reducción del salto existente entre la teoría y la práctica de la planificación y programación mediante la elaboración de enfoques eficaces de programación matemática para la solución

  • Detailed operation scheduling and control for renewable energy powered microgrids

     Zamarripa Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Vasquez Quintero, Juan Carlos; Guerrero Zapata, Josep Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • A practical parametrical characterization of the fenton and the photo- fenton sulfamethazine treatment using semi-empirical modeling

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Journal of chemical technology & biotechnology
    Date of publication: 2011-06
    Journal article

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  • Dynamic process monitoring and fault detection in a batch fermentation process: comparative performance assessment between MPCA and BDPCA

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Villez, Kris; Graells Sobre, Moises; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Enhanced plant fault diagnosis based on the characterization of transient stages

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Benitez Iglesias, Raul; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computers & chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2011-12-05
    Journal article

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    This paper introduces a data-based fault diagnosis system that includes an enhanced characterization of faults during transient stages. First, data under abnormal operating conditions (AOC) is projected onto a reference PCA model constructed with data under normal operating conditions (NOC). T2 and Q-statistic measures of this first PCA model are both used to detect the fault and to estimate the duration and delay of its transient evolution. After a dimensionality reduction, a second NOC PCA model is used to process data before diagnosing the faults by standard classification methods such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) or Support Vector Machines (SVM). A quantitative validation of the procedure has been carried out using simulated on-line data sets of the Tennessee Eastman Process (TEP). Results indicate that the incorporation of transient data in models improves the overall diagnosis performance, regardless of the particular choice between the statistical methods or the classification methods.

  • New engineering degrees addressed to Science graduated students: Ireland and Morocco experiences.

     Zhelev, Theodore; Benqlilou, Chouaib; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Erasmus mobility opportunities and strategies for enhancing international exchange performance.

     Afanador Castillo, Pedro; Graells Sobre, Moises; Zhelev, Theodore
    Congreso Universitario de Innovación Educativa en las Enseñanzas Técnicas
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Energy efficiency optimization of wastewater treatment - Study of ATAD

     Rojas, Jaime; Zhelev, Theodore; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • On-Line Fault Diagnosis Based on the Identification of Transient Stages

     Monroy Chora, Isaac; Benitez Iglesias, Raul; Escudero Bakx, Gerard; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Operation scheduling of batch autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion processes

     Capon Garcia, Elisabet; Rojas, Jaime; Zhelev, Theodore; Graells Sobre, Moises
    European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) is an exothermic batchwise operated sludge treatment process, in which sludge undergoes heating and pasteurization as temperature attains values about 50-60ºC. Based on detailed process models, different approaches have been suggested (Rojas and Zhelev, 2009) to minimize the specific energy requirement of existing ATAD designs by altering the operating conditions, but less attention has been paid to process optimization by means of operation planning and timing. This work aims at minimizing the specific energy requirement of existing ATAD processes considering simultaneously operational conditions, planning and timing. Hence, a scheduling formulation including process model variables and a flexible recipe is proposed. Energy savings are reported for a case study of a simplified treatment plant. The proposed approach results in energy consumption reduction by optimizing batch sizes and operating conditions.

  • Evaluation tool to assess the effectiveness of training

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises; Gallego, Rosalia; Meluni, Alesandro; Pujadas Garriga, Marta; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    International Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-22
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    Evaluating the performance of micro-training actions for environmental learning  Open access

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises; Rodríguez Gibert, Elena; Gallego, Rosalia; Meluni, Alesandro; Espuña Camarasa, Antonio
    International Conference on Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities
    Presentation's date: 2010-10-27
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The impact and significance of a training process may not be easily noticeable in the short term, and is difficult to track in the long term. This is more common when training targets are acquiring positive attitudes and competences (i.e. environmental awareness) rather than specific technical procedures. Thus, such training requires specific evaluation tools for quantifying the degree of achievement the objectives. Microteaching is a training methodology characterized by brevity and flexibility, which focuses in promoting active learning and evaluating its long-term impact (including performance indicators). The methodology was developed during two European projects (Leonardo da Vinci Programme(Overschie,2006; Pérez-Moya, 2008, www.microtrainingsupport. eu/).

  • Effect of hydrogen peroxide dosage in the photo-fenton degradation of caffeine

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises; Yamal Turbay, Evelyn; Mansilla, Héctor D.
    European Meeting on Solar Chemistry & Photocatalysis: Environmental Applications
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Material docent en format digital per assignatures d'experimentació en química  Open access

     Grau Vilalta, Maria Dolors; Almajano Pablos, Maria Pilar; Álvarez, M. Dolors; Calafell Monfort, Margarita; Calvet Tarragona, Aurelio; Cardona Planes, Anna Maria; Farran Marsa, Adriana; Garrido Soriano, Nuria; Gorchs Altarriba, Roser; Graells Sobre, Moises; Guaus Guerrero, Ester; Martínez Martínez, María R.; Morillo Cazorla, Margarita; Pardo Trafach, Patricia Teresa; Salán Ballesteros, Mª Núria
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En aquesta comunicació es presenta un projecte elaborat arran de l’interès mostrat per un grup de professorat en disposar de material audiovisual propi i comú per a assignatures experimentals de química de diferents titulacions impartides per diferents centres de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). Els autors d’aquest treball pertanyen al Grup de Recursos per a la Didàctica de la Química (GReDiQ), integrat en el projecte RIMA (http://www.upc.edu/rima) de l’Institut de Ciències de l’Educació de la UPC. L’elaboració de material audiovisual digital constitueix un dels objectius principals plantejats pel GReDiQ i pretén generar tant un material de suport per a les activitats pre-laboratorio, com un element motivador i que faciliti l’aprenentatge de l’alumnat en les sessions de laboratori de les matèries de Química i Enginyeria química, que apareixen com assignatures de formació bàsica en gairebé tots els plans d’estudi dels nous Graus d’Enginyeria que s’ estan implantant a la UPC. La utilització del material audiovisual digital possibilita que l’alumnat prengui consciència de les activitats de laboratori, així com dels hàbits bàsics de manipulació i seguretat en el laboratori, del fonament d’operacions bàsiques o instrumentació a utilitzar.

  • Characterization of the degradation performance of the sulfamethazine antibiotic by photo-Fenton process

     Pérez Moya, Montserrat; Graells Sobre, Moises; Castells, Gloria; Amigó, Jordi; Ortega, Esther; Buhigas, G.; Martín Pérez, Leonardo; Mansilla, Héctor D.
    Water research (Oxford)
    Date of publication: 2010-04
    Journal article

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  • Energy efficiency optimization of wastewater treatment - Study of ATAD

     Rojas, Jaime; Zhelev, Theodore; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Computer aided chemical engineering
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • Promotion of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in Spain: Performance analysis of the period 1998-2008

     de la Hoz Casas, Jordi; Boix Aragonès, Oriol; Martin Cañadas, Maria Elena; Martins Rodriguez, Blanca Maria; Graells Sobre, Moises
    Renewable and sustainable energy reviews
    Date of publication: 2010-12-01
    Journal article

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