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  • Sistemas inalámbricos para la monitorización continua del comportamiento de especies marinas

     Sarria Gandul, David
    Defense's date: 2014-04-02
    Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En este trabajo de Tesis se proponen y evalúan nuevos métodos para la monitorización de especies marinas, empleando tecnologías ópticas, por radiofrecuencia y acústicas para estudios biológicos en laboratorio (acuarios de experimentación) y en espacios abiertos.Se ha realizado un estudio de las tecnologías empleadas para la monitorización de especies, presentado y analizado las ventajas e inconvenientes de cada una de ellas. Aunque la tecnología óptica permite el estudio de especies sin contacto (no invasiva), requiere un correcto posicionamiento de sus elementos y está limitada por el alcance, las condiciones cambiantes del medio y la bioincrustación. Los dispositivos de radiofrecuencia permiten el estudio de especies que emergen a la superficie, o las que habitan en entornos de agua dulce; en el entorno marino esta tecnología se encuentra restringida debido a la gran absorción que sufren las señales electromagnéticas en ese medio. Los dispositivos acústicos facilitan la monitorización de especies en espacios abiertos de gran extensión, permitiendo su localización y seguimiento; sin embargo, esta tecnología presenta una gran sensibilidad a diferentes factores que impone el medio marino como el multicamino, la variación temporal y espacial del canal o el efecto Doppler, entre otros.La investigación se ha estructurado en tres partes donde, utilizando las tecnologías citadas, se han propuesto, diseñado y validado con éxito diferentes sistemas de medida. En primer lugar, se han evaluado los detectores de infrarrojos y las cámaras de bajo coste para la monitorización de especies en laboratorio. La propuesta contempla diferentes soluciones que independizan el sistema de las dimensiones del acuario, permitiendo su ampliación y configuración automática. Así mismo, mediante los algoritmos de procesado programados se han reducido las detecciones erróneas causadas por alteraciones de la calidad del agua (turbiedad), la presencia de partículas que obstruyen la línea de vista entre el par emisor-receptor y el deterioro de los transductores. En la segunda parte del trabajo de Tesis se han propuesto soluciones aplicando la tecnología RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), mediante el diseño y validación experimental de un sistema de localización y seguimiento de especies en acuarios de experimentación. La propuesta realizada plantea mecanismos que independizan el sistema del tamaño del acuario, y permiten la autoconfiguración de sus componentes. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado la validez de esta tecnología para localizar y seguir la trayectoria de especies bentónicas en espacios reducidos y con una resolución de varios centímetros.Finalmente, se ha evaluado el rendimiento de un equipo acústico comercial en mar abierto, a baja profundidad y en las proximidades de un entorno con arrecifes artificiales, donde ocurren complejas y numerosas reflexiones. Debido a la falta de estándares, la incompatibilidad entre fabricantes y con objeto de mejorar los resultados anteriores, en esta parte de la investigación se ha propuesto, construido y evaluado un prototipo de transductor acústico y una plataforma abierta de comunicaciones OFDM (Ortogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), acercando la tendencia y los avances actuales en materia de comunicaciones acústicas a los sistemas de monitorización de especies marinas.

  • Pilot acoustic tracking study on adult spiny lobsters (Palinurus mauritanicus) and spider crabs (Maja squinado) within an artificial reef

     Rotllant Estelrich, Guiomar; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sarria Gandul, David; Gisbert Casas, Enric; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Simeó, Carles G.; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Molino, Erik; Costa, Corrado; Sardà Amills, Francesc
    Hydrobiología
    Date of publication: 2014-07-17
    Journal article

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    Artificial reef areas can be used for management and conservation of commercially exploited crustacean decapods but their behaviour in these environments is poorly characterised. Acoustic tags were used to study the behaviour of 3 adult spiny lobsters (Palinurus mauritanicus) and 3 adult spider crabs (Maja squinado) over a period of 64 days in summer, evaluating the use of artificial reef areas as suitable sites for re-stocking of overfished decapods. For this purpose, animals were released in a western Mediterranean artificial reef located at 20 m depth, close to a cabled seafloor observatory, which simultaneously recorded temperature, salinity, current direction, current speed and light intensity over the study period. Spiny lobsters lingered in the reef area, whereas the spider crabs left the area 21¿45 h after release. These behavioural differences suggested that artificial reefs might be a good area to deploy adult lobsters for re-stocking purposes. The movements displayed by the lobsters during this experiment were not influenced by any of the measured environmental factors, whereas spider crab movements occurred against major current direction, when current speed was intense.

    Artificial reef areas can be used for management and conservation of commercially exploited crustacean decapods but their behaviour in these environments is poorly characterised. Acoustic tags were used to study the behaviour of 3 adult spiny lobsters (Palinurus mauritanicus) and 3 adult spider crabs (Maja squinado) over a period of 64 days in summer, evaluating the use of artificial reef areas as suitable sites for re-stocking of overfished decapods. For this purpose, animals were released in a western Mediterranean artificial reef located at 20 m depth, close to a cabled seafloor observatory, which simultaneously recorded temperature, salinity, current direction, current speed and light intensity over the study period. Spiny lobsters lingered in the reef area, whereas the spider crabs left the area 21–45 h after release. These behavioural differences suggested that artificial reefs might be a good area to deploy adult lobsters for re-stocking purposes. The movements displayed by the lobsters during this experiment were not influenced by any of the measured environmental factors, whereas spider crab movements occurred against major current direction, when current speed was intense.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Wireless HDLC protocol for energy-efficient large-scale linear wireless sensor networks  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    International journal of distributed sensor networks
    Date of publication: 2014-04-17
    Journal article

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    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely recognized as a promising technology that can enhance various aspects of infrastructure monitoring. Typical applications, such as sensors embedded in the outer surface of a pipeline or mounted along the supporting structure of a bridge, feature a large-scale linear sensor arrangement. In this paper, we propose a new bidirectional wireless communication scheme, based on the high-level data link control (HDLC) standard, for devices with short-range transmission capabilities for linear sensor topology. By applying for the first time a standard data layer along with a time division multiple access (TDMA)-based medium access control (MAC) and time synchronization technique specifically designed for the linear topology, we address the interoperability problem with guaranteed energy efficiency and data link performance in linear sensor topology. The proposed Wireless HDLC supports half-duplex communication, point to point (peer to peer), and multipoint networking.

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely recognized as a promising technology that can enhance various aspects of infrastructure monitoring. Typical applications, such as sensors embedded in the outer surface of a pipeline or mounted along the supporting structure of a bridge, feature a large-scale linear sensor arrangement. In this paper, we propose a new bidirectional wireless communication scheme, based on the high-level data link control (HDLC) standard, for devices with short-range transmission capabilities for linear sensor topology. By applying for the first time a standard data layer along with a time division multiple access (TDMA)-based medium access control (MAC) and time synchronization technique specifically designed for the linear topology, we address the interoperability problem with guaranteed energy efficiency and data link performance in linear sensor topology. The proposed Wireless HDLC supports half-duplex communication, point to point (peer to peer), and multipoint networking.

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    Simulation of cable dynamics for moored ocean platforms: modeling aids design of large, underwater power cable  Open access

     Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc; Zaragoza Monroig, Maria Luisa; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Sea technology
    Date of publication: 2014-07-01
    Journal article

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  • Smart IEEE-1588 GPS clock emulator for cabled ocean sensors

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Auffret, Yves; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    IEEE journal of oceanic engineering
    Date of publication: 2014-04-02
    Journal article

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    Today, cabled seafloor observatories are installed at many sites around the globe, gathering different types of sensors in the marine environment where a Global Positioning System (GPS) signal is not accessible. Accurate time marking of ocean sensor data is highly important in many marine applications. This paper presents a smart GPS emulator based on the IEEE¿1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). The device was designed and implemented to be able to provide accurate timing data (trigger + time code) to any ocean sensor as a broadband seismometer. In this case, accurate location and magnitude of a detected earthquake are dependent on the accuracy of the data time marks. The performance of time synchronization is tested, using a commercial broadband seismometer, and the results are presented. These tests are based on a comparison of the synchronization trigger between master and slave clocks as well as the analysis of the data acquired by the seismometer. The work presented here leads to an improved performance of the ocean-bottom seismometers as well as tsunami warning systems.

    Today, cabled seafloor observatories are installed at many sites around the globe, gathering different types of sensors in the marine environment where a Global Positioning System (GPS) signal is not accessible. Accurate time marking of ocean sensor data is highly important in many marine applications. This paper presents a smart GPS emulator based on the IEEE–1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). The device was designed and implemented to be able to provide accurate timing data (trigger + time code) to any ocean sensor as a broadband seismometer. In this case, accurate location and magnitude of a detected earthquake are dependent on the accuracy of the data time marks. The performance of time synchronization is tested, using a commercial broadband seismometer, and the results are presented. These tests are based on a comparison of the synchronization trigger between master and slave clocks as well as the analysis of the data acquired by the seismometer. The work presented here leads to an improved performance of the ocean-bottom seismometers as well as tsunami warning systems.

  • Standards-based plug & work for instruments in ocean observing systems

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; O'Reilly, Thomas C.; Bröring, Arne; Dana, David R.; Bache, Félix; Headley, Kent L.; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Edgington, Duane R.
    IEEE journal of oceanic engineering
    Date of publication: 2014-07-01
    Journal article

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    Ocean observing systems may include a wide variety of sensor and instrument types, each with its own capabilities, communication protocols, and data formats. Connecting disparate devices into a network typically requires specialized software drivers that translate command and data between the protocols of the individual instruments, and that of the platform on which they are installed. In addition, such platforms typically require extensive manual configuration to match the driver software and other operational details of each network port to a specific connected instrument. In this paper, we describe an approach to ¿plug & work¿ interoperability, using standardized protocols to greatly reduce the amount of instrument-specific software and manual configuration required for connecting instruments to an observatory system. Our approach has two main components. First, we use the sensor interface descriptor (SID) model, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) SensorML standard, to describe each instrument's protocol and data format, and to provide a generic driver/parser. Second, a new OGC standard known as the programmable underwater connector with knowledge (PUCK) protocol enables storage and retrieval of the SID file from the instrument itself. We demonstrate and evaluate our approach by applying it to three commonly used marine instruments in the OBSEA (Barcelona, Spain) observatory test bed.

    Ocean observing systems may include a wide variety of sensor and instrument types, each with its own capabilities, communication protocols, and data formats. Connecting disparate devices into a network typically requires specialized software drivers that translate command and data between the protocols of the individual instruments, and that of the platform on which they are installed. In addition, such platforms typically require extensive manual configuration to match the driver software and other operational details of each network port to a specific connected instrument. In this paper, we describe an approach to “plug & work” interoperability, using standardized protocols to greatly reduce the amount of instrument-specific software and manual configuration required for connecting instruments to an observatory system. Our approach has two main components. First, we use the sensor interface descriptor (SID) model, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) SensorML standard, to describe each instrument's protocol and data format, and to provide a generic driver/parser. Second, a new OGC standard known as the programmable underwater connector with knowledge (PUCK) protocol enables storage and retrieval of the SID file from the instrument itself. We demonstrate and evaluate our approach by applying it to three commonly used marine instruments in the OBSEA (Barcelona, Spain) observatory test bed.

  • The OBSEA Citizen Science Project

     Aguzzi, Jacopo; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Barcelona Citizen Science Day
    Presentation's date: 2014-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Multiparametric seafloor observatories connected to shore for real-time data transmission represent a frontier in marine technology with important societal implications for environmental monitoring and conservation. Here, we present a Citizen Science project with the OBSEA video-observatory of Vilanova i la Gertrú at 20 m depth. A biodiversity survey is going to be conducted by citizens (students and divers), helping to classify and count fishes within different digital products (time-lapse images and footages). The objective is to track fish assemblage changes in relation to meteorology and species intrinsic day-night and seasonal behaviors. Accordingly, we implemented a protocol for the web-based species identification supervised by scientists, in order to evaluate the different performances for each group. Outputs are being presented at the CosmoCaixa Exposition ¿Mediterraneo¿ (https://www.educaixa.com/microsites/Mediterrani/laboratorio_submarino/)

  • Development of a wireless seismic array for volcano monitoring

     Moure, David; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Carreras Pons, Normandino; Blanco, María José
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Volcano monitoring is mainly based on three sciences: seismology, geodesy and geochemistry. Seismic arrays are used to locate the seismic source, based on analysis of signals recorded by each seismometer. The most important advantages of arrays over classical seismic networks are: painless deployment, no major infrastructures needed, able to provide an approximate location of a signal that is not feasible by a seismic network. In this paper the design of a low-power wireless array is presented. All sensors transmit acquired data to a central node which is capable to calculate the possible location of the seismic source in real-time. The reliability of those locations depends, among other parameters (number of sensors and geometrical distribution), on precision of time synchronization between the nodes. To achieve the necessary precision, the wireless seismic array implements a time synchronization protocol based on the IEEE1588 protocol, which ensures clock synchronization between nodes better than a microsecond, therefore, signal correlation between sensors is achieved correlating the signals from all the sensors. The ultimate challenge would be that the central node receives data from all the seismometers locating the seismic source, only transmitting the result, which dramatically reduces data traffic. Often, active volcano areas are located far from inhabited areas and data transmission options are limited. In situ calculation is crucial in order to reduce data volume transmission generated by the seismic array.

  • Experimental validation of a plucked piezoelectric for underwater energy harvesting

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Carbonell Ventura, Montserrat; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Bernet Piquet, Ferran; Mànuel-González, Bernat; Miquel Masalles, Jaume; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Workshop in field of Nonlinear and Multiscale Dynamics of Smart Materials in Energy Harvesting Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2014-02-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new colorimetrically-calibrated automated video-imaging protocol for day-night fish counting at the OBSEA coastal cabled observatory  Open access

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado; Menesatti, Paolo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Sardá Amills, Francesc; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Sensors
    Date of publication: 2013-10-30
    Journal article

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    Field measurements of the swimming activity rhythms of fishes are scant due to the difficulty of counting individuals at a high frequency over a long period of time. Cabled observatory video monitoring allows such a sampling at a high frequency over unlimited periods of time. Unfortunately, automation for the extraction of biological information (i.e., animals¿ visual counts per unit of time) is still a major bottleneck. In this study, we describe a new automated video-imaging protocol for the 24-h continuous counting of fishes in colorimetrically calibrated time-lapse photographic outputs, taken by a shallow water (20 m depth) cabled video-platform, the OBSEA. The spectral reflectance value for each patch was measured between 400 to 700 nm and then converted into standard RGB, used as a reference for all subsequent calibrations. All the images were acquired within a standardized Region Of Interest (ROI), represented by a 2 × 2 m methacrylate panel, endowed with a 9-colour calibration chart, and calibrated using the recently implemented ¿3D Thin-Plate Spline¿ warping approach in order to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space. That operation was repeated on a subset of images, 500 images as a training set, manually selected since acquired under optimum visibility conditions. All images plus those for the training set were ordered together through Principal Component Analysis allowing the selection of 614 images (67.6%) out of 908 as a total corresponding to 18 days (at 30 min frequency). The Roberts operator (used in image processing and computer vision for edge detection) was used to highlights regions of high spatial colour gradient corresponding to fishes¿ bodies. Time series in manual and visual counts were compared together for efficiency evaluation...

    Field measurements of the swimming activity rhythms of fishes are scant due to the difficulty of counting individuals at a high frequency over a long period of time. Cabled observatory video monitoring allows such a sampling at a high frequency over unlimited periods of time. Unfortunately, automation for the extraction of biological information (i.e., animals’ visual counts per unit of time) is still a major bottleneck. In this study, we describe a new automated video-imaging protocol for the 24-h continuous counting of fishes in colorimetrically calibrated time-lapse photographic outputs, taken by a shallow water (20 m depth) cabled video-platform, the OBSEA. The spectral reflectance value for each patch was measured between 400 to 700 nm and then converted into standard RGB, used as a reference for all subsequent calibrations. All the images were acquired within a standardized Region Of Interest (ROI), represented by a 2 × 2 m methacrylate panel, endowed with a 9-colour calibration chart, and calibrated using the recently implemented “3D Thin-Plate Spline” warping approach in order to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space. That operation was repeated on a subset of images, 500 images as a training set, manually selected since acquired under optimum visibility conditions. All images plus those for the training set were ordered together through Principal Component Analysis allowing the selection of 614 images (67.6%) out of 908 as a total corresponding to 18 days (at 30 min frequency). The Roberts operator (used in image processing and computer vision for edge detection) was used to highlights regions of high spatial colour gradient corresponding to fishes’ bodies. Time series in manual and visual counts were compared together for efficiency evaluation. Periodogram and waveform analysis outputs provided very similar results, although quantified parameters in relation to the strength of respective rhythms were different. Results indicate that automation efficiency is limited by optimum visibility conditions. Data sets from manual counting present the larger day-night fluctuations in comparison to those derived from automation. This comparison indicates that the automation protocol subestimate fish numbers but it is anyway suitable for the study of community activity rhythms.

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    ¿Sabías que la altitud se define como la distancia vertical de un punto de la tierra al nivel del mar?  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    e-medida. Revista española de metrología
    Date of publication: 2013-07-11
    Journal article

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    La definición de altitud por la Real Academia de la lengua española es la distancia vertical de un punto de la tierra respecto al nivel del mar, que se identifica habitualmente con el acrónimo msnm (metros sobre el nivel del mar). Pero todos sabemos que el nivel del mar es variable por causa de las mareas, deshielo, fases lunares, posición geográfica, etc. Por ello ¿cómo podemos calcular la cota de referencia del nivel del mar?

    La definición de altitud por la Real Academia de la lengua española es la distancia vertical de un punto de la tierra respecto al nivel del mar, que se identifica habitualmente con el acrónimo msnm (metros sobre el nivel del mar). Pero todos sabemos que el nivel del mar es variable por causa de las mareas, deshielo, fases lunares, posición geográfica, etc. Por ello ¿cómo podemos calcular la cota de referencia del nivel del mar?

  • Good Practice Guide for calibrating a hydrophone "in situ"  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Cadena Muñoz, Javier; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    INSTRUMENTATION VIEWPOINT
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    Nowadays a multitude of tests performed in the marine environment such as the measurement of pH, CO2, etc. Some of the tests performed are the measurement of noise pollution as well as the study of cetaceans in the marine environment. To perform this type of test hydrophones are used. These devices are microphones for the marine environment. The calibration of this equipment is detailed in various standards such as [1] as a function of frequency. In our case we propose the calibration of the hydrophone in the marine environment, in situ. This method of calibration involves a considerable increase in the uncertainty, but in many cases this increment of the uncertainty compensates little investment in performing calibration. The aim of this paper is to provide the basis for the calibration of a hydrophone ¿in situ¿, thus assigning a value of uncertainty, which may be high, but according to requirements may be sufficient.

    The International Confederation of Metrology (IMEKO) is a non –governmental federation of 38 Member Organizations individually concerned with the advancement of measurement technology. Its fundamental objectives are the promotion of international interchange of scientific and technical information in the field of measurement and instrumentation and the enhancement of international co-operation among scientists and engineers from research and industry. The activity of IMEKO is basically carried out through the Technical Committees that organize symposia, conferences, workshops, and seminars, on specific topics at regular intervals. In 1984, IMEKO established the Technical Committee TC4, which emphasizes the theoretical and practical aspects of research in the field of electrical and electronic measurements. The TC4 organizes a symposium every year and cooperates actively in the success of IMEKO World Congress, held every three years. The activities of TC4 allowed more and more researchers to be familiar with the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments for measuring, monitoring and recording electrical signals. The 19th Symposium IMEKO TC4 intend to be the stage of discussions of subjects related to Electrical metrology and instrumentation, ensuring tools for the development of science and measurements technology, in the context of the so-called society of knowledge. The present issue of Instrumentation Viewpoint is devoted to the communications presented in the 19th Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, 17th Workshop on ADC/DAC Modelling and Testing and 5th Marine Technology Workshop which will be held in the city of Barcelona on July 2013. As a novelty, the 19th Symposium IMEKO TC4 expands the topics covered in previous editions in order to address issues related to marine technologies and applications, under umbrella of MARTECH 2013. We sincerely hope, that the 150 contributions that you will find in the next pages provide you information of your interest.

  • Good practice guide for c calculation  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Cadena Muñoz, Javier; Sarria Gandul, David; Sitjar Cañellas, Rafael; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    The aim of this paper is to detail the procedure to calculate the C parameter in the spreading factor. This factor is the most important because is the main reason of the pressure level fall. Calculating the C parameter with more accuracy it provides better information of the environment.

  • OBSEA¿s seismic station joins the IGC network  Open access

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Cadena Muñoz, Javier; Segalas Coral, Jordi; Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc; Jara Salvador, José Antonio; Frontera Genovard, Tànit; Olivera Lloret, Carme; Goula Suriñach, Xavier
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    A cabled system for collecting real-time seismic data has been developed and was deployed in spring of 2011. Nowadays (2013) this seismic station is being part of the Catalan Seismic Network managed by the IGC (Institut Geològic de Catalunya). The seismic system is part of Western Mediterranean Cabled Observatory, OBSEA (www. obsea.es). A key component in this cabled system is the use of IEEE 1588 standard that serves as a clock synchronization mechanism for the seismometer with Uni - versal Time Coordinates (UTC) clock. This paper presents the seismic measurements results of the broadband seismometer. The seismic data are time stamped using a UTC clock, which is traceable to within the desired level of precision of sub millisec - onds through IEEE 1588 protocol.

  • Preliminary results of the OBSEA citizen science project  Open access

     Bghiel, Ikram; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Hidalgo Castro, Alberto; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    In this paper, the Citizen Science experience with the OBSEA costal-cabled video observatory, deployed in western Mediterranean [1] is presented. A local biodiversity survey is being conducted by citizens as generic non-experienced users, high school students, and amateur divers helping to identify and classify fishes appearing within different digital products such as time-lapse images and footages. Accordingly, we implemented a protocol for the web-based species identification supervised by scientists, in order to evaluate the different performances for each group.

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    Evaluation of the R&R and the compatibility index for non-independent measurements  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Molino, Erik; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering
    Date of publication: 2013-06-05
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the methodology of the compatibility criteria En and the methodology of repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) throught the average and range method. With this paper we will use the methodology R&R for the evaluation of the compatibility criteria between the staff of the laboratories, where independent measurements are not insured.

  • An ocean kinetic energy converter for low-power applications using piezoelectric disk elements

     Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    European physical journal. Special topics
    Date of publication: 2013-09-30
    Journal article

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    The main problem facing long-term electronic system deployments in the sea, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the power they require. Harvesting mechanical energy from the ocean wave oscillations and converting it into electrical energy, provides an alternative method for creating self-contained power sources. However, the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz, presents a hurdle which has to be overcome if this mechanical energy is to be harvested. In this paper, a new sea wave kinetic energy converter is described using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements, which has no dependence on their excitement frequency, to feed low-consumption maritime-deployed electronic devices. The operating principles of the piezoelectric device technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy. Finally, a prototypical design, which generates electrical energy from the motion of a buoy, is introduced. The paper concludes with the the behavior study of the piezoelectric prototype device as a power generator.

  • OGC Location Standards for Next Generation LBS

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Bghiel, Ikram
    Collaboration in exhibitions

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  • Next generation, Cost-effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories Network

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Cursos FOAP-2013

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Operational multiparameter subsea observation platforms

     Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Molino Minero Re, Erik; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Nogueras Cervera, Marc
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Book chapter

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    New trends in experimental marine research require long term monitoring of the seas and oceans with higher data resolutions than those which can be obtained from oceanographic vessels, buoys or autonomous se nsors. Subsea observation platforms are the response to these needs. These infras tructures are complex systems, precisely designed to ensure they are flexible, robust and stable and also capable of managing a wide range of sensors and instruments in r eal time with minimum maintenance. Some of the most commonly used instruments fo r ocean research are based on optical and image sensors, and in this chapter we provi de a review of the key components of a subsea observatory and the main challenges facing optical and image sensors used in multidisciplinary and multiparameter underwater observatories.

    New trends in experimental marine research require long term monitoring of the seas and oceans with higher data resolutions than those which can be obtained from oceanographic vessels, buoys or autonomous se nsors. Subsea observation platforms are the response to these needs. These infras tructures are complex systems, precisely designed to ensure they are flexible, robust and stable and also capable of managing a wide range of sensors and instruments in r eal time with minimum maintenance. Some of the most commonly used instruments fo r ocean research are based on optical and image sensors, and in this chapter we provi de a review of the key components of a subsea observatory and the main challenges facing optical and image sensors used in multidisciplinary and multiparameter underwater observatories.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Precision timing in TDMA-based Wireless Sensor Network through IEEE 1588 standard  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    INSTRUMENTATION VIEWPOINT
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    This paper proposes an energy-efficient time synchronization scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on the IEEE 1588 standard. Although a number of methods have been studied for time synchronization of WSNs, some applications require high precision time synchronization with very low power consumption. This paper presents a reduced implementation of IEEE 1588 precision time protocol (PTP) for WSNs. Within the proposed synchronization approach, a sensor node is synchronized using the timing message generated by a master node synchronized with GPS. This paper also presents experiments to evaluate the performance of the precision time synchronization of a slave-master pair of sensor nodes.

    The International Confederation of Metrology (IMEKO) is a non –governmental federation of 38 Member Organizations individually concerned with the advancement of measurement technology. Its fundamental objectives are the promotion of international interchange of scientific and technical information in the field of measurement and instrumentation and the enhancement of international co-operation among scientists and engineers from research and industry. The activity of IMEKO is basically carried out through the Technical Committees that organize symposia, conferences, workshops, and seminars, on specific topics at regular intervals. In 1984, IMEKO established the Technical Committee TC4, which emphasizes the theoretical and practical aspects of research in the field of electrical and electronic measurements. The TC4 organizes a symposium every year and cooperates actively in the success of IMEKO World Congress, held every three years. The activities of TC4 allowed more and more researchers to be familiar with the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments for measuring, monitoring and recording electrical signals. The 19th Symposium IMEKO TC4 intend to be the stage of discussions of subjects related to Electrical metrology and instrumentation, ensuring tools for the development of science and measurements technology, in the context of the so-called society of knowledge. The present issue of Instrumentation Viewpoint is devoted to the communications presented in the 19th Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, 17th Workshop on ADC/DAC Modelling and Testing and 5th Marine Technology Workshop which will be held in the city of Barcelona on July 2013. As a novelty, the 19th Symposium IMEKO TC4 expands the topics covered in previous editions in order to address issues related to marine technologies and applications, under umbrella of MARTECH 2013. We sincerely hope, that the 150 contributions that you will find in the next pages provide you information of your interest.

  • Interoperability developments for next generation multifunctional ocean sensor systems in NeXOS  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Moreno Lupiañez, Manuel; Bröring, Arne; Pearlman, Jay S; Delory, Eric
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and less expensive instruments to monitor Earth¿s environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. This work presents an approach for the smart configuration and integration of marine sensors into an interoperable Sensor Web infrastructure such that the overall life cycle cost of sensors and observing systems is reduced and data has greater societal and scientific value. In this paper some of the objectives related to sensor interface included in the project proposal NeXOS (Next generation, Cost-effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management), under the European Commission¿s Ocean of Tomorrow call FP7- OCEAN-2013.2, are presented.

  • Long term monitoring of day-night fish assemblage at OBSEA  Open access

     Santamaria Garcia, Guillermo; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Sardá Amills, Francesc
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2013-07-01
    Journal article

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    High frequency monitoring and the reducing of disturbance of sampling activities have a vital importance in the study of fish communities. The aim of this paper is to describe temporal patterns in habitat utilization by a coastal fish assemblage throughout the year 2012. A high frequency long term photo identification monitoring has been carried out with this objective. At about 63.000 individuals representing 28 species were identified, suggesting the occurrence of different day-night rhythms among them. Future comparisons with physical parameters will be developed to get a better understanding of their movement patterns.

  • Daily activity rhythms in temperate coastal fishes: insights from cabled observatory video monitoring

     Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Santamaria Garcia, Guillermo; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Sarda, Francesc; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Marine ecology progress series
    Date of publication: 2013-07-12
    Journal article

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    The rhythmic behavior of marine species generates uncertainties in population and biodiversity assessments if the frequency of sampling is too low and irregular over time. Few attempts have been made to link community changes to the rhythmic behavior of individuals within populations. Cabled video observatories can be used to explore community changes over different temporal windows as a result of the activity rhythms of individuals within populations. In this study, we used, for the first time, a coastal cabled observatory (OBSEA) to video monitor activity rhythms of different fish species within an artificial reef area at a high frequency. During 1 mo, 30 min daily count patterns were continuously measured and compared with the corresponding solar irradiance. A significant (p < 0.05) day-night patterning was observed in the majority of recognized taxa by Chi-Square periodogram analysis. Three types of rhythms were identified in waveform plotting: (1) diurnal (Chromis chromis, Coris julis, Diplodus annularis, D. cervinus, D. sargus, D. vulgaris, Serranus cabrilla, Dentex dentex, Symphodus sp.); (2) nocturnal (Atherina sp. and Scorpaena sp.); and (3) crepuscular (Apogon imberbis, Oblada melanura, and Spicara maena). Diurnal species clustered around maximum averaged irradiance (computed from a cosinor analysis). The results were discussed evaluating whether visual count time series represent a reliable proxy for the swimming activity rhythms of individuals and whether the complex habitat use of coastal fishes would require the use of spatial networks of cameras.

    The rhythmic behavior of marine species generates uncertainties in population and biodiversity assessments if the frequency of sampling is too low and irregular over time. Few attempts have been made to link community changes to the rhythmic behavior of individuals within populations. Cabled video observatories can be used to explore community changes over different temporal windows as a result of the activity rhythms of individuals within populations. In this study, we used, for the first time, a coastal cabled observatory (OBSEA) to video monitor activity rhythms of different fish species within an artificial reef area at a high frequency. During 1 mo, 30 min daily count patterns were continuously measured and compared with the corresponding solar irradiance. A significant (p < 0.05) day-night patterning was observed in the majority of recognized taxa by Chi-Square periodogram analysis. Three types of rhythms were identified in waveform plotting: (1) diurnal (Chromis chromis, Coris julis, Diplodus annularis, D. cervinus, D. sargus, D. vulgaris, Serranus cabrilla, Dentex dentex, Symphodus sp.); (2) nocturnal (Atherina sp. and Scorpaena sp.); and (3) crepuscular (Apogon imberbis, Oblada melanura, and Spicara maena). Diurnal species clustered around maximum averaged irradiance (computed from a cosinor analysis). The results were discussed evaluating whether visual count time series represent a reliable proxy for the swimming activity rhythms of individuals and whether the complex habitat use of coastal fishes would require the use of spatial networks of cameras.

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    Empirical acoustic attenuation of the seawater  Open access

     Roset Juan, Francesc Xavier; Garcia Benadí, Albert; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study aims to estimate a model for the underwater acoustic environment in a Mediterranean area and to compare the model with existing other models of the sound attenuation in the zone of interest. The contribution of this paper is to develop a protocol to validate and adjust the offshore underwater attenuation models to a model of a Mediterranean area.

    This study aims to estimate a model for the underwater acoustic environment in a Mediterranean area and to compare the model with existing other models of the sound attenuation in the zone of interest. The contribution of this paper is to develop a protocol to validate and adjust the offshore underwater attenuation models to a model of a Mediterranean area.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • The use of coastal cabled video-observatories to monitor seasonal changes in shallow water fish community

     Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Santamaria, Josep; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Sardà Amills, Francesc
    International Symposium on Underwater Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Automatic marine sensors services discovery on IP networks  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; O'Reilly, Thomas C.; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nowadays, the studies of episodic processes in the ocean is manly done through the innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented amounts of power and two-way bandwidth to access and control sensor networks in the oceans. The most capable ocean observatories are designed around a submarine fiber optic/power cable connecting one or more seafloor science nodes to the terrestrial power grid and communications backhaul. In a network consisting of tens, hundreds or thousands of marine sensors, manual configuration and integration becomes very challenging. Methods are required which support this task to minimize the administration efforts. This paper addresses this issue and presents an approach for the automatic discovery of marine sensors in ocean observatories. The work provides a needed reference implementation of PUCK over TCP/IP, and suggests the potential of a set of protocols and standards that could realize true end to end ¿Plug and Work¿ capability for sensor networks.

    Nowadays, the studies of episodic processes in the ocean is manly done through the innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented amounts of power and two-way bandwidth to access and control sensor networks in the oceans. The most capable ocean observatories are designed around a submarine fiber optic/power cable connecting one or more seafloor science nodes to the terrestrial power grid and communications backhaul. In a network consisting of tens, hundreds or thousands of marine sensors, manual configuration and integration becomes very challenging. Methods are required which support this task to minimize the administration efforts. This paper addresses this issue and presents an approach for the automatic discovery of marine sensors in ocean observatories. The work provides a needed reference implementation of PUCK over TCP/IP, and suggests the potential of a set of protocols and standards that could realize true end to end “Plug and Work” capability for sensor networks.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Citizen Science and marine community monitoring by video-cabled observatories: the OBSEA Citizen Science Project

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Hidalgo Castro, Alberto; Bghiel, Ikram; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sardà Amills, Francesc
    International Symposium on Underwater Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-03-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The Citizen Science refers to the public participation in scientific activities and research projects related with environment and its biodiversity are taking advantage of new technologies such us internet and mobile phones with recording capabilities for an easy data collection and sharing. In this paper, we presented a Citizen Science experience with the OBSEA costal-cabled video-observatory, deployed in western Mediterranean in 2009. A local biodiversity survey is going to be conducted by citizens as generic non-experienced users, high- school students, and amateur divers helping to identify and classify fishes appearing within different digital products such as time-lapse images and footages. Accordingly, we implemented a protocol for the web-based species identification supervised by scientists, in order to evaluate the different performances for each group.

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    Low cost OFDM based transmitter for underwater acoustic communications  Open access

     Sarria Gandul, David; Pallares Valls, Oriol; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    On this work a low cost OFDM transmitter for underwater sensor networks is presented. The transmitter is based on a low power microcontroller that governs a DDS in order to generate the output data -OFDM symbols- avoiding the IFFT computations. This solution represents a new design perspective for the current UWSN -mainly based on FPGAs or DSPs, allowing to reduce the cost, the power consumption and the size of the current transmitters.

    On this work a low cost OFDM transmitter for underwater sensor networks is presented. The transmitter is based on a low power microcontroller that governs a DDS in order to generate the output data -OFDM symbols- avoiding the IFFT computations. This solution represents a new design perspective for the current UWSN -mainly based on FPGAs or DSPs, allowing to reduce the cost, the power consumption and the size of the current transmitters.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Contribution to COBS synchronization with PTP IEEE std. 1588

     Pallares Valls, Oriol; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Carreras Pons, Normandino; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents a cabled system for collecting real-time seismic data on the coastal zones. It is deployed in the Western Mediterranean Cabled Observatory, OBSEA (www.obsea.es). A key component in this cabled system, COBS, is the use of IEEE standard 1588 that serves as a clock synchronization mechanism for the seismometer with Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) clock. Delivering of accurate timing to the seismometer, the seismic data can be time stamped using a UTC clock which is traceable to within the desired level of precision of sub milliseconds necessary for an accurate location of an earthquake.

  • Noise management in marine protected areas: shipping noise footprints from AIS data

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Conference on the effects of noise on aquatic life
    Presentation's date: 2013-08-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The EU, through the FP7 framework, has been funding various projects (e.g. SILENV, AQUO and SONIC) to obtain more detailed information on acoustic source levels from ships as well as to find ways to reduce their impact on the marine environment. Knowledge about source levels is important to understand a possible increase of background noise in the world oceans, but by itself it is not sufficient for noise management around a marine protected area. Depending on environmental conditions, propagation losses will be affected by bathymetry, sediment nature and seasons, resulting in changing effects from a same ship. To manage and decide on acceptable shipping sound levels in a MPA, acoustic modeling allows estimating cumulative sound exposure levels experienced by the animals at any given time, thus determining the number of vessels and their distance to the area favourable to maintain a good environmental status. Over the last three years, acoustic measurements recorded at the OBSEA shallow water cabled platform (Barcelona, Spain) have been stored together with AIS information. This data was used to demonstrate and validate the footprints of different ships in the area. Additionally, footprints of ships navigating through the Barentsz Sea are presented using one year of AIS data and source level estimations from literature

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    Interoperability developments for next generation multifunctional ocean sensor systems in NeXOS  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Moreno Lupiañez, Manuel; Bröring, Arne; Pearlman, Jay S; Delory, Eric
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and less expensive instruments to monitor Earth¿s environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. This work presents an approach for the smart configuration and integration of marine sensors into an interoperable Sensor Web infrastructure such that the overall life cycle cost of sensors and observing systems is reduced and data has greater societal and scientific value. In this paper some of the objectives related to sensor interface included in the project proposal NeXOS (Next generation, Cost-effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management), under the European Commission¿s Ocean of Tomorrow call FP7- OCEAN-2013.2, are presented.

    Sensor technology is rapidly advancing, enabling smaller and less expensive instruments to monitor Earth’s environment. It is expected that many more kinds and quantities of networked environmental sensors will be deployed in coming years. This work presents an approach for the smart configuration and integration of marine sensors into an interoperable Sensor Web infrastructure such that the overall life cycle cost of sensors and observing systems is reduced and data has greater societal and scientific value. In this paper some of the objectives related to sensor interface included in the project proposal NeXOS (Next generation, Cost-effective, Compact, Multifunctional Web Enabled Ocean Sensor Systems Empowering Marine, Maritime and Fisheries Management), under the European Commission’s Ocean of Tomorrow call FP7- OCEAN-2013.2, are presented.

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    Simulations of a moored power cable at OBSEA platform  Open access

     Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Massana Hugas, Immaculada
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    New green energy sources deployed at sea in mobile platforms use power cables in order to transport green energy at sea surface to the bottom. Theses power cables are exposed to the dynamic behaviour of the platform movements due to waves, currents and wind. OBSEA is a seafloor cabled observatory at 20 m depth in front of Vilanova, in Catalan coast. OBSEA captures data in real time like current, waves and wind among others. In this paper, a model of a moored power cable installed at OBSEA is studied. The study is focused on the trajectory, tensions and deformation or curvature of cables about 0.1 m diameter and under real conditions collected from OBSEA sensors. Simulations are done with OrcaFlex 9.3 software (license N1594). This software allows to model underwater structures and cables.

    New green energy sources deployed at sea in mobile platforms use power cables in order to transport green energy at sea surface to the bottom. Theses power cables are exposed to the dynamic behaviour of the platform movements due to waves, currents and wind. OBSEA is a seafloor cabled observatory at 20 m depth in front of Vilanova, in Catalan coast. OBSEA captures data in real time like current, waves and wind among others. In this paper, a model of a moored power cable installed at OBSEA is studied. The study is focused on the trajectory, tensions and deformation or curvature of cables about 0.1 m diameter and under real conditions collected from OBSEA sensors. Simulations are done with OrcaFlex 9.3 software (license N1594). This software allows to model underwater structures and cables.

  • Good Practice Guide for calibrating a hydrophone "in situ"

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Symposium on Measurements of Electrical Quantities
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this paper is to provide the basis for the calibration of a hydrophone "in situ", thus assigning a value of uncertainty, which may be high, but according to requirements may be sufficient

  • Mathematical model of the Guanay II AUV

     Gonzalez Agudelo, Julian; Masmitja Rusiñol, Ivan; Gomariz Castro, Spartacus; Batlle Arnau, Carles; Sarria Gandul, David; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents a mathematical study to obtain the coefficients that define the dynamics of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), the Guanay II vehicle, with 3 degrees of freedom. This dynamics is given by several forces and moments (hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, added masses and propellers), which largely depend on the vehicle geometry. The Guanay II AUV has been designed following a Myring profile, which improves the hydrodynamics of the vehicle but also yields a tractable mathematical model. The model describes the geometric characteristics of the vehicle and the disposition of the thrusters and has backward movement capacity. The model has been tested by means of simulations and a prototype has been validated in real navigation.

    This work presents a mathematical study to obtain the coefficients that define the dynamics of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), the Guanay II vehicle, with 3 degrees of freedom. This dynamics is given by several forces and moments (hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, added masses and propellers), which largely depend on the vehicle geometry. The Guanay II AUV has been designed following a Myring profile,which improves the hydrodynamics of the vehicle but also yields a tractable mathematical model. The model describes the geometric characteristics of the vehicle and the disposition of the thrusters and has backward movement capacity. The model has been tested by means of simulations and a prototype has been validated in real navigation.

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    Preliminary OFDM based acoustic communication for underwater sensor networks synchronization  Open access

     Pallares Valls, Oriol; Sarria Gandul, David; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents a first approach to wireless underwater sensor networks UWSN time synchronization, using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) acoustic communication and time reference served by a synchronization protocol. This synchronization and type of modulation allows getting a low drift clock on each sensor, on a high efficiency underwater communication network.

    This work presents a first approach to wireless underwater sensor networks UWSN time synchronization, using OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) acoustic communication and time reference served by a synchronization protocol. This synchronization and type of modulation allows getting a low drift clock on each sensor, on a high efficiency underwater communication network.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

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    Sea motion electrical energy generator for low-power applications  Open access

     Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The main problematic about electronic systems deployed in the sea for long periods of time, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the necessary amount of power and no direct supervision. In this paper a new idea is proposed and studied to supply deep sea low-consumption devices using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements. These piezoelectric components, together with a horizontal balance-like physical pendulum, create an electrical power generator that harvests the mechanical energy brought by the sea movements, preferably from the heave and pitch motion that sea waves induce in a moored-floating body as might be a buoy. The main purpose of this system is to unrelate the rate of impacts to the piezoelectric material from its natural oscillation frequency, making it viable to harvest energy from a slow motion environment such as the sea. Equations relating the energy extr action are presented and different experimentations are worked out to characterize the piezo elements. Finally a prototype with a proposed electronic harvesting system is built and tested in a real medium, showing the results before concluding the article.

    he main problematic about electronic systems deployed in the sea for long periods of time, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the necessary amount of power and no direct supervision. In this paper a new idea is proposed and studied to supply deep sea low-consumption devices using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements. These piezoelectric compon ents, together with a horizontal balance-like physical pendulum, create an electrical power generator that harvests the mechanical energy brought by the sea movements, preferably from the heave and pitch motion that sea waves induce in a moored-floating body as might be a buoy. The main purpose of this system is to unrelate the rate of impacts to the piezoelectric material from its natural oscillation frequency, making it viable to harvest energy from a slow motion environment such as the sea. Equations relating the energy extr action are presented and different experimentations are worked out to characterize the piezo elements. Finally a prototype with a proposed electronic harvesting system is built and tested in a real medium, showing the results before concluding the article.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Western Mediterranean Observatory OBSEA updates. 2nd junction box deployment, Citizen Science Project and others

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Olive Duran, Joaquim; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Cadena Muñoz, Javier
    EMSO Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The expandable SEAfloor OBservatory (OBSEA; www.obsea.es) is a multiparametric cabled video-platform located in shalow waters at 20 m depth 4 km offshore Vilanova i la Geltrú (Catalonia, Spain) in front of an artificial reef and , interconnected to the coast by an energy and communication mixed cable. Obsea has two permanent sampling sites: on the surface (buoy) from 2011, and another one at the seafloor (cabled observatories) deployed in 2009. A new cabled and very light and movable junction box connected to the first one will be deployed during 2013. It will expand research and test capabilities to the observatory. OBSEA enables remote, long-term, and continuous surveys of the local ecosystem by acquiring synchronous multiparametric habitat data and bio-data with the following sensors: Conductivity- Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensors for salinity, temperature, pressure and pH; Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) for current speed and direction, including a turbidity meter and a fluorometer (for the determination of chlorophyll concentration); a hydrophone; a seismometer, a video camera for automated image analysis in relation to species classification and tracking and finally a buoy in the surface with meteorological station and video camera. Images collected from a cabled video-observatory were utilized to examine habitat utilization by coastal fishes. Hidrophone data is used to bioacoustics and ambient noise studies. Last deployments at Obsea: A new very low cost, low size and low power consumption OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) transmitters for underwater sensor networks communication research has been installed at Obsea. A new specific system for the measurement of marine pH and atmospheric CO2 for the evaluation of ocean acidification. An underwater cabled seismometer implementing the IEEE Std 1588 have been developed and validated to work in network systems such as the OBSEA. Integrated with land-based networks by transmitting real- time data to Institut Geològic de Catalunya.

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    Precision timing in TDMA - based Wireless Sensor Network through IEEE 1588 standard  Open access

     Toma, Daniel Mihai; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Gomariz Castro, Spartacus; Carreras Pons, Normandino
    IMEKO World Congress
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an energy-efficient time synchronization scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on the IEEE 1588 standard. Although a number of methods have been studied for time synchronization of WSNs, some applications require high precision time synchronization with very low power consumption. This paper presents a reduced implementation of IEEE 1588 precision time protocol (PTP) for WSNs. Within the proposed synchronization approach, a sensor node is synchronized using the timing message generated by a master node synchronized with GPS. This paper also presents experiments to evaluate the performance of the precision time synchronization of a slave-master pair of sensor nodes.

    This paper proposes an energy-efficient time synchronization scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs) based on the IEEE 1588 standard. Although a number of methods have been studied for time synchronization of WSNs, some applications require high precision time synchronization with very low power consumption. This paper presents a reduced implementation of IEEE 1588 precision time protocol (PTP) for WSNs. Within the proposed synchronization approach, a sensor node is synchronized using the timing message generated by a master node synchronized with GPS. This paper also presents experiments to evaluate the performance of the precision time synchronization of a slave-master pair of sensor nodes.

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    Preliminary results of the OBSEA Citizen Science project  Open access

     Bghiel, Ikram; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Hidalgo Castro, Alberto; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Aguzzi, Jacopo
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the Citizen Science experience with the OBSEA costal-cabled video observatory, deployed in western Mediterranean [1] is presented. A local biodiversity survey is being conducted by citizens as generic non-experienced users, high school students, and amateur divers helping to identify and classify fishes appearing within different digital products such as time-lapse images and footages. Accordingly, we implemented a protocol for the web-based species identification supervised by scientists, in order to evaluate the different performances for each group.

    In this paper, the Citizen Science experience with the OBSEA costal-cabled video observatory, deployed in western Mediterranean [1] is presented. A local biodiversity survey is being conducted by citizens as generic non-experienced users, high school students, and amateur divers helping to identify and classify fishes appearing within different digital products such as time-lapse images and footages. Accordingly, we implemented a protocol for the web-based species identification supervised by scientists, in order to evaluate the different performances for each group.

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    Long term monitoring of day-night fish assemblage at OBSEA  Open access

     Santamaria Garcia, Guillermo; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Sardá Amills, Francesc
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    High frequency monitoring and the reducing of disturbance of sampling activities have a vital importance in the study of fish communities. The aim of this paper is to describe temporal patterns in habitat utilization by a coastal fish assemblage throughout the year 2012. A high frequency long term photo identification monitoring has been carried out with this objective. At about 63.000 individuals representing 28 species were identified, suggesting the occurrence of different day-night rhythms among them. Future comparisons with physical parameters will be developed to get a better understanding of their movement patterns.

    High frequency monitoring and the reducing of disturbance of sampling activities have a vital importance in the study of fish communities. The aim of this paper is to describe temporal patterns in habitat utilization by a coastal fish assemblage throughout the year 2012. A high frequency long term photo identification monitoring has been carried out with this objective. At about 63.000 individuals representing 28 species were identified, suggesting the occurrence of different day-night rhythms among them. Future comparisons with physical parameters will be developed to get a better understanding of their movement patterns.

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    OBSEA¿s seismic station joins the IGC network  Open access

     Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Cadena Muñoz, Javier; Segalas Coral, Jordi; Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc; Jara Salvador, José Antonio; Frontera Genovard, Tànit; Olivera Lloret, Carme; Goula Suriñach, Xavier
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A cabled system for collecting real-time seismic data has been developed and was deployed in spring of 2011. Nowadays (2013) this seismic station is being part of the Catalan Seismic Network managed by the IGC (Institut Geològic de Catalunya). The seismic system is part of Western Mediterranean Cabled Observatory, OBSEA (www.obsea.es). A key component in this cabled system is the use of IEEE 1588 standard that serves as a clock synchronization mechanism for the seismometer with Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) clock. This paper presents the seismic measurements results of the broadband seismometer. The seismic data are time stamped using a UTC clock which is traceable to within the desired level of precision of sub milliseconds through IEEE 1588 protocol.

    A cabled system for collecting real-time seismic data has been developed and was deployed in spring of 2011. Nowadays (2013) this seismic station is being part of the Catalan Seismic Network managed by the IGC (Institut Geològic de Catalunya). The seismic system is part of Western Mediterranean Cabled Observatory, OBSEA (www.obsea.es). A key component in this cabled system is the use of IEEE 1588 standard that serves as a clock synchronization mechanism for the seismometer with Universal Time Coordinates (UTC) clock. This paper presents the seismic measurements results of the broadband seismometer. The seismic data are time stamped using a UTC clock which is traceable to within the desired level of precision of sub milliseconds through IEEE 1588 protocol.

  • Measuring system and power management of the Guanay II AUV

     Masmitja Rusiñol, Ivan; Gonzalez Agudelo, Julian; Masmitjà, Gerard; Gomariz Castro, Spartacus; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Symposium on Measurements of Electrical Quantities
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Good practice guide for C calculation  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Sarria Gandul, David; Sitjar Cañellas, Rafael; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this paper is to detail the procedure to calculate the C parameter in the spreading factor. This factor is the most important because is the main reason of the pressure level fall. Calculating the C parameter with more accuracy it provides better information of the environment.

    The aim of this paper is to detail the procedure to calculate the C parameter in the spreading factor. This factor is the most important because is the main reason of the pressure level fall. Calculating the C parameter with more accuracy it provides better information of the environment

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    Balance de incertidumbres en la calibración "in situ" de un hidrófono  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Roset Juan, Francesc Xavier; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Congreso Español de Metrología
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El objetivo de este artículo es poner en relieve la posibilidad de la calibración de los hidrófonos en su medio. Con esta finalidad se detallaran los parámetros a tener en cuenta, se propondrán sistemáticas de obtención de los parámetros y se estimarán las contribuciones a la incertidumbre de cada una de ellas mediante la asignación de la distribución de probabilidad adecuada en cada caso.

    El objetivo de este artículo es poner en relieve la posibilidad de la calibración de los hidrófonos en su medio. Con esta finalidad se detallaran los parámetros a tener en cuenta, se propondrán sistemáticas de obtención de los parámetros y se estimarán las contribuciones a la incertidumbre de cada una de ellas mediante la asignación de la distribución de probabilidad adecuada en cada caso.

  • Latest contributions to Guanay II

     Masmitja Rusiñol, Ivan; Gonzalez Agudelo, Julian; Gomariz Castro, Spartacus; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents the last contributions incorporated into AUV Guanay II, these have been emerged after some test fields, tests in the swimming pool and in the ocean, such as Mar Menor and Mar Mediterrani. These improvements are: First in the communication and control systems, for a more fluid communication a WiFi system has been incorporated, this allows access to PC-104 of Guanay II without disassemble it; second, a new RF system to connect and disconnect the electronics and a new method to charge the batteries have been designed; third, a new driver for lateral motor has been developed that allows control the motor in both directions; then the software of the vehicle and the base station has been upgraded to obtain a major and better user control; finally, a new ballast system has been incorporated. All of new contributions have been tested in the laboratory and in the field.

  • Buoy controller and communication with OBSEA  Open access

     Artero Delgado, Carola; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Toma, Daniel Mihai; Molino Minero Re, Erik; Sarria Gandul, David; Viñolo Monzoncillo, Carlos; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2012-01-01
    Journal article

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    Following our traditional edition line, on this issue our magazine presents the annual summary of the different projects and research activities developed by SARTI research group during 2011. The research projects undertaken by SARTI, in collaboration with other Spanish and international research teams, are linked to the development of instrumentation technology for marine applications, as well as for general industry. SARTI, as research group of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, began its work in 2000. Now with 12 years of activity, is the right time to introduce the issue number 12 of our Instrumentation ViewPoint magazine. We encourage you to collaborate in future issues of this journal, and to attend the next congress: INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MARINE TECHNOLOGY, MARTECH 2013.

  • Calibration process for CTD_(Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) at temperature  Open access

     Garcia Benadí, Albert; Molino Minero Re, Erik; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin
    Instrumentation viewpoint
    Date of publication: 2012-01-01
    Journal article

    Read the abstract Read the abstract Access to the full text Access to the full text Open in new window  Share Reference managers Reference managers Open in new window

    Following our traditional edition line, on this issue our magazine presents the annual summary of the different projects and research activities developed by SARTI research group during 2011. The research projects undertaken by SARTI, in collaboration with other Spanish and international research teams, are linked to the development of instrumentation technology for marine applications, as well as for general industry. SARTI, as research group of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, began its work in 2000. Now with 12 years of activity, is the right time to introduce the issue number 12 of our Instrumentation ViewPoint magazine. We encourage you to collaborate in future issues of this journal, and to attend the next congress: INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MARINE TECHNOLOGY, MARTECH 2013.