The increasing awareness of the impact of the IT sector on the environment, together with economic factors, have fueled many research efforts to reduce the energy expenditure of data centers. Recent work proposes to achieve additional energy savings by exploiting, in concert with customers, service workloads and to reduce data centers’ carbon footprints by adopting demand-response mechanisms between data centers and their energy providers. In this paper, we debate about the incentives that customers and data centers can have to adopt such measures and propose a new service type and pricing scheme that is economically attractive and technically realizable. Simulation results based on real measurements confirm that our scheme can achieve additional energy savings while preserving service performance and the interests of data centers and customers.
This work describes a novel approach for the reduction of energy consumption in data centres (DCs) that will yield benefits both in terms of running costs and its environmental impact. The method is based on the introduction of collaborative interactions and flexibility clauses in contracts between all the DC ecosystem entities. The included entities are all the actors along the energy
production–consumption chain, from the energy provider to the Information Technology customer. The collaborative approach also integrates the interaction between federated DCs. In this paper, we find a detailed description of the architecture that enables interaction between the DC ecosystem parties, which is designed to be progressively deployed, allowing traditional and ‘greened’ services to coexist, and without modification of the existing DC automation and framework systems.
Botero, J.; Rincon, D.; Agusti, A.; Hesselbach, X.; Raspall, F.; Remondo, D.; Barba, A.; Barone, P.; Giuliani, G. International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centres p. 1-12 Presentation's date: 2013-05-21 Presentation of work at congresses
In recent years, the emergence of the cloud computing has increased the need of resources to support cloud-based services. Therefore, the role of the data centers has become essential. Following the growing of services, the power consumption has increased dramatically, while the need for energy savings and CO2 reduction has become a requirement for a sustainable world.
The All4Green project fosters collaboration between energy providers (EP), data centers (DC) and customers/end users (EU) in order to provide energy sav-ings and CO2 emissions reduction. In this architecture, the contract binding EPs and DCs includes flexibility terms in order to allow the collaboration in the form of discounts that can be transferred also to DC customers, if they are willing to collaborate.
The Internet comprises access segments with wired and wireless technologies. In
the future, we can expect wireless mesh infrastructures (WMIs) to proliferate in this
context. Due to the relatively low energy efficiency of wireless transmission, as
compared to wired transmission, energy consumption of WMIs can represent a significant
part of the energy consumption of the Internet as a whole. We explore different
approaches to reduce energy consumption in WMIs, taking into account the
heterogeneity of the technologies and the interaction with wired networks. Finally,
we present an example scenario where the application of these methods is discussed.
This tutorial provides a general view on the research field of
ad hoc networks. After a definition of the concept, the discussion concentrates
on enabling technologies, including physical and medium access
control layers, networking and transport issues. We find discussions on
the adequacy of enabling technologies for wireless multihop communication,
specifically in the case of the pervasive Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11.
Then, a variety of dynamic routing protocols are presented and specific
issues that are relevant in this context are highlighted. After a short
discussion on TCP issues in this context, we look at power awareness,
which is a very important issue in this scenario. Finally, we discuss proposals
that aim at maintaining Service Level Agreements in isolated ad
hoc networks and ad hoc networks connected to fixed networks.
This chapter focuses on the multimedia distribution over
Internet IP under the auspices of the NoE Euro-NGI research project
”Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)”. The multimedia distribution
is supported by several components such as services, content distribution
chain, protocols and standards whilst Internet is used for content
acquisition, management and delivery as well as an Internet Protocol
Television (IPTV) infrastructure with QoS facilities. As the convergence
between fixed and mobile services of wide and local area networks is
also expected to take place in the home networking, this puts an extra
burden on multimedia distribution, which requires the different types of
wireless access solutions (e.g., WiMAX). In this context, the ROVER research
project adopts the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), which offers
a wide range of multimedia services over a single IP infrastructure such
as authentication and, for wireless services, roaming capabilities. The
research project also considers overlay routing as an alternative solution
for content distribution.
Remondo, D.; Nunes, M.; Sargento, S.; Cesana, M.; Filippini, I.; Triay, J.; Agusti, A.; de Andrade, M.; Gutierrez, L.; Sallent, S.; Cervelló-Pastor, C. Conference on Next Generation Internet Design and Engineering p. 1-8 DOI: 10.1109/NGI.2009.5175764 Presentation's date: 2009-07-03 Presentation of work at congresses
The main objective of the Euro FGI network is to develop and maintain the most prominent European centre of excellence in Future Generation Internet (FGI) design and engineering, acting as a Collective Intelligence Think Tank, representing a major support for the European industry and leading towards a European leadership in this domain.
The FGI will offer multi-service/multimedia, mobility, service ubiquity and context awareness, convergence (services and fixed-mobile), Quality of Service, variable connectivity (always best connected), spontaneous networking and other capabilities as the norm.
Technology diversity is growing fast and mastering such a heterogeneous environment becomes essential for network designers. This new environment makes obsolete the design and engineering methods and tools currently available and forces the scientific community to develop new principles and methods to design/dimension/control/manage the new multi-technology architectures. These architectures will provide seamless end-to-end connectivity by hiding the technology diversity from service developers and users.
In addition, future high-speed wire-line and wireless access technologies provide instant high bandwidth connectivity making it difficult to forecast demand and thus to apply traditional traffic engineering methods.
For addressing this new environment, Euro-FGI will strengthen the integration of the scientific community activities to fulfil two main goals:
- Overcoming the challenge of technology diversity (vertical and horizontal integration) in the design of efficient and flexible FGI architectures
- Providing innovative traffic engineering approaches adapted to the new requirements and developing the appropriate quantitative methods for analysis, simulation and measurement
Due to the wealth of technologies and tools, achieving the above cited objectives requires the integration of a wide range of research capacities; a role that will be fulfilled by Euro-FGI.
La comunicación entre redes ad hoc y redes basadas en infraestructura resulta esencial para poder extender Internet más allá de su alcance tradicional, a aquellas áreas hasta ahora inaccesibles, permitiendo la utilización de servicios Web y otras muchas aplicaciones en todo momento y lugar. En esta tesis doctoral se abordan dos difíciles retos: intentar proporcionar calidad de servicio extremo a extremo en la comunicación entre una red ad hoc y una red fija, y alargar la supervivencia de la red ad hoc para que dicha comunicación sea lo más estable y duradera posible. Para lograr alcanzar estos objetivos, se ha realizado primeramente un estudio exhaustivo tanto de los modelos de calidad de servicio como de los protocolos de encaminamiento existentes para redes ad hoc aisladas. Fruto de dicho estudio ha surgido una primera contribución que consiste en el diseño e implementación de un protocolo de encaminamiento para la mejora de la supervivencia en una red ad hoc aislada. A partir de esta base se ha podido abordar la diferenciación de servicios en redes ad hoc conectadas con redes fijas; como consecuencia de esta investigación se ha desarrollado una segunda contribución que consiste en el diseño y evaluación de un modelo de diferenciación de servicios que se basa en la cooperación para el mantenimiento de la calidad de servicio entre ambas redes. Finalmente, mediante una tercera contribución, se ha conseguido mejorar la supervivencia de una red ad hoc conectada a una red basada en infraestructura con el diseño e implementación de un protocolo de encaminamiento específicamente creado para tal efecto. Además, se ha demostrado que la incorporación de este protocolo de encaminamiento en una red ad hoc que utiliza un modelo de calidad de servicio basado en la interacción entre la red ad hoc y la red IP fija, no sólo alarga la supervivencia de la red ad hoc sino que además evita un aumento de la congestión y mejora la diferenciación de servicios entre ambas redes. Las simulaciones exhaustivas realizadas sirven para comparar todas estas contribuciones con otras propuestas anteriores, demostrando su efectividad y rendimiento. Las contribuciones presentadas en esta tesis doctoral tienen una singular importancia, pues hasta la fecha no se ha desarrollado ningún modelo de calidad de servicio que permita la interacción y favorezca la cooperación entre una red ad hoc y una red IP fija con el fin de proporcionar calidad de servicio extremo a extremo. Las contribuciones que se aportan demuestran que sí que es posible la diferenciación de servicios entre una red ad hoc y una red IP fija; además, prueban que resulta imprescindible la cooperación e integración de los modelos de calidad de servicio de ambas redes para lograrlo. Este trabajo resulta pionero en estos aspectos y sirve para abrir una nueva línea de investigación con el fin de promover la comunicación entre redes ad hoc y redes fijas.
The communication between wireless ad hoc networks and infrastructure-based networks is essential to extend Internet beyond its traditional scope, to remote inaccessible areas, making Web services available anytime, anywhere. In this PhD thesis two difficult challenges are tackled: to provide end-to-end quality of service in the communication between an ad-hoc and a wired network, and to extend the ad-hoc network survivability to achieve that this communication becomes as stable and lasting as possible. In order to attain these goals, we have firstly done an exhaustive study of the existing quality of service models as well as the routing protocols for isolated ad hoc networks. A first contribution has arisen from this study that is based on the design and implementation of a routing protocol for improving the survivability in an isolated ad hoc network. Under this basis research has been carried out into service differentiation in ad hoc networks connected to fixed networks; as a consequence of this research we have developed the second contribution of this thesis, that consists of the design and evaluation of a service differentiation model based on the cooperation for the quality of service provision between both networks. Finally, by means of a third contribution, we have managed to improve the network survivability of an ad hoc network connected to an infrastructure-based network with the design and implementation of a routing protocol specifically created for this purpose. In addition, we have proved that the incorporation of this routing protocol to an ad hoc network that uses a quality of service model based on the interaction between the ad hoc and the fixed IP network, does not only extend the ad hoc network survivability, but it also avoids congestion increase and improves the service differentiation between both networks. Extensive simulations have been carried out to compare all these contributions with already existing ones, proving their effectiveness and performance. The present contributions in this PhD thesis have a singular importance, since no quality of service model has been developed that enables the interaction and favours the cooperation between an ad-hoc and a fixed IP network with the aim of providing end-to-end quality of service. The contributions demonstrate that it is really possible to differentiate services between an ad hoc and a fixed IP network; moreover, they show that the cooperation and integration of the quality of service models in both networks is unvaluable in order to achieve it. This is a pioneering work in these aspects and it will be very useful to open a new research line with the aim of promoting the communication between ad hoc networks and fixed networks.
Remondo, D. 7th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (ACM/IEEE MSWIM 2004) Presentation's date: 2004-10-15 Presentation of work at congresses
The main objective of the Euro NGI network is to create and maintain the most prominent European centre of excellence in Next Generation Internet design and engineering, acting as a 'Collective Intelligence Think Tank', representing a major support for the European Information Society industry and leading towards a European leadership in this domain.
The recent technological advances will lead to exploitable innovative services once the integration of these technologies through innovative architectures is achieved. The Next Generation Internet will offer view multi-service/multimedia, mobility, convergence (services and fixed-mobile), Quality-of-Service and variable connectivity as the norm. On one hand, future high-speed wire-line and wireless access technologies provide instant high bandwidth connectivity, which makes difficult to forecast traffic and thus to apply existing traffic engineering methods. On the other hand, the technology diversity explodes and mastering such a heterogeneous environment becomes essential to the network designer. This requires investigation into new multi-technology architectures. It is understood today that new design, planning, dimensioning and management principles are needed.
In this context, the main topics addressed by the NoE are:
- Mastering the technology diversity (vertical and horizontal integration) for the design of efficient and flexible NGI architectures.
- Providing required innovative traffic engineering architectures adapted to the new requirements and developing the corresponding appropriate quantitative methods.
The network experts bring the required competences on the various technologies that will be integrated. They also bring a worldwide recognize expertise on the various topics that composes the traffic engineering and optimal dimensioning domain. Due to the wealth of technologies and tools, achieving the cited objectives requires the integration of European research capacities to reach a critical mass.