'Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts – toolKIT (RISC-KIT) will deliver ready-to-use methods, tools and management approaches to reduce risk and increase resilience to low-frequency, high-impact hydro-meteorological events. The open-source and free-ware RISC-KIT tool kit will consist of ? a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) which - at the regional scale (100’s km) - can quickly assess present and future hot spot areas of coastal risk due to multi-hazards ? a quantitative, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support System (EWS/DSS) for use on these hot spots (with a scale of 10’s of km) and ? a web-based management guide offering innovative, cost-effective, ecosystem-based DRR measures; and ? a Coastal Risk Database of present and historic socio-economic and physical data. These tools will enable Europe’s coastal managers, decision-makers and stakeholders to ? identify hot spot areas; ? produce timely forecasts and early warnings; ? evaluate the effect of climate-related, socio-economic and cultural changes on coastal risk; and ? choose the best prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures for their coast. The toolkit will be tested using data collected on ten diverse case study sites along each of Europe’s regional seas and one international site. The toolkit’s performance will be evaluated with an End-User Board of coastal managers, civil protection agencies and local governments with a vested interest in each of these case study sites. The RISC-KIT products will help to achieve rapid attainment of UNISDR Disaster Reduction Goals and promote EU-consistent methods through innovative e-learning and open access publication. RISC-KIT will have an active synergy with Belmont Forum projects, related EU projects and an International Expert Board with members from third countries experiencing similar types of threats.'
Berenguer, M.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Corral, C.; Sanchez-Diezma, R. Journal of atmospheric and oceanic technology Vol. 23, num. 9, p. 1157-1180 DOI: 10.1175/JTECH1914.1 Data de publicació: 2006-09 Article en revista
Because echoes caused by nonmeteorological targets significantly affect radar scans, contaminated bins must be identified and eliminated before precipitation can be quantitatively estimated from radar measurements. Under mean propagation conditions, clutter echoes (mainly caused by targets such as mountains or large
buildings) can be found in almost fixed locations. However, in anomalous propagation conditions, new clutter echoes may appear (sometimes over the sea), and they may be difficult to distinguish from precipitation
returns. Therefore, an automatic algorithm is needed to identify clutter on radar scans, especially for operational uses of radar information (such as real-time hydrology). In this study, a new algorithm is presented based on fuzzy logic, using volumetric data. It uses some statistics to highlight clutter characteristics (namely, shallow vertical extent, high spatial variability, and low radial velocities) to output a value that quantifies the possibility of each bin being affected by clutter (in order to remove those in which this factor exceeds a certain threshold).
The performance of this algorithm was compared against that of simply removing mean clutter echoes. Satisfactory results were obtained from an exhaustive evaluation of this algorithm, especially in those cases
in which anomalous propagation played an important role.
Nowcasting precipitation is a key element in the anticipation of floods in warning systems. In this framework, weather radars are very useful because of the high resolution of their measurements both in
time and space. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of a recently proposed nowcasting technique (S-PROG) from a hydrological point of view in a Mediterranean environment. S-PROG is based
on the advection of weather radar fields according to the motion field derived with an algorithm based on tracking radar echoes by correlation (TREC), and it has the ability of filtering out the most unpredictable scales of these fields as the forecasting time increases. Validation of this nowcasting technique was done from two different perspectives: (i) comparing forecasted precipitation fields against radar measurements, and (ii) by means of a distributed rainfall runoff model, comparing hydrographs simulated with a hydrological
model using rainfall fields forecasted by S-PROG against hydrographs generated with the model using the entire series of radar measurements. In both cases, results obtained by a simpler nowcasting
technique are used as a reference to evaluate improvements. Validation showed that precipitation fields forecasted with S-PROG seem to be better than fields forecasted using simpler techniques. Additionally, hydrological validation led the authors to point out that the use of radar-based nowcasting techniques allows
the anticipation window in which flow estimates are forecasted with enough quality to be sensibly extended.
The management of flood risk is a critical component of public safety and quality of life. The FLOODsiteIntegrated Project will produce improved understanding of specific flood processes and mechanisms and methodologies for flood risk analysis and management ranging from the high level management of risk at arider-basin, estuary and coastal process cell scale down to the detailed assessment in specific areas. It includes specific actions on the hazard of coastal extremes, coastal morph dynamics and flash flood forecasting, as wells understanding of social vulnerability and flood impacts, which are critical to improving the mitigation of flood risk from all causes. The project seeks to identify technologies and strategies for sustainable flood mitigation and defence, recognising the complex interaction between natural biophysical systems and socio-economic systems, to support spatial and policy planning in the context of global change and societal advance. Several pilot studies are included in FLOOD site. These will identify lessons from recent floods (e.g. Elbe, 2002), and test the proposed operational use of methods on integrated risk management and sustainable flood defence (the Thames and Schultz Estuaries and the Ebor coastal delta) or new technology for flash flood forecasting (in France and Italy). FLOOD site will also develop common language, guidance and tools for dissemination of the project results and professional training packages. FLOOD site will build upon the previous and current European and national research and practice in river and coastal flood processes and flood risk mitigation methods to promote consistency of approach. Several of the FLOOD site project partners are identified as contributors to proposals for the virtual centre on floods and droughts identified in Para 18.104.22.168.II of the work programme; this virtual centre will complement the activities of the FLOOD site project.
Nowcasting precipitation is a key point to anticipate risks in flood warning systems. In this environment, weather radars are very useful because of the high resolution of their measurements both in time and space.
The aim of this study is to assess the performance of a recently proposed nowcasting technique (SPROG) from a hydrological point of view. This technique is based on the advection of radar
precipitation fields and its main point is that the forecasted fields get smoothed as the forecasting time increases, to filter out the smallest scales of the field when they become unpredictable. The evaluation of the forecasted precipitation fields is done in two different ways: a) comparing them
against the actually measured precipitation fields and b) according to the concept of “hydrological validation”, comparing the hydrographs calculated by a distributed rainfall-runoff model simulating
operational conditions (using the forecasted precipitation fields) against the hydrographs calculated by the model with the entire series of radar measurements. This part of the study has been carried out in
the framework of the Besos basin flood forecasting system.
Corral, C.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Velasco, C.; Sanchez-Diezma, R.; Berenguer, M.; Velasco, E.; Pastor, J. Jornadas sobre los sistemas de ayuda a la decisión ante problemas hidraúlicos e hidrológicos en tiempo real p. 279-287 Data de presentació: 2004 Presentació treball a congrés
Sanchez-Diezma, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Corral, C.; Berenguer, M. Jornadas sobre los sistemas de ayuda a la decisión ante problemas hidraúlicos e hidrológicos en tiempo real p. 90-106 Data de presentació: 2004 Presentació treball a congrés
Sempere-Torres, D.; Corral, C.; Sanchez-Diezma, R.; Berenguer, M.; Velasco, C.; Franco, M.; Llort, X.; Pastor, J. European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology p. 30 Presentació treball a congrés
Corral, C.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Revilla, M.; Berenguer, M. Physics and chemistry of the earth. Part B, hydrology oceans and atmosphere Vol. 25, num. 10-12, p. 1133-1136 DOI: 10.1016/S1464-1909(00)00166-0 Data de publicació: 2000-06 Article en revista
En este artículo se estudia el episodio pluviométrico registrado el día 10 de junio de 2000 en Cataluña. En particular se analiza la lluvia caída en la cuenca de 97 km2 correspondiente a la riera de Magarola en su cruce con la autovía N-II en Esparreguera (Barcelona). Para ello se utiliza información de campo obtenida a partir de radar meteorológico, pluviómetros y pluviógrafos. Sobre la mayor parte de la cuenca se recogieron más de 150 mm de lluvia durante el episodio. También prácticamente sobre toda la cuenca cayeron más de 100 mm en dos horas. El cálculo del período de retorno asociado a la lluvia de 24 horas evidencia la naturaleza excepcional del fenómeno. No obstante la información histórica disponible es insuficiente y solo permite realizar estimaciones con una gran incertidumbre.