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  • Obtenció d'un copolímer acrílic amb grups epoxi per a l'aplicació en tops per l'acabat de la pell  Open access

     Frías Álvarez, Aroha
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    La indústria del cuir necessita productes innovadors per tal de satisfer les exigències continuades del mercat global.Aquest fet,juntament amb les actuals regulacions que controlen la protecció del medi ambient i la salut,són les bases de l'inicid¿aquest estudi.L¿objectiu general d'aquesta Tesi és l'obtenció de resines acríliques per a top.El top forma part de l'acabat de la pell.Per a aconseguir un acabat amb bones prestacions,és necessària la reticulació d¿aquestes resines.Els reticulants que permeten assolir elevades prestacions,són irritants i nocius,i per tant,perjudicials tant pel medi ambient com per a la salut de les persones.Aquest estudi es basa en el desenvolupament de productes de base aquosa per a tops,que proporcionin prestacions elevades a la pell acabada,evitant que siguin perjudicials per a la salut i el medi ambient.Aquesta Tesi es centra en la síntesi de resines acríliques funcionalitzades amb diferents grups químics (carboxílics,epoxi i amínics),per tal de millorar les seves propietats una vegada aplicades en forma de top en l¿acabat de la pell.L'objectiu és aconseguir una resina òptima funcionalitzada amb cada grup,per tal de combinar-les entre elles, de manera que s'arribin a millorar les prestacions finals de l'acabat del cuir, sense reticulants externs.L'estudi consta de 2 blocs:1.Síntesi de resines acríliques funcionalitzades amb els tres grups funcionals,i la selecció de la resina òptima en cada cas,mitjançant un anàlisi d'optimització dels resultats.2.Barreges de les resines òptimes per parelles, mantenint com a denominador comú les resines epoxi.Per una banda, resines epoxi combinades amb carboxíliques,i per l'altra,resines epoxi combinades amb amíniques.La finalitat és arribar a obtenir una barreja òptima en cada cas,i comparar-ne els resultats amb les especificacions per a empenya de calçat.

    The leather industry needs innovative products in order to satisfy the global market requirements.The current regulations are very strict,so it is necessary to preserve the environment and to take care about the people¿s health.The main object of this PhD consists in making acrylic resins for leather top coatings.In order to achieve leather finishings characterized by good performances,it is necessary to get the reticulation of the acrylic resins.The crosslinking agents (used to get high performances with leather coatings) are very irritating and harmful.They are really dangerous not only for the environment but also for people's health.This study deals with the aqueous based products development,used as top-coating for leather finishing.It is very important to obtain products with the capability to reach high performances,avoiding the danger for the people's health,and the damage of the environment.This PhD is focused on the acrylic resins synthesis.Specifically,acrylic resins functionalized with different chemical groups(carboxylic, epoxi, and amine),in order to improve their properties once applied as a finishing,on to the leather.The main goal of this research consists in being able to get acrylic resins functionalized with the different chemical groups,and then,make combinations with these resins in order to study the different reactions,without using crosslinkers.In this case,the aim consists on applying these mixtures of resins on to the leather that is going to be used for shoes upper.This project is divided in 2 parts:1.the acrylic resins synthesis,functionalized by the different chemical groups,and the sorting of the best resin for each chemical group.They are selected after being analyzed through and statistical program called Statgraphics./2.The different mixtures of resins and their results,applied as a topcoating (mixtures:carboxylic+epoxi resins,and amine+epoxi resins.The purpose is to achieve and optimal mixture for each pair of resins,and compare their results with the GERIC specifications for shoes upper.

    La indústria del cuir necessita productes innovadors per tal de satisfer les exigències continuades del mercat global. Aquest fet, juntament amb les actuals regulacions que controlen la protecció del medi ambient i la salut, són les bases de l’inici d’aquest estudi. L’objectiu general d’aquesta Tesi és l’obtenció de resines acríliques per a top. El top forma part de l’acabat de la pell, juntament amb altres capes com: tintura, prefons i impregnació, fons, i tops o aprestos (no s’apliquen totes necessàriament). Per tal d’aconseguir un acabat amb bones prestacions, és necessària la reticulació d’aquestes resines. Els reticulants que permeten assolir elevades prestacions, són irritants i nocius, i per tant, perjudicials tant pel medi ambient com per a la salut de les persones. Aquest estudi es basa en el desenvolupament de productes de base aquosa per a tops, que proporcionin prestacions elevades a la pell acabada evitant, en tot moment, que siguin perjudicials per a la salut i el medi ambient. Aquesta Tesi doctoral es centra, concretament, en la síntesi de resines acríliques funcionalitzades amb diferents grups químics, per tal de millorar les seves propietats una vegada aplicades en forma de top en l’acabat de la pell. Els grups químics que s’han estudiat són: carboxílics, epoxi i amínics. L’objectiu és aconseguir una resina òptima funcionalitzada amb cada grup químic, per tal de combinarles entre elles, de manera que a través d’una reticulació “espontània”, sense reticulants externs, s’arribin a millorar les prestacions finals de l’acabat del cuir destinat, en aquest cas, a empenya de calçat. L’estudi consta de dos grans blocs. El primer correspon a la síntesi de resines acríliques funcionalitzades amb els tres grups funcionals, i la selecció de la resina òptima en cada cas, mitjançant un anàlisi d’optimització dels resultats. El segon bloc inclou les barreges de les resines òptimes per parelles, mantenint com a denominador comú les resines epoxi. Per una banda, resines epoxi combinades amb resines carboxíliques i, per l’altra, resines epoxi combinades amb resines amíniques. La finalitat és arribar a obtenir com a resultat final, una barreja òptima en cada cas, i comparar-ne els resultats amb les especificacions per a empenya de calçat.

  • DEVELOMENT OF SUSTAINABLE TANNIN WITH LOW CARBON FOOTPRINT TO OBTAIN HIGH QUALITY LEATHER.

     Diaz Muñoz, Jorge Gerardo
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Hoy estamos viviendo un "boom ecolÛgico", esto significa desarrollar procesos con un menor impacto ambiental y tratar dehacerlos lo m· s ecolÛgico posible. Esa es la razÛn de llevar a cabo esta tesis, se trata de usar un extracto vegetal comoproducto sostenible para procesos de pre-curtido, curtido y re-curtido. Esta tesis considera el fruto del · rbol de Tara comomateria prima y fuente de taninos con baja huella de carbono, adem· s propone alternativas para evitar o disminuir el uso deextractos vegetales comerciales, productos sintÈticos y sales minerales que son preparados por procesos no sostenibles.Varios diseÒos experimentales han sido desarrollados para obtener un nuevo tanino de Tara modificado quÌmica yfÌsicamente, con el fin de obtener un porcentaje m· s alto de taninos y por lo tanto mejorar su capacidad de curticiÛn,adem· s se busca mejorar la penetraciÛn de la molÈcula de tanino dentro de la estructura de la piel. En las modificacionesquÌmicas, varias extracciones acuosas a diferentes temperaturas y combinadas con algunos productos quÌmicos, han sidodesarrolladas y optimizadas con el fin de reducir la astringencia y aumentar el contenido de tanino. El grado de hidrÛlisis seha controlado mediante la mediciÛn del contenido de · cido g· lico por HPLC (CromatografÌa en fase liquida de altorendimiento, por sus siglas en ingles). En la modificaciÛn fÌsica, la Tara se ha molturado y tamizado, en varios tamaÒos departÌcula, con el fin de obtener un tamaÒo molecular m· s pequeÒo.Ambas modificaciones quÌmicas y fÌsicas se han probado en la piel, en un proceso de precurtido wet-white, combin· ndoloscon la menor cantidad posible de extractos vegetales comerciales y sintanes. Las formulaciones se han optimizado pordiseÒo experimental. Con el objetivo de utilizar la nueva tara modificada tambiÈn como curtiente vegetal, se ha desarrolladoun diseÒo experimental a fin de obtener la combinaciÛn Ûptima entre Tara, Mimosa y Quebracho. El tanino de Tara se hautilizado como agente de re-curticiÛn de cueros curtidos al cromo (Wet-Blue) por bastante tiempo, en esta tesis se utiliza lanueva tara modificada tambiÈn como re-curtiente para tratar de mejorar la solidez a la luz del cuero. Todos los cuerosproducidos y baÒos finales de curtido han sido analizados con ensayos fÌsicos y quÌmicos respectivamente, para determinarsi cumplen con los par· metros establecidos por los est· ndares de la IULTCS (UniÛn Internacional de TecnÛlogos ySociedades de QuÌmicos del Cuero, por sus siglas en ingles).Complementando esta tesis, hay dos articulos publicados en el Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association(JALCA), con nombre:1. Low carbon products for the design of innovative leather processes. Part I: determination of the optimal chemicalmodification of tara.2. Low carbon products for the design of innovative leather processes. Part II: determination of the optimal physicalmodification of tara.Anna Bacartit1, ConcepciÛ Casas1, Jorge DÌaz1, Silvia Sorolla1, LluÌs OllÈ1.1 A3 Chair in Leather Innovation. Escuela de IngenierÌa de Igualada(EEI). Universitat PolitËcnica de Catalunya (UPC). PlaÁadel Rei, 15. 08700 ñ Igualada (Spain).

  • Nanopartículas, Nanocápsulas y Nanodispersiones para conferir nuevas funcionalidades al cuero y tejido de aplicación en espacios y vehículos públicos

     Casas Solé, Concepción
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Los estudios realizados en la presente tesis doctoral tienen como objetivo desarrollar sistemas nanotecnológicos para conferir nuevas funcionalidades al cuero y al tejido, como materiales de tapicería para aplicaciones en los sectores de muebles y vehículos en que estos materiales presentan carencias en términos de seguridad y durabilidad. La aplicación de nanomateriales en la estructura interna del cuero y de recubrimientos flexibles de base nanotecnológica en la superficie del cuero y del tejido pretende dotar a estos sustratos de las propiedades: antibacteriana, auto-limpieza, termorregulación, ignifugante y autoreparación. El estudio se inicia en la síntesis de los diferentes productos para cada una de las propiedades o efectos, la caracterización de los mismos permite definir los más adecuados para su posterior aplicación. Se aplican las técnicas de microscopia óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM), análisis del tamaño y distribución de partícula, rugosidad, hidrofobicidad (ángulo de contacto), posición de flúor (SEM-EDAX). A continuación se realiza un estudio para definir la metodología más adecuada para incorporar los nanocompuestos en la fase de recurtición de la piel y en la fase de acabado del cuero y del tejido. Los materiales se someten a la validación de las nuevas propiedades según las metodologías y normativas habituales en los materiales para la tapicería en aplicación en espacios y vehículos públicos. La formulación de las combinaciones de los nanocompuestos en los procesos de curtición y acabado del cuero, así como acabado textil permite obtener nuevos materiales multifuncionales.

  • New challenges in chrome-free leathers: development of wet-bright process

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Armengol, J; van der Burgh, Stefan; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 109, num. 4, p. 117-124
    Date of publication: 2014-04-01
    Journal article

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    The aim of the present work was to develop a new tanning process (wet-bright) that produces perfectly white leather meeting all of the requirements for many kinds of articles, such as automotive, garment and shoe upper. This new process gives leather that is free of chromium, aldehydes, aldehyde precursors and organic solvents. It is the application of a new system based on a product designated Tanfor TTM from the manufacturer Kemira Chem Solutions. When compared to existing traditional wet leather processes, there are economic and environmental advantages resulting from the use of this new system. Also, the mineral character of the new product system offers leathers with high dye affinity; thus enabling very bright colors in all leather applications. We believe this leather offers such perfect dyeing properties because of the brilliant whiteness of the wet-bright intermediate substrate

  • A dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material

     Olle Otero, Luis; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 98, num. 2, p. 56-62
    Date of publication: 2014-04-09
    Journal article

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    The aim of the present work is to develop a dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material for use in the leather industry. What is obtained through this new process is a dry and very porous collagenous substrate which allows the application of tanning chemicals by immersion in aqueous solutions. When compared to existing, traditional processes, economic and environmental advantages are obtained from the use of this new material. More specifically, the new process results in reductions in water use (18%), chemical use (39%), and process time (11%)

  • Evaluation of a new environment friendly tanning process

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; van der Burgh, Stefan; Armengol, Jordi; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of cleaner production
    Vol. 65, p. 568-573
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.052
    Date of publication: 2014-02-06
    Journal article

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  • Low carbon products to design innovative leather processes. Part II: determination of the optimal physical modification of tara

     Olle Otero, Luis; Casas Solé, Concepció; Díaz Muñoz, Jorge Gerardo; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 109, num. 1, p. 25-31
    Date of publication: 2014-01-01
    Journal article

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    This study considers the fruit of the tara bush as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to chromium and other mineral salts and vegetable extracts. Specifically, physical modifications have been developed in part II of the study to obtain a modified tara with a higher percentage of tannins and with a better level of penetration (see Low carbon products to design innovative leather processes. Part I: determination of the optimal chemical modification of tara).1 The physical modification of tara focused on milling and sieving. The different products obtained have been characterized and applied to leather samples in order to evaluate the degree of penetration and stabilization in the leather structure

  • Design of a prototype to produce a new collagen material by dehydration

     Olle Otero, Luis; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 97, num. 6, p. 244-250
    Date of publication: 2014-01-07
    Journal article

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    The aim of the present work is to develop a prototype to produce a new collagenous material by dehydration for use in the leather industry. What is obtained through this new process is a dry and very porous collagenous substrate which allows the application of tanning and retanning chemicals by immersion in aqueous solution. When compared to existing traditional processes, economic and environmental advantages are obtained from the use of this new material

  • Técnicas innovadoras para la obtención de cueros de curtición vegetal repelentes al agua y suciedad

     Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Casas, Concepció; Olle Otero, Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Innovadores artículos de cuero sostenible mediante la aplicación de nuevos productos curtientes obtenidos a partir de los residuos de semilla de uva de la industria del vino

     Baquero Armans, Grau; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Casas, Concepció; Olle Otero, Luis; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia
    Competitive project

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  • Characterization of the volatile organic compounds by hs-spme-cg-ms in the leather sector

     Cuadros Domènech, Rosa Maria; Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Font Vallès, Joaquim
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 108, num. 11, p. 420-427
    Date of publication: 2013-11
    Journal article

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  • Developing of a dehydration process for bovine leather to obtain a new collagenous material

     Olle Otero, Luis; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of cleaner production
    Vol. 51, p. 177-183
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.01.044
    Date of publication: 2013-07-15
    Journal article

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    The aim of the present work is to develop a dehydration process for bovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material for use in the leather industry. What is obtained through this new process is a dry and very porous collagenous substrate which allows the application of tanning and retanning chemicals by immersion in aqueous solutions. When compared to existing, traditional processes, there are economic and environmental advantages resulting from the use of this new material. More specifically, the new process results in reductions in water use (21.7%), chemical use (46.9%) and processing time (21%).

  • Sustainable solvent-free finishing of patent leather using carbonyl-functional resins

     Olle Otero, Luis; Bou Serra, Jorge; Shendrik, Alexander; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of cleaner production
    Vol. 65, p. 590-594
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.07.058
    Date of publication: 2013-07-29
    Journal article

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  • Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): the sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

     Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 108, num. 6, p. 221-230
    Date of publication: 2013-06-03
    Journal article

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    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Tara tannins have been used in retanning formulas in leather processing and its properties are well known. This work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white recipe in which shrinkage temperature, tensile strength, tensile elongation, tear load and lightfastness properties are considered as statistical variables

  • Low carbon products for the design of innovative leather processes. Part I: Determination of the optimal chemical modification of tara

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Casas Solé, Concepció; Díaz Muñoz, Jorge Gerardo; Cuadros Domènech, Rosa Maria; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 108, num. 10, p. 386-391
    Date of publication: 2013-09-23
    Journal article

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    Este estudio considera el fruto del arbusto tara como fuente sostenible de agentes curtientes y propone alternativas a las sales minerales y extractos vegetales para uso comercial. Específicamente, en la parte I del estudio diversos procesos de modificación física y química se han desarrollado con el fin de obtener una tara modificada con un mayor porcentaje de taninos que permita mejorar su capacidad de curtido. Varios procesos de extracción acuosa a diferentes temperaturas se han desarrollado y optimizado con el fin de disminuir la astringencia y facilitar la penetración de las moléculas de tanino a través de la estructura de cuero.

  • Development of nanocomposites with antibacterial effect for leather and textile

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bou Serra, Jorge; Rocas, Josep; Olle Otero, Luis
    Congress of IULTCS
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aim of this work is to develop new systems of nanocomposites to confer new functions to materials used for seats of public vehicles and public spaces. Specifically, this study focuses on antibacterial effect for leather and technical textile substrates. The first stage of the research consists of a selection of micro/nanomaterials and active principles: selection and evaluation of nanoparticles, antibacterial and antifungal substances. In the second stage, the process of encapsulation of active principles was studied. The research includes optimization of the encapsulation process by improving the size and stability of the capsules. In addition, the synthesis of a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer acting as a nanomaterial carrier was developed. To understand the mechanisms of synthesis and action of micro/nanomaterials, characterization techniques have been used: scanning electron microscopy SEM and optical microscopy, analysis and distribution of particle size (DLS, Zetasizer). Regarding the antibacterial and antifungal ability of nanocomposites, we adapted standard ASTM 2180-07 "Test methods for determining the activity or incorporated antimicrobial agent (s) in polymeric or hydrophobic materials." Different products have been developed and the results obtained allow us to conclude that the synthesized products showed inhibition to the growth of bacteria and fungi on the contact surface

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    Determination of fungicides in residual tanning floats using solid phase micro extraction  Open access

     Font Vallès, Joaquim; Reyes Reyes, Maria; Cuadros, Sara; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis; Marsal Monge, Agustín
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 108, num. 2, p. 41-47
    Date of publication: 2013-02-04
    Journal article

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    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized for extraction of the leather preservative agents 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole (TCMTB), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (PCMC), 2-phenylphenol (OPP), 2-Octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone (OIT), 2-mercaptobenzothiazol (MBT) and 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) in spent tanning floats. Determination was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photo diode array detection (PDA). The following parameters were studied to achieve the maximum efficiency in extraction: fiber type, adsorption conditions (extraction time, ionic strength, temperature) and desorption parameters (time, temperature and composition of the desorption solvent). Results indicate that SPME using a 60um polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber is appropriate for the extraction of these types of compounds. Recoveries ranged from 82% to 116% with RSDs between +-8% and +-12% and limits of detection below 1 mg/L except for IPBC. The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the determination of leather preservatives in eleven residual tanning floats taken from different companies. This method enables us to determine quantitatively the fungicides contained in th residual floats. Consequently, it will constitute a very useful tool to improve the preservative uptake in leather manufacturing processes

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    Use of water-based carbonyl-functional polymers on a cross-linker-free high performance leather finishing  Open access

     Olle Otero, Luis; Urteaga, Eva; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Labastida, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Afinidad: revista de química teórica y aplicada
    Vol. LXVIII, num. 551, p. 15-19
    Date of publication: 2012-01-01
    Journal article

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    The present paper aims to study a new high-performance coating formulation while avoiding the use of cross-linkers. By using acrylic polymers with carbonyl functional groups, the negative environmental effects of the finishing process can be minimized. These new polymers can give very good physical properties without losing the inherent properties of flexibility and elasticity needed in upholstery leather

  • Synthesis of highly carboxylate acrylic resins for leather impregnation

     Olle Otero, Luis; Solé, MM; Shendrik, Alexander; Labastida, L; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 107, num. 1, p. 8-12
    Date of publication: 2012-01-11
    Journal article

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    This work describes the synthesis of new leather finishing acrylic resins. Four resins ware synthesized varying the concentration of ethyl acrylate, and metracrylic acid. Sodium lauryl sulphate was used as emulsifying system. By means of an experimental design, an optimal resin for leather impregnation was defined. The results obtained indicated that the variation of the monomer concentration influences the resin properties, the hardness of the film, and the penetration into the leather. Most importantly, this new highly carboxylate acrylic resin enables leather impregnation without the use of surfactants or penetrating agents

  • Internacionalización y gestión de los mercados del cuero

     Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Date of publication: 2012-02-01
    Book

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  • Desarrollo de una nueva tecnología de regenaración autónoma e inteligente de materiales

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Sistema de evaluación automático para pieles y pergaminos de patrimonio cultural

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    Competitive project

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  • Study of the effect of temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation on chrome-tanned leather ageing

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 107, num. 6, p. 179-185
    Date of publication: 2012-06-01
    Journal article

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    Since leather is strongly affected by three main environmental parameters: temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, this piece of research focuses on the effect that these three factors have on chrome-tanned leather ageing. Chrome tanned leathers were exposed to weathering effects in a climatic chamber in order to identify the most important variables affecting this weathering process and also to check for any possible interactions. Both a multilevel centralized factorial experimental design and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used as statistical tools for estimating the effects of the parameters

  • Comparison of weathering variables on chrome-tanned and wet-white leather ageing

     Olle Otero, Luis; Jorba, Montse; Castell, Joan Carles; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 96, num. 1, p. 11-15
    Date of publication: 2012-02-08
    Journal article

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    Leather is a natural material that can be used in different environments and often under aggressive environmental conditions that may cause premature ageing. The most important factors influencing the degradation of leather are temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation. Leathers with chrome tannage and wet-white leathers were exposed to weathering effects using a climatic chamber in order to identify the most important variables affecting this weathering process and to check for interactions. Both a multilevel centralized factorial experimental design and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been employed as statistical tools for estimating the effects of the parameters

  • Humic acid derivatives as tanning and retanning agents

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Shendrik, Alexander; Jorge Sanchez, Juan; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 96, num. 2, p. 64-67
    Date of publication: 2012-04-02
    Journal article

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    This study examines the behaviour of three types of humic acids (natural humic acids, regenerated humic acids, and sulphited humic acids) with regard to their capacity to be used as tans and retans. The study makes use of conditions set out in a previous study (See Determination of penetration and fixation curves of leather using humic derivatives). Additionally, subsequent complementary tests were carried out using other retans that are commonly used in the tanning industry in order to compare and improve on the physical properties assessed here

  • Determination of penetration and fixation curves of leather using humic derivatives

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Shendrik, Alexander; Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Bou Serra, Jorge; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 96, num. 3, p. 114-118
    Date of publication: 2012-06-18
    Journal article

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    This study examines the behavior of three different types of humic acids (natural humic acids, regenerated humic acids, and sulphited humic acids) with regard to their penetration and fixation to the leather. More specifically, through the tests carried out the curves of penetration and fixation were drawn, and from these the optimum pH intervals of penetration and fixation to the leather were determined. The data obtained is essential in view of the subsequent application of humic acids as tanning agents and/or retanning agents

  • Contribució a l'estudi de la degradació i envelliment de la pell

     Jorba Rafart, Montse
    Department of Engineering Presentation, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • TARA (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes  Open access

     Castell Escuer, Juan Carlos
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    This thesis considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concerns lower carbon footprint and health safety. Taxonomy of the tree is described and the substances contained in the fruit are chemically characterized in order to justify that tara farm forestry is economically viable and to secure a potential worth. The value chain is fully described from fruit collection in remote Andean regions to the export for the most important leather markets. Although tara tannins have been used in the leather industry and its properties being well known, the experimental part of the work aims to optimize innovative formulations using tara as wet-white pre-tanning agent. Combinations with a selected syntan used for wet white and final article recipes are proposed

    Esta tesis considera el fruto del árbol de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) como fuente sostenible de taninos para la curtición del cuero y propone alternativas para las sales minerales y los extractos vegetales como respuesta a la creciente demanda para reducir el impacto medioambiental y la seguridad de los artículos de consumo. Se describe la taxonomía del árbol así como la caracterización de su fruto para justificar la silvicultura como práctica económicamente viable y asegurar su valor y la cadena desde la recolección de los frutos en las regiones andinas hasta la exportación a los mercados más importantes de la industria del cuero. Aunque los taninos de la tara ya se usan para la fabricación de cueros desde épocas remotas y sus propiedades están reconocidas, la sección experimental de este trabajo se orienta a optimizar fórmulas innovadoras utilizando la tara como agente de curtido wet-white. Se proponen fórmulas para artículos finales.

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    Nuevas aplicaciones de la cromatografía iónica en el sector de curtidos  Open access

     Perez Quiñones, Carmen; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis; Reyes Ferrera, Mª Reyes; Font Vallès, Joaquim
    Congreso Asociación Química Española de la Industria del Cuero
    p. 44-60
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La industria de curtidos utiliza gran variedad de productos químicos en las diferentes etapas del proceso de curtición. Una parte de estos productos son absorbidos por las pieles, mientras que el resto pasan a las aguas residuales contribuyendo algunos de ellos al aumento de la salinidad. Muchos de estos productos químicos presentan un componente aniónico. En el contexto del control de calidad, los laboratorios del sector de curtidos tienen la necesidad de analizar especies aniónicas en diferentes muestras, tales como productos químicos, aguas residuales, baños de diferentes etapas y piel piquelada, curtida y acabada. En otros sectores, la tendencia actual en el análisis de aniones es el uso de técnicas sensibles y rápidas, como la cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. En este estudio se desarrollan métodos cromatográficos innovadores, con detección ultravioleta indirecta y directa, para la determinación simultánea de los principales aniones de interés en la industria de curtidos (cloruro, sulfato, nitrato, acetato, formiato, fosfato, nitrato, fluoruro y bromuro). Estos métodos se aplican a diferentes muestras. Se optimiza un método con cromatografía iónica y detección indirecta. La separación se realiza utilizando biftalato potásico como fase móvil. También se presenta un nuevo método cromatográfico simple, con detección ultravioleta directa y sulfato sódico como eluyente

  • Chain Extenders for Poly(lactic) acid

     Valls Pepio, Nuria; Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Bou Serra, Jorge
    Polymerix European Symposium
    p. 206
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-31
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Curtición vegetal con extracto de semilla de uva  Open access

     Ramon Arcal, Salvador; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Olle Otero, Luis
    Congreso Asociación Química Española de la Industria del Cuero
    p. 1-23
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-17
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la viabilidad de usar el extracto de semilla de uva procedente de subproductos de la industria vinícola, como fuente sostenible y renovable de taninos para curtir pieles vacunas al vegetal, frente a los extractos vegetales convencionales de quebracho, mimosa, castaño, gambier, o tara que provienen de arboles cultivados en zonas geográficas concretas. La substitución parcial en el proceso industrial de las tenerías de alguno de los extractos habituales por el de semilla de uva, contribuiría al esfuerzo por preservar la deforestación del planeta. Primero se comparan las características físicas de la piel vacuna curtida con un extracto único, para fabricar vaquetilla vegetal natural. Se evalúa el artículo obtenido y se controlan las resistencias a la tracción y al desgarro, alargamiento a la rotura, grueso, solidez a la luz, color y absorción de agua. También se realiza una cromatografía líquida de cada uno de los taninos usados. A continuación se realiza un “coupage” de extracto de semilla de uva con otros extractos comerciales para conseguir una vaquetilla con mejores prestaciones y se compara con productos comerciales presentes en el mercado de la marroquinería de alta calidad

  • Diseño de experimentos en ingeniería del cuero

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    Date of publication: 2011-09-01
    Book

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  • Biodegradation of leather tanned with inorganic salts

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Jorba Montse, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 95, num. 2, p. 63-67
    Date of publication: 2011-04-14
    Journal article

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    This paper aims to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of leather tanned with inorganic salts. The samples of leather were exposed during eight months to outdoor weathering, and then their properties were evaluated. The results indicate that biodegration starts with dehydration, a partial scission of the protein chain of the collagen, detanning and a loss of oils due to volatilization and/or decomposition.

  • Optimizing a sustainable and innovative wet-white process with Tara Tannins

     Castell, Joan Carles; Fabregat, Cristina; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Solano, D; Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association
    Vol. 106, num. 10, p. 278-286
    Date of publication: 2011-10-05
    Journal article

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    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concers low carbon footprint raw materials and health safety. Although tara tannins have been used in the leather industry and its properties being well known, the experimental part of the work aims to optimize innovative formulations using tara as wet-white pre-tanning agent. Combinations with naphthalene sulphonic and phenol condensation syntans will be used for wet white. Experiments have been designed by Simplex with centroids statistical calculations to obtain an optimized formulation. Tests are evaluated determining shrinkage temperature, tensile strenght, elongation, tear resistance and light fastness.

  • Determination of functional groups of humic derivatives as tanning-retanning agents

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Shendryck, Alexander; Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Bou Serra, Jorge; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 95, num. 6, p. 259-262
    Date of publication: 2011-11-28
    Journal article

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    Three types of humic acids of different sources have been analysed in order to quantify the functional groups that may be liable to react with the proteins of leather. The quantification serves to determine the extent to which each of these acids can be used as tanning or retanning agents. The three types of humid acids have been compared mathematically according to their content within the aforementioned functional groups. Humic acids have structures similar to those of vegetable tannins.

  • Comparison of the effect of the tropical test on both chrome-tanned and wet-white upholstery leather

     Olle Otero, Luis; Jorba Rafart, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 95, num. 3, p. 109-115
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    Automotive upholstery leather can undergo extreme environmental conditions that may cause premature ageing. Leather is strongly affected by three main environmental parameters: temperature,relative humidity and UV radiation. UV radiation causes colour change, fading, surface erosion, loss of gloss, etc. Increasing the levels of UV radiation represents a primary accelerating factor for leather ageing. Temperature produces thermal oxidation degradations, subsequent reaction rates and acceleration of other weathering reactions. Relative humidity acts as a chemical reagent in many hydrolytic weathering reactions and as a physical stressor of leather. Additionally, when relative humidity is over 65% leather is susceptible to mould attack. The aim of this work is to compare the effect of the tropical environment exposure on both chrometanned and wet-white upholstery leather.

  • Biodegradation of wet-white leather

     Olle Otero, Luis; Jorba Rafart, Montse; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Shendrik, Alexander; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 95, num. 3, p. 116-120
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    This paper deals with the study of the physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deterioration of wet-white leather. The samples of leather were exposed for eight months to outdoor weathering and then their properties were subsequently evaluated. The results indicate that resistance and dimensional stability of wet-white (THPS-syntan) leather is higher than that of chrometanned leather. The comparative work with chrome leather was described earlier.

  • Design of dehydration and stabilization process for biopelt

     Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Sabé, Rosa; Adzet, José; Castell, Joan Carles; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists
    Vol. 95, num. 2, p. 68-73
    Date of publication: 2011-04-14
    Journal article

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    The aim of the present work is to generate at laboratory scale a biomaterial developed by in-vitro technology with similar characteristics to genuine leather. The generation of an in-vitro tissue from bovine fibroblasts is carried out using a scaffold to generate a three-dimensional extra-cellular matrix (3D ECM). The development of a biopelt is by an in-vitro production at lab scale in a bioreactor with specific culturing conditions.1 New methodologies to stabilize the biomaterial generated were investigated. In particular, the biomaterial was stabilized by immersion in solutions of vegetable tannins and cross-linking agents in an aqueous-solvent medium.

  • Modificación del pla mediante extrusión reactiva para la mejora del procesado, del comport de la fractura y de la prep de nanocomp

     Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Navarro Barbero, Rosa M.; Bou Serra, Jorge
    Competitive project

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  • Desenvolupament d'un nou material col.lagenic semi-processat

     Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Use of water-based carbonyl-functional polymers on a cross-linker-free highperformance leather finish  Open access

     Olle Otero, Luis; Urteaga, Eva; Font Vallès, Joaquim; Labastida, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Afinidad: revista de química teórica y aplicada
    Vol. 68, num. 551, p. 15-19
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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    The present paper aims to study a new high-performance coating formulation while avoiding the use of cross-linkers. By using acrylic polymers with carbonyl functional groups, the negative environmental effects of the finishing process can be minimized. These new polymers can give very good physical properties without losing the inherent properties of flexibility and elasticity needed in upholstery leather

  • Optimizing a sustainable and innovative wet-white process with tara tannins

     Castell Escuer, Joan Carles; Fabregat, Cristina; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Olle Otero, Luis; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna
    Annual Meeting of the American Leather Chemists Association
    p. 13-
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Study of cross-linking reactions of polysilanes

     Shendrik, Alexander; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    International Leather Engineering Congress
    p. 21-31
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Nowadays, there are four types of commercially available cross-linkers for the leather industry: polyaziridines, polyisocyanates, polycarbodiimides and epoxy compounds. All these products present different chemical reactivity and have different reaction rates. This study explores the cross-linking reaction between an epoxy functional alkoxysilane and both acrylic binders and polyurethanes. Although this type of cross-linker is employed in sectors other than the leather industry, it can be used in finishing processes. A comparison of results indicates that such cross-linker presents a better cross-linking reaction rate than polyaziridine, polyisocyanate, polycarbodiimide and epoxy compounds.

  • Study of cross-linking reactions of epoxy compounds

     Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Shendrik, Alexander; Combalia Cendra, Felip; Jorge Sanchez, Juan; Olle Otero, Luis
    International Leather Engineering Congress
    p. 33-45
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa): The sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes  Open access

     Castell, Joan Carles; Sorolla Casellas, Sílvia; Jorba, Montse; Aribau, Joaquim; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis
    IULTCS Congress
    p. 1-12
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study considers the fruit of the tara tree as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with environment and social concerns. Although tara tannins have been used in the leather industry and its properties are well known, the work aims to optimize formulations using tara as a pretanning agent. Combinations with a naphthalene sulphonic syntan are used to obtain an innovative wet-white recipe considering shrinking temperature, tensile strength, tensile elongation, tear load and lightfastness properties as statistical variables.

  • Copolymers from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chain extenders or branching agents

     Hitos-Rodriguez, Ángel; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna; Olle Otero, Luis; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; Maspoch Ruldua, Maria Lluïsa; Bou Serra, Jorge
    European Polymer Congress
    p. 57
    Presentation's date: 2011-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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