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  • FASTOP - Final acceptance test report and certification outlook

     Isidro, Bas; Vilardaga, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Date: 2014-03
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  • Best paper Award in Environmental Track - ICRAT 2014

     Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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    Agent-based simulation framework for airport collaborative decision making  Open access

     García Vasco, Ivan; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado, Luis
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Airport C ollaborative Decision Making (A - CDM) is based on information sharing. A better use of resources can be attained w hen the different stakeholders at airport operations share their more accurate and updated information . One of the main difficulties when dealing with this information sharing concept is the number of stakeholders involved and their different interest and behaviour : aircraft operators , gro und handling companies, airport authority, air traffic control and the Central Flow Management Unit . It is paramount to quantify the benefit of an airport collaborative decision making strategy in order to involve all these different organisations. Simulat ions are required to analyse the overall system and its emerging behaviour . This paper presents the development and initial t est ing of a n agent - based framework , which allows this behavioural analysis to be done . The simulator explicitly represents the diff erent stakeholders involved in the A - CDM and the interactions between them during the 16 milestones defined by EUROCONTROL o n its A - CDM implementation manual . T his framework allows independent gradual development of local behaviours and optimisation, and a gradual increase on complexity and fidelity on the simulations

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    Conflict free trajectory optimisation for complex departure procedures  Open access

     Vilardaga Garcia-cascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    How much fuel and time can be saved in a perfect flight trajectory? Continuous cruise climbs vs. conventional operations  Open access  awarded activity

     Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Continuous climb, cruise and decent operations (referred as continuous operations) may contribute to significantly reduce fuel and emissions. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the introduction of such procedures at large scale is not possible with the current air traffic management concept of operations, since flying at constant altitudes is one of the key aspects to strategically separate flows of aircraft. This paper tries to quantify what would be the potential savings of flying such optimised vertical profiles. A multiphase optimal control problem is formulated and solved by means of numerical optimisation. Optimal conventional trajectories (subject to realistic air traffic management practices and constraints) are compared with optimal continuous (and ideal) operations, only subject to aircraft performance constraints. Results show that the continuous cruise phase can lead to fuel savings between 1% and 2% of the total trip fuel for an Airbus A320. Interestingly, continuous operations show also a reduction of trip times between 1% and 5% of the total trip time, depending on the trip distance between origin and destination airports.

  • FASTOP - Mathematical model

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Dalmau Codina, Ramon
    Date: 2013-11-04
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  • FASTOP - Problem definition

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Bas, Isidro; Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi
    Date: 2013-05-03
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  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    ReVisión
    Date of publication: 2013-09
    Journal article

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    En este artículo se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificación de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario más adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como guía para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edición para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El análisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares.

  • Enabling leg-based guidance on top of waypoint-based autopilots for UAS

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Trillo, Noel; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Aerospace science and technology
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • C3 in UAS as a means for secondary navigation

     Ramírez Alcántara, Jorge; Salazar Hernández, Dagoberto José; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    Journal of navigation
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • Effect of wind on operating cost based cruise speed reduction for delay absorption

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems
    Date of publication: 2013-03-06
    Journal article

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    En route speed reduction can be used for air traffic flow management (ATFM), e.g., delaying aircraft while airborne or realizing metering at an arrival fix. In previous publications, the authors identified the flight conditions that maximize the airborne delay without incurring extra fuel consumption with respect to the nominal (not delayed) flight. In this paper, the effect of wind on this strategy is studied, and the sensitivity to wind forecast errors is also assessed. A case study done in Chicago O’Hare airport (ORD) is presented, showing that wind has a significant effect on the airborne delay that can be realized and that, in some cases, even tailwinds might lead to an increase in the maximum amount of airborne delay. The values of airborne delay are representative enough to suggest that this speed reduction technique might be useful in a real operational scenario. Moreover, the speed reduction strategy is more robust than nominal operations against fuel consumption in the presence of wind forecast uncertainties.

    Preprint (author's final draft)

  • Remote flight inspection using Unmanned aircraft

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Ramírez Alcántara, Jorge; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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  • GReener Aeronautics International Networking-2

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Flight Operations for Novel COntinuous DEscent - cONCOrDE

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • ATACCS 2013 Conference - Boeing Best PhD Paper Award

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • Best paper in track award - ATM Seminar 2013

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
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  • Effect of Radii of Exemption on Ground Delay Programs with Operating Cost Based Cruise Speed Reduction

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    Jornadas sobre la enseñanza universitaria de la informática
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Effects in fuel consumption of assigning RTAs into 4D trajectory optimisation upon departures  Open access

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non- segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

    4D trajectory optimisation has showed good potential to reduce environmental impact in aviation. However, a recurrent problematic is the loss in air traffic capacity that these pose, usually overcome with speed and time advisories. This paper aims at the quantification in terms of fuel consumption of implementing suboptimal trajectories to preserve capacity. Via an own developed optimisation framework, we deliver results on how imposing a nonoptimal RTA to a trajectory increases the fuel burned. We show how advancing a metering fix in an example departure trajectory translates to an increase of up 15Kg of fuel burned. Similarly, postponing it 50s, will burn around 23Kg more. Also, imposing a level off phase (due to incoming traffic) will typically consume around 25Kg more. Different scenarios

  • Cruise Speed Reduction for Air Traffic Flow Management  Open access

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis
    Defense's date: 2013-04-08
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Avui dia un considerable nombre d¿infraestructures del transport aeri tenen problemes de congestió. Aquesta situació es veu empitjorada amb l¿increment de trànsit existent i amb la seva densitat deguda al sistema de hub i spoke utilitzat per les companyies aèries. Aquesta congestió es veu agreujada puntualment per disminucions de capacitat per causes com la meteorologia. Per mitigar aquests desequilibris, normalment són implementades mesures de gestió del flux de trànsit aeri (ATFM), sent el retard a làeroport d¿origen una de les més utilitzades. Assignant retard previ a l¿enlairament, el trànsit dàrribada és repartit durant un interval de temps superior i les arribades es distribueixen. Malgrat això, la predicció de quan aquestes reduccions de capacitat es solucionaran una tasca dificultosa. Això comporta que es defineixin regulacions que són més llargues del necessari i per tant, porta a la realització de retard innecessari i al desaprofitament de capacitat.La definició de trajectòries precises ofereix noves oportunitats per gestionar aquests desequilibris. Una tècnica prometedora és la utilització de variacions de velocitat durant el creuer. Generalment, es considera que volar més lent que la velocitat de màxim abast (MRC) no és eficient. En aquesta tesis es presenta una nova aproximació. Quan les aerolínies planifiquen els seus vols, consideren el cost del temps junt amb el del combustible. Per tant, és habitual seleccionar velocitats més ràpides que MRC. Així és possible volar més lent de la velocitat de MRC tot mantenint el mateix consum inicialment planificat. Aquest retard realitzat a làire pot ser considerat a la fase pre-tàctica per dividir el retard assignat a un vol en retard a terra i retard a làire durant el creuer. Amb aquesta estratègia, el retard és absorbit de manera gradual durant el vol fent servir el mateix combustible que inicialment planificat. Si la regulació es cancella abans del que estava planificat inicialment, els vols que estan a l'aire es troben en una situació més favorable per tal de recuperar part del retard.La present tesis es centra en l¿estudi dàquest concepte. En primer lloc, s¿ha realitzat un estudi de la relació entre el combustible utilitzat i el temps de vol quan es modifica la velocitat nominal de creuer. A continuació, s¿ha definit i analitzat el retard que pot ser realitzat sense incorre en un consum extra de combustible en làbsència i en la presencia de vent. També s¿ha considerat i analitza la influència de triar un nivell de vol diferent del planificat inicialment i la utilització de combustible extra per tal d¿obtenir major quantitat de retard. Els resultats mostren que per vols de curt i mitja distància, la quantitat de retard realitzable és d¿entorn a 5 minuts, aquesta quantitat augmenta a uns 25 minuts per vols de llarg recorregut. El nivell de vol s¿ha identificat com un dels paràmetres principals que afecten a la quantitat de retard que pot ser absorbit a làire.

    Avui dia un considerable nombre d’infraestructures del transport aeri tenen problemes de congestió. Aquesta situació es veu empitjorada amb l’increment de trànsit existent i amb la seva densitat deguda al sistema de hub i spoke utilitzat per les companyies aèries. Aquesta congestió es veu agreujada puntualment per disminucions de capacitat per causes com la meteorologia. Per mitigar aquests desequilibris, normalment són implementades mesures de gestió del flux de transit aeri (ATFM), sent el retard a l’aeroport d’origen una de les més utilitzades. Assignant retard previ a l’enlairament, el trànsit d’arribada és repartit durant un interval de temps superior i les arribades es distribueixen. Malgrat això, la predicció de quan aquestes reduccions de capacitat es solucionaran una tasca dificultosa. Això comporta que es defineixin regulacions que són més llargues del necessari i per tant, porta a la realització de retard innecessari i al desaprofitament de capacitat. La definició de trajectòries precises ofereix noves oportunitats per gestionar aquests desequilibris. Una tècnica prometedora és la utilització de variacions de velocitat durant el creuer. Generalment, es considera que volar més lent que la velocitat de màxim abast (MRC) no és eficient. En aquesta tesis es presenta una nova aproximació. Quan les aerolínies planifiquen els seus vols, consideren el cost del temps junt amb el del combustible. Per tant, és habitual seleccionar velocitats més ràpides que MRC. Així és possible volar més lent de la velocitat de MRC tot mantenint el mateix consum inicialment planificat. Aquest retard realitzat a l’aire pot ser considerat a la fase pre-tàctica per dividir el retard assignat a un vol en retard a terra i retard a l’aire durant el creuer. Amb aquesta estratègia, el retard és absorbit de manera gradual durant el vol fent servir el mateix combustible que inicialment planificat. Si la regulació es cancel•la abans del que estava planificat inicialment, els vols que estan a l’aire es troben en una situació més favorable per tal de recuperar part del retard. La present tesis es centra en l’estudi d’aquest concepte. En primer lloc, s’ha realitzat un estudi de la relació entre el combustible utilitzat i el temps de vol quan es modifica la velocitat nominal de creuer. A continuació, s’ha definit i analitzat el retard que pot ser realitzat sense incorre en un consum extra de combustible en l’absència i en la presencia de vent. També s’ha considerat i analitza la influència de triar un nivell de vol diferent del planificat inicialment i la utilització de combustible extra per tal d’obtenir major quantitat de retard. Els resultats mostren que per vols de curt i mitja distància, la quantitat de retard realitzable és d’entorn a 5 minuts, aquesta quantitat augmenta a uns 25 minuts per vols de llarg recorregut. El nivell de vol s’ha identificat com un dels paràmetres principals que afecten a la quantitat de retard que pot ser absorbit a l’aire. A continuació es presenta l’aplicació de la tècnica a regulacions d’ATFM realistes, i particularment a ground delay programs (GDP). Per tal de mostrar resultats que siguin significatius, els GDPs implementats en 2006 en el espai aeri nord-americà han sigut analitzats. Han sigut detalladament estudiats escenaris als aeroports de San Francisco, Newark i Chicago. Aquests tres aeroports van ser els que van declarar més GDPs durant el 2006 i per la seva situació geogràfica presenten trànsits amb diferents característiques. Per tal de considerar el trànsit s’ha utilitzat dades de la Federal Aviation Administration i característiques aerodinàmiques i de consum realistes provinents d’Airbus. Finalment, la tesis presenta l’efecte d’utilitzar radis d’exempció en els programes de regulació de trànsit i l’ ús de polítiques de priorització de vols diferents a la utilitzada actualment (ration-byschedule). Per concloure, s’ha realitzat una breu discussió sobre l’impacte d’aquesta estratègia en la gestió del trànsit aeri.

    Nowadays, many air transport infrastructures suffer from congestion. This situation is worsened by a continuous increase in traffic, and, traffic density due to hub and spoke systems. Weather is one of the main causes which leads to punctual capacity reduction. To mitigate these imbalances, air traffic flow management (ATFM) initiatives are usually undertaken, ground delay at the origin airport being one of the main ones used. By assigning delay on ground at the departure airport, the arrival traffic is spread out and the arrivals are metered at the congested infrastructure. However, forecasting when these capacity drops will be solved is usually a difficult task. This leads to unnecessarily long regulations, and therefore to the realisation of unnecessary delay and an underuse of the capacity of the infrastructures.The implementation of precise four dimension trajectories, envisaged in the near future, presents new opportunities for dealing with these capacity demand imbalances. In this context, a promising technique is the use of speed variation during the cruise. Generally, it is considered that flying slower than the maximum range speed (MRC) is neither efficient nor desirable. In this dissertation a new approach is presented. When airlines plan their flights, they consider the cost of time along with the cost of fuel. It is therefore common practice to select speeds that are faster than MRC.Thus, it is possible to fly slower than MRC while maintaining fuel consumption as initially planned. This airborne delay can be considered at a pre-tactical phase to divide the assigned air traffic flow management delay between ground and airborne delay. With this strategy, the delay is absorbed gradually during the flight using the same fuel as initially planned, but with the advantage that, if the regulation is cancelled before planned, the flights which are already airborne are in a better position to recover part of their assigned delay.This dissertation focuses on the study of this concept. Firstly, a study of the trade-off existing between fuel consumption and flight time, when modifying the nominal cruise speed, is presented. Secondly, the airborne delay that can be realised without incurring extra fuel consumption is defined and assessed in the absence and presence of wind. The influence of selecting a different flight level than initially planned, and the use of extra fuel consumption to obtain higher delay, are also considered and analysed. Results show that for short and mid-range flights around 5 minutes of airborne delay can be realised, while for longer flights this value increases up to around 25 minutes. The flight level is identified as one of the main parameters which affect the amount of airborne delay realisable.Then, the application of the suggested cruise speed reduction on realistic ATFM initiatives, and, in particular, on ground delay programs (GDP) in the United States, is presented. In order to obtain significant results, the GDPs implemented in North American airspace during 2006 are analysed. Scenarios for San Francisco International, Newark Liberty International and Chicago O'Hare International are studied in detail, as these airports were the ones where the most GDPs were implemented in 2006. In addition, due to their location, they present different traffic behaviours. In order to consider the traffic, Federal Aviation Administration data and the aerodynamics and fuel consumption characteristic form Airbus are used.Finally, the use of radius of exemption in the GPDs and the use of ration policies different from the operative ration-by-schedule, are also analysed. To conclude, a brief discussion about the impact of this speed reduction strategy on the air traffic management is presented.

    Hoy en día un número considerable de infraestructuras del transporte aéreo tienen problemas de congestión. Esta situación se ve empeorada por el incremento de tráfico existente y por su densidad producida por el sistema de hub y spoke utilizado por las compañías aéreas. Esta congestión se ve agravada puntualmente por disminuciones de capacidad debidas a causas como la meteorología. Para mitigar estos desequilibrios, normalmente se implementan medidas de gestión del tráfico aéreo (ATFM), siendo el retraso en el aeropuerto de origen una de las más utilizadas. Asignando retraso en tierra previo al despegue, el tráfico de llegada se distribuye durante un intervalo mayor de tiempo y se controlan las llegadas. Pese a esto, la predicción de cuando estas reducciones de capacidad se solventarán es generalmente una tarea compleja. Por esto, se suelen definir regulaciones durante un periodo de tiempo superior al necesario, comportando la asignación y realización de retraso innecesario y el desaprovechamiento de las infraestructuras. La definición de trayectorias precisas permite nuevas oportunidades para gestionar estos desequilibrios. Una técnica prometedora es el uso de variaciones de velocidad durante el crucero. Suele considerarse que volar más lento que la velocidad de máximo alcance (MRC) no es eficiente. En esta tesis se presenta una nueva aproximación. Cuando las aerolíneas planifican sus vuelos consideran el coste del tiempo junto con el del combustible. Por consiguiente, es una práctica habitual seleccionar velocidades mas rápidas que MRC. Así es posible volar mas lento que la velocidad de MRC manteniendo el mismo consumo que el inicialmente planificado. Este retraso realizable en el aire puede ser considerado en la fase pre-táctica para dividir el retraso asignado entre retraso en tierra y retraso durante el crucero. Con esta estrategia, el retraso es absorbido de manera gradual durante todo el vuelo utilizando el mismo combustible que el planificado inicialmente por la compañía. Esta estrategia presenta la ventaja de que los vuelos que están en el aire se encuentran en una situación mas favorable para recuperar parte del retraso que tenían asignado si la regulación se cancela. En primer lugar se ha realizado un estudio de la relación existente entre el combustible usado y el tiempo de vuelo cuando la velocidad de crucero es modificada. A continuación, se ha definido y analizado el retraso que se puede realizar sin repercutir en el consumo en la ausencia y en la presencia de viento. También se ha considerado la influencia de elegir un nivel de vuelo diferente al planificado y el uso de combustible extra para incrementar el retraso. Los resultados muestran que para vuelos de corto y medio alcance, la cantidad de retraso es de en torno a 5 minutos, esta cantidad aumenta a unos 25 minutos para vuelos de largo recorrido. El nivel de vuelo se ha identificado como uno de los parámetros principales que afectan a la cantidad de retraso que puede ser absorbido. Seguidamente se presenta la aplicación de esta técnica en regulaciones de ATFM realistas, y en particular de ground delay programs (GDP). Con el objetivo de mostrar resultados significativos, los GDPs definidos en 2006 en el espacio aéreo norteamericano han sido analizados. Han sido estudiados en detalle escenarios en los aeropuertos de San Francico, Newark y Chicago. Estos tres aeropuertos fueron los aeropuertos que implementaron m´as GDPs en 2006 y por su situación geográfica presentan tráficos con diferentes características. Para considerar el tráfico se han utilizado datos de la Federal Aviation Administration y características aerodinámicas y de consumo provenientes de Airbus. Finalmente, se presenta el efecto de usar radios de exención en los GDPs y el uso de políticas de priorización de vuelos diferentes a la utilizada actualmente (ration-by-schedule). Para concluir se ha realizado una breve discusión sobre el impacto de esta estrategia en la gestión del tráfico aéreo.

  • Cruise speed reduction for ground delay programs: A case study for San Francisco International Airport arrivals

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Sridhar, Banavar
    Transportation research. Part C, emerging technologies
    Date of publication: 2013-07-29
    Journal article

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    Ground Delay Programs (GDP) are sometimes cancelled before their initial planned duration and for this reason aircraft are delayed when it is no longer needed. Recovering this delay usually leads to extra fuel consumption, since the aircraft will typically depart after having absorbed on ground their assigned delay and, therefore, they will need to cruise at more fuel consuming speeds. Past research has proposed speed reduction strategy aiming at splitting the GDP-assigned delay between ground and airborne delay, while using the same fuel as in nominal conditions. Being airborne earlier, an aircraft can speed up to nominal cruise speed and recover part of the GDP delay without incurring extra fuel consumption if the GDP is cancelled earlier than planned. In this paper, all GDP initiatives that occurred in San Francisco International Airport during 2006 are studied and characterised by a K-means algorithm into three different clusters. The centroids for these three clusters have been used to simulate three different GDPs at the airport by using a realistic set of inbound traffic and the Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). The amount of delay that can be recovered using this cruise speed reduction technique, as a function of the GDP cancellation time, has been computed and compared with the delay recovered with the current concept of operations. Simulations have been conducted in calm wind situation and without considering a radius of exemption. Results indicate that when aircraft depart early and fly at the slower speed they can recover additional delays, compared to current operations where all delays are absorbed prior to take-off, in the event the GDP cancels early. There is a variability of extra delay recovered, being more significant, in relative terms, for those GDPs with a relatively low amount of demand exceeding the airport capacity.

  • En Route Speed Reduction Concept for Absorbing Air Traffic Flow Management Delays

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2012-01
    Journal article

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  • In-flight contingency management for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication
    Date of publication: 2012-01-31
    Journal article

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  • Flight plan specification and management for unmanned aircraft systems

     Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos
    Journal of intelligent and robotic systems
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a new concept for specifying Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flight operations that aims at improving the waypoint based approach, found in most autopilot systems, by providing higher level fligh plan specification primitives. The proposed method borrows the leg and path terminator concepts used in Area Navigation1 (RNAV). Several RNAV leg types are adopted and extended with new ones for a better adaptation to UAS requirements. Extensions include the addition of control constructs that enable repetitive and conditional behavior, and also parametric legs that can be used to generate complex paths from a reduced number of parameters. The paper also covers the design and implementation of a software component that manages execution of the flight plan. To take advantage of current off-the-shelf flight control systems the constructs included in the flight plan are translated to waypoint navigation commands. In this way, the advanced capabilities provided by the flight plan specification language are implemented as a new layer on top of existing technologies. The benefits and the feasibility of the proposed approach for UAS flight plan management are demonstrated by means of a simulated mission that performs the flight inspection of Radio Navigation Aids.

  • An environmental assessment of air traffic speed constraints in the departure phase of flight: A case study at Gothenburg Landvetter Airport, Sweden

     Mitchell, Deborah; Ekstrand, Henrik; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Grönstedt, Tomas
    Transportation research. Part D, transport and environment
    Date of publication: 2012-12
    Journal article

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  • Requirements, issues, and challenges for sense and avoid in Unmanned Aircraft Systems

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2012-05
    Journal article

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    The sense and avoid capability is one of the greatest challenges that has to be addressed to safely integrate unmanned aircraft systems into civil and nonsegregated airspace. This paper gives a review of existing regulations, recommended practices, and standards in sense and avoid for unmanned aircraft systems. Gaps and issues are identified, as are the different factors that are likely to affect actual sense and avoid requirements. It is found that the operational environment (flight altitude, meteorological conditions, and class of airspace) plays an important role when determining the type of flying hazards that the unmanned aircraft system might encounter. In addition, the automation level and the data-link architecture of the unmanned aircraft system are key factors that will definitely determine the sense and avoid system requirements. Tactical unmanned aircraft, performing similar missions to general aviation, are found to be the most challenging systems from an sense and avoid point of view, and further research and development efforts are still needed before their seamless integration into nonsegregated airspace.

  • FASTOP: Fast optimiser for continuous descent approaches

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Evaluation of separation strategies for unmanned aerial sytems  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper analyzes loss of separation scenarios when an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) enters in conflict with a much faster airplane flying at the same altitude. Separation distances are analyzed in terms of minimum heading changes and reaction times. Results show that maneuvers need to be performed well in advance if the (low-speed) UA is the aircraft that changes its heading. In some cases the time in which the UA and the intruder are in conflict could be too long, and may even involve multiple airliners flying over the same airway. Given that standard separation strategies may have a negative impact on the UA mission, in this paper a set of pre-planned separation maneuvers are proposed. These maneuvers aim to improve the situational awareness of both air traffic controller and UA pilotin- command, but also to disrupt as less as possible the mission performed by the UA and to minimize the uncertainty in the reactions the UA may adopt autonomously if the link with the ground station is lost. Some preliminary real-time simulations are shown, using a UA ground station simulator linked to a air traffic control simulator.

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    On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper studies the separation maneuvers that an Unmanned Air System (UAS) may execute to avoid breaching the separation safety margins imposed in each type of airspace, namely 3 NM, 5 NM, and 10 NM. The UAS was assumed under the control of its Pilot in Command, with available information about its surrounding traffic through ADS-B or ADS-C, and most likely under the supervision of an ATCo. A number of UAS separation maneuvers have been identified that may guarantee the desired levels of separation if executed with the right parameters and enough anticipation. This paper focuses on identification of the most suitable maneuver for any separation conflict geometry and performance envelop. The conflict geometry is modeled to take into account the speed of both vehicles (the UAS and the intruder), the conflict angle, the turning limitations of the UAS, the reaction time of the pilot, and the communication latency.

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    A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

  • Regulations and Requirements

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Royo Chic, Pablo
    Date of publication: 2012-04
    Book chapter

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  • Robust data fusion for {4D} conflict free optimal trajectories in a highly automated ATM system

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2012-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that gives the same fuel consumption as initially planned, the airline can maximize the airborne delay without any extra fuel consumption. In this paper, the effect of wind on the amount of airborne delay is assessed and a case study of Chicago O’hare airport is presented. Results show that wind has a great effect on the airborne delay that can be achieved and that, in some cases, even tail winds might lead to an increase of airborne delay

  • Autopilot abstraction and standardization for seamless integration of Unmanned Aircraft System applications

     Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Lema, Juan
    Journal of aerospace computing, information, and communication
    Date of publication: 2011-08
    Journal article

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  • Multi-objective optimization strategy for designing aircraft noise abatement procedures. Case study at Girona airport

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Transportation research. Part D, transport and environment
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    The optimization of aircraft noise abatement procedures involves several conflicting factors, including location specific noise sensitivity and aircraft operating costs. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization strategy that employs goal, lexicographic-egalitarian and hierarchical optimization techniques. The presented methodology aims at better assessing the design of site-specific noise abatement procedures that take into account the actual populated areas, their type and distribution, the hour of the day where the trajectory is supposed to be flown and the aircraft type. An illustrative example is given with the design of the East departures at Girona airport, Catalonia. Results point out how the noise annoyance impact of current operational procedures can be significantly reduced by the optimized trajectories and show, as well, an important dependency on the type of aircraft and the hour of the day

  • Equitable aircraft noise abatement departure procedures

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Journal of guidance control and dynamics
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    This paper deals with the optimization of aircraft noise-abatement departure procedures. A multicriteria optimization strategy is presented, where the fairness of the optimal trajectories is assessed vis-à-vis the different noise-sensitive locations around the airport of study. This equitable optimization is formulated as the minimization of the maximum noise-annoyance deviation regarding all considered locations. This strategy is complemented with an iterative lexicographic optimization algorithm which, in turn, guarantees the Pareto efficiency condition of the final solution. Aircraft operating costs are also considered by neglecting the marginal benefits of noise reduction below a certain threshold value. An application example is shown (as an illustrative case) based on a departure of runway 02 at Girona airport in Catalonia, Spain. The results show the feasibility of this technique, which is intended to be used by procedure designers or airport authorities.

  • Departure and approach procedures for unmanned aircraft systems in a visual-flight-rule environment

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Journal of aircraft
    Date of publication: 2011-08
    Journal article

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  • INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATIONS, OPERATIONS AND AVIONICS FOR ROBUST (UN)MANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Best paper award 1st International Conference on application and theory of automation in command and control system

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Award or recognition

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  • Green delay programes, absorbing ATFM delay by flying at minimum fuel speed

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Hansen, Mark
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delaying aircraft on ground is one of the most used strategies when an imbalance between planned demand and actual capacity arises, either at an airport or in an airspace sector. This paper focuses on a new strategy consisting in delaying aircraft from their nominal cruise speed to the minimum fuel consumption speed. Therefore, trip times are increased and air traffic management delay can be partially performed in the air. For these flights, fuel consumption is reduced and consequently, their environmental impact. Based on data from ground delay programs at San Francisco International airport during 2006, this paper quantifies the impact that such a strategy would have had if applied to all delayed flights. Results show that for the majority of flights, the 5% to 15% of the initially assigned delay could have been absorbed in the air, leading to fuel savings in the order of 4% to 7% for each individual flight, if compared with the nominal situation

  • Simulation of airborne ATFM delay and delay recovery by cruise speed reduction

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An architecture to automate UAS operations in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Evaluating technologies and mechanisms for the automated/autonomous operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Depart and approach procedures for UAS in a VFR environment

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Multi-objective optimisation for aircraft departure trajectories minimising noise annoyance

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    Transportation research. Part C, emerging technologies
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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  • Lexicographic optimisation for optimal departure aircraft trajectories

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    Aerospace science and technology
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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