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  • BUDAPEST 2.0

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • BUDAPEST 2.0

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • Best paper Award in Environmental Track - ICRAT 2014

     Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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    Conflict free trajectory optimisation for complex departure procedures  Open access

     Vilardaga Garcia-cascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    How much fuel and time can be saved in a perfect flight trajectory? Continuous cruise climbs vs. conventional operations  Open access  awarded activity

     Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-28
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Continuous climb, cruise and decent operations (referred as continuous operations) may contribute to significantly reduce fuel and emissions. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the introduction of such procedures at large scale is not possible with the current air traffic management concept of operations, since flying at constant altitudes is one of the key aspects to strategically separate flows of aircraft. This paper tries to quantify what would be the potential savings of flying such optimised vertical profiles. A multiphase optimal control problem is formulated and solved by means of numerical optimisation. Optimal conventional trajectories (subject to realistic air traffic management practices and constraints) are compared with optimal continuous (and ideal) operations, only subject to aircraft performance constraints. Results show that the continuous cruise phase can lead to fuel savings between 1% and 2% of the total trip fuel for an Airbus A320. Interestingly, continuous operations show also a reduction of trip times between 1% and 5% of the total trip time, depending on the trip distance between origin and destination airports.

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    Agent-based simulation framework for airport collaborative decision making  Open access

     García Vasco, Ivan; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado, Luis
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2014-05-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Airport C ollaborative Decision Making (A - CDM) is based on information sharing. A better use of resources can be attained w hen the different stakeholders at airport operations share their more accurate and updated information . One of the main difficulties when dealing with this information sharing concept is the number of stakeholders involved and their different interest and behaviour : aircraft operators , gro und handling companies, airport authority, air traffic control and the Central Flow Management Unit . It is paramount to quantify the benefit of an airport collaborative decision making strategy in order to involve all these different organisations. Simulat ions are required to analyse the overall system and its emerging behaviour . This paper presents the development and initial t est ing of a n agent - based framework , which allows this behavioural analysis to be done . The simulator explicitly represents the diff erent stakeholders involved in the A - CDM and the interactions between them during the 16 milestones defined by EUROCONTROL o n its A - CDM implementation manual . T his framework allows independent gradual development of local behaviours and optimisation, and a gradual increase on complexity and fidelity on the simulations

  • Flight Operations for Novel COntinuous DEscent - cONCOrDE

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • FASTOP - Final acceptance test report and certification outlook

     Isidro, Bas; Vilardaga, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Date: 2014-03
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  • Operaciones RPAS en el Cielo Unico Europeo

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Valero Garcia, Miguel; López Rubio, Juan; Reyes Muñoz, M. Angélica; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
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  • FASTOP - Mathematical model

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Dalmau Codina, Ramon
    Date: 2013-11-04
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  • GReener Aeronautics International Networking-2

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • Evaluation of the RPAS-ATM interaction in non-segregated airspace

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
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  • Best paper in track award - ATM Seminar 2013

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
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  • Effect of Radii of Exemption on Ground Delay Programs with Operating Cost Based Cruise Speed Reduction

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Una experiencia de unificación de asignaturas para desplegar PBL (y las quejas que originó)  Open access

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Mellibovsky Elstein, Fernando; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Royo Chic, Pablo; Valero Garcia, Miguel
    Jornadas sobre la enseñanza universitaria de la informática
    p. 175-182
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    En esta ponencia se describen los aspectos esenciales de una experiencia de unificación de parejas de asignaturas con el objetivo de crear un escenario más adecuado para el despliegue de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos. Como guía para el repaso de esos aspectos esenciales se utiliza una carta que elaboraron los estudiantes de la primera edición para protestar por el funcionamiento de las asignaturas. El análisis de las quejas de los estudiantes puede ser de mucha utilidad para otros que se planeen retos similares.

    SUMMARY -- This paper describes the key aspects of an experience of unification of pairs of subjects in order to create a more suitable scenario for deployment of Project Based Learning. To guide the review of these essential aspects we use a letter that students from the first edition wrote to protest against the organization of the subjects. The analysis of the complaints of the students can be very helpful for others who are planning similar innovations.

  • Maintaining separation between airliners and RPAS in non-segregated airspace

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2013-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • ATACCS 2013 Conference - Boeing Best PhD Paper Award

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • FASTOP - Problem definition

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Bas, Isidro; Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi
    Date: 2013-05-03
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    Effects in fuel consumption of assigning RTAs into 4D trajectory optimisation upon departures  Open access

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non- segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

    4D trajectory optimisation has showed good potential to reduce environmental impact in aviation. However, a recurrent problematic is the loss in air traffic capacity that these pose, usually overcome with speed and time advisories. This paper aims at the quantification in terms of fuel consumption of implementing suboptimal trajectories to preserve capacity. Via an own developed optimisation framework, we deliver results on how imposing a nonoptimal RTA to a trajectory increases the fuel burned. We show how advancing a metering fix in an example departure trajectory translates to an increase of up 15Kg of fuel burned. Similarly, postponing it 50s, will burn around 23Kg more. Also, imposing a level off phase (due to incoming traffic) will typically consume around 25Kg more. Different scenarios

  • Cruise Speed Reduction for Air Traffic Flow Management  Open access

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Avui dia un considerable nombre d¿infraestructures del transport aeri tenen problemes de congestió. Aquesta situació es veu empitjorada amb l¿increment de trànsit existent i amb la seva densitat deguda al sistema de hub i spoke utilitzat per les companyies aèries. Aquesta congestió es veu agreujada puntualment per disminucions de capacitat per causes com la meteorologia. Per mitigar aquests desequilibris, normalment són implementades mesures de gestió del flux de trànsit aeri (ATFM), sent el retard a làeroport d¿origen una de les més utilitzades. Assignant retard previ a l¿enlairament, el trànsit dàrribada és repartit durant un interval de temps superior i les arribades es distribueixen. Malgrat això, la predicció de quan aquestes reduccions de capacitat es solucionaran una tasca dificultosa. Això comporta que es defineixin regulacions que són més llargues del necessari i per tant, porta a la realització de retard innecessari i al desaprofitament de capacitat.La definició de trajectòries precises ofereix noves oportunitats per gestionar aquests desequilibris. Una tècnica prometedora és la utilització de variacions de velocitat durant el creuer. Generalment, es considera que volar més lent que la velocitat de màxim abast (MRC) no és eficient. En aquesta tesis es presenta una nova aproximació. Quan les aerolínies planifiquen els seus vols, consideren el cost del temps junt amb el del combustible. Per tant, és habitual seleccionar velocitats més ràpides que MRC. Així és possible volar més lent de la velocitat de MRC tot mantenint el mateix consum inicialment planificat. Aquest retard realitzat a làire pot ser considerat a la fase pre-tàctica per dividir el retard assignat a un vol en retard a terra i retard a làire durant el creuer. Amb aquesta estratègia, el retard és absorbit de manera gradual durant el vol fent servir el mateix combustible que inicialment planificat. Si la regulació es cancella abans del que estava planificat inicialment, els vols que estan a l'aire es troben en una situació més favorable per tal de recuperar part del retard.La present tesis es centra en l¿estudi dàquest concepte. En primer lloc, s¿ha realitzat un estudi de la relació entre el combustible utilitzat i el temps de vol quan es modifica la velocitat nominal de creuer. A continuació, s¿ha definit i analitzat el retard que pot ser realitzat sense incorre en un consum extra de combustible en làbsència i en la presencia de vent. També s¿ha considerat i analitza la influència de triar un nivell de vol diferent del planificat inicialment i la utilització de combustible extra per tal d¿obtenir major quantitat de retard. Els resultats mostren que per vols de curt i mitja distància, la quantitat de retard realitzable és d¿entorn a 5 minuts, aquesta quantitat augmenta a uns 25 minuts per vols de llarg recorregut. El nivell de vol s¿ha identificat com un dels paràmetres principals que afecten a la quantitat de retard que pot ser absorbit a làire.

    Avui dia un considerable nombre d’infraestructures del transport aeri tenen problemes de congestió. Aquesta situació es veu empitjorada amb l’increment de trànsit existent i amb la seva densitat deguda al sistema de hub i spoke utilitzat per les companyies aèries. Aquesta congestió es veu agreujada puntualment per disminucions de capacitat per causes com la meteorologia. Per mitigar aquests desequilibris, normalment són implementades mesures de gestió del flux de transit aeri (ATFM), sent el retard a l’aeroport d’origen una de les més utilitzades. Assignant retard previ a l’enlairament, el trànsit d’arribada és repartit durant un interval de temps superior i les arribades es distribueixen. Malgrat això, la predicció de quan aquestes reduccions de capacitat es solucionaran una tasca dificultosa. Això comporta que es defineixin regulacions que són més llargues del necessari i per tant, porta a la realització de retard innecessari i al desaprofitament de capacitat. La definició de trajectòries precises ofereix noves oportunitats per gestionar aquests desequilibris. Una tècnica prometedora és la utilització de variacions de velocitat durant el creuer. Generalment, es considera que volar més lent que la velocitat de màxim abast (MRC) no és eficient. En aquesta tesis es presenta una nova aproximació. Quan les aerolínies planifiquen els seus vols, consideren el cost del temps junt amb el del combustible. Per tant, és habitual seleccionar velocitats més ràpides que MRC. Així és possible volar més lent de la velocitat de MRC tot mantenint el mateix consum inicialment planificat. Aquest retard realitzat a l’aire pot ser considerat a la fase pre-tàctica per dividir el retard assignat a un vol en retard a terra i retard a l’aire durant el creuer. Amb aquesta estratègia, el retard és absorbit de manera gradual durant el vol fent servir el mateix combustible que inicialment planificat. Si la regulació es cancel•la abans del que estava planificat inicialment, els vols que estan a l’aire es troben en una situació més favorable per tal de recuperar part del retard. La present tesis es centra en l’estudi d’aquest concepte. En primer lloc, s’ha realitzat un estudi de la relació entre el combustible utilitzat i el temps de vol quan es modifica la velocitat nominal de creuer. A continuació, s’ha definit i analitzat el retard que pot ser realitzat sense incorre en un consum extra de combustible en l’absència i en la presencia de vent. També s’ha considerat i analitza la influència de triar un nivell de vol diferent del planificat inicialment i la utilització de combustible extra per tal d’obtenir major quantitat de retard. Els resultats mostren que per vols de curt i mitja distància, la quantitat de retard realitzable és d’entorn a 5 minuts, aquesta quantitat augmenta a uns 25 minuts per vols de llarg recorregut. El nivell de vol s’ha identificat com un dels paràmetres principals que afecten a la quantitat de retard que pot ser absorbit a l’aire. A continuació es presenta l’aplicació de la tècnica a regulacions d’ATFM realistes, i particularment a ground delay programs (GDP). Per tal de mostrar resultats que siguin significatius, els GDPs implementats en 2006 en el espai aeri nord-americà han sigut analitzats. Han sigut detalladament estudiats escenaris als aeroports de San Francisco, Newark i Chicago. Aquests tres aeroports van ser els que van declarar més GDPs durant el 2006 i per la seva situació geogràfica presenten trànsits amb diferents característiques. Per tal de considerar el trànsit s’ha utilitzat dades de la Federal Aviation Administration i característiques aerodinàmiques i de consum realistes provinents d’Airbus. Finalment, la tesis presenta l’efecte d’utilitzar radis d’exempció en els programes de regulació de trànsit i l’ ús de polítiques de priorització de vols diferents a la utilitzada actualment (ration-byschedule). Per concloure, s’ha realitzat una breu discussió sobre l’impacte d’aquesta estratègia en la gestió del trànsit aeri.

    Nowadays, many air transport infrastructures suffer from congestion. This situation is worsened by a continuous increase in traffic, and, traffic density due to hub and spoke systems. Weather is one of the main causes which leads to punctual capacity reduction. To mitigate these imbalances, air traffic flow management (ATFM) initiatives are usually undertaken, ground delay at the origin airport being one of the main ones used. By assigning delay on ground at the departure airport, the arrival traffic is spread out and the arrivals are metered at the congested infrastructure. However, forecasting when these capacity drops will be solved is usually a difficult task. This leads to unnecessarily long regulations, and therefore to the realisation of unnecessary delay and an underuse of the capacity of the infrastructures.The implementation of precise four dimension trajectories, envisaged in the near future, presents new opportunities for dealing with these capacity demand imbalances. In this context, a promising technique is the use of speed variation during the cruise. Generally, it is considered that flying slower than the maximum range speed (MRC) is neither efficient nor desirable. In this dissertation a new approach is presented. When airlines plan their flights, they consider the cost of time along with the cost of fuel. It is therefore common practice to select speeds that are faster than MRC.Thus, it is possible to fly slower than MRC while maintaining fuel consumption as initially planned. This airborne delay can be considered at a pre-tactical phase to divide the assigned air traffic flow management delay between ground and airborne delay. With this strategy, the delay is absorbed gradually during the flight using the same fuel as initially planned, but with the advantage that, if the regulation is cancelled before planned, the flights which are already airborne are in a better position to recover part of their assigned delay.This dissertation focuses on the study of this concept. Firstly, a study of the trade-off existing between fuel consumption and flight time, when modifying the nominal cruise speed, is presented. Secondly, the airborne delay that can be realised without incurring extra fuel consumption is defined and assessed in the absence and presence of wind. The influence of selecting a different flight level than initially planned, and the use of extra fuel consumption to obtain higher delay, are also considered and analysed. Results show that for short and mid-range flights around 5 minutes of airborne delay can be realised, while for longer flights this value increases up to around 25 minutes. The flight level is identified as one of the main parameters which affect the amount of airborne delay realisable.Then, the application of the suggested cruise speed reduction on realistic ATFM initiatives, and, in particular, on ground delay programs (GDP) in the United States, is presented. In order to obtain significant results, the GDPs implemented in North American airspace during 2006 are analysed. Scenarios for San Francisco International, Newark Liberty International and Chicago O'Hare International are studied in detail, as these airports were the ones where the most GDPs were implemented in 2006. In addition, due to their location, they present different traffic behaviours. In order to consider the traffic, Federal Aviation Administration data and the aerodynamics and fuel consumption characteristic form Airbus are used.Finally, the use of radius of exemption in the GPDs and the use of ration policies different from the operative ration-by-schedule, are also analysed. To conclude, a brief discussion about the impact of this speed reduction strategy on the air traffic management is presented.

    Hoy en día un número considerable de infraestructuras del transporte aéreo tienen problemas de congestión. Esta situación se ve empeorada por el incremento de tráfico existente y por su densidad producida por el sistema de hub y spoke utilizado por las compañías aéreas. Esta congestión se ve agravada puntualmente por disminuciones de capacidad debidas a causas como la meteorología. Para mitigar estos desequilibrios, normalmente se implementan medidas de gestión del tráfico aéreo (ATFM), siendo el retraso en el aeropuerto de origen una de las más utilizadas. Asignando retraso en tierra previo al despegue, el tráfico de llegada se distribuye durante un intervalo mayor de tiempo y se controlan las llegadas. Pese a esto, la predicción de cuando estas reducciones de capacidad se solventarán es generalmente una tarea compleja. Por esto, se suelen definir regulaciones durante un periodo de tiempo superior al necesario, comportando la asignación y realización de retraso innecesario y el desaprovechamiento de las infraestructuras. La definición de trayectorias precisas permite nuevas oportunidades para gestionar estos desequilibrios. Una técnica prometedora es el uso de variaciones de velocidad durante el crucero. Suele considerarse que volar más lento que la velocidad de máximo alcance (MRC) no es eficiente. En esta tesis se presenta una nueva aproximación. Cuando las aerolíneas planifican sus vuelos consideran el coste del tiempo junto con el del combustible. Por consiguiente, es una práctica habitual seleccionar velocidades mas rápidas que MRC. Así es posible volar mas lento que la velocidad de MRC manteniendo el mismo consumo que el inicialmente planificado. Este retraso realizable en el aire puede ser considerado en la fase pre-táctica para dividir el retraso asignado entre retraso en tierra y retraso durante el crucero. Con esta estrategia, el retraso es absorbido de manera gradual durante todo el vuelo utilizando el mismo combustible que el planificado inicialmente por la compañía. Esta estrategia presenta la ventaja de que los vuelos que están en el aire se encuentran en una situación mas favorable para recuperar parte del retraso que tenían asignado si la regulación se cancela. En primer lugar se ha realizado un estudio de la relación existente entre el combustible usado y el tiempo de vuelo cuando la velocidad de crucero es modificada. A continuación, se ha definido y analizado el retraso que se puede realizar sin repercutir en el consumo en la ausencia y en la presencia de viento. También se ha considerado la influencia de elegir un nivel de vuelo diferente al planificado y el uso de combustible extra para incrementar el retraso. Los resultados muestran que para vuelos de corto y medio alcance, la cantidad de retraso es de en torno a 5 minutos, esta cantidad aumenta a unos 25 minutos para vuelos de largo recorrido. El nivel de vuelo se ha identificado como uno de los parámetros principales que afectan a la cantidad de retraso que puede ser absorbido. Seguidamente se presenta la aplicación de esta técnica en regulaciones de ATFM realistas, y en particular de ground delay programs (GDP). Con el objetivo de mostrar resultados significativos, los GDPs definidos en 2006 en el espacio aéreo norteamericano han sido analizados. Han sido estudiados en detalle escenarios en los aeropuertos de San Francico, Newark y Chicago. Estos tres aeropuertos fueron los aeropuertos que implementaron m´as GDPs en 2006 y por su situación geográfica presentan tráficos con diferentes características. Para considerar el tráfico se han utilizado datos de la Federal Aviation Administration y características aerodinámicas y de consumo provenientes de Airbus. Finalmente, se presenta el efecto de usar radios de exención en los GDPs y el uso de políticas de priorización de vuelos diferentes a la utilizada actualmente (ration-by-schedule). Para concluir se ha realizado una breve discusión sobre el impacto de esta estrategia en la gestión del tráfico aéreo.

  • FASTOP: Fast optimiser for continuous descent approaches

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
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  • Robust data fusion for {4D} conflict free optimal trajectories in a highly automated ATM system

     Vilardaga García-Gascon, Santi; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    Presentation's date: 2012-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    On the design of UAS horizontal separation maneuvers  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2012-11-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper studies the separation maneuvers that an Unmanned Air System (UAS) may execute to avoid breaching the separation safety margins imposed in each type of airspace, namely 3 NM, 5 NM, and 10 NM. The UAS was assumed under the control of its Pilot in Command, with available information about its surrounding traffic through ADS-B or ADS-C, and most likely under the supervision of an ATCo. A number of UAS separation maneuvers have been identified that may guarantee the desired levels of separation if executed with the right parameters and enough anticipation. This paper focuses on identification of the most suitable maneuver for any separation conflict geometry and performance envelop. The conflict geometry is modeled to take into account the speed of both vehicles (the UAS and the intruder), the conflict angle, the turning limitations of the UAS, the reaction time of the pilot, and the communication latency.

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    A taxonomy of UAS separation maneuvers and their automated execution  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 1-11
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes to create a taxonomy of separation conflicts between Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and intruding aircrafts to facilitate its insertion in non-segregated airspace. The classification is created according to the relative speeds, angular geometry, initial intent, etc. A catalog of separation maneuvers that best fit each scenario is introduced and evaluated through a real-time simulation environment. This advisory mechanism will benefit both the UAS pilot and the ATCo in order to negotiate the best suited separation maneuver. Eventually, the same strategy can be employed as an autonomous separation system on-board a UAS that suffers a lost-link contingency, alleviating its negative impact in the airspace.

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    Evaluation of separation strategies for unmanned aerial sytems  Open access

     Perez Batlle, Marcos; Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper analyzes loss of separation scenarios when an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) enters in conflict with a much faster airplane flying at the same altitude. Separation distances are analyzed in terms of minimum heading changes and reaction times. Results show that maneuvers need to be performed well in advance if the (low-speed) UA is the aircraft that changes its heading. In some cases the time in which the UA and the intruder are in conflict could be too long, and may even involve multiple airliners flying over the same airway. Given that standard separation strategies may have a negative impact on the UA mission, in this paper a set of pre-planned separation maneuvers are proposed. These maneuvers aim to improve the situational awareness of both air traffic controller and UA pilotin- command, but also to disrupt as less as possible the mission performed by the UA and to minimize the uncertainty in the reactions the UA may adopt autonomously if the link with the ground station is lost. Some preliminary real-time simulations are shown, using a UA ground station simulator linked to a air traffic control simulator.

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  • ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Congress on Research in Air Transportation
    Presentation's date: 2012-05-24
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that gives the same fuel consumption as initially planned, the airline can maximize the airborne delay without any extra fuel consumption. In this paper, the effect of wind on the amount of airborne delay is assessed and a case study of Chicago O’hare airport is presented. Results show that wind has a great effect on the airborne delay that can be achieved and that, in some cases, even tail winds might lead to an increase of airborne delay

  • Regulations and Requirements

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Royo Chic, Pablo
    DOI: 10.1002/9781119964049.ch4
    Date of publication: 2012-04
    Book chapter

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  • Evaluating technologies and mechanisms for the automated/autonomous operation of UAS in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Barrado Muxí, Cristina
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 1-10
    Presentation's date: 2011-12-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Simulation of airborne ATFM delay and delay recovery by cruise speed reduction

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    SESAR Innovation Days
    p. 1-7
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-30
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Best paper award 1st International Conference on application and theory of automation in command and control system

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Award or recognition

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  • Green delay programes, absorbing ATFM delay by flying at minimum fuel speed

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Hansen, Mark
    Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Delaying aircraft on ground is one of the most used strategies when an imbalance between planned demand and actual capacity arises, either at an airport or in an airspace sector. This paper focuses on a new strategy consisting in delaying aircraft from their nominal cruise speed to the minimum fuel consumption speed. Therefore, trip times are increased and air traffic management delay can be partially performed in the air. For these flights, fuel consumption is reduced and consequently, their environmental impact. Based on data from ground delay programs at San Francisco International airport during 2006, this paper quantifies the impact that such a strategy would have had if applied to all delayed flights. Results show that for the majority of flights, the 5% to 15% of the initially assigned delay could have been absorbed in the air, leading to fuel savings in the order of 4% to 7% for each individual flight, if compared with the nominal situation

  • An architecture to automate UAS operations in non-segregated airspace

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 5-16
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Depart and approach procedures for UAS in a VFR environment

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Perez Batlle, Marcos; Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems
    p. 27-37
    Presentation's date: 2011-05-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATIONS, OPERATIONS AND AVIONICS FOR ROBUST (UN)MANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • Connecteu-aerospace.cat

     Collado Gomez, Juan Carlos; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Berenguer Sau, Jordi; de Villardi de Montlaur, Adeline; Mateu Mateu, Jordi
    Competitive project

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  • Optimisation of site-specific noise abatement departure procedures

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    9th Innovative Research Workshop & Exhibition
    p. 127-134
    Presentation's date: 2010-12-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The optimisation of aircraft noise abatement procedures involves several conflicting factors, including several noise sensitive locations and aircraft operating costs. This paper presents some strategies that aim at better assessing these compromises when optimising site-specific noise abatement departure procedures that take into account the actual populated areas, their type and distribution, the hour of the day where the trajectory is supposed to be flown and the aircraft type. A special emphasis is given to the fairness of the trajectory with regards to the populated areas exposed to noise. In this context, a noise annoyance deviation index is proposed as optimisation objective. Moreover a multi-objective optimisation strategy, employing goal, lexicographic-egalitarian and hierarchical optimisation techniques is presented. An illustrative example is given with the design of the East departures at Girona airport, Catalonia (Spain). Results point out how the noise annoyance impact of current operational procedures can be significantly reduced by the optimised trajectories and show, as well, an important dependency on the type of aircraft and the hour of the day.

  • Actividades en control y supervisión inteligente del Grupo de Sistemas Avanzados de Control (SAC) de la Universidad Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)

     Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa; Pérez Magrané, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Garcia España, Claudia Maria
    Simposio CEA de Control Inteligente
    p. 1-6
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-25
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    An Assessment for UAS Traffic Awareness Operations  Open access

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Delgado Muñoz, Luis
    International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences Congress
    Presentation's date: 2010-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Technology evolution in the field of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) will affect the Air Traffic Management (ATM) performance regarding to new military and civil applications. UAS, as new airspace users, will represent new challenges and opportunities to design the ATM system of the future. The goal of this future ATM network is to keep intact (or improve) the network in terms of security, safety, capacity and efficiency level. On the other hand, most UAS are, at present, designed for military purposes and very few civil applications have been developed mainly because the lack of a regulation basis concerning their certification, airworthiness and operations. Therefore, UAS operations have always been solutions highly dependent on the mission to be accomplished and on the scenario of flight. The generalized development of UAS applications is still limited by the absence of systems that support the development of the actual operations. Moreover, the systematic development of UAS missions leads to many other operational risks that need to be addressed. All this elements may delay, increase the risk and cost in the implementation of a new UAS application.

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    An optimisation framework for aircraft operators dealing with capacity-demand imbalances in SESAR  Open access

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    International Conference on Research in Air Transportation
    p. 339-346
    Presentation's date: 2010-06-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a framework for the negotiation phase that is foreseen in the new operational concept proposed in the Single European Sky Research (SESAR) program. In particular, this paper describes a possible strategy for the airspace users in order to deal with the Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) process that is expected in this future scenario. In the SESAR scenario, airspace users will become owners of their trajectories and they will be responsible to solve possible mismatches between capacity and demand in a particular airspace sector. The aim of this strategy is to improve the efficiency in the CDM process by computing the different operational costs associated to different solutions that may solve a particular demand-capacity imbalance in the airspace. This will allow them to optimise their operating costs while reducing fuel consumption and therefore being more environmentally friendly. Some suggestions have already been done for the CDM mechanism, for instance the use of auctions. However, the different options that aircraft operators might use have not yet been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, the authors propose an optimisation framework for aircraft operators aimed at computing 4D trajectories with time constraints to deal, in this way, with possible airspace regulations. Once a nominal flight plan and a potential regulation is known, it is suggested to compute several possible alternative flight plans (including rerouting, but also altitude and speed profiles) that may solve the capacity-demand problem. If more than one regulation is applied to the flight, a tree of options is subsequently computed. The cost of each optimised the option is also calculated in order to allow the airspace users to initiate the negotiation process with other airlines. Finally, a preliminary example is given at the end of this paper in order to better illustrate the proposed methodology.

  • UAS pilot support for departure, approach and airfield operations

     Pastor Llorens, Enrique; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard
    IEEE Aerospace Conference
    DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2010.5446796
    Presentation's date: 2010-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have great potential to be used in a wide variety of civil applications such as environmental applications, emergency situations, surveillance tasks and more. The development of Flight Control Systems (FCS) coupled with the availability of other Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) components is enabling the introduction of UAS into the civil market. The sophistication of existing FCS is also making these systems accessible to end users with little aeronautics expertise. However, much work remains to be done to deliver systems that can be properly integrated in standard aeronautical procedures used by manned aviation. In previous research advances have been proposed in the flight plan capabilities by offering semantically much richer constructs than those present in most current UAS autopilots. The introduced flight plan is organized as a set of stages, each one corresponding to a different flight phase. Each stage contains a structured collection of legs inspired by current practices in Area Navigation (RNAV). However, the most critical parts of any flight, the depart and approach operations in a integrated airspace remain mostly unexplored. This paper introduces an assessment of both operations for UAS operating in VFR and IFR modes. Problems and potential solutions are proposed, as well as an automating strategy that should greatly reduce pilot workload. Although the final objective is a full autonomous operation, the pilot is always kept in the control loop and therefore HMI aspects are also considered.

  • Contributions to the optimisation of aircraft noise abatement procedures  Open access

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Tot i que en les últimes dècades la reducció del soroll emès pels avions ha estat substancial, el seu impacte a la població ubicada a prop dels aeroports és un problema que encara persisteix. Contenir el soroll generat per les operacions d'aeronaus, tot assumint al mateix temps la creixent demanda de vols, és un dels principals desafiaments a que s'enfronten les autoritats aeroportuàries, els proveïdors de serveis per a la navegació aèria i els operadors de les aeronaus. A part de millorar l'aerodinàmica o les emissions sonores de les aeronaus, l'impacte acústic de les seves operacions es pot reduir també gràcies a la definició de nous procediments de vol més òptims. Aquests procediments s'anomenen generalment Procediments d'Atenuació de Soroll (PAS) i poden incloure rutes preferencials de vol (a fi d'evitar les zones poblades) i també perfils de vol verticals optimitzats. Els procediments actuals per a la reducció de soroll estan molt lluny de ser els òptims. En general, la seva optimització no és possible a causa de les limitacions d'avui en dia en els mètodes de navegació, els equips d'aviònica i la complexitat present en alguns espais aeris. D'altra banda, molts PAS s'han dissenyat de forma manual per un grup d'experts i amb l'ajuda de diverses iteracions. Tot i això, en els propers anys s'esperen nous sistemes d'aviònica i conceptes de gestió del trànsit aeri que permetin millorar el disseny d'aquests procediments, fent que siguin més flexibles. En els pocs casos on s'optimitzen PAS, se sol utilitzar una mètrica acústica en l'elaboració de les diferents funcions objectiu i per tant, no es tenen en compte les molèsties sonores reals. La molèstia és un concepte subjectiu, complexe i que depèn del context en que s'usa i la seva integració en l'optimització de trajectòries segueix essent un aspecte a estudiar.La present tesi doctoral es basa en el fet que en el futur serà possible definir trajectòries més flexibles i precises. D'aquesta manera es permetrà la definició de procediments de vol òptims des d'un punt de vista de molèsties acústiques. Així doncs, es considera una situació en que aquest tipus de procediments poden ser dissenyats de forma automàtica o semi-automàtica per un sistema expert basat en tècniques d'optimització i de raonament aproximat. Això serviria com una eina de presa de decisions per planificadors de l'espai aeri i dissenyadors de procediments. En aquest treball es desenvolupa una eina completa pel càlcul de PAS òptims. Això inclou un conjunt de models no lineals que tinguin en compte la dinàmica de les aeronaus, les limitacions de la trajectòria i les funcions objectiu. La molèstia del soroll es modela utilitzant tècniques de lògica difusa en funció del nivell màxim de so percebut, l'hora del dia i el tipus de zona a sobrevolar. Llavors, s'identifica i es formula formalment el problema com a un problema de control òptim multi-criteri. Per resoldre'l es proposa un mètode de transcripció directa per tal de transformar-lo en un problema de programació no lineal. A continuació s'avaluen una sèrie de tècniques d'optimització multi-objectiu i entre elles es destaca el mètode d'escalarització, el més utilitzat en la literatura. No obstant això, s'exploren diverses tècniques alternatives que permeten superar certs inconvenients que l'escalarització presenta. En aquest context, es presenten i proven tècniques d'optimització lexicogràfica, jeràrquica, igualitària (o min-max) i per objectius. D'aquest anàlisi es desprenen certes conclusions que permeten aprofitar les millors característiques de cada tècnica i formar finalment una tècnica composta d'optimització multi-objectiu. Aquesta última estratègia s'aplica amb èxit a un escenari real i complex, on s'optimitzen les sortides cap a l'Est de la pista 02 de l'aeroport de Girona. En aquest exemple, dos tipus diferents d'aeronaus volant a diferents períodes del dia són simulats obtenint, conseqüentment, diferents trajectòries òptimes.

    Aunque en las últimas décadas la reducción del ruido emitido por los aviones ha sido sustancial, su impacto en la población ubicada cerca de los aeropuertos es un problema persistente. Contener este ruido, asumiendo al mismo tiempo la creciente demanda de vuelos, es uno de los principales desafíos a que se enfrentan las autoridades aeroportuarias, los proveedores de servicios para la navegación y los operadores. Aparte de mejorar la aerodinámica o las emisiones sonoras de las aeronaves, su impacto acústico se puede reducir también gracias a la definición de nuevos procedimientos de vuelo optimizados. Éstos, se denominan generalmente Procedimientos de Atenuación de Ruido (PAR) y pueden incluir rutas preferenciales de vuelo (a fin de evitar las zonas pobladas) y también perfiles de vuelo optimizados.Los procedimientos actuales para la reducción de ruido están muy lejos de ser los óptimos. En general, su optimización no es posible debido a las limitaciones de hoy en día en los métodos de navegación, los equipos de aviónica y la complejidad presente en algunos espacios aéreos. Por otra parte, muchos PAR se han diseñado de forma manual por un grupo de expertos y con la ayuda de varias iteraciones. Sin embargo, en los próximos años se esperan nuevos sistemas de aviónica y conceptos de gestión del tráfico aéreo que permitan mejorar el diseño de estos procedimientos, haciendo que sean más flexibles. En los pocos casos donde se optimizan PAR, se suele utilizar una métrica acústica en la elaboración de las diferentes funciones objetivo y por lo tanto, no se tienen en cuenta las molestias sonoras reales. La molestia es un concepto subjetivo, complejo y que depende del contexto en que se usa y su integración en la optimización de trayectorias sigue siendo un aspecto a estudiar. La presente tesis doctoral se basa en el hecho de que en el futuro será posible definir trayectorias más flexibles y precisas. De esta manera se permitirá la definición de procedimientos de vuelo óptimos desde un punto de vista de molestias acústicas. Se considera una situación en que este tipo de procedimientos pueden ser diseñados de forma automática o semi-automática por un sistema experto basado en técnicas de optimización y de razonamiento aproximado. Esto serviría como una herramienta de toma de decisiones para planificadores del espacio aéreo y diseñadores de procedimientos.En este trabajo se desarrolla una herramienta completa para el cálculo de PAR óptimos. Esto incluye un conjunto de modelos no lineales que tengan en cuenta la dinámica de las aeronaves, las limitaciones de la trayectoria y las funciones objetivo. La molestia del ruido se modela utilizando técnicas de lógica difusa en función del nivel máximo de sonido percibido, la hora del día y el tipo de zona a sobrevolar. Entonces, se identifica y se formula formalmente el problema como un problema de control óptimo multi-criterio. Para resolverlo se propone un método de transcripción directa para transformarlo en un problema de programación no lineal. A continuación se evalúan una serie de técnicas de optimización multi-objetivo y entre ellas se destaca el método de escalarización, el más utilizado en la literatura. Sin embargo, se exploran diversas técnicas alternativas que permiten superar ciertos inconvenientes que la escalarización presenta. En este contexto, se presentan y prueban técnicas de optimización lexicográfica, jerárquica, igualitaria (o min-max) y por objetivos. De este análisis se desprenden ciertas conclusiones que permiten aprovechar las mejores características de cada técnica y formar finalmente una técnica compuesta de optimización multi-objetivo. Esta última estrategia se aplica con éxito en un escenario real y complejo, donde se optimizan las salidas hacia el Este de la pista 02 del aeropuerto de Girona. En este ejemplo, dos tipos diferentes de aeronaves volando a diferentes periodos del día son simulados obteniendo, consecuentemente, diferentes trayectorias óptimas.

    Despite the substantial reduction of the emitted aircraft noise in the last decades, the noise impact on communities located near airports is a problem that still lingers. Containing the sound generated by aircraft operations, while meeting the increasing demand for aircraft transportation, is one of the major challenges that airport authorities, air traffic service providers and aircraft operators may deal with. Aircraft noise can be reduced by improving the aerodynamics of the aircraft, the engine noise emissions but also in designing new optimised flight procedures. These procedures, are generally called Noise Abatement Procedures (NAP) and may include preferential routings (in order to avoid populated areas) and also schedule optimised vertical flight path profiles. Present noise abatement procedures are far from being optimal in regards to minimising noise nuisances. In general, their optimisation is not possible due to the limitations of navigation methods, current avionic equipments and the complexity present at some terminal airspaces. Moreover, NAP are often designed manually by a group of experts and several iterations are needed. However, in the forthcoming years, new avionic systems and new Air Traffic Management concepts are expected to significantly improve the design of flight procedures. This will make them more flexible, and therefore will allow them to be more environmental friendly. Furthermore, in the few cases where NAP are optimised, an acoustical metric is usually used when building up the different optimisation functions. Therefore, the actual noise annoyance is not taken into account in the optimisation process. The annoyance is a subjective, complex and context-dependent concept. Even if sophisticated noise annoyance models are already available today, their integration into an trajectory optimisation framework is still something to be further explored. This dissertation is mainly focused on the fact that those precise and more flexible trajectories will enable the definition of optimal flight procedures regarding the noise annoyance impact, especially in the arrival and departure phases of flights. In addition, one can conceive a situation where these kinds of procedures can be designed automatically or semi-automatically by an expert system, based on optimisation techniques and approximate reasoning. This would serve as a decision making tool for airspace planners and procedure designers.A complete framework for computing optimal NAP is developed in this work. This includes a set of nonlinear models which take into account aircraft dynamics, trajectory constraints and objective functions. The noise annoyance is modelled by using fuzzy logic techniques in function of the perceived maximum sound level, the hour of the day and the type of over-flown zone. The problem tackled, formally identified and formulated as a multi-criteria optimal control problem, uses a direct transcription method to transform it into a Non Linear Programming problem. Then, an assessment of different multi-objective optimisation techniques is presented. Among these techniques, scalarisation methods are identified as the most widely used methodologies in the present day literature. Yet, in this dissertation several alternative techniques are explored in order to overcome some known drawbacks of this technique. In this context, lexicographic, hierarchical, egalitarian (or min-max) and goal optimisation strategies are presented and tested. From this analysis some conclusions arise allowing us to take advantage of the best features of each optimisation technique aimed at building a final compound multi-objective optimisation strategy. Finally, this strategy is applied successfully to a complex and real scenario, where the East departures of runway 02 at the airport of Girona (Catalonia, Spain) are optimised. Two aircraft types are simulated at different periods of the day obtaining different optimal trajectories.

  • Access to the full text
    Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning for Engineering Curriculum  Open access

     Rojas Gregorio, Jose Ignacio; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; de Villardi de Montlaur, Adeline; Valero Garcia, Miguel; Garcia-berro Montilla, Enrique
    DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-779-4
    Date of publication: 2010
    Book chapter

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    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the process by which an initially limited-range practical experience, within the frame of a given subject in an aerospace engineering degree, might be expanded to become the mother-subject itself. Particularly, the practical experience is a Model Rocket Workshop (MRW), where students design, simulate, build, test and launch a small model rocket. The workshop is a Problem Based Learning (PBL) experience that covers a wide spectrum of educational aspects, ranging from theoretical disciplines, such as fluid dynamics and rocket dynamics, to topics more related to experimental work and hardware utilization like the certification of the rockets, as well as the rocket altitude measurements. Students get rapidly involved in the project, and acquire several practical and transversal abilities, while developing a solid knowledge of the physics underlying aerospace engineering. The case study shows some problems and improvements, academic results and lessons learned from the PBL approach. Finally, a series of new ideas related to MRW and the subject it belongs to are presented. The objective is to expand the MRW so that it embraces the totality of the activities that constitute this mother-subject. As a consequence, the former would then become a new subject entirely based on PBL. The strategy aims at enabling an optimum transition from conventional learning to PBL.

  • Estudi de viabilitat d'un sistema de monitorització d'helicòpters en vol a l'àrea metropolitana de Barcelona

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Ramírez Alcántara, Jorge; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; González Arbesú, José María
    Date: 2009-10-19
    Report

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  • Projecte mima: valorización tecnológica sistema de mission management per uas

     Barrado Muxí, Cristina; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Royo Chic, Pablo; Santamaria Barnadas, Eduard; López Rubio, Juan; Ramírez Alcantara, Jorge; Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Salamí San Juan, Esther; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    Competitive project

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  • En-route Speed Reduction for the Mangement of ATFM Delays

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    The 9th AIAA Aircraft Technology, Integration and Operations Conference
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fuel consumption assessment for speed variation concepts during the cruise phase

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier
    Conference on Air Traffic Management Economics
    Presentation's date: 2009-09-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An Assessment for UAS depart and approach operations

     Delgado Muñoz, Luis; Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Ferraz, Carlos; Royo Chic, Pablo; Pastor Llorens, Enrique
    The 9th AIAA Aircraft Technology, Integration and Operations Conference
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Equitable noise abatement departure procedures

     Prats Menéndez, Xavier; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha
    The 9th AIAA Aircraft Technology, Integration and Operations Conference
    Presentation's date: 2009-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    As an extension of previous research, this paper deals with the optimisation of noise abatement departure procedures where the perceived annoyance at different sensitive lo- cations is modelled and chosen as optimisation criterion. In this work, the authors present an improved method for facing the multi-criteria nature of the problem where the fairness of the optimal solutions is assessed. Thence, the Rawlsian or egalitarian criterion is defined and used to guarantee this fairness among all objectives. Moreover, this criterion is en- hanced with an iterative lexicographic optimisation methodology which, in turn, satisfies the Pareto efficiency condition of the final solution. An application example is analysed, as a illustrative case, based on a departure of runway 02 of Girona airport in Catalonia (Spain).