A mycological supply function of wild edible fungi is determined by a set of forest and economic variables, among which climate variables stand out. Focusing on wild mushroom picking with commercial value (Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray) as an example, the main objective of this paper is to obtain empirical evidence about the impact of meteorological and economic variables on the mushroom supply. A multidisciplinary vector error correction (VEC) model for mushroom supply is estimated. Coefficients for the Error Correction Term (ECT) are all significant, at the 0.01 significance level, both in the model for prices and for collected mushrooms. The value of the ECT coefficient in the equation for prices is -0.086 (t-value: -9.321), and for the collected mushroom equation is 0.499 (t-value: 3.913). The impact of precipitation on price changes is -0.104 (t-value: -1.66), and the impact of temperature on mushroom harvest picking is 0.605 (t-value: 3.07). We find that including climate factors to explain mushroom supply considerably strengthens the explanatory power of the model, and in some cases greatly changes the results.
To satisfy water demand in the arid climate area (SE Spain), small private desalination plants (more than 1000) of brackish groundwater are in operation. This
process has led to an increase of groundwater salinity as a consequence of aquifers connection, uncontrolled
subsurface injection of brines and pitfalls of the brines conveyor network. Measures being taken, including the
economic efficiency of the small private desalination plants with regard to groundwater, and obtained results are presented.
Technological capability is a determining factor in the efficiency and effectiveness of the production processes of companies and directly influences their degree of innovativeness. Quantifying this capability can help organizations to evaluate their capacities to absorb, use, adapt, generate, develop, transfer and disseminate technologies. This article develops a model for measurement of technological capability and applies this model to wheat agro-industrial companies (wheat farms, mills and pasta manufacturers). The index model is based on five macro index components: (i) resources, (ii) technological upgrading, (iii) processes and routines, (iv) learning mechanisms, and (v) coordination and accessibility. The index is a weighted sum of the values of quantitative and qualitative variables and uses the AHP multicriteria analysis method to compose the weighting. Importance-performance matrix analysis and spider charts are used to present and examine the data. To evaluate the index, interviews were conducted with personnel at 20 farms, 5 mills and 3 pasta manufacturing plants.
Establishing the cost and price of reclaimed water is important to the design and exploitation of a Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse System (WRRS). While it is possible to obtain a detailed rough estimate of the cost of a WRRS, the price of reclaimed water is a different matter. This is mainly because no reclaimed water market exists to enable determining the price and, therefore, the only reference value is the price of the water from conventional sources. Nevertheless, this price does not reflect all the impacts involved in the reclamation and reuse of wastewater. The economic-financial analysis of WRRS has traditionally focused on the system's private costs and income. The methodology presented herein, in addition to considering these private impacts, incorporates factors external to the project through the analysis of both positive and negative external impacts. The methodology is suitable to the particularities of the WRRS, serving as a "customized" tool for decision-makers to determine whether or not the implementation of this type of system is useful. This methodology evaluates the WRRS from a multi- and interdisciplinary perspective. The main objective is to optimize the benefits of the project. The methodology herein has been compared and applied to diverse case studies by the authors as well as other researchers.
This study primarily aimed to contrast the potential relationships between innovation and market concentration. Thus, the relationship between innovation and the European wood industry market structure was analysed. An empirical model was assessed through panel techniques, wherein the wood industry market structure was explained through business-related variables and additional variables associated with generating innovation. The primary conclusion of this study with respect to the European wood industry is that R&D spending and R&D personnel are key factors in explaining market concentration. However, the influence of these variables may be affected by the initial degree of market concentration in the industry. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper aims to characterize, from a multidisciplinary perspective, the estimation of a supply function for milk cap (Lactarius deliciosus Gray L. ex Fr.), in Spain. The milk cap is a mushroom of great commercial relevance in Spain. The main objective of this work is to present empirical evidence in order to quantify both the effects of economic variables and mycological variables, in local markets. The paper starts, with an analysis of the main mechanisms that characterize wild mushrooms behavior. In the analysis of these markets, the relevance and structure of mushroom foreign trade in the European Union is also considered. Data availability is a fundamental point in the study of mushroom markets and determines, in most of works, research in the different stages of the value chain. In this work, the supply chain is estimated, with aggregated data, for the final stages of this value chain, in a Central Market. The estimated supply function indicates an intense negative relationship between the temperature and the supply quantity. The rain elasticity at the mean is negative, and higher than the price elasticity at the mean. So, meteorological variables present an impact on the supplied quantity, which is even higher than price.
The main interest of the methodology for the investigation of wastewater reclamation and reuse systems which
is proposed in this paper is that all costs and benefits (social and private) are considered in the economic and technological
analysis. This general concern allows an improvement in the design of investment decisions.
Traditionally, an economic-financial analysis of wastewater reclamation and reuse systems focuses exclusively
on the study of costs and private benefits. The methodology that is presented in this paper takes into account
not only the private impacts but also the project spillovers which could have relevance on the project.
In this research, the use value of the reclaimed water in the Natural Wildlife Park of Aiguamolls de l’Emporda`
is estimated. The travel cost technique is applied to estimate the external value of the Park. According to the final
results, the price of the reclaimed water in the Park should have to be between 0.75 ⁄/m3 (without opportunity
cost) and 1.20 ⁄/m3(with opportunity cost).