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  • Stable discretization of the electric-magnetic field integral equation with the taylor-orthogonal basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Heldring, Alexander
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    We present two new facet-oriented discretizations in method of moments (MoM) of the electric-magnetic field integral equation (EMFIE) with the recently proposed Taylor-orthogonal (TO) and divergence-Taylor-orthogonal (div-TO) basis functions. These new schemes, which we call stable, unlike the recently published divergence TO discretization of the EMFIE, which we call standard, result in impedance matrices with stable condition number in the very low frequency regime. More importantly, we show for sharp-edged objects of moderately small dimensions that the computed RCS with the stable EMFIE schemes show improved accuracy with respect to the standard EMFIE scheme. The computed RCS for the sharp-edged objects tested becomes much closer to the RCS computed with the RWG discretization of the electric-field integral equation (EFIE), which is well-known to provide good RCS accuracy in these cases. To provide best assessment on the relative performance of the several implementations, we have cancelled the main numerical sources of error in the RCS computation: (i) we implement the EMFIE so that the non-null static quasi-solenoidal current does not contribute in the far- field computation; (ii) we compute with machine-precision the strongly singular Kernel-contributions in the impedance elements with the direct evaluation method.

    We present two new facet-oriented discretizations in method of moments (MoM) of the electric-magnetic field integral equation (EMFIE) with the recently proposed Taylor-orthogonal (TO) and divergence-Taylor-orthogonal (div-TO) basis functions. These new schemes, which we call stable, unlike the recently published divergence TO discretization of the EMFIE, which we call standard, result in impedance matrices with stable condition number in the very low frequency regime. More importantly, we show for sharp-edged objects of moderately small dimensions that the computed RCS with the stable EMFIE schemes show improved accuracy with respect to the standard EMFIE scheme. The computed RCS for the sharp-edged objects tested becomes much closer to the RCS computed with the RWG discretization of the electric-field integral equation (EFIE), which is well-known to provide good RCS accuracy in these cases. To provide best assessment on the relative performance of the several implementations, we have cancelled the main numerical sources of error in the RCS computation: (i) we implement the EMFIE so that the non-null static quasi-solenoidal current does not contribute in the far- field computation; (ii) we compute with machine-precision the strongly singular Kernel-contributions in the impedance elements with the direct evaluation method.

  • Accelerated direct solution of the method-of-moments linear system

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, José María; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Proceedings of the IEEE
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    This paper addresses the direct (noniterative) solution of the method-of-moments (MoM) linear system, accelerated through block-wise compression of the MoM impedance matrix. Efficient matrix block compression is achieved using the adaptive cross-approximation (ACA) algorithm and the truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) postcompression. Subsequently, a matrix decomposition is applied that preserves the compression and allows for fast solution by backsubstitution. Although not as fast as some iterative methods for very large problems, accelerated direct solution has several desirable features, including: few problem-dependent parameters; fixed time solution avoiding convergence problems; and high efficiency for multiple excitation problems [e.g., monostatic radar cross section (RCS)]. Emphasis in this paper is on the multiscale compressed block decomposition (MS-CBD) algorithm, introduced by Heldring , which is numerically compared to alternative fast direct methods. A new concise proof is given for the N2 computational complexity of the MS-CBD. Some numerical results are presented, in particular, a monostatic RCS computation involving 1 043 577 unknowns and 1000 incident field directions, and an application of the MS-CBD to the volume integral equation (VIE) for inhomogeneous dielectrics.

    This paper addresses the direct (noniterative) solution of the method-of-moments (MoM) linear system, accelerated through block-wise compression of the MoM impedance matrix. Efficient matrix block compression is achieved using the adaptive cross-approximation (ACA) algorithm and the truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) postcompression. Subsequently, a matrix decomposition is applied that preserves the compression and allows for fast solution by backsubstitution. Although not as fast as some iterative methods for very large problems, accelerated direct solution has several desirable features, including: few problem-dependent parameters; fixed time solution avoiding convergence problems; and high efficiency for multiple excitation problems [e.g., monostatic radar cross section (RCS)]. Emphasis in this paper is on the multiscale compressed block decomposition (MS-CBD) algorithm, introduced by Heldring , which is numerically compared to alternative fast direct methods. A new concise proof is given for the N2 computational complexity of the MS-CBD. Some numerical results are presented, in particular, a monostatic RCS computation involving 1 043 577 unknowns and 1000 incident field directions, and an application of the MS-CBD to the volume integral equation (VIE) for inhomogeneous dielectrics.

  • Preconditioning the Electric Field Integral Equation with the MS-CBD method

     Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Iberian Meeting on Computational Electromagnetics
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A novel preconditioning scheme for Method of Moment computations is proposed. It consists of an adapted version of an accelerated direct solution method, the Multiscale Compressed Block Decomposition. It is of particular interest for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solution of open problems that are electrically large and exhibit strong concavity. For such problems, when solved with the Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm, the convergence is the main efficiency bottleneck. The novel scheme is compared with the de facto standard preconditioner ILU for a representative problem and shown to be considerably more efficient

  • Fast shadowing computation in physical optics surface

     Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Carbo, Alex; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Heldring, Alexander
    Iberian Meeting on Computational Electromagnetics
    Presentation's date: 2013-05-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    GRECO code has been updated by replacing the graphical processing technique for computation of Physical Optics surface integral by a hybrid CPU-graphical processing approach. The resulting code needs more CPU power for complex radar targets, but is free from the pixel discretization noise inherent to graphical processing. It has the same accuracy as conventional Physical Optics computation, but is an order of magnitude faster than the most efficient implementations with NlogN shadowed facets detection

    GRECO code has been updated by replacing the graphical processing technique for computation of Physical Optics surface integral by a hybrid CPU-graphical processing approach. The resulting code needs more CPU power for complex radar targets, but is free from the pixel discretization noise inherent to graphical processing. It has the same accuracy as conventional Physical Optics computation, but is an order of magnitude faster than the most efficient implementations with NlogN shadowed facets detection.

  • The multiscale compressed block decomposition as a preconditioner for method of moments computations

     Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new preconditioner for Method of Moments computations is presented. It is based on a direct solver, the Multiscale Compressed Block Decomposition method, which has been adapted to reduce storage requirements and setup time. Numerical experiments show considerable improvement in overall efficiency in comparison with common preconditioners such as Incomplete LU decomposition, in particular for problems involving electrically large, open geometries.

    A new preconditioner for Method of Moments computations is presented. It is based on a direct solver, the Multiscale Compressed Block Decomposition method, which has been adapted to reduce storage requirements and setup time. Numerical experiments show considerable improvement in overall efficiency in comparison with common preconditioners such as Incomplete LU decomposition, in particular for problems involving electrically large, open geometries.

  • GRECO Code Rejuvenated: hybrid CPU-graphical processing

     Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Carbo, Alex; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Heldring, Alexander
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2013-04-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    GRECO code has been updated by replacing the graphical processing technique for computation of Physical Optics surface integral by a hybrid CPU-graphical processing approach. The resulting code needs more CPU power for complex radar targets, but is free from the pixel discretization noise inherent to graphical processing. It has the same accuracy as conventional Physical Optics computation, but is an order of magnitude faster than the most efficient implementations with NlogN shadowed facets detection.

  • Discretization of the EFIE in Method of Moments without continuity of the normal current component across edges

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Heldring, Alexander
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2013-07-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The discretization in Method of Moments (MoM) of the Electric-Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is traditionally carried out by preserving the continuity of the normal component in the expansion of the current across the edges arising from the discretization. This allows the cancellation of the hyper-singular Kernel contributions arising from the discretization of the EFIE. Divergence-conforming sets, like the RWG set, appear then as suitable choices to generate successful MoM-EFIE implementations. In this paper, we present a novel MoM- discretization of the EFIE with the non-conforming monopolar- RWG basis functions, with jump discontinuities in the expanded normal component of the current. We show with RCS results that the new EFIE implementation shows good agreement with the traditional normal-continuous RWG-implementation.

  • Iterative method of moments solution of problems involving electrically large and concave geometries

     Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications
    Presentation's date: 2013-09-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a study of the scaling with frequency (computational complexity) of preconditioned iterative solution, using the Multilevel Fast Multipole Method, of a class of radiation and scattering problems that exhibits particularly slow convergence: problems involving electrically large, open and concave geometries. A comparison is presented between a well-known state of the art preconditioner (ILU) and a recently introduced preconditioning method, the Multiscale Compressed Block Decomposition.

  • Sparsified adaptive cross approximation algorithm for accelerated method of moments computations

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, José María; Simon, Carine; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2013-01
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a modification of the adaptive cross approximation (ACA) algorithm for accelerated solution of the Method of Moments linear system for electrically large radiation and scattering problems. As with ACA, subblocks of the impedance matrix that represent the interaction between well separated subdomains are substituted by ¿compressed¿ approximations allowing for reduced storage and accelerated iterative solution. The modified algorithm approximates the original subblocks with products of sparse matrices, constructed with the aid of the ACA algorithm and of a sub-sampling of the original basis functions belonging to either subdomain. Because of the sampling, an additional error is introduced with respect to ACA, but this error is controllable. Just like ordinary ACA, sparsified ACA is kernel-independent and needs no problem-specific information, except for the topology of the basis functions. As a numerical example, RCS computations of the NASA almond are presented, showing an important gain in efficiency. Furthermore, the numerical experiment reveals a computational complexity close to N logN for sparsified ACA for a target electrical size of up to 50 wavelengths.

    This paper presents a modification of the adaptive cross approximation (ACA) algorithm for accelerated solution of the Method of Moments linear system for electrically large radiation and scattering problems. As with ACA, subblocks of the impedance matrix that represent the interaction between well separated subdomains are substituted by “compressed” approximations allowing for reduced storage and accelerated iterative solution. The modified algorithm approximates the original subblocks with products of sparse matrices, constructed with the aid of the ACA algorithm and of a sub-sampling of the original basis functions belonging to either subdomain. Because of the sampling, an additional error is introduced with respect to ACA, but this error is controllable. Just like ordinary ACA, sparsified ACA is kernel-independent and needs no problem-specific information, except for the topology of the basis functions. As a numerical example, RCS computations of the NASA almond are presented, showing an important gain in efficiency. Furthermore, the numerical experiment reveals a computational complexity close to N logN for sparsified ACA for a target electrical size of up to 50 wavelengths.

  • Dispositivos pasivos avanzados para cabezales multibanda, multimodo

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Volumetric testing for a nonconforming discretization in method of moments of the electric-field surface integral equation

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Heldring, Alexander
    International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Implementations in Method of Moments of the Electric-Field Integral Equation (EFIE) are traditionally carried out with divergence-conforming sets, with normal continuity of the current across edges. This gives rise to awkward implementations around junctions in composite dielectric objects. Also, RWG-implementations of the Combined-Field Integral Equation for sharp-edged objects suffer from some loss of accuracy. In this paper, we present a new nonconforming discretization of the EFIE, with no continuity requirements across edges. In the generation of the impedance elements, we employ a volumetric testing over a set of tetrahedral elements attached to the meshed surface to let the hyper-singular Kernel contributions numerically manageable. We show that the decomposition of the current into normally-continuous and discontinuous contributions leads to enhanced accuracy in the computed RCS.

  • Discretization of the electric-magnetic field integral equation with the divergence Taylor-Orthogonal basis functions free from the magnetic-field and the electric-field low-frequency breakdowns

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Discretization of surface integral equations using conforming and non-conforming basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Ylä-Oijala, Pasi; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Kiminki, Sami P.; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Järvenpää, Seppo
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Stable discretization of the electric-magnetic field integral equation with the divergence Taylor-Orthogonal basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-12
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Divergence-Taylor-Orthogonal basis functions for the discretization of second-kind surface integral equations in the Method of Moments

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Computational Electromagnetics International Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2011-08-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Facet-Oriented Discretization of the Electric-Magnetic Field Integral Equation for the accurate scattering analysis of perfectly conducting sharp-edged objects

     Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2011-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Sparsified ACA for accelerated iterative solution of the MoM linear system

     Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria
    Iberian Meeting on Computational Electromagnetics
    Presentation's date: 2011-11-02
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A new algorithm, the Sparsified Adaptive Cross Approximation (SPACA) is presented for fast iterative solution of the Method of Moments linear system. Like ordinary ACA, it is a completely kernel-independent method, but it is faster and yields a higher compression rate than ordinary ACA, without compromising the accuracy. As an example, the RCS of a perfectly conducting sphere is computed using up to 786,432 basis functions. It is shown that SPACA exhibits close to NlogN complexity for this problem.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Discretization of the Electric-Magnetic field integral equation with the Divergence-Taylor-Orthogonal basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-11
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Multiscale compressed block decomposition for fast direct solution of method of moments linear system

     Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Parrón, Josep; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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    The multiscale compressed block decomposition algorithm (MS-CBD) is presented for highly accelerated direct (non iterative) solution of electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems with the method of moments (MoM). The algorithm is demonstrated to exhibit N2 computational complexity and storage requirements scaling with N 3.5, for electrically large objects. Several numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the method, in particular for problems with multiple excitation vectors. The largest problem presented in this paper is the monostatic RCS of the NASA almond at 50 GHz, for one thousand incidence angles, discretized using 442,089 RWG basisf unctions. Being entirely algebraic, MS-CBD is independent of the Greens function of the problem.

  • Zeroth-Order Complete Discretizations of Integral-Equation formulations involving conducting or dielectric objects at very low frequencies

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, José María; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Heldring, Alexander
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2011-05-10
    Journal article

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  • Regularized Maxwell equations and nodal finite elements for electromagnetic field computations in frequency domain  Open access

     Otín Fortuño, Rubén
    Defense's date: 2011-05-04
    Department of Strength of Materials and Structural Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    En esta tesis se presenta una alternativa a la formulación clásica de elementos finitos basada en elementos de arista (edge elements) y las ecuaciones de Maxwell curl-curl. Este enfoque alternativo se basa en elementos nodales y las ecuaciones de Maxwell regularizadas. Las ventajas son que, sin añadir incógnitas adicionales (tales como los multiplicadores de Lagrange), ofrece soluciones sin modos espurios y matrices bien acondicionadas. Además, su representación integral tiene en un orden de singularidad inferior (orden 1 en vez de 3), lo que la hace más adecuada para la hibridación con técnicas numéricas basadas en métodos integrales. Por otro lado, surgen nuevas dificultades que no estaban presentes en la formulación clásica. El principal inconveniente es que se obtiene una solución globalmente errónea si el campo electromagnético tiene una singularidad en el dominio del problema. Además, las condiciones de contorno y las discontinuidades de los campos al cambiar de medio son más laboriosas de implementar. Este trabajo explica la manera de superar estas dificultades y demuestra que se pueden obtener soluciones precisas con elementos nodales y la formulación regularizada. También se presenta ERMES, un código en C++ que es la implementación de la formulación de elementos finitos mencionada en el párrafo anterior. Calcularemos con ERMES los parámetros de scattering de filtros de microondas y la tasa de absorción específica inducida en un cuerpo cuando está expuesto a campos electromagnéticos. ERMES es también la herramienta de cálculo utilizado en dos nuevos modelos numéricos presentados por primera vez en esta tesis. El primer modelo sirve para caracterizar procesos de conformado electromagnético y el segundo para obtener la impedancia de transferencia del apantallamiento de cables coaxiales perforados. El modelo de conformado electromagnético calcula la fuerza de Lorentz impulsora del proceso y estima a su vez la frecuencia óptima a la que puede obtenerse la deformación máxima de la pieza. La principal ventaja del método es que proporciona una relación explícita entre la capacidad del banco de condensadores y la frecuencia de la descarga, que es un parámetro clave en el diseño de un sistema de conformado electromagnético. El uso de la formulación regularizada en esta aplicación pone de manifiesto su excelente comportamiento en problemas de baja frecuencia (cuasi-estáticos). El segundo modelo presentado en este trabajo calcula la impedancia de transferencia de los apantallamientos perforados de cables coaxiales. Este modelo reproduce el comportamiento en alta frecuencia de la impedancia de transferencia con mayor precisión que los métodos encontrados en la literatura y, además, es capaz de analizar una mayor variedad de geometrías y materiales.

    In this thesis, we present an alternative approach to the usual finite element formulation based on edge elements and double-curl Maxwell equations. This alternative approach is based on nodal elements and regularized Maxwell equations. The advantages are that, without adding extra unknowns (such as Lagrange multipliers), it provides spurious-free solutions and well-conditioned matrices. Besides, its integral representation involves a less singular kernel (order 1 instead of 3), which makes this approach best suited to hybridization with integral numerical techniques. On the other hand, new difficulties arise that were not present in the classical formulation. The main drawback is that a globally wrong solution is obtained when the electromagnetic field has a singularity in the problem domain. Also, boundary conditions and field discontinuities are more laborious to implement. This work explains how to overcome these difficulties and demonstrates that accurate solutions can be obtained with nodal elements and the regularized formulation. We also present ERMES, the C++ implementation of the finite element approach depicted above and the main deliverable of this work. We compute with ERMES the scattering parameters of microwave filters and the specific absorption rate induced in a body when exposed to electromagnetic fields. ERMES is also the computational tool used in two novel numerical models introduced in this thesis. The first one characterizes electromagnetic metal forming processes and the second one the transfer impedance of cable shields. The electromagnetic metal forming model calculates the driving Lorentz force and estimates the optimum frequency at which it is attained the maximum workpiece deformation. The main advantage of the approach is that it provides an explicit relation between the capacitance of the capacitor bank and the frequency of the discharge, which is a key parameter in the design of an electromagnetic forming system. The use of the regularized formulation in this application reveals its excellent behavior in the low-frequency (quasi-static) regime. The second numerical model introduced in this work computes the transfer impedance of cable shields. The model reproduces the high frequency behavior of the transfer impedance more accurately than the approaches found in the literature and, moreover, it is able to analyze a wider variety of geometries and materials.

  • Multilevel adaptive cross approximation and direct evaluation method for fast and accurate discretization of electromagnetic inegral equations  Open access

     Tamayo Palau, José María
    Defense's date: 2011-02-17
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El objetivo de esta tesis es dotarse de una metodología de análisis dinámica en el tiempo que permite revalorar permanentemente la problemática de la escasez de agua dulce en función de la oferta y la demanda. Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta las variaciones de sus factores conductores, y entre ellos sobre todo el de las necesidades en el desarrollo humano. La metodología es de manejo operativo, en la que se puedan introducir de manera rápida y sencilla los cambios en las variables que van a determinar la oferta y la demanda dinámica de agua dulce.La propuesta metodológica se caracteriza por varios puntos clave. En primer lugar, desarrollamos una discusión terminológica y conceptual en la que, a partir del estado del arte actual llegamos a definir los conceptos de la oferta y la demanda dinámica de agua dulce renovable como primer paso fundamental de nuestra metodología, elaborando un glosario terminológico y conceptual propio para este trabajo.A partir de la caracterización de la oferta y la demanda dinámica se analiza el escenario business as usual constatándose y valorándose la gravedad de la situación de los nueve países que forman la región del golfo de Guinea, debida fundamentalmente a la no existencia o a la no implementación de gestión de extracción, distribución y abastecimiento de agua dulce por falta de recursos económicos o voluntades políticas. Nuestro segundo paso metodológico permite corroborar la calificación usual de la situación de estos países como de escasez económica. Para poder cubrir esta etapa de la propuesta metodológica ha sido necesario resolver, también metodológicamente, la muy importante escasez de datos para la mayoría de países en desarrollo.Nuestra propuesta metodológica parte por supuesto de trabajar con la realidad, detectando inconvenientes y limitaciones al aplicarla al caso de estudio de los países de nuestra región. Una de estas limitaciones es claramente la falta de datos necesarios para elaborar nuestros escenarios o para determinar los estándares o confeccionar el nuevo índice; en la medida que se han ido presentando estas circunstancias, hemos recurrido a soluciones metodológicas que nos han permitido estimar nuevos datos a partir de correlaciones y/o extrapolaciones de los datos existentes.El siguiente punto clave y una de las aportaciones principales de este trabajo de propuesta metodológica es a partir de unas determinadas objetivizaciones de estándares de demanda de agua dulce ligados a unos niveles aceptables de bienestar y calidad de vida, reanalizar mediante la construcción y análisis de los escenarios de futuro correspondientes, las posibilidades y debilidades reales de estos países en relación con la escasez de agua dulce.El último punto clave es la elaboración de una propuesta de un índice que nos permite evaluar de forma sintética y rápida la situación de un país o región según el nivel de capacidad para satisfacer demandas de agua dulce correspondientes a un estándar de demanda establecido de forma clara y explícita. Dicho índice nos permite detectar de forma temprana posibles alertas que más allá de una escasez física o económica nos sean útiles (al igual que en el caso de la representación y el análisis de los resultados de los distintos escenarios de futuro) para la toma decisiones, en función de los objetivos pretendidos.La herramienta de apoyo para elaborar las representaciones de los escenarios es, en sí misma, otro elemento instrumental que además de tener una buena resolución de diseño gráfico, debe facilitar los cálculos necesarios para el análisis de los escenarios, así como almacenar la información de forma cómoda y en la que se puedan introducir cambios fácilmente.La metodología es una herramienta objetiva y útil dirigida a responsables políticos y técnicos, estudiosos e investigadores que dé soporte a la toma de decisiones y/o a la visualización de la valoración de la escasez de agua dulce en el marco de un pretendido desarrollo humano sostenible.

    This thesis describes a methodology for dynamic analysis over time that makes it possible to continually re-assess fresh-water scarcity as a function of supply and demand. The methodology takes into account variations in the driving factors, including, most importantly, human-development needs. The methodology can be controlled operationally. Changes in the variables that determine the dynamic fresh-water supply and demand can be entered quickly and easily.Our methodological proposal contains several key points. We begin with a discussion of terminology and concepts. Taking the current state of the art as our starting point, as a fundamental first step in our methodology we define the concepts of dynamic renewable fresh-water supply and demand. We then present a glossary of the terms and concepts used in this thesis.Following the characterisation of dynamic supply and demand, we analyse the "business-as-usual" scenario. We point out the seriousness of the situation in the nine Gulf of Guinea countries. The fundamental reason for this situation is the non-existence or non-implementation of policies aimed at extracting, distributing and supplying fresh water, due to a lack of economic resources or political will. The second step in our methodology is to corroborate the usual description of the situation in these countries, particularly in terms of the economic scarcity that characterises them. To properly complete this stage of the methodology, it has been necessary to find a solution to the inadequacy of the data available in most developing countries.Our proposal works with reality, which involves detecting disadvantages and limitations when applying the methodology in the countries of this particular region. One such limitation, clearly, is the lack of the necessary data for constructing the scenarios, determining the standards and creating the new index; as these circumstances have arisen, we have implemented methodological solutions that have enabled us to estimate new data on the basis of correlations and/or extrapolations of existing data.The next key point is also one of the main contributions of this methodological proposal. We set the goal of achieving certain standards of fresh-water demand based on acceptable levels of welfare and quality of life. Then, by constructing and analysing the corresponding future scenarios, we re-examine the real possibilities and weaknesses of each country as relates to the scarcity of fresh water.The last key point of our proposal is the generation of an index that enables us to evaluate, quickly and synthetically, the situation of a particular country or region on the basis of its capacity to satisfy fresh-water demand in a way that meets a clearly and specifically defined standard. This index enables the early detection of possible problems that go beyond physical or economic scarcity. Like the representation and analysis of the results of the various future scenarios, this early-warning system will enable decisions to be made in accordance with the established goals.The support tool used to generate the representations of the scenarios must have good graphic-design resolution, be able to make the calculations necessary for analysing the scenarios, and store the information in a practical way that allows changes to be entered easily.This methodology is meant to be used by politicians, engineers, scholars and researchers as a useful and objective support tool for decision-making and/or visualising levels of fresh-water scarcity as part of larger efforts to achieve the goal of sustainable human development.

  • Multilevel adaptive cross approximation and direct evaluation method for fast and accurate discretization of electromagnetic integral equations  Open access  awarded activity

     Tamayo Palau, José María
    Defense's date: 2011-02-17
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El objetivo de esta tesis es dotarse de una metodología de análisis dinámica en el tiempo que permite revalorar permanentemente la problemática de la escasez de agua dulce en función de la oferta y la demanda. Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta las variaciones de sus factores conductores, y entre ellos sobre todo el de las necesidades en el desarrollo humano. La metodología es de manejo operativo, en la que se puedan introducir de manera rápida y sencilla los cambios en las variables que van a determinar la oferta y la demanda dinámica de agua dulce.La propuesta metodológica se caracteriza por varios puntos clave. En primer lugar, desarrollamos una discusión terminológica y conceptual en la que, a partir del estado del arte actual llegamos a definir los conceptos de la oferta y la demanda dinámica de agua dulce renovable como primer paso fundamental de nuestra metodología, elaborando un glosario terminológico y conceptual propio para este trabajo.A partir de la caracterización de la oferta y la demanda dinámica se analiza el escenario business as usual constatándose y valorándose la gravedad de la situación de los nueve países que forman la región del golfo de Guinea, debida fundamentalmente a la no existencia o a la no implementación de gestión de extracción, distribución y abastecimiento de agua dulce por falta de recursos económicos o voluntades políticas. Nuestro segundo paso metodológico permite corroborar la calificación usual de la situación de estos países como de escasez económica. Para poder cubrir esta etapa de la propuesta metodológica ha sido necesario resolver, también metodológicamente, la muy importante escasez de datos para la mayoría de países en desarrollo.Nuestra propuesta metodológica parte por supuesto de trabajar con la realidad, detectando inconvenientes y limitaciones al aplicarla al caso de estudio de los países de nuestra región. Una de estas limitaciones es claramente la falta de datos necesarios para elaborar nuestros escenarios o para determinar los estándares o confeccionar el nuevo índice; en la medida que se han ido presentando estas circunstancias, hemos recurrido a soluciones metodológicas que nos han permitido estimar nuevos datos a partir de correlaciones y/o extrapolaciones de los datos existentes.El siguiente punto clave y una de las aportaciones principales de este trabajo de propuesta metodológica es a partir de unas determinadas objetivizaciones de estándares de demanda de agua dulce ligados a unos niveles aceptables de bienestar y calidad de vida, reanalizar mediante la construcción y análisis de los escenarios de futuro correspondientes, las posibilidades y debilidades reales de estos países en relación con la escasez de agua dulce.El último punto clave es la elaboración de una propuesta de un índice que nos permite evaluar de forma sintética y rápida la situación de un país o región según el nivel de capacidad para satisfacer demandas de agua dulce correspondientes a un estándar de demanda establecido de forma clara y explícita. Dicho índice nos permite detectar de forma temprana posibles alertas que más allá de una escasez física o económica nos sean útiles (al igual que en el caso de la representación y el análisis de los resultados de los distintos escenarios de futuro) para la toma decisiones, en función de los objetivos pretendidos.La herramienta de apoyo para elaborar las representaciones de los escenarios es, en sí misma, otro elemento instrumental que además de tener una buena resolución de diseño gráfico, debe facilitar los cálculos necesarios para el análisis de los escenarios, así como almacenar la información de forma cómoda y en la que se puedan introducir cambios fácilmente.La metodología es una herramienta objetiva y útil dirigida a responsables políticos y técnicos, estudiosos e investigadores que dé soporte a la toma de decisiones y/o a la visualización de la valoración de la escasez de agua dulce en el marco de un pretendido desarrollo humano sostenible.

    This thesis describes a methodology for dynamic analysis over time that makes it possible to continually re-assess fresh-water scarcity as a function of supply and demand. The methodology takes into account variations in the driving factors, including, most importantly, human-development needs. The methodology can be controlled operationally. Changes in the variables that determine the dynamic fresh-water supply and demand can be entered quickly and easily.Our methodological proposal contains several key points. We begin with a discussion of terminology and concepts. Taking the current state of the art as our starting point, as a fundamental first step in our methodology we define the concepts of dynamic renewable fresh-water supply and demand. We then present a glossary of the terms and concepts used in this thesis.Following the characterisation of dynamic supply and demand, we analyse the "business-as-usual" scenario. We point out the seriousness of the situation in the nine Gulf of Guinea countries. The fundamental reason for this situation is the non-existence or non-implementation of policies aimed at extracting, distributing and supplying fresh water, due to a lack of economic resources or political will. The second step in our methodology is to corroborate the usual description of the situation in these countries, particularly in terms of the economic scarcity that characterises them. To properly complete this stage of the methodology, it has been necessary to find a solution to the inadequacy of the data available in most developing countries.Our proposal works with reality, which involves detecting disadvantages and limitations when applying the methodology in the countries of this particular region. One such limitation, clearly, is the lack of the necessary data for constructing the scenarios, determining the standards and creating the new index; as these circumstances have arisen, we have implemented methodological solutions that have enabled us to estimate new data on the basis of correlations and/or extrapolations of existing data.The next key point is also one of the main contributions of this methodological proposal. We set the goal of achieving certain standards of fresh-water demand based on acceptable levels of welfare and quality of life. Then, by constructing and analysing the corresponding future scenarios, we re-examine the real possibilities and weaknesses of each country as relates to the scarcity of fresh water.The last key point of our proposal is the generation of an index that enables us to evaluate, quickly and synthetically, the situation of a particular country or region on the basis of its capacity to satisfy fresh-water demand in a way that meets a clearly and specifically defined standard. This index enables the early detection of possible problems that go beyond physical or economic scarcity. Like the representation and analysis of the results of the various future scenarios, this early-warning system will enable decisions to be made in accordance with the established goals.The support tool used to generate the representations of the scenarios must have good graphic-design resolution, be able to make the calculations necessary for analysing the scenarios, and store the information in a practical way that allows changes to be entered easily.This methodology is meant to be used by politicians, engineers, scholars and researchers as a useful and objective support tool for decision-making and/or visualising levels of fresh-water scarcity as part of larger efforts to achieve the goal of sustainable human development.

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    Taylor-orthogonal basis functions for the discretization in method of moments of second kind integral equations in the scattering analysis of perfectly conducting or dielectric objects  Open access

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, José María; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Progress in electromagnetics research (PIER)
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    We present new implementations in Method of Moments of two types of second kind integral equations: (i) the recently proposed Electric-Magnetic Field Integral Equation (EMFIE), for perfectly conducting objects, and (ii) the Müller formulation, for homogeneous or piecewise homogeneous dielectric objects. We adopt the Taylor-orthogonal basis functions, a recently presented set of facet-oriented basis functions, which, as we show in this paper, arise from the Taylor's expansion of the current at the centroid of the discretization triangles. We show that the Taylor-orthogonal discretization of the EMFIE mitigates the discrepancy in the computed Radar Cross Section observed in conventional divergence-conforming implementations for moderately small, perfectly conducting, sharp-edged objects. Furthermore, we show that the Taylor-discretization of the Müller-formulation represents a valid option for the analysis of sharp-edged homogenous dielectrics, especially with low dielectric contrasts, when compared with other RWG-discretized implementations for dielectrics. Since the divergence-Taylor Orthogonal basis functions are facet-oriented, they appear better suited than other, edge-oriented, discretization schemes for the analysis of piecewise homogenous objects since they simplify notably the discretization at the junctions arising from the intersection of several dielectric regions.

  • Divergence-conforming discretization of second-kind integral equations for the RCS computation in the Rayleigh frequency region

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Radio science
    Date of publication: 2011-09-15
    Journal article

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    Accelerated direct solution of the MoM-VIE for dielectric scatterers  Open access

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    Iberian Meeting on Computational Electromagnetics
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The Multiscale Compressed Block Decomposition algorithm (MS-CBD), a direct (non-iterative) linear solver, is applied to accelerate the solution of the MoM-VIE formulation for dielectric scatterers. Numerical solutions are presented for problems with several hundreds of thousands of unknowns. Asymptotically (with respect to the electrical size of the problem), the solution time scales with the number of unknowns squared. The numerical examples confirm this theoretical value.

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    Very accurate computation of the impedance elements on the discretization of the magnetic field integral equation with the orthogonal basis functions  Open access

     Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Mosig, Juan Ramón
    Iberian Meeting on Computational Electromagnetics
    Presentation's date: 2010-05-19
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    We show a novel integrating technique, the direct evaluation method, that provides maximum accuracy in the computation of the MFIE-interactions between neighboring noncoplanar basis functions sharing an edge or a vertex of the discretization. Unlike the previous techniques, this strategy requires no extraction of quasi-singular terms from the Kernel and accounts for both inner- and outer-integrals. We show that the recently proposed discretization of the MFIE with orthogonal facet-oriented basis functions provide best accuracy in the RCS computation of objects with small electrical dimensions when compared with other conventional basis functions sets.

  • Software framework for integration of method of moments kernels with direct or iterative fast solvers

     Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Herrero, J. A.; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Parrón, Josep; López-Peña, Sergio; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Mosig, Juan Ramón; Espinosa, Hugo; Boag, Amir
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Simulation of shipborne small HF antennas with RWG discretization and fast solver

     Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Jofre Roca, Luis; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    IEEE International Conference on Wireless Information Technology and Systems
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-01
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, an alternative approach has been used to analyze an electrically small antenna (1.2m in the 2-30 MHz band) in a large ship (238m length) using a generic EFIE simulation code with Rao, Wilton and Glisson (RWG) basis functions, with the minimum necessary modifications to tackle the lowfrequency and multiscale issues that lead to a very poorly conditioned linear system.

  • New electric-magnetic field integral equation for the scattering analysis of perfectly conducting sharp-edged objects at very low or extremely low frequencies

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Orthogonal basis functions for the discretization of the Magnetic-field Integral Equation in the low frequency regime

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    European Conference on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2010-04-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • TECNOLOGIA Y NUEVAS TECNICAS DE DISEÑO PARA INTEGRACION EN CHIP DE CABECERAS DE MICROONDAS

     Heldring, Alexander; González Arbesú, José María; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Mateu Mateu, Jordi; Collado Gomez, Juan Carlos
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Novel self-loop basis functions for the stability of the Linear-linear discretization of the Electric Field Integral Equation at very low frequencies  Open access

     Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation
    Presentation's date: 2009-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A self-loop basis functions is presented, a new set of solenoidal basis functions, which, together with the loop-star basis functions, define a rearrangement of the LL-discretization in method of moments of the EFIE that results in a stable impedance matrix at very low frequencies.

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    Zeroth-order divergence-complete discretizations of the EFIE at very low frequencies  Open access

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Computational Electromagnetics Workshop
    Presentation's date: 2009-07-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    We present the Self-Loop basis functions, an edge-oriented divergence-conforming set with zero charge density. These basis functions allow a rearrangement of the Linear-linear basis functions set to overcome the low-frequency breakdown of the Electric-field Integral Equation.

  • Multiscale CBD for Fast Direct Solution of MoM Linear System

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Parrón, J; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo
    IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Progress in MoM Solution of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation at UPC AntennaLab

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    VI Encuentro Ibérico de Electromagnetismo Computacional
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • RCS convergence versus the number of unknowns and very low frequency behavior of the Galerkin MFIE discretizations of sharp-edged objects with monopolar RWG and nxRWG basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Survey on the RCS convergence for discretizations in Method of Moments of Integral Equations with planar rectangular basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fast iterative solution of integral equations with method of moments and matrix decomposition algorithm - Singular value decomposition

     Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Parron, J; Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2008-09
    Journal article

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  • Comments on ¿The Use of Curl-Conforming Basis Functions for the Magnetic-Field Integral Equation¿

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2008-07
    Journal article

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  • Better RCS-Performance of the MFIE Discretization with Monopolar RWG and Monopolar Linear-Linear Basis Functions than with their Dipolar Counterparts

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Advances in Numerical Electromagnetics at UPC and UAB

     Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Espinosa, H; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Parrón, J
    V Encuentro Ibérico de Electromagnetismo Computacional
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Advances in Numerical Electromagnetics at UPC AntennaLab

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel; Espinosa, H; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Parron, J
    Computational Electromagnetics Workshop
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Accurate computation of the impedance elements of the magnetic-field integral equation with RWG basis functions through field-domain and source-domain integral swapping

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Microwave and optical technology letters
    Date of publication: 2007-03
    Journal article

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  • Fast Direct Solution of MoM linear system

     Heldring, Alexander; Tamayo Palau, Jose Maria; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2007-11
    Journal article

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  • Advantages of rectangular and uniform-triangular discretization on the scattering analysis of very small sharp-edged objects with the Magnetic Field Integral Equation

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    2006 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Field- and Source-domain integral swapping in the accurate computation of MoM MFIE formulation with low-order curl- and divergence-conforming basis functions

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    2006 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Miniaturización y mejora de cabeceras de radiofrecuencia mediante el uso de nuevos materiales y metamateriales

     Collado Gomez, Juan Carlos; Heldring, Alexander; Santos Blanco, María Concepción; O'callaghan Castella, Juan Manuel; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; González Arbesú, José María; Mateu Mateu, Jordi
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Efficient scattering computation for arrays of long thin-strips

     Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Heldring, Alexander; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    Microwave and optical technology letters
    Date of publication: 2006-01
    Journal article

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    Efficient computation of the effect of wire ends in thin wire analysis  Open access

     Heldring, Alexander; Ubeda Farre, Eduardo; Rius Casals, Juan-manuel
    IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation
    Date of publication: 2006-10
    Journal article

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    Computationally efficient algorithms are presented for the computation of the effect of flat wire ends (end caps) in the common thin wire model. A uniform charge distribution over the surface of the end cap is assumed, and the full or exact kernel of the electric field integral equation formulation for cylindrical wires is used. The algorithms have been implemented in a highly efficient, low order, full kernel method of moments code for the analysis of relatively thick wire antennas and scatterers. The extra computational cost of including the end cap effect is small. The code has been applied to the analysis of a thick linear dipole and the results correspond very well with those of a recently published study using a much more computationally expensive implementation of the magnetic field integral equation with high order discretization methods.