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  • Metodologia de recollida de dades d¿incendis d¿interior

     Rios Rubiras, Oriol; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Date: 2014-10-10
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    Creació d'una metodologia operacional per a la recollida de dades en emergències en incendis d'interior

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    Monitorització d'assajos en compartiments - FireSeminar 2014  Open access

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Tarrago Cliville, Diana; Rios Rubiras, Oriol; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Angel; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Date: 2014-10-08
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  • Calibratge Bi-directional probe

     Tarrago Cliville, Diana; Rios Rubiras, Oriol; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Date: 2014-10-16
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    The effect of the environment conditions on the prediction of flammable cloud dispersion  Open access

     Miralles Schleder, Adriana; Ramos Martins, Marcelo; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    European Safety and Reliability Conference
    p. 1-8
    Presentation's date: 2014-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In order to quantify the damage caused by undesired events involving leakages of flammable materials, specific models are used to analyze the spills or jets of gas and liquid, gas dispersion, explosions and fires. The main step of this analysis is to estimate the concentration, in space and time, of the vapor cloud of hazardous substances released into the atmosphere; the purpose is to determine the area where a fire or explosion might occur and the quantity of flammable material in that area. Recently with the computational advances, CFD tools are used to short and medium range gas dispersion scenarios, especially in scenarios where there is a complex geometry. However, the accuracy of the simulating strongly depends on the boundary conditions. Therefore, this study investigates the sensitivity degree of the prediction of cloud dispersion to changes in values of wind speed, ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and ground roughness. This paper con-tributes to an appropriate assessment of the effects of these environment conditions to perform an accurate dispersion simulation using CFD tools and therefore contributes to a more effective analysis of the consequences.

  • Soil combustion experiments in the Andean Grassland (puna) and Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) Treeline

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Boada Oliveras, Immaculada; Quintano, Jose Antonio; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Urquiaga, Erickson
    Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference
    p. 51
    Presentation's date: 2014-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The effect of the computational grid size on the prediction of a flammable cloud dispersion  Open access

     Miralles Schleder, Adriana; Ramos Martins, Marcelo; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering
    p. 1-9
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The consequence analysis is used to define the extent and nature of effects caused by undesired events being of great help when quantifying the damage caused by such events. For the case of leaking of flammable and/or toxic materials, effects are analyzed for explosions, fires and toxicity. Specific models are used to analyze the spills or jets of gas or liquids, gas dispersions, explosions and fires. The central step in the analysis of consequences in such cases is to determine the concentration of the vapor cloud of hazardous substances released into the atmosphere, in space and time. With the computational advances, CFD tools are being used to simulate short and medium scale gas dispersion events, especially in scenarios where there is a complex geometry. However, the accuracy of the simulation strongly depends on diverse simulation parameters, being of particular importance the grid resolution. This study investigates the effects of the computational grid size on the prediction of a cloud dispersion considering both the accuracy and the computational cost. Experimental data is compared with the predicted values obtained by means of CFD simulation, exploring and discussing the influence of the grid size on cloud concentration the predicted values. This study contributes to optimize CFD simulation settings concerning grid definition when applied to analyses of consequences in environments with complex geometry.

  • Modelització de la dispersió de gasos inflamables

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2013-11-22
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  • Modelització de la dispersió de gasos inflamables

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2013-11-22
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  • Fire behaviour and fire sustainability in the high-altitude puna grasslands

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Quintano, Jose Antonio; Manta, Maria Isabel; Oliveras Menor, Immaculada; Urquiaga, Erickson; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference
    p. 40
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Wildfire behaviour and danger ratings

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    DOI: 10.1002/9781118529539.ch4
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Book chapter

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    This chapter provides an overview of wildland fire behaviour and danger rating systems, the understanding of which allows for better estimates of the contribution that fire plays in the Earth system. Fire dynamics are controlled by multiple factors, the most important being biomass characteristics and atmospheric and topographical conditions under which the fire is spreading. The study and characterization of these factors and their link to fire behaviour has allowed the researchers in this field to develop mathematical models for fire behaviour prediction, classify vegetation types and define vegetation models that can provide information on how the fire will behave in such fuels, and forecast fire danger in order to be able to design and undertake preventive actions.

  • Infrared imagery on wildfire research. Some examples of sound capabilities and applications.

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications
    p. 31-36
    Presentation's date: 2012-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Wildfire infrared monitoring is nowadays applied to different problems related to fire prevention, fire suppression and fire behaviour analysis. In terms of research, infrared thermography offers unique capabilities although it is constantly challenging the scientific community to develop sound process imagery methodologies in order to obtain valuable and reliable information about fire phenomena. In this paper we show some infrared thermography applications that we have recently developed to provide solutions on fuel mapping, fire behaviour analysis, fire suppression and fire effects assessment. We highlight the advantages and drawbacks of all of them and present future problems that can be tackled with this type of fire monitoring techniques.

  • New tendencies in wildland fire simulation for understanding fire phenomena: An overview of the WFDS system capabilities in Mediterranean ecosystems

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Tarragó, Diana; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fuel, wildfire danger and behaviour modelling: state of the art and medium-term prospects

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Efectivitat dels tractaments d'aclarida en la reducció del risc de propagació d'incendis en regenerats de pi blanc  Open access

     Domènech Jardí, Ruth
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Increased wildfire activity over the last years has made fire managers to become more concerned about the effectiveness of current fuel treatment practices to reduce fire risk and severity. Fuel treatments lead to changes in the forest structure and therefore modify certain basic parameters that may influence the fire behaviour. The goal of this work is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing risk of wildfires spread in some typically Mediterranean forest. Specifically, it envisages to know the characteristics of the fire that can occur in the slash originated from regenerated aleppo pine stands that were thinned after a wildfire and also to know the evolution of slash combustibility after the treatment. First, an extensive literature review has been done, focused mainly on those works that assessed the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing the risk of wildfire. Several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of treatments such as prescribed burning or thinning. However, these studies are not consistent about what treatment and slash management technique are the most effective. A study area has been selected and located within the perimeter of a large forest fire occurred in Bages (Central Catalonia, Spain) in 1994 to study the effectiveness of a type of fuel treatment usually performed in the Mediterranean Basin. The site was previously thinned during different periods and the slash was left in, not managed. In this area, the fuel, environment and topographic characteristics have been determined. With the fuel sampling methods used at the site, a protocol has been produced in order to characterize the regenerated aleppo pine stands, useful to obtain the parameters needed to evaluate fire behaviour. Results have led to a new fuel model for regenerated aleppo pine stands and also fuel models for regenerated aleppo pine stands that have been thinned at different times with the slash remaining unmanaged at the site. An experimental burning program has been implemented reproducing two different regenerated structures (6 and 40 months after treatment). With these experiments it has been proved that ex-situ experimentation is not useful to reproduce actual fire situations because it is impossible to repeat faithfully the overall structure of the ecosystem that affect fire behavior. A series of simulations of potential fires that could occur in the study area have been performed, incorporating the determined inputs (environmental conditions and fuel type) and evaluating different simulation tools (NEXUS i WFDS). Results obtained with the two simulations tools used confirm that both tools are reliable. In general values obtained in fireline intensity and rate of spread with WFDS are larger than with NEXUS. Results from simulations of Bages plots carried with both simulation tools generally show that fire behavior is more severe 1 month and 6 months after the treatment. That is, the wildfire effects after the treatment would be worse than in the untreated control plot and that time does not improve this situation, at least six months after treatment. According to the results and given the characteristics of our country where the risk of fires is very high, the effect of thinning treatments performed in central Catalonia after the 1994 fire brings a great fire vulnerability in treated stands, at least during the first months of treatment.

  • Distribución de los incendios en función de su tamaño

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-10
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Modelos para la estimación de la velocidad de propagación

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-09
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Carbon balance in the study area

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-07
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • DR-5. Avaluació de models de comportament d'incendis

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domènech, Rut; Àgueda Costafreda, Alba
    Date: 2011-06
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    Simulacions d'incendis en les diferents parcel·les d'estudi d'IRVA i de les cremes experimentals de Can Padró

  • (0210-8380) Geographicalia

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Different approaches for the head fire perimeter definition in wildland fires

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Cubells, M; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    International IAFSS Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Emissions from fires and carbon balance

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-05
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Fire behavior variability in malle-heath shrubland fires

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Cruz, Miguel G.; Grenfell, Isaa C.
    International Widland Fire Conference
    p. 107
    Presentation's date: 2011-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • DR-6. Focs experimentals exsitu

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domènech, Rut; Àgueda Costafreda, Alba
    Date: 2011-04
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  • Introduction to SIASim

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-03
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial fire fighting.

  • Summary of first outcomes

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-02-07
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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial fire fighting. This document summarizes the work done by CERTEC between the 13th January and 7th February 2011 concerning the project “Elaboración de una version preliminary de una metodología CDM-NM para la reducción de emisiones mediante la extinction aérea de incendios forestales”.

  • Forestry Ideas

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • (0015-2684) Fire technology

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Disseny dels experiments i metodologia. Descripció dels procediments i equips utilitzats en la monitorització dels focs experimentals ex-situ.

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-11-25
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  • Fuel treatment effects on stand structure and fire behaviour in Mediterranean aleppo pine ecosystems

     Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Navascués, Pablo
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    p. 35
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Quantifiable assessment of aerial suppression tactics in wildland fires using airborne infrared imagery

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Cubells Gonzalvo, Miquel; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Plucinski, Matt; Gould, Jim
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    p. 278
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fire behaviour and fire safety in complex topography under extreme weather: the case study of Horta de Sant Joan fire

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Castellnou, Marc; Miralles, Marta; Galán, Moisès
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    p. 288
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Effect of wind and slope when scaling flame geometry in laboratory experiments

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    p. 158
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Propietats intrínseques de restes d¿aclarida en regenerats de pi blanc. Mètodes i resultats experimentals.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-03-24
    Report

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    L’objectiu d’aquest document és recopilar els resultats del treball realitzat en el Bloc 3 “Propietats intrínseques” del projecte IRVA. Aquests resultats han de servir juntament amb d’altres paràmetres característics de les zones d’estudi (propietats extrínseques, característiques topogràfiques i condicions meteorològiques) com a dades d’entrada per tal de realitzar les simulacions amb les diverses eines seleccionades, tasca que es desenvolupa en el Bloc 5 “Avaluació dels models de comportament d’incendis”. L’estructura d’aquest document és la següent: en primer lloc es recopilen els resultats obtinguts en la caracterització de les propietats tèrmiques, seguidament s’inclouen els resultats referents a densitat i geometria de partícules i en darrer lloc es recopilen, a nivell de consideracions finals, les conclusions més importants extretes d’aquest bloc de treball.

  • (0379-7112) Fire safety journal

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Propietats extrínseques del combustible de les parcel les estudiades

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-01-18
    Report

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    L’objectiu del present document és obtenir una bona caracterització de les propietats extrínseques del combustible present a les parcel·les d’estudi, les propietats intrínseques quedaran recollides en el DR3 (Propietats intrínseques del combustible de les parcel·les estudiades). El contingut d’aquest document s’estructura de la següent forma: en primer lloc, es llisten les propietats extrínseques que són necessàries per dur a terme les simulacions; una vegada conegudes aquestes propietats, en el següent apartat es descriu el disseny experimental dels mostrejos; a continuació es detalla la metodologia utilitzada per determinar les propietats extrínseques a camp.; i els darrers tres apartats del document fan referència als resultats obtinguts, a l’anàlisi i conclusions extretes d’aquests.

  • Experiència de millora en la pràctica docent dins del marc de l¿enginyeria química: avaluació continuada

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    p. 207-216
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Experiència de millora en la pràctica docent dins del marc de l'enginyeria química: avaluació continuada

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    p. 207-216
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Effects of long-term forest fire retardants on fire intensity, heat of combustion of the fuel and flame emissivity  Open access

     AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Cada any milers d'hectàrees forestals es destrueixen a causa dels incendis forestals. Investigar quins són els mecanismes que controlen la ignició i la propagació dels incendis forestals és necessari per planificar estratègies eficients de lluita contra els incendis forestals i per establir plans de gestió de les àrees forestals. Durant aquests darrers seixanta anys des del món de la recerca s'han formulat models per descriure el comportament dels focs forestals de superfície, principalment, i en un menor grau els focs de capçades. No obstant, aquests models tenen un punt feble significatiu: cap d'ells ha estat desenvolupat per ser utilitzat com a eina predictiva del comportament del foc després d'actuacions d'atac indirecte amb retardants a llarg termini (o retardants). A més, la majoria de treballs desenvolupats fins ara amb retardants a llarg termini han tingut l'objectiu d'avaluar diferents productes per al seu ús públic per comparació amb un de referència.L'objectiu del present estudi ha estat millorar el coneixement sobre l'efecte dels retardants a llarg termini en el comportament dels incendis forestals. L'efecte dels retardants sobre la intensitat del front de flames ha estat quantificat per a diferents condicions (sense pendent/sense vent, sota la influència del vent, sota la influència del pendent), així com l'efecte dels retardants sobre la calor de combustió del combustible forestal i l'emissivitat de la flama. Avaluar com varien aquests dos últims paràmetres per la presència de retardant al combustible és un primer pas per incloure en els models de propagació l'efecte de les operacions d'atac indirecte amb retardants.Per a les condicions experimentals provades en aquest estudi, hem trobat que la intensitat del front de flames es redueix en un factor de 0.8 per la presència de retardant. També s'ha observat que la quantitat de calor alliberada durant la combustió amb flama es redueix en un factor de 0.18 per la presència de retardants i que l'emissivitat de la flama no es veu afectada per la presència de retardants. Aquests resultats indiquen que la presència de retardant redueix la intensitat del front de flames fonamentalment perquè es redueix la quantitat de calor efectivament alliberada per unitat de massa de combustible, més que perquè les propietats radiatives de la flama es canviïn.

    Every year, thousands of hectares of forest are destroyed by wildland fires. It is necessary to investigate the mechanisms that influence the ignition and propagation of wildland fires in order to successfully devise strategies for fighting wildland fires and to establish plans for managing forest areas or grasslands. Researchers have been formulating models to describe surface fires and, to a lesser extent, crown fires, for more than sixty years. However, these models have a significant shortcoming: none of them has been developed for use as a tool to predict fire behavior after indirect attack operations with long-term retardants. Furthermore, most of the work done to date on long-term retardants has been with the goal of evaluating these products for commercial purposes.The goal of the present study was to improve knowledge of the effects of long-term retardants on the spread of forest fires. Retardants' effects on fire intensity were quantified for varying fire situations (no-slope/no-wind, upslope, upwind), together with retardants' effects on the heat of combustion of the fuel and flame emissivity. Assessing how these last two parameters change due to the presence of retardants on the fuel is a first step towards including the effects of indirect attack operations with long-term retardants in propagation models. We found that the presence of retardants reduced fire intensity by a factor of 0.8 under the experimental conditions tested in this study. The amount of heat effectively released during flaming combustion under the presence of retardants was observed to decrease by a factor of 0.18 in comparison with untreated samples and flame emissivity was observed to be unaffected by the presence of retardants. These results indicated that the presence of retardants reduces fire intensity primarily by reducing the amount of heat effectively released per unit mass of fuel, rather than by affecting the radiation properties of the flames.

  • Fire intensity reduction in straw fuel beds treated with a long-term retardant

     Costafreda, Alba; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda; Viegas, Domingo Xavier; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2009-06-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • NT2-1. Llistat de propietats extrínseques i relació de mètodes a utilitzar.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domènech, R
    Date: 2009-03
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  • NT 5.1. Breu descripció dels models i llistat de variables

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domènech, R
    Date: 2009-03
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  • Computing aerial suppression effectiveness by IR monitoring

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Gould, J; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Plucinski, M
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper describes the methodology developed to analyse the IR images obtained during the aerial suppression experiments that were conducted in Ngarkat Conservation Park, South Australia, on 3-5 March 2008. This methodology has been specifically developed in order to be able to extract the maximum information from the IR images taken from an observing helicopter, in those tests were chemical suppressants are applied directly on the fire, although it could eventually be applied to other similar situations. The information obtained after applying this methodology allows quantifying the aerial suppression effectiveness.

  • Effect of wind and slope when scaling the forest fires rate of spread of laboratory experiments

     Pérez, Yolanda; Costafreda, Alba; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
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  • HERRAMIENTA PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO ORIGINADO POR LOS INDENCIOS

     Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Folch Beltran, Jaime; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim
    Competitive project

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  • ESTUDIO DE LA GEOMETRIA DE LLAMA Y DEL EFECTO DEL CAMBIO DE ESCALA PARA LA MODELIZAICÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO DE LOS INCENDIOS FORESTAL

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Competitive project

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    Flame structure modeling in forest fires  Open access

     Domenech Jardi, Ruth; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work in progress presentation wants to summarize the work done in flame modeling applied so far to forest fires and to present the on-going efforts at empirical and physical level that CERTEC is devoting to reach in a near future the goals set in this subject. We are distinguishing here two different approaches depending on whether flame modeling is based on spreading fires or on stationary fires.

  • NT1-1. Requeriments de les parcel.les.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domènech, R
    Date: 2008-11
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  • Project fuse aerial suppression experiments

     Plucinski, M; Cruz, M.G.; Gould, J; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; McCarthy, G
    Date: 2008-05
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  • Aerial suppression experiments in Ngarket conservation park

     Plucinski, M; Gould, J; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; McCarthy, G
    Australian Fire Authorities Council Conference
    p. 1-29
    Presentation's date: 2008-03-03
    Presentation of work at congresses

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