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  • Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Angel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez, Juan Antonio
    Journal of loss prevention in the process industries
    Date of publication: 2014-04-11
    Journal article

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    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Therefore, the current status of the studies on process safety in Spain is analyzed in this paper. A section has also been devoted to the process safety in the Spanish industry. An analysis of the related legislation and its implementation in the Spanish process industry is also presented in this paper. Finally, the professional career of Prof. Joaquim Casal, the pioneer in Spain in process safety and risk assessment, is summarized.

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Therefore, the current status of the studies on process safety in Spain is analyzed in this paper. A section has also been devoted to the process safety in the Spanish industry. An analysis of the related legislation and its implementation in the Spanish process industry is also presented in this paper. Finally, the professional career of Prof. Joaquim Casal, the pioneer in Spain in process safety and risk assessment, is summarized.

  • Access to the full text
    Modelos de combustible para caracterizar el comportamiento de los incendios en regenerados clareados de pino carrasco  Open access

     Domènech Jardi, Rut; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Àgueda Costafreda, Alba; Sans Català, Ariadna; Navascués Ramos, Pablo; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Montes
    Date of publication: 2013-12-23
    Journal article

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  • Criteria and methodology for evaluating aerial wildfire suppression

     Plucinski, Matt; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    International journal of wildland fire
    Date of publication: 2013-12-02
    Journal article

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    Aircraft are often used to drop suppressants and retardants to assist wildfire containment. Drop effectiveness has rarely been measured due to the difficulties in collecting data from wildfires and running field experiments and the absence of definitions and measures. This paper presents a set of criteria and methodologies for evaluating the effectiveness of aerial suppression drops. These consider drop placement, coverage and effect on fire behaviour. This paper also details drop site and delivery conditions that are required for determining causal factors that influence drop effectiveness and allow drops to be compared. Examples of drop impact evaluations made during experimental fires are used to demonstrate these methodologies. The main methods proposed are based on the analysis of orthorectified airborne infrared imagery of drops, which can be used to measure drop dimensions, proximity to fire perimeter and their effect on fire spread. These evaluations can be used to compare tactics, suppressants and delivery systems and to inform cost¿benefit analyses of aerial suppression.

  • Wildfire behaviour and danger ratings

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date of publication: 2013-04
    Book chapter

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    This chapter provides an overview of wildland fire behaviour and danger rating systems, the understanding of which allows for better estimates of the contribution that fire plays in the Earth system. Fire dynamics are controlled by multiple factors, the most important being biomass characteristics and atmospheric and topographical conditions under which the fire is spreading. The study and characterization of these factors and their link to fire behaviour has allowed the researchers in this field to develop mathematical models for fire behaviour prediction, classify vegetation types and define vegetation models that can provide information on how the fire will behave in such fuels, and forecast fire danger in order to be able to design and undertake preventive actions.

  • Fire behaviour and fire sustainability in the high-altitude puna grasslands

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Quintano, Jose Antonio; Manta, Maria Isabel; Oliveras Menor, Immaculada; Urquiaga, Erickson; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference
    Presentation's date: 2013-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Risk analysis active learning through the investigation of real cases

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fabrega, Joaquim; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez, Juan Antoni; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Process safety and environmental protection
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Risk analysis is a topic of high relevance in chemical engineering. Courses on this topic are being introduced increasingly into the university curricula. The investigation of real cases is an interesting opportunity to consolidate the concepts taught in such courses and to get a better engagement of students through a creative work. The exercise proposed in this paper has to be performed by a group of students to whom a set of information has been provided. In the exercise, the students play the role of an expert team: they have to deliver a final report including diverse sections such as the description of the accident, the explanation of why and how it occurred, different calculations and finally, some conclusions. From the pedagogical point of view, the results obtained from this type of exercise are very positive and promote the students active and cooperative learning.

  • Aerial fire suppression evaluation grains effectiveness

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Plucinski, Matt; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Wildfire
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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  • New tendencies in wildland fire simulation for understanding fire phenomena: An overview of the WFDS system capabilities in Mediterranean ecosystems

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Tarragó, Diana; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Infrared imagery on wildfire research. Some examples of sound capabilities and applications.

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International Conference on Image Processing Theory, Tools and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2012-10
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Wildfire infrared monitoring is nowadays applied to different problems related to fire prevention, fire suppression and fire behaviour analysis. In terms of research, infrared thermography offers unique capabilities although it is constantly challenging the scientific community to develop sound process imagery methodologies in order to obtain valuable and reliable information about fire phenomena. In this paper we show some infrared thermography applications that we have recently developed to provide solutions on fuel mapping, fire behaviour analysis, fire suppression and fire effects assessment. We highlight the advantages and drawbacks of all of them and present future problems that can be tackled with this type of fire monitoring techniques.

  • Fuel, wildfire danger and behaviour modelling: state of the art and medium-term prospects

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-23
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Recerca en incendis forestals: cremes experimentals a Austràlia  Open access

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda
    Revista de tecnologia
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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  • Fire intensity reduction in straw fuel beds treated with a long-term retardant

     AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda; Viegas, Domingo Xavier; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Fire safety journal
    Date of publication: 2011-01
    Journal article

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    The present paper reports fire intensity reduction factors in partially retardant-treated straw fuel beds. Propagation experiments were carried out in the laboratory with fuel beds with a bulk density of 7.5 kgm_3 under no-slope/no-wind, up slope/no-wind and no-slope/wind-aided conditions. Fire-Trol 931, along-term retardant based on polyphosphates, was employed in these experiments and a single retardant concentration of 0.2kg of dry retardant product per kg of fuel was tested. It has been statistically inferred that fire intensity reduction factors are constant, regardless of the fire intensity of the flame front at the untreated area of the fuel bed, and a mean fire intensity reduction factor of 0.80 has been computed under the experimental conditions tested.

  • Investigación en incendios forestales: quemas experimentales en Australia

     Àgueda, Alba; Cubells Beltrán, M. Dolores; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Boletin informativo CIDEU
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    En este trabajo se muestra un ejemplo de lo que se está haciendo actualmente desde el mundo de la investigación para contribuir en la mejora del conocimiento que se tiene del comportamiento de los incendios forestales. Se describen las quemas experimentales que se llevaron a cabo en bosques de eucalipto de Australia durante el mes de marzo de 2008 y en las cuales miembros del Centre d’Estudis del Risc Tecnològic (CERTEC), de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), participaron activamente. Éstas son las quemas experimentales más grandes que hasta la fecha se han llevado a cabo a nivel mundial. Algunos resultados que se pueden extraer de este tipo de experimentación se ponen de relieve en este trabajo. Más específicamente, se describe una metodología que permite cuantificar la efectividad de las descargas de productos químicos (retardante a largo plazo, gel y espuma) a partir del análisis de imágenes infrarrojas captadas desde el aire.

  • Air infiltration in Catalan dwellings and sealed rooms: An experimental study

     Montoya Rodríguez, María Isabel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Building and environment
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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    In this study, we performed a series of trials to measure the infiltration air exchange rate (ACH) of several single-family dwellings throughout Catalonia, as well as the ACH of sealed rooms that could be used as indoor shelters. A shelter is an indoor room where people can take protection in case of a toxic gas release, while the toxic cloud passes through the dwelling. Experimental measurements were made using the tracer gas decay technique with CO2 as the tracer gas in 2 periodsdsummer and winterdwith the aim of characterizing air infiltration in Catalan dwellings. The geometric means obtained for the ACH of shelters and dwellings were 0.16 and 0.23 h-1, respectively, that is, lower than those reported for North American (0.56 h-1) and Greek (0.76 h-1) dwellings. In general, the ACH was lower for shelters than for dwellings, and the average reduction btained in shelters with respect to dwellings was 35%. The largest reductions were obtained in old dwellings with small floor areas and few stories. As for meteorological conditions, we found that the ACH of dwellings was more closely linked to wind speed than indoore-outdoor temperature difference, while the ACH of shelters was more affected by indoore-outdoor temperature and temperature differences inside the dwelling, particularly in dwellings with 3 or more stories.

  • Introduction to SIASim

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-03
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial fire fighting.

  • DR-5. Avaluació de models de comportament d'incendis

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domènech, Rut; Àgueda, A
    Date: 2011-06
    Report

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    Simulacions d'incendis en les diferents parcel·les d'estudi d'IRVA i de les cremes experimentals de Can Padró

  • DR-6. Focs experimentals exsitu

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domènech, Rut; Àgueda, A.
    Date: 2011-04
    Report

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  • Emissions from fires and carbon balance

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-05
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Carbon balance in the study area

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-07
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Modelos para la estimación de la velocidad de propagación

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-09
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Distribución de los incendios en función de su tamaño

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-10
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial firefighting

  • Summary of first outcomes

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Date: 2011-02-07
    Report

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    Document del projecte: Preliminary CDM-NM to reduce GHG emissions with aerial fire fighting. This document summarizes the work done by CERTEC between the 13th January and 7th February 2011 concerning the project “Elaboración de una version preliminary de una metodología CDM-NM para la reducción de emisiones mediante la extinction aérea de incendios forestales”.

  • Forestry Ideas

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • (0210-8380) Geographicalia

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Efectivitat dels tractaments d'aclarida en la reducció del risc de propagació d'incendis en regenerats de pi blanc  Open access

     Domènech Jardí, Ruth
    Defense's date: 2011-11-18
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Increased wildfire activity over the last years has made fire managers to become more concerned about the effectiveness of current fuel treatment practices to reduce fire risk and severity. Fuel treatments lead to changes in the forest structure and therefore modify certain basic parameters that may influence the fire behaviour. The goal of this work is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing risk of wildfires spread in some typically Mediterranean forest. Specifically, it envisages to know the characteristics of the fire that can occur in the slash originated from regenerated aleppo pine stands that were thinned after a wildfire and also to know the evolution of slash combustibility after the treatment. First, an extensive literature review has been done, focused mainly on those works that assessed the effectiveness of fuel treatments in reducing the risk of wildfire. Several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of treatments such as prescribed burning or thinning. However, these studies are not consistent about what treatment and slash management technique are the most effective. A study area has been selected and located within the perimeter of a large forest fire occurred in Bages (Central Catalonia, Spain) in 1994 to study the effectiveness of a type of fuel treatment usually performed in the Mediterranean Basin. The site was previously thinned during different periods and the slash was left in, not managed. In this area, the fuel, environment and topographic characteristics have been determined. With the fuel sampling methods used at the site, a protocol has been produced in order to characterize the regenerated aleppo pine stands, useful to obtain the parameters needed to evaluate fire behaviour. Results have led to a new fuel model for regenerated aleppo pine stands and also fuel models for regenerated aleppo pine stands that have been thinned at different times with the slash remaining unmanaged at the site. An experimental burning program has been implemented reproducing two different regenerated structures (6 and 40 months after treatment). With these experiments it has been proved that ex-situ experimentation is not useful to reproduce actual fire situations because it is impossible to repeat faithfully the overall structure of the ecosystem that affect fire behavior. A series of simulations of potential fires that could occur in the study area have been performed, incorporating the determined inputs (environmental conditions and fuel type) and evaluating different simulation tools (NEXUS i WFDS). Results obtained with the two simulations tools used confirm that both tools are reliable. In general values obtained in fireline intensity and rate of spread with WFDS are larger than with NEXUS. Results from simulations of Bages plots carried with both simulation tools generally show that fire behavior is more severe 1 month and 6 months after the treatment. That is, the wildfire effects after the treatment would be worse than in the untreated control plot and that time does not improve this situation, at least six months after treatment. According to the results and given the characteristics of our country where the risk of fires is very high, the effect of thinning treatments performed in central Catalonia after the 1994 fire brings a great fire vulnerability in treated stands, at least during the first months of treatment.

  • Different approaches for the head fire perimeter definition in wildland fires

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Cubells, M; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    International IAFSS Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2011-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fire behavior variability in malle-heath shrubland fires

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Cruz, Miguel G.; Grenfell, Isaa C.
    International Widland Fire Conference
    Presentation's date: 2011-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Characterization of Laboratory-Scale Fires Propagating Under the Effect of a Long-Term Retardant

     AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda; Viegas, Domingo Xavier; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Combustion science and technology
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    Laboratory experiments were conducted in straw fuel beds in order to characterize the effect of a widely used long-term retardant on fire behavior under different conditions: no slope–no wind, upslope–no wind, and no slope–upwind. The results are reported in terms of reduction factors for a set of variables characterizing fire behavior. In the experimental conditions the values of upslope–no-wind and no-slope–upwind fires showed no statistically significant differences from those of no-slope–no-wind fires. For all types of fire, values obtained for the reduction factors on rate of spread, fuel consumption ratio, fire intensity, and flame length were 63%, 36%, 77%, and 54%, respectively.

  • Computing forest fires aerial suppression effectiveness by IR monitoring

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Plucinski, Matt; Gould, Jim
    Fire safety journal
    Date of publication: 2010-09-06
    Journal article

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  • Pile burning of cutting debris in stands of hazel (Corylus avellana): An experimental study of smouldering combustion towards the validation of a burning protocol

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Miralles, Marta; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Fire safety journal
    Date of publication: 2010-01
    Journal article

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    Smouldering combustion in burning piles was experimentally investigated by studying temperature changes in six piles of 2 m of diameter of cutting debris of hazel (Corylus avellana) for three days after extinction. The piles were monitored using an IR camera and K-type thermocouples. The experiment was designed in order to study how the maximum temperature of the charcoal might be influenced by the individual and interaction effects of both the quality of extinction and the elapsed time until the start of extinction of the piles. The piles that were properly extinguished (i.e. using a high-pressure, homogeneously distributed water flow of 50 l/min for 4 min) had a uniform temperature profile and did not have significant hot spots. The temperature reached equilibrium with the environment in less than 10 h after extinction. In contrast, a smouldering front moved throughout the poorly extinguished piles, which had a wide temperature distribution and hot spots of up to 700 °C. A simulation of windy conditions after three days of experiments on a poorly extinguished pile showed that the reactivation of charcoal combustion was possible. It gave a high-risk scenario to cause a wildfire, with hot smouldering embers being transported by wind flow. The results are of interest to improve pile burning protocols so that the number of wildfires caused by such practices may be reduced.

  • Effect of wind and slope when scaling the forest fires rate of spread of laboratory experiments

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Fire technology
    Date of publication: 2010-06-18
    Journal article

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    This paper uses the scaling laws obtained from a Froude Modeling perspective to analyze the variations experienced in the rate of spread of wind-aided and up-slope laboratory fires when changing the size of a scale model. The results have shown that the rate of spread scaling law is no longer verified when working at laboratory scale in steep slopes and high wind speed conditions. The paper also provides a framework for scaling and scale issues in forest fire research.

  • Propietats intrínseques de restes d¿aclarida en regenerats de pi blanc. Mètodes i resultats experimentals.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-03-24
    Report

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    L’objectiu d’aquest document és recopilar els resultats del treball realitzat en el Bloc 3 “Propietats intrínseques” del projecte IRVA. Aquests resultats han de servir juntament amb d’altres paràmetres característics de les zones d’estudi (propietats extrínseques, característiques topogràfiques i condicions meteorològiques) com a dades d’entrada per tal de realitzar les simulacions amb les diverses eines seleccionades, tasca que es desenvolupa en el Bloc 5 “Avaluació dels models de comportament d’incendis”. L’estructura d’aquest document és la següent: en primer lloc es recopilen els resultats obtinguts en la caracterització de les propietats tèrmiques, seguidament s’inclouen els resultats referents a densitat i geometria de partícules i en darrer lloc es recopilen, a nivell de consideracions finals, les conclusions més importants extretes d’aquest bloc de treball.

  • Propietats extrínseques del combustible de les parcel les estudiades

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-01-18
    Report

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    L’objectiu del present document és obtenir una bona caracterització de les propietats extrínseques del combustible present a les parcel·les d’estudi, les propietats intrínseques quedaran recollides en el DR3 (Propietats intrínseques del combustible de les parcel·les estudiades). El contingut d’aquest document s’estructura de la següent forma: en primer lloc, es llisten les propietats extrínseques que són necessàries per dur a terme les simulacions; una vegada conegudes aquestes propietats, en el següent apartat es descriu el disseny experimental dels mostrejos; a continuació es detalla la metodologia utilitzada per determinar les propietats extrínseques a camp.; i els darrers tres apartats del document fan referència als resultats obtinguts, a l’anàlisi i conclusions extretes d’aquests.

  • Disseny dels experiments i metodologia. Descripció dels procediments i equips utilitzats en la monitorització dels focs experimentals ex-situ.

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA
    Date: 2010-11-25
    Report

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  • (0015-2684) Fire technology

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • (0379-7112) Fire safety journal

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Collaboration in journals

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  • Quantifiable assessment of aerial suppression tactics in wildland fires using airborne infrared imagery

     Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Cubells Gonzalvo, Miquel; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Plucinski, Matt; Gould, Jim
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Effect of wind and slope when scaling flame geometry in laboratory experiments

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fire behaviour and fire safety in complex topography under extreme weather: the case study of Horta de Sant Joan fire

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Castellnou, Marc; Miralles, Marta; Galán, Moisès
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-16
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Experiència de millora en la pràctica docent dins del marc de l'enginyeria química: avaluació continuada

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fuel treatment effects on stand structure and fire behaviour in Mediterranean aleppo pine ecosystems

     Domenech Jardi, Ruth; AGUEDA COSTAFREDA, ALBA; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Navascués, Pablo
    International Conference on Forest Fire Research
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Experiència de millora en la pràctica docent dins del marc de l¿enginyeria química: avaluació continuada

     Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa
    Jornada d'Innovació Docent UPC
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Air leakage in Catalan dwellings: Developing an airtightness model and leakage airflow predictions  Open access

     Montoya, Maria I.; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Carrié, F. Rémi; Guyot, Gaelle; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Building and environment
    Date of publication: 2009-12
    Journal article

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    In this study we estimate the air leakage distribution of single-family dwellings in Catalonia and use a statistical analysis of an airtightness database for single-family dwellings in France to identify the building characteristics that have the greatest influence on airtightness. The most significant variables are found to be the structure type, the floor area, the age of the building, the number of stories and the insulation type. A multiple linear regression technique is then applied to establish a predictive model for deriving an estimated value of airtightness from these characteristics. To estimate the infiltration airflow, a stochastic simulation of the building characteristics was performed per census tract using real data on the distributions of building variables taken from the census information. The model is then applied to determine the power law coefficient and the airtightness distribution. The predicted flow coefficients are combined with the AIM-2 model and given meteorological conditions to determine the infiltration airflow. Two sets of meteorological conditions are considered: average conditions and extreme conditions for each season.

  • Experimental study of the emissivity of flames resulting from the combustion of forest fuels

     Costafreda, Alba; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Pérez, Yolanda; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    International journal of thermal sciences
    Date of publication: 2009-06
    Journal article

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    Heat transfer by radiation is taken into account in most models that predict the propagation of forest fires. This heat transfer mechanism is normally formulated according to the Stefan–Boltzmann law in terms of flame temperature and flame emissivity. This study focused on flame emissivity. Experimental studies carried out to compute the emissivity of the flames generated during the combustion of forest fuels were reviewed, thereby highlighting differences in methodologies and results. Since the results of these studies with regard to the exponential relationship between flame emissivity and flame thickness were not in agreement, two methods based on IR imagery were used in the present study to calculate flame emissivity values. Nine circular fuel beds with a diameter of 0.3–2.5 m were prepared with common Mediterranean species and burned as stationary fires. An exponential correlation between flame emissivity and flame thickness was observed for both methods. According to the results of this study, only flames thicker than 3.2 m would exhibit an emissivity close to that of a blackbody (0.9), and the associated extinction coefficient would be 0.72. A long-term retardant product was used to treat the fuel of two of the nine tests that were carried out and no effect on flame emissivity was observed.

  • Characterization of the thermal degradation and heat of combustion of Pinus Halepensis needles treated with ammonium-polyphosphate-based retardants

     Àgueda, Alba; Liodakis, Stylianos; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry
    Date of publication: 2009-10
    Journal article

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    The thermal degradation behavior of P. halepensis needles treated with two ammonium-polyphosphate-based commercial retardants was studied using thermal analysis (DTG) under nitrogen atmosphere. Moreover, for the same experimental material, the heat of combustion of the volatiles was estimated based on the difference between the heat of combustion of the fuel and the heat contribution of the charred residue left after pyrolysis. The heat of combustion of the volatiles was exponentially related to the retardant concentration of the samples. In the range of retardant concentrations from 10 to 20% w/w the mean reduction percentage of the heat of combustion of the volatiles, with respect to untreated samples, was 18%.

  • Comparison of two methods for estimating fire positions and the rate of spread of linear flame fronts

     Rudz, S; Chetehouna, K.; Sero Guillaume, O.; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Measurement science and technology
    Date of publication: 2009-11
    Journal article

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  • NT2-1. Llistat de propietats extrínseques i relació de mètodes a utilitzar.

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domènech, R
    Date: 2009-03
    Report

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  • NT 5.1. Breu descripció dels models i llistat de variables

     Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Domènech, R
    Date: 2009-03
    Report

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  • Effect of wind and slope when scaling the forest fires rate of spread of laboratory experiments

     Pérez, Yolanda; Costafreda, Alba; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Computing aerial suppression effectiveness by IR monitoring

     Pérez Ramirez, Yolanda; Gould, J; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Planas Cuchi, Eulalia; Plucinski, M
    Mediterranean Combustion Symposium
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper describes the methodology developed to analyse the IR images obtained during the aerial suppression experiments that were conducted in Ngarkat Conservation Park, South Australia, on 3-5 March 2008. This methodology has been specifically developed in order to be able to extract the maximum information from the IR images taken from an observing helicopter, in those tests were chemical suppressants are applied directly on the fire, although it could eventually be applied to other similar situations. The information obtained after applying this methodology allows quantifying the aerial suppression effectiveness.