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  • An acoustic valve within the nose of sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus

     Huggenberger, Stefan; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Oelschläger, Helmut A.
    Mammal review
    Vol. 44, num. 2, p. 81-87
    DOI: 10.1111/mam.12017
    Date of publication: 2014-04-01
    Journal article

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    Sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus emit impulsive sound signals in short series of rhythmic clicks (codas) for communication, and in long series of single acoustic events (usual clicks) for echolocation. Both click types are generated pneumatically within the hypertrophied nasal complex, at the monkey lips' at the rostral end of the right nasal passage. Each individual click comprises repetitive pulses decaying in intensity. However, the decay rate is distinctly higher in usual clicks than in coda clicks. The mechanism of decay rate control in the clicks is still unclear, and it is unclear why the right nasal passage crosses the nasal acoustic pathway between two hypertrophied acoustic fat bodies (spermaceti organ, junk), so that it resembles a bent acoustic horn'. We present a new concept to explain how the flat right nasal passage can serve as a variable acoustic valve, and how the amount and distribution of its air filling can be controlled by muscle action. This mechanism allows the whale to determine the pulse decay rate and thus switch between the two modes of click production. Coda clicks are generated by reverberations within the spermaceti organ (partial trapping of sound) and by the release of sound energy in fractions through the air-filled right nasal passage. In contrast, echolocation clicks as single events are released during the partial collapse of the right nasal passage between the spermaceti organ and the junk. This interpretation of the right nasal passage as an adaptive acoustic valve elucidates why the spermaceti organ and the junk are separated from each other by an air-filled space of variable volume crossing the sound path of the bent acoustic horn' in the posterior part of the nasal complex.

    Sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus emit impulsive sound signals in short series of rhythmic clicks (codas) for communication, and in long series of single acoustic events (usual clicks) for echolocation. Both click types are generated pneumatically within the hypertrophied nasal complex, at the monkey lips' at the rostral end of the right nasal passage. Each individual click comprises repetitive pulses decaying in intensity. However, the decay rate is distinctly higher in usual clicks than in coda clicks. The mechanism of decay rate control in the clicks is still unclear, and it is unclear why the right nasal passage crosses the nasal acoustic pathway between two hypertrophied acoustic fat bodies #spermaceti organ, junk#, so that it resembles a bent acoustic horn'. We present a new concept to explain how the flat right nasal passage can serve as a variable acoustic valve, and how the amount and distribution of its air filling can be controlled by muscle action. This mechanism allows the whale to determine the pulse decay rate and thus switch between the two modes of click production. Coda clicks are generated by reverberations within the spermaceti organ #partial trapping of sound# and by the release of sound energy in fractions through the air-filled right nasal passage. In contrast, echolocation clicks as single events are released during the partial collapse of the right nasal passage between the spermaceti organ and the junk. This interpretation of the right nasal passage as an adaptive acoustic valve elucidates why the spermaceti organ and the junk are separated from each other by an air-filled space of variable volume crossing the sound path of the bent acoustic horn' in the posterior part of the nasal complex.

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    Searches for clustering in the time integrated skymap of the ANTARES neutrino telescope  Open access

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Albert, Andreas; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics
    Vol. 2014, num. 5
    DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/05/001
    Date of publication: 2014-05
    Journal article

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    This paper reports a search for spatial clustering of the arrival directions of high energy muon neutrinos detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. An improved two-point correlation method is used to study the autocorrelation of 3058 neutrino candidate events as well as cross-correlations with other classes of astrophysical objects: sources of high energy gamma rays, massive black holes and nearby galaxies. No significant deviations from the isotropic distribution of arrival directions expected from atmospheric backgrounds are observed

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    Searches for point-like and extended neutrino sources close to the galactic center using the antares neutrino telescope  Open access

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Albert, Andreas; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    The astrophysical journal letters
    Vol. 786, num. 1, p. 1-5
    DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/786/1/L5
    Date of publication: 2014-05-01
    Journal article

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    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using six years of data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope has been performed. Clusters of muon neutrinos over the expected atmospheric background have been looked for. No clear signal has been found. The most signal-like accumulation of events is located at equatorial coordinates R.A. =-46.°8 and decl. =-64.°9 and corresponds to a 2.2s background fluctuation. In addition, upper limits on the flux normalization of an E -2 muon neutrino energy spectrum have been set for 50 pre-selected astrophysical objects. Finally, motivated by an accumulation of seven events relatively close to the Galactic Center in the recently reported neutrino sample of the IceCube telescope, a search for point sources in a broad region around this accumulation has been carried out. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the ANTARES data and upper limits on the flux normalization of an E -2 energy spectrum of neutrinos from point sources in that region have been set. The 90% confidence level upper limits on the muon neutrino flux normalization vary between 3.5 and 5.1 × 10 -8 GeV cm-2 s-1, depending on the exact location of the source.

  • Changes in 63 Hz third-octave band sound levels over 42 months recorded at four deep-ocean observatories

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Ainslie, Michael A.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Prior, Mark K.; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of marine systems
    Vol. 130, p. 4-11
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.07.008
    Date of publication: 2014-02-15
    Journal article

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    The growing scientific and societal concerns about the effects of underwater sound on marine ecosystems have been recently recognised through the introduction of several international initiatives, like the International Quiet Ocean Experiment, aimed at measuring the environmental impact of ocean noise on large spatial and temporal scales. From a regulatory perspective, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive includes noise (and other forms of energy) as one of eleven descriptors of good environmental status of Europe's seas. The directive requires member states to monitor trends in annually averaged sound. The Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics has developed a software package that measures sound levels and monitors acoustic sources in real-time; this software was used for the LIDO project (www.listentothedeep.com), which originated from the European Seafloor Observatory Network of Excellence (ESONET-NoE; www.esonet-noe.org). The system is currently operating worldwide from several wired and radio-linked observatories. The CTBTO (Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has made available years of data from hydroacoustic stations to look for ambient sound trends and to detect cetacean presence. Here, we present the analysis of four CTBTO platforms (located in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans), covering 42 months of data, intended to detect annual and monthly changes or trends in the ambient sound levels.

    The growing scientific and societal concerns about the effects of underwater sound on marine ecosystems have been recently recognised through the introduction of several international initiatives, like the International Quiet Ocean Experiment, aimed at measuring the environmental impact of ocean noise on large spatial and temporal scales. From a regulatory perspective, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive includes noise (and other forms of energy) as one of eleven descriptors of good environmental status of Europe's seas. The directive requires member states to monitor trends in annually averaged sound. The Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics has developed a software package that measures sound levels and monitors acoustic sources in real-time; this software was used for the LIDO project (www.listentothedeep.com#, which originated from the European Seafloor Observatory Network of Excellence #ESONET-NoE; www.esonet-noe.org#. The system is currently operating worldwide from several wired and radio-linked observatories. The CTBTO #Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization# has made available years of data from hydroacoustic stations to look for ambient sound trends and to detect cetacean presence. Here, we present the analysis of four CTBTO platforms #located in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans), covering 42 months of data, intended to detect annual and monthly changes or trends in the ambient sound levels.

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    A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope  Open access

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, Imen; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Brunner, J.; Morganti, M.; Schmidt, J.; Stolarczyk, Th.
    European physical journal C
    Vol. 74, num. 2, p. 1-7
    DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-013-2701-6
    Date of publication: 2014-02-06
    Journal article

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    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source.

  • Laboratori d'Aplicacions Bioacústiques

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Morell, Maria; Pejuan Alcobe, Arcadi; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Vilà Martí, Frederic; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Competitive project

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    Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface  Open access

     Tamburini, Christian; Canals Artigas, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Aguilar, J.A.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Emanuele, Umberto; Dornic, Damien
    PLoS one
    Vol. 8, num. 7
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067523
    Date of publication: 2013-07-10
    Journal article

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    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as ``open-sea convection¿¿. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts

  • Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

     Sole Carbonell, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López Bejar, Manel; Lombarte Carrera, Antonio; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Deep-sea research. Part II, topical studies in oceanography
    Vol. 95, p. 160-181
    DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.10.006
    Date of publication: 2013-10-15
    Journal article

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    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400. Hz sweep (RL=157±5. dB re 1. µPa with peak levels up to SPL=175. dB re 1. µPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. [...] © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50–400 Hz sweep (RL=157±5 dB re 1 μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175 dB re 1 μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles and electron-dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The lesions described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that low-frequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. shipping, offshore industry, and naval manoeuvres), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.

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    Search for muon neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using 2008 to 2011 data  Open access

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Albert, Andreas; Al Samarai, Imen; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Astronomy and astrophysics
    Vol. 559, num. A&A, p. 1-11
    DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322169
    Date of publication: 2013-10-29
    Journal article

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    Aims. We search for muon neutrinos in coincidence with GRBs with the ANTARES neutrino detector using data from the end of 2007 to 2011. Methods. Expected neutrino fluxes were calculated for each burst individually. The most recent numerical calculations of the spectra using the NeuCosmA code were employed, which include Monte Carlo simulations of the full underlying photohadronic interaction processes. The discovery probability for a selection of 296 GRBs in the given period was optimised using an extended maximum-likelihood strategy. Results. No significant excess over background is found in the data, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the total expected flux according to the model. © 2013 ESO.

    Aims. We search for muon neutrinos in coincidence with GRBs with the ANTARES neutrino detector using data from the end of 2007 to 2011. Methods. Expected neutrino fluxes were calculated for each burst individually. The most recent numerical calculations of the spectra using the NeuCosmA code were employed, which include Monte Carlo simulations of the full underlying photohadronic interaction processes. The discovery probability for a selection of 296 GRBs in the given period was optimised using an extended maximum-likelihood strategy. Results. No significant excess over background is found in the data, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the total expected flux according to the model

  • Measurement of the atmospheric nu (mu) energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Albert, Andreas; Al Samarai, Imen; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    European physical journal C
    Vol. 73, num. 2606
    DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-013-2606-4
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric ¿µ+¿¯µ energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1¿200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ~25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index ¿ meas=3.58±0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric νμ + ¯νμ energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1–200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ∼25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index γmeas = 3.58 ± 0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

  • A first search for coincident gravitational waves and high energy neutrinos using LIGO, Virgo and ANTARES data from 2007

     Adrian Martinez, Silvia; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, Andreas; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics
    Vol. 2013, num. 6, p. 1-39
    DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/06/008
    Date of publication: 2013-06-07
    Journal article

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    We present the results of the first search for gravitational wave bursts associated with high energy neutrinos. Together, these messengers could reveal new, hidden sources that are not observed by conventional photon astronomy, particularly at high energy. Our search uses neutrinos detected by the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES in its 5 line configuration during the period January - September 2007, which coincided with the fifth and first science runs of LIGO and Virgo, respectively. The LIGO-Virgo data were analysed for candidate gravitational-wave signals coincident in time and direction with the neutrino events. No significant coincident events were observed. We place limits on the density of joint high energy neutrino - gravitational wave emission events in the local universe, and compare them with densities of merger and core-collapse events. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • Extraction of pulse repetition intervals from sperm whale click trains for ocean acoustic data mining

     Zaugg, Serge Alain; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
    Vol. 133, num. 2, p. 902-911
    DOI: 10.1121/1.4773278
    Date of publication: 2013-02
    Journal article

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    Ultrastructural damage of "loligo vulgaris" and "illex coindetii" statocysts after low frequency sound exposure  Open access

     Sole Carbonell, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López Bejar, Manel; Lombarte Carrera, Antonio; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    PLoS one
    Vol. 8, num. 10, p. e78825-1-e78825-12
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078825
    Date of publication: 2013-10-15
    Journal article

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    There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii. © 2013 Solé et al.

    There is a considerable lack of information concerning marine invertebrate sensitivity to sound exposure. However, recent findings on cuttlefish and octopi showed that exposure to artificial noise had a direct consequence on the functionality and physiology of the statocysts, sensory organs, which are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Owing to a lack of available data on deep diving cephalopod species, we conducted a noise exposure comparative experiment on one Mediterranean squid, Illex coindetii, and on the European squid Loligo vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed similar injuries in the inner structure of the statocysts, as those found in cuttlefish and octopi. In addition to the ultrastructural description of the lesions, we publish here the first images of the crista-cupula system and inner statocyst cavity of I. coindetii.

  • First search for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; [et, al]
    Journal of cosmology and astroparticle physics
    DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/006
    Date of publication: 2013-03
    Journal article

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    A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV¿PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.

  • FP7-312463-FixO3 Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories Network

     Cristini, Luisa; Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • Marven

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Thomsen, Frank; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Gill, Andrew; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Competitive project

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  • A network for improvement of cephalopod welfare and husbandry in research, aquaculture and fisheries (CephsInAction)

     Ponte, Giovana; Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • Characterization of protein changes on the statocyst endolymph for the assessment of acoustic trauma on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

     Sole Carbonell, Marta; Monge, Marta; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Canals, Francesc; Quero, Carme
    Congress of the Spanish Proteomics Society
    p. 87-
    Presentation's date: 2013-02-15
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In summary, our experiments confirm that protein content of endolymph changes after been exposed to low frequency sounds. These changes can be expected to affect physiology and functioning of S. officinalis statocyst and alter the sensory information of this species.

  • Noise management in marine protected areas: shipping noise footprints from AIS data

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Conference on the effects of noise on aquatic life
    p. 170
    Presentation's date: 2013-08-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The EU, through the FP7 framework, has been funding various projects (e.g. SILENV, AQUO and SONIC) to obtain more detailed information on acoustic source levels from ships as well as to find ways to reduce their impact on the marine environment. Knowledge about source levels is important to understand a possible increase of background noise in the world oceans, but by itself it is not sufficient for noise management around a marine protected area. Depending on environmental conditions, propagation losses will be affected by bathymetry, sediment nature and seasons, resulting in changing effects from a same ship. To manage and decide on acceptable shipping sound levels in a MPA, acoustic modeling allows estimating cumulative sound exposure levels experienced by the animals at any given time, thus determining the number of vessels and their distance to the area favourable to maintain a good environmental status. Over the last three years, acoustic measurements recorded at the OBSEA shallow water cabled platform (Barcelona, Spain) have been stored together with AIS information. This data was used to demonstrate and validate the footprints of different ships in the area. Additionally, footprints of ships navigating through the Barentsz Sea are presented using one year of AIS data and source level estimations from literature

  • Characterization of proteoic changes on the statocyst endolymph for the assessment of acoustic trauma on common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

     Sole Carbonell, Marta; Monge, Marta; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Canals, Francesc; Quero, Carme
    Congress of the Spanish Proteomics
    Presentation's date: 2013-02-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope  Open access

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; [et, al]
    Physics letters B
    Vol. 714, num. 2-5, p. 224-230
    DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.07.002
    Date of publication: 2012-08-14
    Journal article

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    The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximal mixing, a mass difference of dm 32 2=(3.1±0.9){dot operator}10 -3eV 2 is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.

    The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximal mixing, a mass difference of m2 32 = (3.1 ± 0.9) · 10−3 eV2 is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.

  • A framework for the automated real-time detection of short tonal sounds from ocean observatories

     Zaugg, Serge Alain; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Applied acoustics
    Vol. 73, num. 3, p. 281-290
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2011.09.009
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Managing underwater noise in European waters: implementing the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

     Tasker, Mark; Amundin, Mats; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Hawkins, Anthony D.; Lang, William; Merck, Thomas; Scholik-Scholomer, Amy; Teilmann, Jonas; Thomsen, Frank; Werner, Stefanie; Zakharia, Manell
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
    Vol. 730, p. 583-585
    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7311-5_132
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    The European Union¿s (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC) aims to improve the condition of all Europe¿s seas and ensure that human usage of these seas is sustainable. The directive will work by requiring EU member states to set a series of objectives for 11 Descriptors of Environmental Status. One of these descriptors, Introduction of Energy, Including Underwater Noise, Is at Levels That Do Not Adversely Affect the Marine Environment, concerns underwater noise. A task group consisting of the authors was established to recommend to the European Commission indicators that might be used by member states to define good environmental status (GES) under this descriptor. The task group focused on sounds that affect relatively broad areas of the marine environment and developed three possible indicators of underwater sound.

  • Search for cosmic neutrino point sources with four years of data from the antares telescope

     Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.
    Astrophysical journal
    Vol. 760, num. 1, p. 1-10
    DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/53
    Date of publication: 2012-12-20
    Journal article

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  • Access to the full text
    Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope  Open access

     Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, Pascal; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez González, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Höbl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, Dominique; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, Cris; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Yepes Ramirez, Harold; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza Gómez, Juan de Dios; Zúñiga Román, Juan
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 35, num. 10, p. 634-640
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.02.007
    Date of publication: 2012-05
    Journal article

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    Magnetic monopoles are predicted in various unified gauge models and could be produced at intermediate mass scales. Their detection in a neutrino telescope is facilitated by the large amount of light emitted compared to that from muons. This paper reports on a search for upgoing relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using a data set of 116 days of live time taken from December 2007 to December 2008. The one observed event is consistent with the expected atmospheric neutrino and muon background, leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the monopole flux between 1.3 10 17 and 8.9 10 17 cm 2 s 1 sr 1 for monopoles with velocity bP0.625.

  • Real-time monitoring of noise in cetacean acoustic niches

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sanchez Marrero, Antonio Miguel; Mas, Alex; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
    Vol. 730, p. 593-596
    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7311-5_134
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Sources of sound produced by human activities induce physical, physiological, and behavioral effects on marine fauna (mammals, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates), effects that can be diverse depending on the proximity to the signal source. These impacts include a reduction in the abundance of fish species of up to 50% in zones under exploration, changes in cetacean behavior and migration routes, and a distinct range of physical injuries in both marine vertebrates and invertebrates. There may be further long-term consequences due to chronic exposure, and sound can indirectly affect animals due to changes in the accessibility of prey, which may also suffer the adverse effects of acoustic pollution (Richardson et al. 1995). These damages could significantly impair the conservation of already endangered species that use acoustically contaminated areas for migratory routes, reproduction, and feeding.

  • Access to the full text
    Measurement of the group velocity of light in sea water at the ANTARES site  Open access

     Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, Pascal; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez González, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Höbl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; ; Lefèvre, Dominique; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez Mora, J.A.; McMillan, J.E.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, Cris; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Thompson, L.F.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Yepes Ramirez, Harold; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza Gómez, Juan de Dios
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 35, num. 9, p. 552-557
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.12.003
    Date of publication: 2012-04
    Journal article

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    The group velocity of light has been measured at eight different wavelengths between 385 nm and 532 nm in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of about 2.2 km with the ANTARES optical beacon systems. A parametrisation of the dependence of the refractive index on wavelength based on the salinity, pressure and temperature of the sea water at the ANTARES site is in good agreement with these measurements.

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    Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope  Open access

     Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, Pascal; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, Umberto; Enzenhöfer, A.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez González, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; ; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; HöBl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kooper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez Mora, J.A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, N.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piatelli, P.; Picot Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, Cris; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; ; Ruiz Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sapienza, P.; Shöck, F.; Schuller, J-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; ; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sanchez Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, Christian; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Yepes Ramirez, Harold
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 36, num. 1, p. 204-210
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.06.001
    Date of publication: 2012-08
    Journal article

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    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scales of hours to months. Assuming hadronic models, a strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected. Selecting a narrow time window on the assumed neutrino production period can significantly reduce the background. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ratio was applied to a subsample of data collected in 2008 (61 days live time). By searching for neutrinos during the high state periods of the AGN light curve, the sensitivity to these sources was improved by about a factor of two with respect to a standard time-integrated point source search. First results on the search for neutrinos associated with ten bright and variable Fermi sources are presented.

  • Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Competitive project

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  • CoCoNET, COast to COast NETworks of marine protected areas

     Boero, Ferdinando; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Houégnigan, Ludwig; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Competitive project

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  • FP7-314227-AQUO - Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • Statocyst sensory epithelia ultrastructural analysis of Cephalopods exposed to noise  Open access

     Sole Carbonell, Marta
    Department of Engineering Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    Controlled Exposure Experiments revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea (Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris, Illex coindetii and Octopus vulgaris), when exposed to relatively low intensity low frequency sounds. The analysis was performed through: scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopod statocysts, especially on macula and crista; SEM of the epidermal lines of cephalopod hatchlings; and proteomic studies (2DE/MALDI –MS) of the statocyst’s endolymph. All exposed adult individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in land species that were exposed to much higher intensities of sound. Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles and electron dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The appearance of these lesions became gradually more pronounced in individuals after 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Special attention was given to validate these findings with control animals that were caught, maintained and sequentially sacrificed following the same protocol as the exposed individuals. The statocyst ultrastructure was therefore revisited and a comparative analysis was carefully conducted to assess the lesions triggered by the exposure to noise This study also presents preliminary results of the sound effects on epidermal lines of cephalopod hatchlings. The lesions, consistent with an acoustic trauma, were identic in the three species that were exposed, but their evolution over time, in opposition with what was observed in the statocysts, were different, suggesting that the animal size and metabolic response might play a role in a possible recovery process. The analysis of noise effects in the statocyst endolymph by proteomic techniques was only conducted on Sepia officinalis. The presence of differential staining of gels from control and subjected to sound exposure individuals demonstrate that the injuries could be related to a possible physiological imbalance that would affect the protein levels of the endolymph. The lesions and findings described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that lowfrequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. due to shipping, offshore industry, and naval maneuvers), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.

    Després de sotmetre'ls a experiments d'exposició controlada a sons de baixa intensitat i baixa freqüència es van observar lesions en els estatocists de quatre espècies de cefalòpodes de la mar Mediterrània (Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris, Illex coindetii i Octopus vulgaris). L'anàlisi es va realitzar per mitjà de de microscòpia electronica d'escombratge (SEM) i de transmissió (TEM) de tota l'estructura interna de l'estatocist dels cefalòpodes, especialment en la màcula i en la crista, per SEM de les línees epidèrmiques de les larves dels cefalòpodes i per tècniques de proteòmica (2DE/MALDI-MS), de l'endolimfa de l'estatocist. Tots els estatocists d'individus adults de cefalòpodes exposats presentaven les mateixes lesions i aquests efectes eren més greus a mesura que passava el temps després de l'exposició als sons. Tots els animals exposats al soroll van mostrar lesions consistens amb trauma acústic massiu observat en altres espècies terrestres que havien estat exposades a intensitats molt més altes de so. Immediatament després de l'exposició, es van observar danys a la macula statica princeps (msp) i en l'epiteli sensorial de la crista. Els quinocilis de les cèl·lules ciliades desapareixien o es doblegaven i es tornaven flàccids. Un nombre important de cèl·lules ciliades mostraven els pols apicals sobresortint de l'epiteli sensorial, així com el trencament de les membranes plasmàtiques laterals, molt probablement com a resultat de l'extrusió de material citoplasmàtic. Les cèl·lules ciliades també van ser parcialment expulsades de l'epiteli sensorial deixant visibles forats esfèrics en el mateix. El contingut citoplasmàtic de les cèl·lules ciliades danyades va mostrar canvis obvis, com ara la presència de nombrosos vacúols i inclusions electrodenses que no es veien en els animals control. L'aparició d'aquestes lesions es va tornar gradualment més pronunciada en els individus analitzats després de 12, 24, 48, 72 i 96 hores. Es van validar curosament aquests resultats per mitjà de la comparació amb els animals control que van ser capturats, mantinguts i sacrificats de forma seqüencial seguint el mateix protocol que els individus exposats. La ultraestructura de l'estatocist va ser revisada i es va dur a terme un curós anàlisi comparatiu per tal d'avaluar les lesions provocades per l'exposició al soroll. Aquest estudi també presenta els resultats preliminars dels efectes del so en les línies epidèrmiques de cefalòpodes recent nascuts. Les lesions, consistens amb trauma acústic, eren idèntiques en les tres espècies que van ser exposades, però la seva evolució en el temps, en oposició amb el que es va observar en els estatocists, era diferent, cosa que suggereix que la grandària dels animals i la resposta metabòlica podria tenir influència en un possible procés de recuperació. L'avaluació dels efectes en l'endolimfa de l'estatocist per tècniques de proteòmica es va dur a terme només en Sepia officinalis. La presència de taques diferencials en els gels dels individus control i els sotmesos a exposició a so demostren que les lesions podrien estar relacionades amb un possible desequilibri fisiològic que tindria repercusions en els nivells proteics de l'endolimfa. Les lesions descrites aquí són noves pel que fa a la patologia dels cefalòpodes. Atès que els nivells de soroll de baixa freqüència a l'oceà estan augmentant (per exemple, a causa del transport, la indústria petrolera i les maniobres navals), que el paper dels cefalòpodes en els ecosistemes marins només ha començat a ser entès recentment, i que les dades bioacústiques fiables sobre els invertebrats són escasses, el present estudi i les investigacions futures aportaran una important contribució a l'ús sostenible del medi marí.

  • The positioning system of the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

     Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; [et, al]
    Journal of instrumentation
    p. 1-14
    DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/08/T08002
    Date of publication: 2012-08
    Journal article

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  • Real-time monitoring of noise in cetacean acoustic niches

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio; Mas, Alex; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Date of publication: 2012-11-15
    Book chapter

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    Sources of sound produced by human activities induce physical, physiological, and behavioral effects on marine fauna (mammals, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates), effects that can be diverse depending on the proximity to the signal source. These impacts include a reduction in the abundance of fish species of up to 50% in zones under exploration, changes in cetacean behavior and migration routes, and a distinct range of physical injuries in both marine vertebrates and invertebrates. There may be further long-term consequences due to chronic exposure, and sound can indirectly affect animals due to changes in the accessibility of prey, which may also suffer the adverse effects of acoustic pollution (Richardson et al. 1995). These damages could significantly impair the conservation of already endangered species that use acoustically contaminated areas for migratory routes, reproduction, and feeding.

  • Ultrastructural Analysis of Odontocete Cochlea  Open access

     Morell Ybarz, Maria
    Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    The morphological study of the Odontocete organ of Corti including possible pathological features resulting from sound over-exposure, represent a key conservation issue to assess the effects of acoustic pollution on marine ecosystems. Through the collaboration with stranding networks belonging to 26 countries, 150 ears from 13 species of Odontocetes were processed. In this dissertation, we present a standard protocol to 1) compare the ultrastructure of the cochlea in several Odontocete species and 2) investigate possible damage as a consequence of sound exposure, using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. In a preliminary study, computerized tomography scans were performed before decalcification with ears of 15 odontocete species, proposing a set of standard measurements which classified very well the species. In addition, the constant ratio between measurements of inner and middle ear structures contributed to confirm the active role of the odontocete middle ear in sound reception mechanism. We established a decalcification protocol using the fast commercial decalcifier RDO® and EDTA (Ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid). Although further experiments should be conducted to assess the suitability of using one or the other method (because the number of samples treated with EDTA was comparatively small), RDO® at specific dilutions decreased the decalcification time of cetacean ear bones with control of the decalcification endpoint, helping a faster access to inner structures. The complementary use of electron microscopy and immunofluorescence allowed the description in odontocetes of new morphological features of tectorial membrane, spiral limbus, spiral ligament, stria vascularis, hair cells and their innervation. Furthermore, this study revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological characteristics of the organ of Corti in high-frequency hearing species, including 1) an outer hair cell (OHC) small length, 2) a thick cuticular plate in OHC, and a thick reticular lamina, 3) robust cup formation of the Deiters cell body, 4) the high development of cytoskeleton in Deiters and pillar cells and 5) the basilar membrane high stiffness. Interestingly, all these features, including a common molecular design of prestin, are also shared by echolocating bats, suggesting a convergent evolution in echolocating species. The presence of scars among hair cell rows, the pattern of stereocilia imprints in the tectorial membrane and the condition of fibrocytes II and IV were criteria suitable to determine or discard possible acoustic trauma, despite the numerous artefacts that rapidly develop as a consequence of tissue autolysis. Consequently, matching the preliminary approximation of the cochlear frequency map with the damaged region would bring information on the sound source that would have triggered a possible lesion.

  • Time calibration of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Al Samarai, Imen; Anghinolfi, Marco; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brown, A.M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, Pascal; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M.P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, Damien; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez González, J.P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández Rey, J.J.; Herold, B.; Höbl, J.; Hsu, C.C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, Dominique; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez Mora, J.A.; Mazure, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G.E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, Cris; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G.V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wolf, E. de; Yepes Ramirez, Harold; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza Gómez, Juan de Dios; Zúñiga Román, Juan
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 34, num. 7, p. 539-549
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.12.004
    Date of publication: 2011-02
    Journal article

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  • First search for point sources of high energy cosmic neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

     Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Astrophysical journal
    Vol. 743, num. 1, p. 1-17
    DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/743/1/L14
    Date of publication: 2011-08-01
    Journal article

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  • A fast algorithm for track reconstruction and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; [et, al]
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 34, num. 9, p. 652-662
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.01.003
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • ANTARES: the first undersea neutrino telescope

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; [et, al]
    Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, accelerators SP
    Vol. 656, num. 2011, p. 11-38
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2011.06.103
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Low-frequency sounds induce acoustic trauma in cephalopods

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; Quero, Carme; Mas, Alex; Lombarte Carrera, Antonio; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; López Bejar, Manel; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Frontiers in ecology and the environment
    Vol. 9, num. 9, p. 489-493
    DOI: 10.1890/100124
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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  • Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas

     Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Progress in oceanography
    Vol. 91, num. 1, p. 1-33
    DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2011.05.001
    Date of publication: 2011-10
    Journal article

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  • FP7-ENV-OCEAN-2010-265863-ACCESS

     Català Mallofré, Andreu; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Competitive project

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  • Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) OCEAN.2010-1

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Gascard, Jean-Paul; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Sánchez, Antonio; Sole Carbonell, Marta
    Competitive project

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  • Localising Cetacean Sounds for the Real-Time Mitigation and Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring of Noise

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Houégnigan, Ludwig; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Sanchez, Antonio; Mas, Alex
    Date of publication: 2011-04
    Book chapter

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  • Access to the full text
    Listening to the Deep: Live monitoring of ocean noise and cetacean acoustic signals  Open access

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, A.M.; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Marine pollution bulletin
    num. 63, p. 18-26
    DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.04.038
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    The development and broad use of passive acoustic monitoring techniques have the potential to help assessing the large-scale influence of artificial noise on marine organisms and ecosystems. Deep-sea observatories have the potential to play a key role in understanding these recent acoustic changes. LIDO(Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment) is an international project that is allowing the real-time longterm monitoring of marine ambient noise as well as marine mammal sounds at cabled and standalone observatories. Here, we present the overall development of the project and the use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) techniques to provide the scientific community with real-time data at large spatial and temporal scales. Special attention is given to the extraction and identification of high frequency cetacean echolocation signals given the relevance of detecting target species, e.g. beaked whales, in mitigation processes, e.g. during military exercises.

  • A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

     Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. Section A, accelerators SP
    Vol. 675, p. 56-62
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.01.060
    Date of publication: 2011-06-03
    Journal article

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  • The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

     Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Astroparticle physics
    Vol. 35, num. 8, p. 530-536
    DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.11.011
    Date of publication: 2011-03-23
    Journal article

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  • Automated real-time acoustic detection of Fin Whale calls at the deep sea floor observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi, Japan

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Ryoichi, Iwase; Tomonori, Akamatsu; Takahashi, Ichiro; Zaugg, Serge Alain; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sanchez, Antonio
    IEEE Symposium on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies
    DOI: 10.1109/UT.2011.5774104
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Underwater noise emissions: Another challenge for ship design

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Gaggero, T.; Rizzuto, E.
    International Conference on Marine Structures
    p. 581-591
    DOI: 10.1201/b10771-71
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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