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1 to 50 of 68 results
  • Robust fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using constraint satisfaction and analytical redundancy relations

     Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa
    IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
    Date of publication: 2014-01-03
    Journal article

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  • Flooding management using hybrid model predictive control: Application to the Spanish Ebro River

     Romera Formiguera, Juli; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Journal of hydroinformatics
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    In this paper, the problem of flooding management using hybrid model predictive control is presented and applied to the Ebro River in Spain. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza during spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding in populated areas, some land outside the city is prepared for flooding. This paper presents a control approach to determine and fix the level of flooding in pre-established zones by controlling side gates that determine the water input to the land to be flooded. Finally, several scenarios are used to validate the performance of the proposed approach

  • Fault detection and isolation based on the combination of a bank of interval observers and invariant sets

     Xu, Feng; Stoican, Florin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Olaru, Sorin
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach using a bank of interval observers is developed. From the methodological point of view, a bank of interval observers is designed according to different dynamical models of the system under different modes (healthy or faulty). Each interval observer matches one system mode while all the interval observers monitor the system simultaneously. In order to guarantee FDI, a set of FDI conditions based on invariant set notions are established. These conditions ensure that the considered faults can be accurately isolated after a period of monitoring time. Finally, simulation results are used to present the effectiveness of the approach.

  • Sensor-fault detection and Isolation using Interval Observers

     Xu, Feng; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Stoican, Florin; Olaru, Sorin
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an interval observer-based sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach for the closed-loop systems. In this proposed approach, residuals are defined in such a way that their components are independent of each other at the time instant after fault occurrence, namely kf + 1, where kf denotes the fault occurrence time instant. In this way, it is guaranteed that at kf + 1 the changes in each component of the residuals are only related to the fault in the corresponding sensor. By detecting the threshold violation of the corresponding residual interval components, the proposed method can detect and isolate sensor faults at that time instant. At the end of this paper, a numerical example is used to present the effectiveness of the approach.

  • Actuator-fault detection and isolation based on interval observers and invariant sets

     Xu, Feng; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Stoican, Florin; Olaru, Sorin
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2013
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper proposes an interval observer-based actuator fault detection and isolation (FDI) approach. An interval observer matching the healthy system mode is designed to monitor the system. When the system is in different modes, state or output interval vectors predicted by the interval observer manifest different dynamical behaviors. To guarantee reliable FDI, a collection of invariant set-based FDI conditions are established. Under these conditions, actuator faults can be accurately detected and isolated during the transition between different modes. At the end, the effectiveness of this proposed approach is presented by using a numerical example.

  • On the relationship between interval observers and invariant sets in fault detection

     Xu, Feng; Stoican, Florin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Olaru, Sorin
    International Conference on Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems
    Presentation's date: 2013-10-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the relationship between two settheoretic fault detection (FD) approaches, the interval observerbased and the invariant set-based approaches, is investigated. In FD, interval observers monitor the system dynamic behavior in real time and generates adaptive intervals for system outputs. Invariant sets focus more on steady state behavior of the system rather than the transient behavior. This paper discusses these two approaches, presents the relationship between them and compares them in the FD task. At the end, a numerical example is used to illustrate the relation between these two approaches.

  • Application of predictive control strategies to the management of complex networks in the urban water cycle

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    IEEE control systems magazine
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    Learning-based tuning of supervisory model predictive control for drinking water networks  Open access

     Grosso Perez, Juan Manuel; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Engineering applications of artificial intelligence
    Date of publication: 2013
    Journal article

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    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for the management of drinking water networks (DWNs). The control system architecture consists in a multilayer controller with three hierarchical layers: learning and planning layer, supervision and adaptation layer, and feedback control layer. Results of applying the proposed approach to the Barcelona DWN show that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed adaptive predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexityof the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for the management of drinking water networks (DWNs). The control system architecture consists in a multilayer controller with three hierarchical layers: learning and planning layer, supervision and adaptation layer, and feedback control layer. Results of applying the proposed approach to the Barcelona DWN show that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed adaptive predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexity of the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

  • Methodology for actuator fault tolerance evaluation of linear constrained MPC: application to the Barcelona water network

     Robles, Deneb; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Garza Castañón, Luis E.
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-04
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the admissibility of actuator fault configurations (AFC) when Linear Constrained Model Predictive Control (LCMPC) is used. The methodology combines the use of structural and feasability analysis. Structural analysis allows to evaluate the loss of reachability after a fault occurrence. The results of the structural analysis can be complemented with the feasibility analysis of the MPC problem taking into account the effect of actuator constraints after the fault occurrence. Additionally, a degradation analysis of the system performance can also be included. The proposed methodology is tested in the Barcelona water network.

  • Hierarchical temporal multi-layer decentralised MPC strategy for drinking water networks: application to the Barcelona case study

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Montes de Oca, S.
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a hierarchical temporal multilayer decentralised model predictive control (HTML-DMPC) approach for drinking water networks (DWN) is proposed. The upper temporal layer works with a daily scale and is in charge of achieving the global objectives, which correspond with the optimal selection of the sources and the path to the reservoirs. On the other hand, the lower temporal layer is in charge of manipulating the set-point of the actuators to satisfy the local objectives, i.e., the minimisation of the energy needed for pumping water to the reservoirs. The system decomposition is based on graph partitioning theory, which considers the graph representation of the DWN topology. The obtained system decomposition allows to establish a hierarchical flow of information between the MPC controllers. Hence, the proposed DMPC strategy results in a hierarchical-like scheme. Results obtained when used selected simulation scenarios show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in terms of system modularity, reduced computational burden and, at the same time, the admissible loss of performance in contrast to a centralised MPC (CMPC) strategy.

  • Adaptive multilevel neuro-fuzzy model predictive control for drinking water networks

     Grosso, J.M.; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation
    Presentation's date: 2012-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy enriched with soft-control techniques as neural networks and fuzzy logic, to incorporate self-tuning capabilities and reliability aspects for drinking water transport network management. The system is a multilevel controller with three hierarchical layers: neural level, fuzzy level, MPC level. Results in the Barcelona Water Network have shown that the quasi-explicit nature of the proposed predictive controller leads to improve the computational time, especially when the complexity of the problem structure can vary while tuning the receding horizons.

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    Multi-rate decentralized MPC strategy for drinking water networks: application to the Barcelona case study  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Montes de Oca, Saúl
    International Conference on Hydroinformatics
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a multi - rate decentralised model predictive control (MDMPC) approach is proposed for drinking water networks (DWN). The upper temporal layer works with a daily time scale and is in charge of achieving the global objectives , i.e., optimal selection of the water sources and the path to the reservoirs. On the other hand, the lower temporal layer is in charge of manipulating the set - point of the actuators to satisfy the local objectives, i.e., the minimisation of the energy needed for pumping water to the reservoirs. Once obtained the system decomposition into subsystems, some bidirectional flows of information between the MPC controllers that control the subsystems appea r . Hence, the proposed DMPC strategy co pes with them , resulting in a hierarchical - like scheme. Results obtained when used selected simulation scenarios over a partitioned model of the Barcelona DWN show the effectiveness of the control strategy in terms of system modularity, reduced computational burden and, at the same time, the admissible loss of performance in contrast to a centralised MPC (CMPC) strategy.

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    A service reliability model predictive control with dynamic safety stocks and actuators health monitoring for drinking water networks  Open access

     Grosso Perez, Juan Manuel; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This paper presents a model predictive control strategy to assure reliability in drinking water networks given a customer service level and a forecasting demand. The underlying idea concerns a two-layer hierarchical control structure. The upper layer performs a local steady-state optimization to set up an inventory replenishment policy based on dynamic safety stocks for each tank in the network. At the same stage, actuators health is revised to set up their next maximum allowable degradation in order to efficiently distribute overall control effort and guarantee system availability. In the lower layer, a model predictive control algorithm is implemented to compute optimal control set-points to minimize a multiobjective cost function. Simulation results in the Barcelona drinking water network have shown the effectiveness of the dynamic safety stocks allocation and the actuators health monitoring to assure service reliability and optimizing network operational costs.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Model predictive control of combined irrigation and water supply systems: application to the Guadiana river

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Romera Formiguera, Juli; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Rodriguez, Pablo; de Campos, Sergi; Negerborn, Rudy
    IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control
    Presentation's date: 2012-04-12
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    In this paper, a methodology for the optimal management of a combined irrigation and water supply system based on model predictive control (MPC) is proposed. A controloriented modelling methodology for this type of systems is presented as well. MPC is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer and irrigation areas to meet future demands with appropriate flows, optimizing operational goals such as network safety volumes in dams and flow control stability in actuators (valves, gates and pumps). The case study of Guadiana river is used to exemplify and verify the proposed optimal management methodology. Results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed modelling and control methodologies.

  • Robust fault detection of non-linear systems using set-membership state estimation based on constraint satisfaction

     Tornil Sin, Sebastian; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa
    Engineering applications of artificial intelligence
    Date of publication: 2012-02
    Journal article

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  • Hierarchical and decentralised model predictive control of drinking water networks: Application to Barcelona case study

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Barcelli, Davide; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Bemporad, Alberto
    IET control theory and applications
    Date of publication: 2012-01-05
    Journal article

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  • Design of optimization-based controllers applied to an ethanol steam reformer for hydrogen production

     Recio Garrido, D.; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Serra Prat, Maria
    International journal of hydrogen energy
    Date of publication: 2012-08
    Journal article

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  • Mejorar la eficiencia utilizando técnicas de control predictivo

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Creus, R.; Minoves, M.
    Automática e instrumentación
    Date of publication: 2012-02
    Journal article

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  • EFFICIENT INTEGRATED REAL TIME MONITORING AND CONTROL OF DRINKING WATER NETWORKS

     Cuguero Escofet, Josep; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Sarrate Estruch, Ramon; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Pérez Magrané, Ramon; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
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    Flooding management using hybrid model predictive control at the Ebro river in Spain  Open access

     Romera Formiguera, Juli; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; García Navarro, María del Pilar; Pérez, Guillermo
    IWA Symposium on Systems Analysis and Integrated Assessment
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Flooding prevention and control in rivers is a important topic in the river management. This is also the case in the basin of the river Ebro in Spain. In the past, the Ebro basin experienced several floods. In order to reduce the flood hazard in a given area, the local water administration usually sets up several flood-controlled areas for being able to store the excessive water volume during periods of extreme rainfall. In order to control the flows to and from the flooding zones, hydraulic control structures have been put in place. Through these actions, it is planned to have a significant reduction of the flood risk in the basin. Recent simulations of these past events in a hydrodynamic river model showed that flooding could have been significantly reduced and even avoided if the hydraulic structures would have been controlled in a different way. Therefore, the main interest of this paper is to test a different control strategy than the one currently adopted. Due to the specific nature of the flooding problem, a model predictive control (MPC) strategy (Maciejowski, 2001) seems to be the most suitable option. In this paper, the problem of flooding control at the Ebro River in Spain is addressed using MPC. Finally, several scenarios are used to validate the performance of the proposed approach. In Section 2, the problem addressed in this paper is described. In Section 3, a control oriented model is proposed. In Section 4, the control approach based on an MPC is described. Results of the application of the proposed control approach using a Virtual reality simulator are presented in Section 5. Finally, in Section 6, the main conclusions are presented.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Decentralised MPC based on a graph partitioning approach applied to the Barcelona drinking water network

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Bovo, Samuele
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, the application of decentralised model predictive control (DMPC) over a partitioned model of the Barcelona drinking water network (DWN) is proposed. The system decomposition is based on graph partitioning theory, which considers the graph representation of the DWN topology. Once obtained, this system decomposition yields to some bidirectional flows of information between the MPC controllers. Hence, the proposed DMPC strategy copes with this feature, resulting in a hierarchical-like scheme. Results obtained when used selected simulation scenarios show the effectiveness of the control strategy in terms of system modularity, reduced computational burden and, at the same time, the admissible loss of performance in contrast to a centralised MPC (CMPC) strategy.

  • Tuning of predictive controllers for drinking water networked systems

     Toro Olmedo, Rodrigo; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Logist, Filip; Van Impe, J.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    Presentation's date: 2011
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, two tuning strategies for a multi-objective predictive controller applied to a drinking water network (DWN) are proposed. A control-oriented DWN model is brie y reviewed, together with its management objectives. A comparison of methods to explore the Pareto front of the multi-objective optimisation (MOO) problem behind the predictive controller is presented with an e ective normalisation method for the model predictive control (MPC) objectives. The proposed tuning strategies, applied to a real-life case study, are compared. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed MPC tuning strategies outperform the baseline results.

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    Design and implementation of LQR/LQG strategies for oxygen stoichiometry control in PEM fuel cells based systems  Open access

     Niknezhadi, Ali; Allué Fantova, Miguel; Kunusch, Cristian; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.
    Journal of power sources
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    This paper presents the oxygen stoichiometry control problem of proton exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and introduces a solution through an optimal control methodology. Based on the study of a non-linear dynamical model of a laboratory PEM fuel cell system and its associated components (air compressor, humidifiers, line heaters, valves, etc.), a control strategy for the oxygen stoichiometry regulation in the cathode line is designed and tested. From a linearized model of the system, an LQR/LQG controller is designed to give a solution to the stated control problem. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers design.

  • GEstió i COntrol de Zones Inundables per minimitzar els Impactes mediambientals de les crescudes dels rius. Aplicació a la conca Pirenaica (CTP-DGR)

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Escobet Canal, Antoni; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Morcego Seix, Bernardo; Pérez Magrané, Ramon; Saludes Closa, Jordi; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Romera Formiguera, Juli; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • MAKING SENSE OF NONSENSE

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Rotondo, Damiano; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Rosich Oliva, Albert; Saludes Closa, Jordi; Garcia Valverde, Diego; Sarrate Estruch, Ramon; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquin; Nejjari Akhi-elarab, Fatiha; Comasolivas Font, Ramon; Cuguero Escofet, Miquel Àngel; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Partitioning approach oriented to the decentralised predictive control of large-scale systems  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Bovo, Samuele; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Journal of process control
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    Diseño de controladores LQR/LQG para su aplicación en sistemas de pilas de combustible tipo PEM  Open access

     Niknezhadi, Ali; Kunusch, Cristian; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.
    Congreso Nacional de Pilas de Combustible
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Se presentan aportes y soluciones de control en el campo de sistemas de celdas de combustible PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane). Con base en el estudio de un modelo dinámico no lineal de un sistema de celdas de combustible PEM de laboratorio y sus componentes asociados (compresor de aire, humidificadores, líneas de calentamiento, válvulas, etc.), se trabaja en el diseño de un sistema de control de estequiometría de oxígeno en los canales de cátodo. A partir del modelo linealizado del sistema, se diseñan controladores del tipo LQR/LQG que dan solución al problema de control de flujo de aire en los canales de cátodo.

  • Decentralized model predictive control of drinking water networks using an automatic subsystem decomposition approach

     Barcelli, Davide; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Bemporad, Alberto
    IFAC Symposium on Large-Scale Systems: Theory and Applications
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Model predictive control of drinking water networks: a hierarchical and decentralized approach

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Fambrini, Valentina; Barcelli, Davide; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    American Control Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, a decentralized model predictive control (DMPC) strategy for drinking water networks (DWN)is proposed. The DWN is partitioned in a set of subnetworks using a partitioning algorithm that makes use of the topology of the network, the information about the actuator usage and heuristics. A suboptimal DMPC strategy was derived that allows the hierarchical solution of the set of MPC controllers used to control each partition. A comparative study between the centralized MPC (CMPC) and DMPC approaches is developed on the case study, which consists in an aggregate version of the Barcelona DWN. Results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed DMPC approach in terms of the computation time while an admissible level of suboptimality is obtained in all the considered scenarios.

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    Actuator fault-tolerant control based on set separation  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; de Doná, José Adrian; Seron, Maria
    International journal of adaptive control and signal processing
    Date of publication: 2010-12
    Journal article

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    In this paper, an actuator fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategy based on set separation is presented. The proposed scheme employs a standard configuration consisting of a bank of observers which match the different fault situations that can occur in the plant. Each of these observers has an associated estimation error with a distinctive behaviour when a estimator matches the current fault situation of the plant. With this information from each observer, a fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) module is able to reconfigure the control loop by selecting the appropriate stabilising controller from a bank of precomputed control laws, each of them related to one of the considered fault models. The control law consists of a reference feedforward term and a feedback gain multiplying the state estimate provided by the matching observer. A novel feature of the proposed scheme resides in the decision criteria of the FDI, which is based on the computation of sets towards which the output estimation errors related to each fault scenario and for each control configuration converge. Conditions for the design of the FDI module and for fault tolerant closed-loop stability are given, and the effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by means of a numerical example

  • Piece-wise linear functions-based model predictive control of large-scale sewage systems

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IET control theory and applications
    Date of publication: 2010
    Journal article

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    Fault-tolerant model predictive control within the hybrid systems framework: Application to sewer networks  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    International journal of adaptive control and signal processing
    Date of publication: 2009-08
    Journal article

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    In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) problem with fault-tolerance capabilities is formulated within the hybrid systems framework. In particular, the mixed logical dynamic form to represent hybrid systems is considered. Using this approach, a hybrid model of the system to be controlled is obtained, which includes inherent hybrid phenomena and possible modes caused by faults occurrence. This allows to adapt the system model on-line by taking into account the fault information provided by a fault diagnosis and isolation module. In this way, the controller can cope with the considered faults. Additionally, different implementation schemes and fault-tolerance evaluation procedures for hybrid MPC (HMPC) considering fault-tolerance capabilities are proposed and discussed. Finally and in order to exemplify the implementation of the proposed approach, it is applied to include actuator fault tolerance in the design of a HMPC controller for a portion of the sewer network of Barcelona.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • On modelling approaches for receding-horizon control design applied to large-scale sewage systems

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2009-12-18
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In this paper, receding horizon control of largescale sewage systems is addressed considering different modelling approaches, which include several inherent continuous/ discrete phenomena (overflows in sewers and tanks) and elements (weirs) in the system. This fact results in distinct behaviours depending on the dynamic state (flow/volume) of the network. These behaviours can not be neglected nor can be modelled by a pure linear representation. In order to take into account these phenomena and elements for the design of the control strategy, a modelling approach based on piece-wise linear functions (PWLF) is proposed and compared against a hybrid modelling approach previously reported by the authors. Control performance results and associated computation times considering both modelling approaches are compared by using a real case study based on the Barcelona sewer network. Results have shown an important reduction in the computation time when the PWLF-based model is used, with an acceptable suboptimality level in the closed-loop system performance.

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    Modelling approaches for predictive control of large-scale sewage systems  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Date: 2009
    Report

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    In this report, model predictive control (MPC) of large-scale sewage systems is addressed considering different modelling approaches that include several inherent continuous/discrete phenomena (overflows in sewers and tanks) and elements (weirs) in the system that result in distinct behaviour depending on the dynamic state ( flow/volume) of the network. These behaviours can not be neglected nor can be modelled by a pure linear representation. In order the MPC controller takes into account these phenomena and elements, a modelling approach based on piece-wise linear functions is proposed and compared against a hybrid modelling approach previously reported by the authors. Control performance results and associated computation times of the closed-loop scheme considering both modelling approaches are compared by using a real case study based on the Barcelona sewer network.

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    Reducció de variables en problemes de control predictiu amb restriccions d'igualtat  Open access

     Joseph Duran, Bernat; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.
    Date: 2009
    Report

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    En el següent document es mostra una técnica per utilitzar les restriccions d'igualtat associades a un problema de control predictiu per tal de reduir el nombre de variables que intervenen en aquest problema. Primerament fem un repàs de les notacions i desenvolupament del problema estàndard per veure, després, que mitjançant un canvi lineal el nou problema, amb un nombre inferior de variables, té una estructura completament anàloga. Alguns resultats de temps de computació mostren, en la última secció, la utilitat del mètode.

  • Robust Fault Diagnosis of Non-linear Systems using Constraints Satisfaction

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Escobet Canal, Teresa; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Tornil Sin, Sebastian
    IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety of Technical Processes
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Improving water management efficiency by using optimal control strategies: the Barcelona case study

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Creus, R; Minoves, M
    10th IWA Conference on Instrumentation Control and Automation
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Improving water management efficiency by using optimization-based control strategies: the Barcelona case study

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Cembrano Gennari, M.gabriela Elena; Creus, Ramon; Minoves, Meritxell
    Water science and technology: water supply
    Date of publication: 2009
    Journal article

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    This paper describes the application of model-based predictive control (MPC) techniques to the flow management in large-scale drinking water networks including a telemetry/telecontrol system. MPC technique is used to generate flow control strategies from the sources to the consumer areas to meet future demands, optimizing performance indexes associated to operational goals such as economic cost, network safety volumes and flow control stability. The designed management strategies are applied to a real case study based on a representative model of the drinking water network of Barcelona (Spain).

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Objective prioritization sing lexicographic minimizers for MPC of sewer networks

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Ingimundarson, Ari; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    IEEE transactions on control systems technology
    Date of publication: 2008-01
    Journal article

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  • Decentralized and Wireless Control of Large-Scale Systems

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Suboptimal Hybrid Model Predictive Control: Application to Sewer Networks

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Ingimundarson, Ari; Bemporad, A; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Access to the full text
    Actuator fault-tolerant control based on set separation  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Doná, De J; Seron, M
    Date: 2008
    Report

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    In this report an actuator fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategy based on set separation is presented. The proposed scheme employs a bank of observers which match the different fault situations that can occur in the plant. Each of these observers has an associated estimation error with a distinctive behaviour when a estimator matches the current fault situation of the plant. With this information from each observer, a fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) module is able to reconfigure the control loop by selecting the appropriate stabilising controller from a bank of precomputed control laws, each of them related to one of the considered fault models. The control law consists of a reference feedforward term and a feedback gain multiplying the state estimate provided by the matching observer. The decision criteria of the FDI is based on the computation of sets towards which the output estimation errors related to each fault scenario and for each control configuration converge. Conditions for the design of the FDI module and for fault tolerant closed-loop stability are given, and the effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by means of a numerical example.

  • Actuator fault-tolerance evaluation of linear constrained model predictive control using zonotope-based set computations

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Guerra, P; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control
    Date of publication: 2007-09
    Journal article

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  • Model Predictive Control of Complex Systems including Fault Tolerance Capabilities: Application to Sewer Networks  Open access

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.
    Defense's date: 2007-04-27
    Department of Automatic Control, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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    El control en temps real de xarxes de clavegueram (RTC) desenvolupa un paper fonamental dins de la gestió dels recursos hídrics relacionats amb el cicle urbà de l'aigua i, en general, amb el seu cicle natural. Un adequat disseny de control per a xarxes de clavegueram evita impactes mediambientals negatius originats per inundacions i/o alta pol·lució producte de condicions meteorològiques xtremes. No obstant, s'ha de tenir en compte que aquestes xarxes, a més de la seva grandària i quantitat de variables i instrumentació, són sistemes rics en dinàmiques complexes i altament no lineals. Aquest fet, unit a les condicions atmosfèriques extremes, fan necessari utilitzar una estratègia de control capaç¸ de suportar totes aquestes condicions. En aquest sentit, dins del camp del (RTC) de xarxes de clavegueram es destaquen les estratègies de control predictiu basat en model (MPC), les quals són alternatives adequades per al control de configuracions multivariable i de gran escala, aplicades com estratègies de control global del sistema. A m´es, permeten optimitzar la resposta del sistema tenint en compte diversos índexs de rendiment (control multiobjectiu). Aquesta tesi s'enfoca en el disseny de controladors MPC per a xarxes de clavegueram considerant diverses metodologies de modelat. Addicionalment, analitza les situacions en les quals es presenten fallades als actuadors de la xarxa, proposant estratègies per a mantenir la resposta del sistema amb la menor degradació possible dels objectius de control, malgrat la presència de la fallada. En la primera part s'introdueixen els conceptes principals dels temes a tractar en la tesi: xarxes de clavegueram, MPC i tolerància a fallades. Seguidament, es presenta la tècnica de modelat utilitzada per a definir el model d'una xarxa de clavegueram. Finalment, es presenta i descriu el cas d'aplicació en la tesi: la xarxa de clavegueram de Barcelona (Espanya). La segona part es centra en dissenyar controladors MPC per al cas d'estudi. S'han considerat dos tipus de model de xarxa: (i) un model lineal, el qual aproxima els comportaments no lineals de la xarxa, donant origen a estratègies MPC lineals amb les seves conegudes avantatges de l'optimització convexa i escalabilitat; i (ii) un model híbrid, el qual inclou les dinàmiques de commutació més representatives d'una xarxa de clavegueram com són els sobreeixidors. En aquest últim cas es proposa una nova etodologia de modelat híbrid per a xarxes de clavegueram i es dissenyen estratègies de control predictives basades en aquests models (HMPC), les quals calculen lleis de control globalment òptimes. Addicionalment, es proposa una estratègia de relaxació del problema d'optimització discreta per a evitar els grans temps de còmput requerits per a calcular la llei de control HMPC. Finalment, la tercera part de la tesi s'encarrega d'estudiar les capacitats de tolerància a fallades en actuadors de llaços de control MPC. En el cas de xarxes de clavegueram, la tesi considera fallades en les comportes de derivació i de retenció d'aigües residuals. A més, es proposa un modelat híbrid per a fallades que faci que el problema d'optimització associat no perdi la seva convexitat. Així, es proposen dos estratègies de HMPC tolerant a fallades (FTMPC): l'estratègia activa, la qual utilitza les avantatges d'una arquitectura de control tolerant a fallades (FTC), i l'estratègia passiva, la qual només depèn de la robustesa intrínseca de les tècniques de control MPC. Com a extensió a l'estudi de tolerància a fallades, es proposa una avaluació d'admissibilitat per a configuracions d'actuadors en fallada agafant com a referència la degradació dels objectius de control. El m-etode, basat en satisfacció de restriccions, permet avaluar l'admissibilitat d'una configuració d'actuadors en fallada i, en cas de no ser admesa, evitaria el procés de resoldre un problema d'optimització amb un alt cost computacional. Paraules clau: control predictiu basat en model, sistemes de clavegueram, sistemes híbrids, MLD, control tolerant a fallades, satisfacció de restriccions.

    El control en tiempo real de redes de alcantarillado (RTC) desempeña un papel fundamental dentro de la gestión de los recursos hídricos relacionados con el ciclo urbano del agua y, en general, con su ciclo natural. Un adecuado diseño de control para de redes de alcantarillado evita impactos medioambientales negativos originados por inundaciones y/o alta polución producto de condiciones meteorológicas extremas. Sin embargo, se debe tener en cuenta que estas redes, además de su gran tamaño y cantidad de variables e instrumentación, son sistemas ricos en dinámicas complejas y altamente no lineales. Este hecho, unido a unas condiciones atmosféricas extremas, hace necesario utilizar una estrategia de control capaz de soportar todas estas condiciones. En este sentido, dentro del campo del RTC de redes de alcantarillado se destacan las estrategias de control predictivo basadas en modelo (MPC), las cuales son alternativas adecuadas para el control de configuraciones multivariable y de gran escala, aplicadas como estrategias de control global del sistema. Además, permiten optimizar el desempeño del sistema teniendo en cuenta diversos índices de rendimiento (control multiobjetivo). Esta tesis se enfoca en el diseño de controladores MPC para redes de alcantarillado considerando diversas metodologías de modelado. Adicionalmente, analiza las situaciones en las cuales se presentan fallos en los actuadores de la red, proponiendo estrategias para mantener el desempeño del sistema y evitando la degradación de los objetivos de control a pesar de la presencia del fallo. En la primera parte se introducen los conceptos principales de los temas a tratar en la tesis: redes de alcantarillado, MPC y tolerancia a fallos. Además, se presenta la técnica de modelado utilizada para definir el modelo de una red de alcantarillado. Finalmente, se presenta y describe el caso de aplicación considerado en la tesis: la red de alcantarillado de Barcelona (España). La segunda parte se centra en diseñar controladores MPC para el caso de estudio. Dos tipos de modelo de la red son considerados: (i) un modelo lineal, el cual aproxima los comportamientos no lineales de la red, dando origen a estrategias MPC lineales con sus conocidas ventajas de optimización convexa y escalabilidad; y (ii) un modelo híbrido, el cual incluye las dinámicas de conmutación más representativas de una red de alcantarillado como lo son los rebosaderos. En este último caso se propone una nueva metodología de modelado híbrido para redes de alcantarillado y se diseñan estrategias de control predictivas basadas en estos modelos (HMPC), las cuales calculan leyes de control globalmente óptimas. Adicionalmente se propone una estrategia de relajación del problema de optimización discreto para evitar los grandes tiempos de cálculo que pudieran ser requeridos al obtener la ley de control HMPC. Finalmente, la tercera parte de la tesis se ocupa de estudiar las capacidades de tolerancia a fallos en actuadores de lazos de control MPC. En el caso de redes de alcantarillado, la tesis considera fallos en las compuertas de derivación y de retención de aguas residuales. De igual manera, se propone un modelado híbrido para los fallos que haga que el problema de optimización asociado no pierda su convexidad. Así, se proponen dos estrategias de HMPC tolerante a fallos (FTMPC): la estrategia activa, la cual utiliza las ventajas de una arquitectura de control tolerante a fallos (FTC), y la estrategia pasiva, la cual sólo depende de la robustez intrínseca de las técnicas de control MPC. Como extensión al estudio de tolerancia a fallos, se propone una evaluación de admisibilidad para configuraciones de actuadores en fallo tomando como referencia la degradación de los objetivos de control. El método, basado en satisfacción de restricciones, permite evaluar la admisibilidad de una configuración de actuadores en fallo y, en caso de no ser admitida, evitaría el proceso de resolver un problema de optimización con un alto coste computacional. Palabras clave: control predictivo basado en modelo, sistemas de alcantarillado, sistemas híbridos, MLD, control tolerante a fallos, satisfacción de restricciones.

    Real time control (RTC) of sewer networks plays a fundamental role in the management of hydrological systems, both in the urban water cycle, as well as in the natural water cycle. An adequate design of control systems for sewer networks can prevent the negative impact on the environment that Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) as well as preventing flooding within city limits when extreme weather conditions occur. However, sewer networks are large scale systems with many variables, complex dynamics and strong nonlinear behaviour. Any control strategy applied should be capable of handling these challenging requirements. Within the field of RTC of sewer networks for global network control, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy stands out due to its ability to handle large scale, nonlinear and multivariable systems. Furthermore, this strategy allows performance optimization, taking into account several control objectives simultaneously. This thesis is devoted to the design of MPC controllers for sewer networks, as well as the complementary modelling methodologies. Furthermore, scenarios where actuator faults occur are specially considered and strategies to maintain performance or at least minimizing its degradation in presence of faults are proposed. In the first part of this thesis, the basic concepts are introduced: sewer networks, MPC and fault tolerant control. In addition, the modelling methodologies used to describe such systems are presented. Finally the case study of this thesis is described: the sewer network of the city of Barcelona (Spain). The second part of this thesis is centered on the design of MPC controllers for the proposed case study. Two types of models are considered: (i) a linear model whose corresponding MPC strategy is known for its advantages such as convexity of the optimization problem and existing pro of sofstability, and (ii) a hybrid model which allows the inclusion of state dependent hybrid dynamics such as weirs. In the latter case, a new hybrid modelling methodology is introduced and hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) strategies based on these models are designed. Furthermore, strategies to relax the optimization problem are introduced to reduce calculation time required for the HMPC control law. Finally, the third part of this thesis is devoted to study the fault tolerance capabilities of MPC controllers. Actuator faults in retention and redirection gates are considered. Additionally, hybrid modelling techniques are presented for faults which, in the linear case, can not be treated without loosing convexity of the related optimization problem. Two fault tolerant HMPC strategies are compared: the active strategy, which uses the information from a diagnosis system to maintain control performance, and the passive strategy which only relies on the intrinsic robustness of the MPC control law. As an extension to the study of fault tolerance, the admissibility of faulty actuator configurations is analyzed with regard to the degradation of control objectives. The method, which is based on constraint satisfaction, allows the admissibility evaluation of actuator fault configurations, which avoids the process of solving the optimization problem with its related high computational cost. Keywords: MPC, sewer networks, hybrid systems, MLD, fault tolerant control, constraints satisfaction.

  • Access to the full text
    Suboptimal model predictive control of hybrid systems based on mode-switching constraints  Open access

     Ingimundarson, Ari; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Bemporad, Alberto
    IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation's date: 2007-12-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Model predictive control (MPC) is recognized as a very versatile and effective way of controlling constrained hybrid dynamical systems in closed-loop. The main drawback of hybrid MPC is the heavy computation burden of the associated on-line mixed-integer optimization. Explicit MPC solutions overcome such a problem by rewriting the control law in piecewise affine form, but are limited to relatively simple hybrid control problem setups. This paper presents an alternative approach for reducing the complexity of computations by suitably constraining the mode sequence over the prediction horizon, so that on-line optimization is solved more quickly. While tracking performance of the feedback loop may be affected because of the suboptimality of the approach, closedloop stability is guaranteed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by an example.

  • Fault-Tolerant Explicit MPC of PEM Fuel Cells

     Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Rosich Oliva, Albert; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Sarrate Estruch, Ramon
    46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Hybrid Model Predictive Control Applied on Sewer Networks

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Ingimundarson, Ari; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    Date of publication: 2007-02
    Book chapter

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  • On Hybrid Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Bemporad, Alberto; Ingimundarson, Ari; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    Date of publication: 2007-08
    Book chapter

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  • Actuator Fault Tolerance Evaluation of Linear Constrained Robust Model Predictive Control

     Guerra, P; Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç
    European Control Conference
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Fault Tolerant Hybrid MPC: The Barcelona Sewer Netword Case Study

     Ocampo Martinez, Carlos A.; Ingimundarson, Ari; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casin, Joseba-jokin
    3rd International Workshop on Networked Control Systems: Tolerant to faults
    Presentation of work at congresses

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