van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
Total activity: 65
Research group
LAB - Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics
School
Centre Tecnològic de Vilanova i la Geltrú
E-mail
mike.vanderschaarupc.edu
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  • Laboratori d'Aplicacions Bioacústiques

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Morell, Maria; Pejuan Alcobe, Arcadi; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Vilà Martí, Frederic; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Competitive project

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  • Marven

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Thomsen, Frank; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Gill, Andrew; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Competitive project

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  • A network for improvement of cephalopod welfare and husbandry in research, aquaculture and fisheries (CephsInAction)

     Ponte, Giovana; Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • FP7-312463-FixO3 Fixed Point Open Ocean Observatories Network

     Cristini, Luisa; Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • Noise management in marine protected areas: shipping noise footprints from AIS data

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Conference on the effects of noise on aquatic life
    p. 170
    Presentation's date: 2013-08-14
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The EU, through the FP7 framework, has been funding various projects (e.g. SILENV, AQUO and SONIC) to obtain more detailed information on acoustic source levels from ships as well as to find ways to reduce their impact on the marine environment. Knowledge about source levels is important to understand a possible increase of background noise in the world oceans, but by itself it is not sufficient for noise management around a marine protected area. Depending on environmental conditions, propagation losses will be affected by bathymetry, sediment nature and seasons, resulting in changing effects from a same ship. To manage and decide on acceptable shipping sound levels in a MPA, acoustic modeling allows estimating cumulative sound exposure levels experienced by the animals at any given time, thus determining the number of vessels and their distance to the area favourable to maintain a good environmental status. Over the last three years, acoustic measurements recorded at the OBSEA shallow water cabled platform (Barcelona, Spain) have been stored together with AIS information. This data was used to demonstrate and validate the footprints of different ships in the area. Additionally, footprints of ships navigating through the Barentsz Sea are presented using one year of AIS data and source level estimations from literature

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    Empirical acoustic attenuation of the seawater  Open access

     Roset Juan, Francesc Xavier; Garcia Benadí, Albert; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Manuel Lazaro, Antonio
    OCEANS MTS/IEEE
    Presentation's date: 2013-06-13
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This study aims to estimate a model for the underwater acoustic environment in a Mediterranean area and to compare the model with existing other models of the sound attenuation in the zone of interest. The contribution of this paper is to develop a protocol to validate and adjust the offshore underwater attenuation models to a model of a Mediterranean area.

    This study aims to estimate a model for the underwater acoustic environment in a Mediterranean area and to compare the model with existing other models of the sound attenuation in the zone of interest. The contribution of this paper is to develop a protocol to validate and adjust the offshore underwater attenuation models to a model of a Mediterranean area.

    Postprint (author’s final draft)

  • Real-time monitoring of noise in cetacean acoustic niches

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio; Mas, Alex; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Date of publication: 2012-11-15
    Book chapter

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    Sources of sound produced by human activities induce physical, physiological, and behavioral effects on marine fauna (mammals, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates), effects that can be diverse depending on the proximity to the signal source. These impacts include a reduction in the abundance of fish species of up to 50% in zones under exploration, changes in cetacean behavior and migration routes, and a distinct range of physical injuries in both marine vertebrates and invertebrates. There may be further long-term consequences due to chronic exposure, and sound can indirectly affect animals due to changes in the accessibility of prey, which may also suffer the adverse effects of acoustic pollution (Richardson et al. 1995). These damages could significantly impair the conservation of already endangered species that use acoustically contaminated areas for migratory routes, reproduction, and feeding.

  • FP7-314227-AQUO - Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Houégnigan, Ludwig
    Competitive project

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  • Achieve QUieter Oceans by shipping noise footprint reduction

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Competitive project

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  • CoCoNET, COast to COast NETworks of marine protected areas

     Boero, Ferdinando; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Houégnigan, Ludwig; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Competitive project

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  • Automated real-time acoustic detection of Fin Whale calls at the deep sea floor observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi, Japan

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Ryoichi, Iwase; Tomonori, Akamatsu; Takahashi, Ichiro; Zaugg, Serge Alain; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sanchez, Antonio
    IEEE Symposium on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies
    DOI: 10.1109/UT.2011.5774104
    Presentation's date: 2011-04-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Localising Cetacean Sounds for the Real-Time Mitigation and Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring of Noise

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Houégnigan, Ludwig; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Sanchez, Antonio; Mas, Alex
    Date of publication: 2011-04
    Book chapter

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  • Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS) OCEAN.2010-1

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Gascard, Jean-Paul; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Sánchez, Antonio; Sole Carbonell, Marta
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  • Impacto del Ruido generado durante el ciclo de vida de un parque eólico marino sobre mamíferos marinos (OCEAN LIDER)

     Amate Lopez, Juan; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain
    Competitive project

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  • Estimating the number of sperm whales in a group through variational clustering of acoustic features

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    Presentation's date: 2010-03-29
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Listening to the deep

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Mas, Alex; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Solé, Marta; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 120-
    Presentation's date: 2010
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An acoustic bio-metric for sperm whales

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Institute of Industrial and Control Engineering (IOC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • SILENV - SHIP ORIENTED INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE NOISE VIBRATIONS

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Mer, Loïc; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio; Sole Carbonell, Marta
    Competitive project

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    Best practices in management, assessment and control of underwater noise pollution  Open access

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell, Maria; Alex, Mas; Sole Carbonell, Marta; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Date: 2009-06-30
    Report

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    The origin of this work can be found in the project `Effects and Control of Anthropogenic Noise in Marine Ecosystems¿ in the part relative to legal initiatives. In the first phase of the Report on this Project (December 2008) it was concluded that the level of complexity of marine issues, united by the fact that wide scientific gaps and difficulties still need to be covered and resolved, counseled against the immediate drawing up of legal projects concerning underwater acoustic pollution. Nevertheless, it was suggested that a document of `Best Practices¿ be elaborated to focus on the `state of the art¿ of this issue, and that it be used by public administrations and promoters of projects that will cause acoustic pollution, as much within the framework of environmental impact assessments as in management development plans in protected marine areas. It is of vital importance that activities, which generate acoustic pollution in the oceans, be monitored. Accordingly, this document could derive, in the short term, a Protocol of Applications which will in its own time open the way for the preparation of, if necessary, legislative initiatives within their own right.

    The origin of this work can be found in the project ‘Effects and Control of Anthropogenic Noise in Marine Ecosystems’ in the part relative to legal initiatives. In the first phase of the Report on this Project (December 2008) it was concluded that the level of complexity of marine issues, united by the fact that wide scientific gaps and difficulties still need to be covered and resolved, counseled against the immediate drawing up of legal projects concerning underwater acoustic pollution. Nevertheless, it was suggested that a document of ‘Best Practices’ be elaborated to focus on the ‘state of the art’ of this issue, and that it be used by public administrations and promoters of projects that will cause acoustic pollution, as much within the framework of environmental impact assessments as in management development plans in protected marine areas. It is of vital importance that activities, which generate acoustic pollution in the oceans, be monitored. Accordingly, this document could derive, in the short term, a Protocol of Applications which will in its own time open the way for the preparation of, if necessary, legislative initiatives within their own right.

  • Architecture for the Real-Time Monitoring of Noise Pollution and Marine Mammal Activity

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    III International Workshop on Marine Technology (MARTECH 2009)
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A second generation of an autonomous and portable auditory screening system for cetacean clinical and research purposes  Open access

     Mas, Alex; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 46-
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Modelling the underwater noise associated to the construction and operation of offshore wind turbines  Open access

     Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Mas, Alex; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Solé, Marta; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The operation and in particular the construction of offshore wind converters induce considerable underwater noise emissions. It is assumed that small whales and seals can be affected by noise from machines and vessels, piling and installation of the wind turbines. Piling, in particular using hydraulic hammers creates impulsive noise with considerable high energy levels. Currently, only little knowledge about the effects of different noises to marine life is available. Here, we present an ongoing project from the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (Technical University of Catalonia): to simulate the generation, radiation and propagation of underwater noise; to develop forecasting hydro sound models of offshore wind converters and future noise reduction methods during pile driving; to determine the impact area of offshore wind farms; to allow the formulation of recommendations for acoustic emission thresholds; and to develop standard procedures for the determination and assessment of noise emissions.

  • Real-time processing and management of acoustic data streams in LIDO

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals using Passive Acoustics
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • System architecture for real-time monitoring of noise pollution

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sánchez, Antonio; Pubill, Oriol; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
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    Electronic upgrades on the second generation of an autonomous and portable cetacean auditory screening system  Open access

     Mas, Alex; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    International Workshop on Marine Technology
    Presentation's date: 2009
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    While noise is now considered a marine hazard that can directly affect cetaceans and induce a stranding, no clinical approach has yet introduced the detection of a possible hearing loss at a stranding site as a necessary practice. Here we present the second generation of an autonomous and portable auditory screening system for cetacean clinical and research purposes. This system is composed by two independent and autonomous modules that build a more versatile, lighter and interference isolated system. The improvement relies on the isolation between modules and their independency on many situations. The system is separated in two modules. The first one contains the low voltage biopotential amplification system and the acustic signal transmiter . The second module will activate only when needed for some frequencies and levels driving high voltage to the transducers thus avoiding interferences with the first module containing the low voltage amplifications system. The tool has been successfully tested for research purposes in captive dolphins and calibrated for a stranding site diagnoses operation.

  • ESONET (LIDO - DEMOSTRATION MISSION)

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio
    Competitive project

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  • Acoustic Map of the Iberic Peninsula Atlantic coasts

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Mas, Alex; Alonso Meijide, José María
    Competitive project

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  • Interfacing science and education for a better management of coastal and ocean acoustic budget

     Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Mas, Alex; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Nin i Camps, Marta; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    22nd Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 138
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Real-time acoustic monitoring of the deep-ocean environment

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; MAS, A; Romà, A; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Rolin, J F; Pearson, R
    Acoustics 08
    Presentation's date: 2008
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Acoustic map of the oceans: a tool for management

     Mas, Alex; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Alonso Meijide, José María; Llarena, María; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    22nd Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 136
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • An adapting neural network for sperm whale separation

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Monitoring the ocean noise interactions

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Vallez, Simon; Gervaise, Cedric; Sánchez, Antonio; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Mas, Alex; Morell Ybarz, Maria
    22nd Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 78
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Effects and Control of Anthropogenic Noise in Marine Ecosystems (eCREM)

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Álvarez Baquerizo, Cristina; Aroyan, James L.; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Mas, Alex; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta
    Competitive project

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  • Acoustic Map of the Catalan coast

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Mas, Alex; Alonso Meijide, José María
    Competitive project

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  • Dispositivo acústico pasivo de liberación de gas para la prevención del enmallamiento de cetáceos en artes de pesca (PROFIT)

     Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell Ybarz, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta; Mas, Alex; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm
    Competitive project

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  • ESONET, Network of Excellence

     Person, Roland; Andre Sanchez, Michel; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Zaugg, Serge Alain; Houégnigan, Ludwig; Sánchez, Antonio; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent
    Competitive project

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  • Cetacean stranding event management: contribution to a protocol to assess cetacean hearing

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Delory, E; Degollada, E; Alonso Meijide, José María; Del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Castell Balaguer, Joan Vicent; Morell Ybarz, Maria
    21st Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 62
    Presentation's date: 2007
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Range detection of sperm whale sonar

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Johansson, Anders Torbjörn; Delory, Eric; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Morell Ybarz, Maria
    International Congress on Maritime Technological Innovations and Research
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  • Computerised Tomography 3D reconstruction of odontocete ears related with the species acoustic sensitivity

     Morell Ybarz, Maria; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Sea Tech Week
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  • Comparison of Odontocete Ears through Computerised Tomography

     Morell Ybarz, Maria; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Alonso Meijide, José María; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Degollada, Eduard
    19th Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 43
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  • Estudio de los Efectos de la Contaminación Acústica Marina sobre Cetáceos

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell, Maria; Sole Carbonell, Marta
    Competitive project

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  • Noise pollution effects on cetaceans

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Morell Ybarz, Maria; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Johansson, A. Torbjörn; Degollada, Eduard; Alonso Meijide, José María
    Competitive project

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  • Foraging on squids: the sperm whale mid-range sonar

     Andre Sanchez, Michel; Johansson, Anders Torbjörn; Delory, Eric; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Morell Ybarz, Maria
    19th Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    p. 37
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  • Dominant frequencies in sperm whale clicks

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; van der Weide, J.C.; Kamminga, Cees; Goold, John; Jacquet, N.; Delory, Eric; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    European Cetacean Society
    Presentation's date: 2003-03-10
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  • Creation of the Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics (LAB). Development of underwater acoustic technology to assess noise pollution in the ocean

     Delory, Eric; Andre Sanchez, Michel; Johansson, A. Torbjörn; Català Mallofré, Andreu; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Alonso Meijide, José María
    Competitive project

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  • An Automated Procedure to Extract Sperm Whale Click Sequences from Noisy Observations

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; van der Weide, J.C.; Kamminga, Cees; Jacquet, N.; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Conference of the European Cetacean Society
    Presentation's date: 2002-04-08
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Neural network-based sperm whale click classification

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, E; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
    Vol. 87, num. 1, p. 35-38
    Date of publication: 2007-02
    Journal article

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    Classification of sperm whale clicks (Physeter macrocephalus) with Gaussian-kernel based networks  Open access

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Delory, Eric; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Algorithms
    Vol. 2, num. 3, p. 1232-1247
    Date of publication: 2008-11-15
    Journal article

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    With the aim of classifying sperm whales, this report compares two methods that can use Gaussian functions, a radial basis function network, and support vector machines which were trained with two different approaches known as C-SVM and º-SVM. The methods were tested on data recordings from seven different male sperm whales, six containing single click trains and the seventh containing a complete dive. Both types of classifiers could distinguish between the clicks of the seven different whales, but the SVM seemed to have better generalisation towards unknown data, at the cost of needing more information and slower performance.

  • Changes in 63 Hz third-octave band sound levels over 42 months recorded at four deep-ocean observatories

     van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Ainslie, Michael A.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Prior, Mark K.; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Journal of marine systems
    Vol. 130, p. 4-11
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.07.008
    Date of publication: 2014-02-15
    Journal article

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    The growing scientific and societal concerns about the effects of underwater sound on marine ecosystems have been recently recognised through the introduction of several international initiatives, like the International Quiet Ocean Experiment, aimed at measuring the environmental impact of ocean noise on large spatial and temporal scales. From a regulatory perspective, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive includes noise (and other forms of energy) as one of eleven descriptors of good environmental status of Europe's seas. The directive requires member states to monitor trends in annually averaged sound. The Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics has developed a software package that measures sound levels and monitors acoustic sources in real-time; this software was used for the LIDO project (www.listentothedeep.com), which originated from the European Seafloor Observatory Network of Excellence (ESONET-NoE; www.esonet-noe.org). The system is currently operating worldwide from several wired and radio-linked observatories. The CTBTO (Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has made available years of data from hydroacoustic stations to look for ambient sound trends and to detect cetacean presence. Here, we present the analysis of four CTBTO platforms (located in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans), covering 42 months of data, intended to detect annual and monthly changes or trends in the ambient sound levels.

    The growing scientific and societal concerns about the effects of underwater sound on marine ecosystems have been recently recognised through the introduction of several international initiatives, like the International Quiet Ocean Experiment, aimed at measuring the environmental impact of ocean noise on large spatial and temporal scales. From a regulatory perspective, the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive includes noise (and other forms of energy) as one of eleven descriptors of good environmental status of Europe's seas. The directive requires member states to monitor trends in annually averaged sound. The Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics has developed a software package that measures sound levels and monitors acoustic sources in real-time; this software was used for the LIDO project (www.listentothedeep.com#, which originated from the European Seafloor Observatory Network of Excellence #ESONET-NoE; www.esonet-noe.org#. The system is currently operating worldwide from several wired and radio-linked observatories. The CTBTO #Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization# has made available years of data from hydroacoustic stations to look for ambient sound trends and to detect cetacean presence. Here, we present the analysis of four CTBTO platforms #located in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian oceans), covering 42 months of data, intended to detect annual and monthly changes or trends in the ambient sound levels.

  • Does exposure to noise from human activities compromise sensory information from cephalopod statocysts?

     Sole Carbonell, Marta; Lenoir, Marc; Durfort, Mercè; López Bejar, Manel; Lombarte Carrera, Antonio; van der Schaar, Mike Connor Roger Malcolm; Andre Sanchez, Michel
    Deep-sea research. Part II, topical studies in oceanography
    Vol. 95, p. 160-181
    DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.10.006
    Date of publication: 2013-10-15
    Journal article

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    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50-400. Hz sweep (RL=157±5. dB re 1. µPa with peak levels up to SPL=175. dB re 1. µPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. [...] © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

    Many anthropogenic noise sources are nowadays contributing to the general noise budget of the oceans. The extent to which sound in the sea impacts and affects marine life is a topic of considerable current interest both to the scientific community and to the general public. Cepaholopods potentially represent a group of species whose ecology may be influenced by artificial noise that would have a direct consequence on the functionality and sensitivity of their sensory organs, the statocysts. These are responsible for their equilibrium and movements in the water column. Controlled Exposure Experiments, including the use of a 50–400 Hz sweep (RL=157±5 dB re 1 μPa with peak levels up to SPL=175 dB re 1 μPa) revealed lesions in the statocysts of four cephalopod species of the Mediterranean Sea, when exposed to low frequency sounds: (n=76) of Sepia officinalis, (n=4) Octopus vulgaris, (n=5) Loligo vulgaris and (n=2) Illex condietii. The analysis was performed through scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopical techniques of the whole inner structure of the cephalopods' statocyst, especially on the macula and crista. All exposed individuals presented the same lesions and the same incremental effects over time, consistent with a massive acoustic trauma observed in other species that have been exposed to much higher intensities of sound: Immediately after exposure, the damage was observed in the macula statica princeps (msp) and in the crista sensory epithelium. Kinocilia on hair cells were either missing or were bent or flaccid. A number of hair cells showed protruding apical poles and ruptured lateral plasma membranes, most probably resulting from the extrusion of cytoplasmic material. Hair cells were also partially ejected from the sensory epithelium, and spherical holes corresponding to missing hair cells were visible in the epithelium. The cytoplasmic content of the damaged hair cells showed obvious changes, including the presence of numerous vacuoles and electron-dense inclusions not seen in the control animals. The lesions described here are new to cephalopod pathology. Given that low-frequency noise levels in the ocean are increasing (e.g. shipping, offshore industry, and naval manoeuvres), that the role of cephalopods in marine ecosystems is only now beginning to be understood, and that reliable bioacoustic data on invertebrates are scarce, the present study and future investigations will bring an important contribution to the sustainable use of the marine environment.