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  • Wavelet correlation transform method and gradient method to determine aerosol layering from lidar returns: Some comments

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Journal of atmospheric and oceanic technology
    Date of publication: 2013-06
    Journal article

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    Identification of aerosol layers on lidar measurements is of interest to determine ranges where aerosol properties are likely to be homogeneous and to infer transport phenomena and atmosphere dynamics. For instance, the range-corrected backscattered signal from aerosol measured with lidars has long been used as a proxy to determine the depth of the planetary boundary layer. The method relies on the assumption that in a well-mixed atmosphere, a rather homogenous aerosol distribution will exist within the boundary layer; hence, a sudden drop in the lidar range-corrected signal profile will mark the end of the layer. The most usual methods to detect that drop are the gradient method, which detects a negative maximum in the derivative with respect to range of the lidar range-corrected signal, or of its logarithm, and the wavelet correlation transform method, which detects a maximum in the correlation function of the lidar range-corrected signal and a wavelet, usually the Haar wavelet. These methods are not restricted to determining the boundary layer height but can also be used to locate the edges of lofted aerosol layers. Using fundamentals of linear system theory, this study shows the deep link existing between the gradient method and the wavelet correlation transform method using the Haar wavelet, the latter being equivalent to the gradient method applied to a range-corrected signal profile smoothed by a low-pass spatial filtering, which seems not to have been explicitly noted in the literature so far. Consequences are readily drawn for the wavelet correlation transform method using other wavelets.

  • Overview of the meteorology and transport patterns during the DAURE field campaign and their impact to PM observations

     Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pandolfi, Marco; Spada, Michele; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Pey, Jorge; Alastuey, Andres; Arnold Arias, Delia; Sicard, Michaël; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M.A.; Querol, Xavier
    Atmospheric environment
    Date of publication: 2013-10
    Journal article

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    The experimental campaign "Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in Spain" (DAURE) took place in a urban (Barcelona city) and a rural (the Montseny Natural Park) Spanish sites. Its main objective was to study the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region during winter and summer time. This paper presents a description of the meteorological conditions during the campaign by means of meteorological observations, high-resolution mesoscale meteorological modelling and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations. Modelling results are in agreement with observations and provide a valuable tool for characterizing transport patterns in relation to episodes of air pollution. An objective classification of the synoptic conditions and a classification of the main local dispersion patterns is presented and discussed. Additionally, the measured PM1 and PM10 levels in both urban and rural sites are discussed and related to the meteorological conditions observed

    The experimental campaign “Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and RuralEnvironments in Spain “(DAURE) took place in a urban (Barcelona city) and a rural (the Montseny Natural Park) Spanish sites. Its main objective was to study the formation and transport processes of particulate matter in the region during winter and summer time. This paper presents a description of the meteorological conditions during the campaign by means of meteorological observations, high-resolution mesoscale meteorological modelling and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion simulations. Modelling results are in agreement with observations and provide a valuable tool for characterizing transport patterns in relation to episodes of air pollution. An objective classification of the synoptic conditions and a classification of the main local dispersion patterns is presented and discussed. Additionally, themeasured PM1 and PM10 levels in both urban and rural sites are discussed and related to the meteorological conditions observed.

  • Daytime aerosol extinction profiles from the combination of CALIOP profiles and AERONET products

     Marcos, Carlos; Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Gómez Amo, José Antonio; Sicard, Michaël; Utrillas Esteban, Maria Pilar; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Martínez Lozano, José Antonio
    Atmospheric measurement techniques discussions
    Date of publication: 2013-04-24
    Journal article

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  • Estimation of a radiative transfer model in the longwave spectral range: sensitivity study and application to real cases

     Sicard, Michaël; Bertolin Martinez, Santiago; Mallet, Marc; Dubuisson, Philippe; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies, and Applications; and Military Applications in Hyperspectral Imaging and High Spatial Resolution Sensing
    Presentation's date: 2013-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The aerosol radiative effect in the longwave spectral range is often neglected in atmospheric aerosol forcing studies, hence very few researches are conducted in this field at local scale, and even less at regional scale. However, strong absorbing aerosols, like mineral dust, can have a small, but non-negligible heating effect in the longwave spectral range which can slightly counteract the aerosol cooling effect in the shortwave. The objective of this research is to perform a sensitivity study of an aerosol radiative transfer model as a function of dust particle properties. GAME model1, which can compute vertically resolved shortwave and longwave values of aerosol radiative forcing, is used. Before developing the sensitivity analysis, the aerosol radiative transfer model is validated by comparing its outputs with results published previously. Radiative forcing simulations in the longwave have shown an important sensitivity to the following parameters: aerosol size and refractive index, aerosol vertical distribution, humidity, surface temperature and albedo. A couple of strong mineral dust intrusion observed by means of lidar and sun-photometer are also presented in terms of shortwave and longwave radiative forcing.

  • Four-dimensional distribution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud over Europe observed by EARLINET

     Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Mona, Lucia; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Wandinger, Ulla; Adam, Mariana; Amodeo, Aldo; Ansmann, Albert; Apituley, Arnoud; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Balis, Dimitris; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Cuesta, J.; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gausa, Michael; Giannakaki, E.; Giehl, H.; Giunta, Aldo; Grigorov, I. Ivan; Gross, Silke; Haeffelin, M.; Hiebsch, Anja; Iarlori, M.; Lange, Diego; Linné, Holger; Madonna, Fabio; Mamouri, R.E.; Mattis, I.; McAuliffe, M. A. P.; Mitev, V.; Molero, Francisco; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Nicolae, D.; Papayannis, Alexander; Perrone, Maria-Rita; Pietras, Christophe; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Pisani, G.; Preissler, J.; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Rizi, Vicenzo; Ruth, A. A.; Schmidt, J.; Schnell, Franziska; Seifert, Patric; Serikov, I.; Sicard, Michaël; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, N.; Stebel, K.; Tesche, M.; Trickl, Thomas; Wang, Xuan; Wagner, F.; Wiegner, M.; Wilson, K.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Date of publication: 2013-04-29
    Journal article

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    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April¿May 2010 represents a "natural experiment" to study the impact of volcanic emissions on a continental scale. For the first time, quantitative data about the presence, altitude, and layering of the volcanic cloud, in conjunction with optical information, are available for most parts of Europe derived from the observations by the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork (EARLINET). Based on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, EARLINET is the only instrument worldwide that is able to provide dense time series of high-quality optical data to be used for aerosol typing and for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties as a function of altitude. In this work we show the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud in the troposphere over Europe as observed by EARLINET during the entire volcanic event (15 April¿26 May 2010). All optical properties directly measured (backscatter, extinction, and particle linear depolarization ratio) are stored in the EARLINET database available at http://www.earlinet.org. A specific relational database providing the volcanic mask over Europe, realized ad hoc for this specific event, has been developed and is available on request at http://www.earlinet.org. During the first days after the eruption, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe within a wide range of altitudes, from the upper troposphere down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL). After 19 April 2010, volcanic particles were detected over southern and south-eastern Europe. During the first half of May (5¿15 May), material emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano was detected over Spain and Portugal and then over the Mediterranean and the Balkans. The last observations of the event were recorded until 25 May in Central Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area.

  • Atmospheric aerosol measurement with a network of advanced lidar instruments

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Garcia Vizcaino, David
    SPIE Newsroom
    Date of publication: 2013-03-11
    Journal article

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    A European network of atmosphere sensors uses multi-wavelength elastic-Raman lidar instruments in its infrastructure.

  • Lidar with SiPM: some capabilities and limitations in real environment

     Agishev, Ravil; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Bach Aguilà, Jordi; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Sicard, Michaël; Riu Gras, Jordi; Royo, Santiago
    Optics and laser technology
    Date of publication: 2013-07
    Journal article

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    The purpose of the work is to demonstrate real capabilities and to give examples of SiPMs application in lidar technology in both analog and photon counting modes. The experimental research within an operating lidar complex adapted to implement the analog mode and photon counting measurements with subsequent inversions of atmospheric extinction and backscattering coefficients was conducted. Theoretical evaluations of potential limitations of atmospheric lidar by use of real day-time background parameters and features of SiPM-photodetectors studied experimentally were carried out with comparison of the extent of sensitivity decreasing for different detectors used and estimations of their operation range reduction.

    The purpose of the work is to demonstrate real capabilities and to give examples of SiPMs application in lidar technology in both analog and photon counting modes. The experimental research within an operating lidar complex adapted to implement the analog mode and photon counting measurements with subsequent inversions of atmospheric extinction and backscattering coefficients was conducted. Theoretical evaluations of potential limitations of atmospheric lidar by use of real day-time background parameters and features of SiPM-photodetectors studied experimentally were carried out with comparison of the extent of sensitivity decreasing for different detectors used and estimations of their operation range reduction.

  • Observación lidar atmosférica multi-espectral, procesado de la señal y recuperación de productos de datos: red europea y cal/val de satélites

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Lange, Diego; Frasier, Steve; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Power budget and performance assessment for the RSLAB multispectral elastic/raman lidar system

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange, Diego; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Tomas, Sergio; Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium
    Presentation's date: 2012
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    The need of a multi-spectral lidar has widely been experienced in last few years with a view to invert the optical and microphysical properties of aerosols and their impact on the climate change. As a part of the EARLINET-GALION objectives, a joint effort has already been made by the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET). The EARLINET advanced standard of 3+2-channel configuration for lidar instruments (3+2 standing for 3 elastic channels and 2 respective Raman channels) enables retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties. An overview of the new RSLAB 3+2+1 multispectral lidar system, therefore, is presented in terms of power budget estimation for all the reception channels and overall system performance, that is, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and maximum sounding range achieved.

  • Fotomultiplicador de silicio para aplicaciones de lidar atmosférico

     Riu Gras, Jordi; Sicard, Michaël; Royo Royo, Santiago; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Reunión Nacional de Óptica
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Utilization of a field lens to improve the overlap function in lidar systems using optical fibers

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Lange Vega, Diego
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2012-06-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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  • Stratospheric AOD after the 2011 eruption of Nabro volcano measured by lidars over the Northern Hemisphere

     Sawamura, P.; Vernier, J.P.; Barnes, J.E.; Berkoff, T.A.; Sicard, Michaël; Welton, E.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Madonna, Fabio; Mona, Lucia; Lange, Diego; Godin Beekmann, S.; Payen, G.; ZHENGWEI, WANG; Hu, S.; Tripathi, S.N.; Córdoba Jabonero, Carmen; Hoff, R.M.
    Environmental research letters
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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  • Study on aerosol properties over Madrid (Spain) by multiple instrumentation during SPALI10 lidar campaign

     Molero, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Fernández, J.A.; Amodeo, Aldo; Tomás Martinez, Sergio; Mattis, I.; Granados, M; Giunta, Aldo; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Lange, Diego; Wagner, F.; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Kumar, Dhiraj; Giner Nos, Joaquin Jose; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Pappalardo, Gelsomina
    Óptica pura y aplicada
    Date of publication: 2012-11-19
    Journal article

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    Cuatro sistemas lidar Raman multifrecuencia (Madrid, Granada, Barcelona y Evora), tomaron medidas simultáneamente a un sistema de referencia (Potenza) para verificar su funcionamiento durante la campaña de intercomparación: SPALI10, (SPAin Lidar Intercomparison 2010) que tuvo lugar en Madrid entre el 18 de Octubre y el 5 de Noviembre de 2010. Estos sistemas lidar Raman multifrecuencia proporcionan propiedades ópticas de los aerosoles con resolución vertical. Los perfiles suministrados por los sistemas lidar se compararon con información complementaria proporcionada por otra instrumentación, tal como la distribución de tamaños de los aerosoles medida de manera continua a nivel de superficie o la caracterización de la columna de aerosoles

  • A regional model of European aerosol transport: Evaluation with sun photometer, lidar and air quality data

     Meyer, Jessica; Tegen, I.; Wolke, R.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Mattis, I.; Apituley, Arnoud; Balis, Dimitris; Barnaba, Francesca; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Sicard, Michaël; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Stoyanov, Dimitar Vassilev; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Ravetta, F.; Rizi, Vicenzo
    Atmospheric environment
    Date of publication: 2012-02
    Journal article

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  • Silicon photomultiplier detector for atmospheric lidar applications

     Riu Gras, Jordi; Sicard, Michaël; Royo Royo, Santiago; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Optics letters
    Date of publication: 2012-04-01
    Journal article

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    Study of the correlation between columnar aerosol burden, suspended matter at ground and chemical components in a background European environment  Open access

     Estelles, Victor; Martínez Lozano, José Antonio; Pey, J.; Sicard, Michaël; Querol, Xavier; Esteve, A.R.; Utrillas Esteban, Maria Pilar; Sorribas, M.; Gangoiti, G.; Alastuey, A.; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2012
    Journal article

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    Although routinely monitored by ground based air quality networks, the particulate matter distribution could be eventually better described with remote sensing techniques. However, valid relationships between ground level and columnar ground based quantities should be known beforehand. In this study we have performed a comparison between particulate matter measurements at ground level at different cut sizes (10, 2.5 and 1.0 mm), and the aerosol optical depth obtained by means of a ground based sunphotometer during a multiinstrumental field campaign held in El Arenosillo (Huelva, Spain) from 28 June to 4 July 2006. All the PM fractions were very well correlated with AOD with correlation coefficients that ranged from 0.71 to 0.81 for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. Furthermore, the influence of the mixing layer height in the correlations was explored. The improvement in the correlation when the vertical distribution is taken into account was significant for days with a homogeneous mixing layer. Moreover, the chemical analysis of the individual size fractions allowed us to study the origin of the particulate matter. Secondary components were the most abundant and also well correlated in the three size fractions; but for PM10 fraction, chemical species related to marine origin were best correlated. Finally, we obtained a relationship between MODIS L3 AOD from collection 5.1 and the three PM cut sizes. In spite of being a relatively clean environment, all the techniques were able to capture similar day to day variations during this field campaign.

  • Silicon photomultiplier for atmospheric lidar applications

     Riu Gras, Jordi; Sicard, Michaël; Royo Royo, Santiago; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Optics letters
    Date of publication: 2012-01-31
    Journal article

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    The viability and performance of using a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) in atmospheric lidar applications is experimentally compared against the well-established use of photomultiplier tubes. By using a modified lidar setup for simultaneous data acquisition of both types of sensors, we demonstrate that a SiPM can offer appropriate qualities for this specific application where the detection of fast, extremely low light pulses and large dynamic range signals are essential capabilities. The experimental results show that the SiPM has an appropriate behaviour offering suitable capabilities for elastic, backscatter aerosol lidars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing SiPM for atmospheric lidar applications.

  • Participación española en ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) ChArMEx-SP2

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Backscatter error bounds for the elastic lidar two-component inversion algorithm

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Frasier, S.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange Vega, Diego; Gregorio López, Eduard; Sicard, Michaël
    IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing
    Date of publication: 2012-11
    Journal article

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    Total backscatter-coefficient inversion error bounds for the two-component lidar inversion algorithm (so-called Fernald's or Klett-Fernald-Sasano's method) are derived in analytical form in response to the following three error sources: 1) the measurement noise; 2) the user uncertainty in the backscatter-coefficient calibration; and 3) the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The following two different types of error bounds are presented: 1) approximate error bounds using first-order error propagation and 2) exact error bounds using a total-increment method. Both error bounds are formulated in explicit analytical form, which is of advantage for practical physical sensitivity analysis and computational implementation. A Monte Carlo approach is used to validate the error bounds at 355-, 532-, and 1064-nm wavelengths.

    Total backscatter-coefficient inversion error bounds for the two-component lidar inversion algorithm (so-called Fernald's or Klett-Fernald-Sasano's method) are derived in analytical form in response to the following three error sources: 1) the measurement noise; 2) the user uncertainty in the backscatter-coefficient calibration; and 3) the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The following two different types of error bounds are presented: 1) approximate error bounds using first-order error propagation and 2) exact error bounds using a total-increment method. Both error bounds are formulated in explicit analytical form, which is of advantage for practical physical sensitivity analysis and computational implementation. A Monte Carlo approach is used to validate the error bounds at 355-, 532-, and 1064-nm wavelengths.

  • Intense dust and extremely fresh biomass burning outbreak in Barcelona, Spain: Characterization of their optical properties and estimation of their direct radiative forcing

     Sicard, Michaël; Mallet, Maëlle; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Dubuisson, P.; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino
    Environmental research letters
    Date of publication: 2012-07
    Journal article

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  • Wind speed and direction measurements with a backscatter lidar using the auto-correlation contour analysis

     Tomás, Sergio; Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology
    Presentation's date: 2011-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A method to estimate wind velocity using the backscatter lidar signals of transported aerosol particles is presented. The lidar signal is correlated along range and time dimensions for each line of sight in which the lidar is pointing. The method is based on the analysis of contours of these range-time auto-correlation functions. This analysis obtains ellipse curve parameters which are related to the radial velocity and to the square wind speed, locally retrieved for a given line of sight. The combination of data from several angular positions enables the wind direction retrieval. Two possible implementations of the method are considered and tested with an actual measurement with the lidar of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC).

  • Wind speed and turbulence estimation with a backscatter lidar at a single line of sight

     Tomás, Sergio; Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology
    Presentation's date: 2011-09
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Six-channel polychromator design and implementation for the UPC elastic/Raman LIDAR  Open access

     Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Lange, Diego; Muñoz, Constantino; Tomás, Sergio; Gregorio, Eduard
    SPIE International Symposium - Remote Sensing Europe
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-21
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A 6-channel dichroic-based polychromator is presented as the spectrally selective unit for the U.P.C. elastic/Raman lidar. Light emission is made at 355-nm (ultraviolet, UV), 532-nm (visible, VIS) and 1064-nm (near infrared, NIR) wavelengths. In reception, the polychromator is the spectral separation unit that separates the laser backscattered composite return into 3 elastic (355, 532, 1064-nm wavelengths) and 3 Raman channels (386.7, 607.4 and 407.5-nm (water-vapor) wavelengths). The polychromator houses photo-multiplier tubes (PMT) for all the channels except for the NIR one, which is avalanche photodiode (APD) based. The optomechanical design uses 1-inch optics and Eurorack standards. The APD-based receiver uses a XY-axis translation/elevation micro-positioning stage due to its comparatively small active area and motorised neutral density filters are used in all PMT-based channels to avoid detector saturation. The design has been specially optimized to provide homogeneous spatial light distribution onto the photodetectors and good mechanical repeatability. All channels are acquired in mixed analog and photon-counting mode using Licel® transient recorders, which are controlled by means of a user friendly LabVIEW TM interface. The paper focuses on the main polychromator optical design parameters, that is, light collimation trade-offs, end-to-end transmissivity, net channel responsivity, light distribution and spot size onto the photodetectors. The polychromator along with the rest of the U.P.C. lidar system has successfully been tested during a recent lidar system intercomparison campaign carried out in Madrid (Spain) during Oct. 2010.

  • Optimised data-gluing method for mixed analog/photon-counting lidar signals

     Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Workshop on Lidar Measurements in Latin America
    Presentation's date: 2011-09-26
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    In atmospheric LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) remote sensing, the dynamic range of the return power signals can span up to five orders of magnitude. Modern acquisition systems such as those based on LicelTM transient recorders combine a dual acquisition mode in which the return signal is recorded simultaneously in both analog (analog-to-digital (AD) conversion) and photon-counting (PC) modes. Although both data records can be analyzed separately, their combination obtained through gluing gives the advantage of the high linearity of the AD conversion for high light-level signals (especially in the near range) and the high sensitivity of the PC mode for low light-level signals (in the far range). Recently, eruptions of volcanoes such as Eyjafjalla (Iceland) in 2010, Grímsvötn (Iceland Puyehue (Argentina) Nabro (Eritrea) and Mount Lokon (Indonesia) in 2011 have yielded emergency situations with a strong economical cost due to human evacuation and/or air traffic interruption. Volcanic aerosols are first injected in the troposphere and often reach the stratosphere where they can reside for several years. The mixed analog/photo-counting acquisition approach is particularly suitable for the detection of volcanic aerosols in both the troposphere (near/mid range) and the stratosphere (far range). In this line, a case study showing volcanic aerosols from the Nabro volcano (Eritrea, 2011) in the stratosphere and simultaneously Saharan dust in the troposphere over the multi-spectral Barcelona lidar station during the period 27 June ¿ 1 July 2011 is presented. The benefits of the proposed gluing technique will be shown through the comparison of analog, PC, and glued backscatter-coefficient time series. Existing gluing algorithms solve the fitting coefficients by matching both analog and PC data over a predefined spatial range (or equivalently, over a predefined upper and lower counting rate) depending on which kind of photodetector (usually a photomultiplier) is being used. In this work, an enhanced data-gluing formulation is presented. The method automatically finds the spatial range where both analog and PC signals are more similar based on Euclidian distance minimization over piece-wise range intervals along the whole acquisition spatial range.

  • SPALINET: The Spanish and Portuguese aerosol lidar network

     Sicard, Michaël; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Díaz, Juan Pedro; Córdoba Jabonero, Carmen; Requena, Alberto; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Rodrigues, Jose António; Moreno, J. M.; Wagner, F.
    Óptica pura y aplicada
    Date of publication: 2011-02-01
    Journal article

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    To extend and reinforce the action of the European network EARLINET (supported by the EARLINET-ASOS European project), a network of Spanish and Portuguese aerosol lidars (SPALINET) was created. In the first three years of the project six out of the ten systems have been successfully intercompared, seven elastic algorithms and six Raman algorithms have also been validated. Now the network focuses on future scientific objectives aiming at performing coordinated measurements. This paper presents the scientific context and a description of the network, as well as the results from the first three years of activity.

  • Aerosol closure study by lidar, Sun photometry, and airborne optical counters during DAMOCLES filed campaign at El Arenosillo sounding station, Spain

     Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Andrey, J.; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Molero, Francisco; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Serrano-Vargas, O.; Gil Ojeda, Manuel; Olmo, F. J.; Lyamani, H.; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Alados Arboledas, Lucas
    Journal of geophysical research
    Date of publication: 2011-01-26
    Journal article

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  • Use of a field lens for improving the overlap function of a lidar system employing an optical fiber in the receiver assembly

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Applied optics
    Date of publication: 2011-10-01
    Journal article

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  • CONTRIBUTION OF ELASTIC-BACKSCATTER LIDARS TO WIND FIELD RETRIEVAL AND ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER MONITORING

     Tomas Martinez, Sergio
    Defense's date: 2011-12-15
    Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
    Theses

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  • Aerosols, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Lange Vega, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Monitoring of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosol plume over the Iberian Peninsula by means of four EARLINET lidar stations  Open access

     Sicard, Michaël; Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Molero, Francisco; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Wagner, F.; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Alados Arboledas, Lucas
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions
    Date of publication: 2011
    Journal article

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    Lidar and sun-photometer measurements were performed intensively over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) during the eruption of Eyjafjallaj ¨ okull volcano (Iceland) in April–May 2010. The volcanic plume hit all the IP stations for the first time on 5 May 2010. A thorough study of the event is conducted for the period 5–8 May. Firstly the spatial and temporal evolution of the plume is described by means of lidar and sun-photometer measurements supported with backtrajectories. The volcanic aerosol layers observed over the IP were rather thin (< 1000 m) with a top height up to 11–12 km. The mean optical thicknesses associated to those layers were rather low (between 0.013 and 0.020 over the whole period). Punctually on 7 May the optical thickness reached peak values near 0.10. Secondly the volcanic aerosols are characterized in terms of extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratios, A° ngstro¨m exponents and linear particle depolarization ratio. Lidar ratios at different sites varied between 30 and 50 sr without a marked spectral dependency. Similar extinction-related A° ngstro¨m exponents varying between 0.6 and 0.8 were observed at different sites. The temporal evolution of the backscatter-related A° ngstro¨m exponents points out a possible decrease of the volcanic particle size as the plume moves from west to east. Particle depolarization ratios on the order of 0.06–0.08 confirmed the coexistence of both ash and non-ash particles. Additionally profiles of mass concentration were obtained with a method using the opposite depolarizing effects of ash particles (strongly depolarizing) and non-ash particles (very weakly depolarizing), and sun-photometer observations. In Granada the ash mass concentration was found approximately 1.5 higher than that of non-ash particles, and probably did not exceed the value of 200 μgm−3 during the whole event.

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    The DAURE field campaign: meteorological overview  Open access

     Jorba Casellas, Oriol; Pandolfi, M.; Spada, M.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Pey, J.; Alastuey, A.; Arnold Arias, Delia; Sicard, Michaël; Artiñano, B.; Revuelta, M. A.; Querol, Xavier
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Date of publication: 2011-02-01
    Journal article

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  • Seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of a Raman lidar at an EARLINET site over Northeastern Spain

     Sicard, Michaël; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Batet Torrell, Oscar; Barrios Porras, Ricardo Alfonso; Kumar, Dhiraj; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Date of publication: 2011-01-11
    Journal article

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  • Seguimiento de las cenizas del Eyjafjalla sobre la Península Ibérica por la red de lidares hispano-portuguesa SPALINET

     Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Molero, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Silva, A.M.; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Wagner, F.; Bolarín, Jose Miguel; Requena, Alberto
    Congreso Nacional del Medio Ambiente
    Presentation's date: 2010-11-22
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    La reciente erupción del volcán Eyjafjallajökull es una muestra – extremada, pero de probabilidad no despreciable – de la influencia que los aerosoles atmosféricos pueden tener en la vida diaria de miles de personas y en la economía mundial. Este acontecimiento ha sido seguido desde tierra por – entre otros instrumentos – radares láser (lidares) que han permitido determinar la evolución en el espacio y el tiempo de las nubes de ceniza proyectadas por el volcán y han proporcionado información de valor a las agencias meteorológicas y a las administraciones responsables de la seguridad de la navegación aérea.

  • Dispersion and evolution of the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume over Europe: vertically resolved measurements with the European LIDAR network EARLINET

     Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Mona, Lucia; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Amodeo, Aldo; Ansmann, Albert; Balis, Dimitris; Apituley, Arnoud; Bellantone, V.; Böckmann, C.; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Burlizzi, P.; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Cuesta, J.; D'Amico, Giuseppe; De Graaf, M.; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Donovan, D.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gasteiger, J.; Gausa, Michael; Giannakaki, E.; Giehl, H.; Giunta, Aldo; Grigorov, I. Ivan; Gross, S.; Gustavsson, O.; Haeffelin, M.; Heese, B.; Hiebsch, Anja; Iarlori, M.; Kinne, S.; Kolarov, George V.; Linné, Holger; Mamouri, R.E.; Madonna, Fabio; Mattis, I.; Mitev, V.; Molero, Francisco; Müller, D.; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Nemuc, A.; Nicolae, D.; Osterloh, L.; Persson, R.; Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Podgorsky, J.; Preissler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Putaud, J. P.; Ravetta, F.; Rizi, Vicenzo; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Schmidt, J.; Papayannis, Alexander; Perrone, Maria-Rita; Pisani, G.; Seifert, Patric; Serikov, I.; Sicard, Michaël; Silva, A. M.; Simeonov, Valentin; Spinelli, N.; Stebel, K.; Stoyanov, Dimitar Vassilev; Tafuro, A.; Tesche, M.; Trickl, Thomas; Wagner, F.; Wandinger, Ulla; Wang, Xuan; Wiegner, M.; Wilson, K.
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly
    Presentation's date: 2010-05
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Aerosol direct radiative effects of a transatlantic biomass burning plume over Granada, Spain  Open access

     Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Olmo, F. J.; Molero, Francisco; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Sicard, Michaël; Alados Arboledas, Lucas
    Reunión Española de Ciencia y Tecnología de Aerosoles
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents the assessment of the aerosol direct radiative effects for a special episode of transatlantic transport of a biomass burning plume, performed over Granada, south-eastern Iberian Peninsula, on 20th August 2007. The knowledge of aerosol radiative impact requires an accurate determination of their optical and microphysical properties, which are obtained here using ground-based remote sensing instrumentation by means of a combination of lidar and sun-photometer. Our data highlight the presence of a multilayered structure with a well-defined planetary boundary layer and biomass-particles in elevated layers, extending up to 9 km asl, at the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The aerosol direct shortwave radiative effects, evaluated from simulations with SBDART code, show that the biomass burning plume increases the heating rate up to 0.5 K/day in spite of the small contribution of these particles to the total aerosol optical depth (10-20%). In addition, our results indicate that the biomass burning plume strengths the negative radiative forcing about -5 down to -8 W/m2 at the surface, between noon and evening. At the TOA, radiative forcing appeared slightly positive but very close to zero at noon, and negative in the evening with a decrease of 1.5 W/m2 caused by the presence of the biomass burning plume.

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    Characterization of atmospheric aerosols for a long-range transport of biomass-burning from North America over the Iberian Peninsula  Open access

     Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Olmo, F. J.; Molero, Francisco; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Costa, J. M.; Silva, A. M.; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Sicard, Michaël; Alados Arboledas, Lucas
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    This work presents the characterization of atmospheric aerosols performed over the Iberian Peninsula in the framework of EARLINET for a special episode on 20th August 2007. The assessment of aerosol radiative impact requires an accurate determination of their optical and microphysical properties, which are presented here for a variety of instrumentation including passive remote sensors, as sun-photometers, and active systems both ground-based and on board CALIPSO satellite. Measurements highlight the presence of a multilayered structure with a well-defined planetary boundary layer and biomass-particles in elevated layers, extending up to 7 km asl over the central Iberian Peninsula, and even higher, up to 9 km asl, at the southeastern part of the peninsula. Lidar computations reveal a contribution to the aerosol optical depth around 10-40% for these biomass-burning particles, with backscatter-related Angströ

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    Atmospheric boundary-layer height estimation by adaptive Kalman filtering of lidar data  Open access

     Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël
    Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    A solution based on a Kalman filter to trace the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) sensed by an elastic backscatter lidar is presented. An erf-like profile is used to model the mixing layer top and the entrainment zone thickness. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) enables to retrieve and track the ABL parameters based on simplified statistics of the ABL dynamics and of the observation noise present in the lidar signal. This adaptive feature permits to analyze atmospheric scenes with low signal-to-noise ratios without need to resort to long time averages or rangesmoothing techniques, as well as to pave the way for an automated detection method. First EKF results based on synthetic lidar profiles are presented and compared with a typical least-squares inversion for different SNR scenarios.

  • EARLINET observations of the Eyjafjallajökull ash plume over Europe

     Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Sicard, Michaël
    Remote Sensing for Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Hydrology
    Presentation's date: 2010-09-20
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research Lidar NETwork, established in 2000, is the first coordinated lidar network for tropospheric aerosol study on the continental scale. The network activity is based on scheduled measurements, a rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. At present, the network includes 27 lidar stations distributed over Europe. EARLINET performed almost continuous measurements since 15 April 2010 in order to follow the evolution of the volcanic plume generated from the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, providing the 4-dimensional distribution of the volcanic ash plume over Europe. During the 15-30 April period, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe over a wide range of altitudes, from 10 km down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL). Until 19 April, the volcanic plume transport toward South Europe was nearly completely blocked by the Alps. After 19 April volcanic particles were transported to the south and the southeast of Europe. Descending aerosol layers were typically observed all over Europe and intrusion of particles into the PBL was observed at almost each lidar site that was affected by the volcanic plume. A second event was observed over Portugal and Spain (6 May) and then over Italy on 9 May 2010. The volcanic plume was then observed again over Southern Germany on 11 May 2010. rigorous quality assurance program addressing both instruments and evaluation algorithms, and a standardised data exchange format. At present, the network includes 27 lidar stations distributed over Europe. EARLINET performed almost continuous measurements since 15 April 2010 in order to follow the evolution of the volcanic plume generated from the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, providing the 4-dimensional distribution of the volcanic ash plume over Europe. During the 15-30 April period, volcanic particles were detected over Central Europe over a wide range of altitudes, from 10 km down to the local planetary boundary layer (PBL). Until 19 April, the volcanic plume transport toward South Europe was nearly completely blocked by the Alps. After 19 April volcanic particles were transported to the south and the southeast of Europe. Descending aerosol layers were typically observed all over Europe and intrusion of particles into the PBL was observed at almost each lidar site that was affected by the volcanic plume. A second event was observed over Portugal and Spain (6 May) and then over Italy on 9 May 2010. The volcanic plume was then observed again over Southern Germany on 11 May 2010.

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    Lidar ratio estimation using a two-point calibration in an turbid layer aloft  Open access

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Sicard, Michaël; Tomas, Sergio; Kumar, Dhiraj
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    On the lidar ratio estimation from the synergy between aeronet sun-photometer data and elastic lidar inversion  Open access

     Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël; Kumar, Dhiraj; Tomas, Sergio
    International Laser Radar Conference
    Presentation's date: 2010-07
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Monitoring of the Eyjafjalla volcanic plume at four lidar stations over the Iberian Peninsula: 6 to 8 May 2010  Open access

     Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Sicard, Michaël; Navas Guzmán, Francisco; Preissler, J.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Bravo Aranda, J. A.; Molero, Francisco; Tomás, S.; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Alados Arboledas, Lucas; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Pujadas Cordero, Manuel; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Silva, A. M.; Wagner, F.
    Reunión Española de Ciencia y Tecnología de Aerosoles
    Presentation's date: 2010-06
    Presentation of work at congresses

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    Lidar measurements were performed in the framework of the EARLINET and SPALINET networks during the eruption of Eyjafjalla volcano (Iceland) since 14 April 2010. The profiles of the aerosol optical properties, namely backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratio and Angström exponent, show the presence of volcanic aerosol layers over all SPALINET stations since 5 May. The volcanic particles were monitored both within the planetary boundary layer and in decoupled layers up to 8 km agl over the Iberian Peninsula. This is the first time that the spatial and temporal distributions of volcanic aerosols have been studied with active remote sensing techniques over the Iberian Peninsula.

  • Site-testing using an aerosol, backscatter lidar at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory

     Sicard, Michaël; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Batet Torrell, Oscar; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Muñoz Tuñón, Casiana; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús
    Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
    Date of publication: 2010-06-01
    Journal article

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  • Lidar measurements of wind velocity fields

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Rodriguez Gomez, Alejandro Antonio; Sicard, Michaël; Tomas Martinez, Sergio
    Date of publication: 2010
    Book chapter

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  • Participación Española en Charmex (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment)

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Sicard, Michaël
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • Unmanned unattended LIDAR (radar laser) station

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Sicard, Michaël; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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  • LIDARES ELASTICO-RAMAN: Integracion,procesado de datos y explotacion

     Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Muñoz Porcar, Constantino; Sicard, Michaël; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Tomas Martinez, Sergio; Kumar, Dhiraj; Lange Vega, Diego; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco
    Participation in a competitive project

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    Climatology of the aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio from sun photometric measurements  Open access

     Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Estallés, Víctor; Sicard, Michaël; Gómez Amo, Jose Luis; Utrillas Esteban, Maria Pilar; Martínez Lozano, José Antonio; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Pérez, C.; Baldasano Recio, Jose M.
    IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing
    Date of publication: 2010-01-01
    Journal article

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    The elastic lidar equation contains two unknown atmospheric parameters, namely, the particulate optical extinction and backscatter coefficients, which are related through the lidar ratio (i.e., the particulate-extinction-to-backscatter ratio). So far, independent inversion of the lidar signal has been carried out by means of Raman lidars (usually limited to nighttime measurements), high-spectral-resolution lidars, or scanning elastic lidars under the assumption of a homogeneously vertically stratified atmosphere. In this paper, we present a procedure to obtain the lidar ratio at 532 nm by a combined Sunphotometer– aerosol-model inversion, where the viability of the solution is largely reinforced by assimilating categorized air-mass back-trajectory information. Thus, iterative lidar-ratio tuning to reconstruct the Sun-photometric aerosol optical depth (AOD) is additionally constrained by the air-mass back trajectories provided by the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integratedtrajectory model. The retrieved lidar ratios are validated with inversions of lidar data based on the Klett–Fernald–Sasano algorithm and with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)- retrieved lidar ratios. The estimated lidar ratios concur with the AERONET-retrieved lidar ratios and with those of the well-known KFS inversion constrained with Sun-photometric AOD values and embedded single-scattering models. The proposed method can be applied to routinely extract climatological values of the lidar ratio using measurements of direct solar irradiance (more numerous than those of sky radiance).

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    Seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of an elastic-Raman lidar over Northeastern Spain  Open access

     Sicard, Michaël; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; Tomás Martinez, Sergio; Garcia Vizcaino, David; Batet Torrell, Oscar; Barrios Porras, Ricardo Alfonso; Kumar, Dhiraj
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions
    Date of publication: 2010-06-01
    Journal article

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    The annual and seasonal variability of aerosol optical properties observed by means of an elastic-Raman lidar over Northeastern Spain has been assessed. The lidar representativeness has first been checked against un-photometer measurements in terms of aerosol optical thickness. Then the annual cycle and the seasonal variability of the planetary boundary layer aerosol optical thickness and its fraction compared to the columnar optical thickness, the lidar ratio, the backscatter-related A° ngstro¨m exponent and the planetary boundary layer height have been analyzed and discussed. Winter and summer mean profiles of extinction, backscatter and lidar ratio retrieved with the Raman algorithm have been presented. The analysis shows the impact of most of the natural events (Saharan dust intrusions, wildfires, etc.) and meteorological situations (summer anticyclonic situation, the formation of the Iberian thermal low, winter longrange transport from North Europe and/or North America, re-circulation flows, etc.) occurring in the Barcelona area. A detail study of a special event including a combined intrusion of Saharan dust and biomass-burning particles has proven the suitability of combining nighttime Raman- and daytime pure elastic-inversions to discriminate spatially different types of aerosols and to follow their spatial and temporal evolution.

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    Practical analytical backscatter errorbars for the elastic one-component liar inversion algorithm  Open access

     Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Sicard, Michaël; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo
    Applied optics
    Date of publication: 2010-06-10
    Journal article

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  • EARLINET observations of the 14-22-May long-range dust transport event during SAMUM 2006: validation of results from dust transport modelling

     Müller, D; Heinold, B; Tesche, M.; Tegen, I; Althausen, D; Arboledas, LA; Amiridis, V.; Amodeo, Aldo; Ansmann, Albert; Balis, Dimitrios; Comeron Tejero, Adolfo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Gerasopoulos, E; Guerrero, JL; Giannakaki, E.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Heese, B.; Iarlori, M.; Knippertz, P.; Mamouri, R.E.; Rizi, Vicenzo; Mona, Lucia; Papayannis, Alexander; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Perrone, Maria-Rita; Pisani, G.; Sicard, Michaël; Spinelli, N.; Tafuro, A.; Wiegner, M.
    Tellus. Series B, chemical and physical meteorology
    Date of publication: 2009-02
    Journal article

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